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Sample records for maternal smoking alcohol

  1. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  2. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of alcohol use disorders among adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Gilman, Stephen E; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and lifetime risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to explore possible mechanisms through which MSP may be related to neurobehavioral conditions during infancy and childhood, which could, in turn, lead to increased risk for AUD. A sample of 1,625 individuals was followed from pregnancy for more than 40 years. Capitalizing on the long follow-up time, we used survival analysis to examine lifetime risks of AUD (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) in relation to levels of MSP (none, pregnancy) and child (to improve academic functioning) may reduce the risk for subsequent AUD.

  4. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  5. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing-Huan; Zheng, Xin-Min; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Zheng, Hang; Chen, Mi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables. We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23) or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46) during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07), pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09) and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96) of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected. Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  6. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  7. Fathers' smoking and use of alcohol--the viewpoint of maternity health care clinics and well-baby clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyssälä, L; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Sillanpää, M

    1995-03-01

    The study population consists of the fathers of the families which took part in the project 'The Finnish Family Competence Study', conducted by the Department of Public Health, University of Turku. The initial phase of the study included 1279 men. At the onset of the study project their families were expecting their first baby. When examining the fathers' use of alcohol, it was found that those with the highest level of basic education and those in professional occupations had the highest frequency of alcohol use, but they only consumed small amounts of alcohol at a time. In contrast, industrial employees and those with a lower level of education used alcohol less frequently, but they used larger amounts at a time. Thirty-two per cent of the respondents reduced their drinking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Of the respondents 43.7% were smokers, 8.4% of whom stopped smoking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Smoking cessation by the father was statistically significantly explained by the fact that the wife had not smoked before pregnancy or that she had stopped smoking after the onset of pregnancy, in which case the father did the same. When the fathers were divided into two categories according to their alcohol use, i.e. lighter and heavier users, it was found that the latter group had a more negative attitude towards their children. Similarly, smoking fathers were found to have a more negative attitude towards their children that the non-smoking ones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A propensity scoring approach to characterizing the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's initial responses to cigarettes and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Palmer, Rohan H.C.; Brick, Leslie; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    When examining the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on later offspring substance use, it is critical to consider familial environments confounded with MSDP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MSDP on offspring's initial reactions to cigarettes and alcohol, which are indicators of future substance-use related problems. We tested these effects using two propensity score approaches (1) by controlling for confounding using the MSDP propensity score and 2) examining effects of MSDP across the MSDP risk distribution by grouping individuals into quantiles based on their MSDP propensity score. This study used data from 829 unrelated mothers with a reported lifetime history of smoking to determine the propensity for smoking only during their first trimester (MSDP-E) or throughout their entire pregnancy (MSDP-T). Propensity score analyses focused on the offspring (N=1616 female twins) of a large subset of these mothers. We examined the effects of levels of MSDP-E/T on offspring initial reactions to their first experiences with alcohol and cigarettes, across the distribution of liability for MSDP-E/T. MSDP-E/T emerged as significant predictors of offspring reactions to alcohol and cigarettes, but the effects were confounded by the familial liability for MSDP. Further, the unique MSDP effects that emerged were not uniform across the MSDP familial risk distribution. Our findings underscore the importance of properly accounting for correlated familial risk factors when examining the effects of MSDP on substance related outcomes. PMID:27098899

  9. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  10. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    .92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  13. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially

  14. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  15. Assessment of maternal smoking status during pregnancy and the associations with neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rachel; Kruithof, Claudia; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-12-01

    Single assessment of smoking during pregnancy may lead to misclassification due to underreporting or failure of smoking cessation. We examined the percentage of mothers who were misclassified in smoking status based on single assessment, as compared with repeated assessment, and whether this misclassification leads to altered effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal complications. This study was performed in 5,389 mothers participating in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Smoking status was assessed 3 times during pregnancy using questionnaires. Information on birth weight and neonatal complications was obtained from hospital records. For categorizing mothers per smoking status, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was .86 (p pregnancy, 1.7% (70 of 4,141) and 33.7% (217 of 643), respectively, were reclassified to continued smoking based on repeated assessment. Younger, shorter lower educated mothers who had non-European ethnicity experienced more stress, consumed more alcohol, and did not use folic acid supplements had higher risk of underreporting their smoking status or failure of smoking cessation. Marginal differences were found on the associations of maternal smoking with neonatal complications between single or repeated assessment. Our results suggest that single assessment of smoking during pregnancy leads to underestimation of the continued smoking prevalence, especially among mothers who reported quitting smoking in first trimester. However, this underestimation does not materially change the effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal outcomes.

  16. Maternal smoking and testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Zhang, Yawei; Sakoda, Lori C; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men ages 15 to 35 years in the United States. The well-established TGCT risk factors cryptorchism, prior diagnosis of TGCT, and family history of testicular cancer indicate that exposures in early life and/or in the familial setting may be critical to determining risk. Previous reports of familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and testicular cancers in sons suggest that passive smoking in childhood may be such an exposure. To clarify the relationship of passive smoking exposure to TGCT risk, data from 754 cases and 928 controls enrolled in the Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Data from 1,086 mothers of the cases and controls were also examined. Overall, there was no relationship between maternal [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.3] or paternal smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) and TGCT risk. Although living with a non-parent smoker was marginally related to risk (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), there was no relationship with number of smokers, amount smoked, or duration of smoking. Responses from both case-control participants and mothers also revealed no relationship between either maternal smoking while pregnant or while breast-feeding. Results did not differ by TGCT histology (seminoma, non-seminoma). These results do not support the hypothesis that passive smoking, either in utero or in childhood, is related to risk of TGCT. Other early life exposures, however, may explain the familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and TGCT in sons.

  17. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  18. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi 160. © 2017 The College of .... have high population overall rates of household air pollution. The Cooking and ..... Wood smoke exposure, poverty and impaired lung function in ...

  19. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; McKeating, A; Daly, N; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-11-01

    Maternal smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth. This observational study examined annual trends of maternal smoking reported at the first prenatal visit in women who delivered in a large university maternity hospital for the 5 years 2011-2015. We examined clinical and sociodemographic data computerised routinely for women who presented for prenatal care at the hospital between 2011 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the maternal characteristics, health behaviours and psychiatric history associated with smoking behaviours. Of the 42,509 women the mean age was 31.4 ± 5.5 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , and 39.5% were nulliparas. Overall, 52.6% reported they had never smoked, 34.9% were ex-smokers, 10.5% smoked ≤10 cigarettes per day, 1.9% smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day and 0.1% smoked e-cigarettes. Between 2011 and 2015 the prevalence of maternal cigarette smoking decreased from 14.3 to 10.9% (P Smoking during pregnancy was most strongly associated with younger age, multiparity, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, a history of psychiatric problems, alcohol intake and illicit drug usage. The number of women who reported smoking at the first prenatal visit decreased annually. Amongst women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, there is a clustering of adverse lifestyle behaviour and psychological problems that may need to be addressed if smoking cessation interventions are going to succeed in improving fetal programming.

  20. Maternal Alcohol Use and Nutrition During Pregnancy: Diet and Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Senekal, Marjanne; Dodge, Neil C; Bechard, Lori J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Molteno, Christopher D; Duggan, Christopher P; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-12-01

    Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among nonpregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk. One hundred and twenty-three heavy drinking Cape Coloured pregnant women and 83 abstaining controls were recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 3 prenatal study visits, each gravida was interviewed about alcohol, smoking, and drug use and weight, height, and arm skinfolds were measured. Dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat, and major micronutrients were assessed from three 24-hour recall interviews. The majority of women gained less than the recommended 0.42 kg/wk during pregnancy. Whereas methamphetamine use was associated with smaller biceps skinfolds, an indicator of body fat, alcohol consumption was not related to any anthropometric indicator. Alcohol was related to higher intake of phosphorus, choline, and vitamins B12 and D. Alcohol, cigarette, and methamphetamine use were related to lower vitamin C intake. Insufficient intake was reported by >85% of women for 10 of 22 key nutrients, and >50% for an additional 3 nutrients. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with meaningful changes in diet or anthropometric measures in this population, suggesting that poor nutrition among drinkers does not confound the extensively reported effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurobehavior. The poor gestational weight gain and high rates of insufficient intake for several nutrients in both the alcohol-exposed and control groups are also of public health importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Maternal smoking and the retinoid pathway in the developing lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoli Sara E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking is a risk factor for pediatric lung disease, including asthma. Animal models suggest that maternal smoking causes defective alveolarization in the offspring. Retinoic acid signaling modulates both lung development and postnatal immune function. Thus, abnormalities in this pathway could mediate maternal smoking effects. We tested whether maternal smoking disrupts retinoic acid pathway expression and functioning in a murine model. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice with/without mainstream cigarette smoke exposure (3 research cigarettes a day, 5 days a week were mated to nonsmoking males. Cigarette smoke exposure continued throughout the pregnancy and after parturition. Lung tissue from the offspring was examined by mean linear intercept analysis and by quantitative PCR. Cell culture experiments using the type II cell-like cell line, A549, tested whether lipid-soluble cigarette smoke components affected binding and activation of retinoic acid response elements in vitro. Results Compared to tobacco-naïve mice, juvenile mice with tobacco toxin exposure had significantly (P  Conclusions A murine model of maternal cigarette smoking causes abnormal alveolarization in association with altered retinoic acid pathway element expression in the offspring. An in vitro cell culture model shows that lipid-soluble components of cigarette smoke decrease retinoic acid response element activation. It is feasible that disruption of retinoic acid signaling contributes to the pediatric lung dysfunction caused by maternal smoking.

  2. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  3. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age.Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%. Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models.Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth.

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Sarah M; Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Only a few studies have been conducted to determine whether smoking affects the risk of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth differently or whether smoking cessation in early pregnancy reduc...

  5. Impact of maternal and paternal smoking on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Naruse, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, S V

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects of maternal and paternal smoking on child health have been studied. However, few studies demonstrate the interaction effects of maternal/paternal smoking, and birth outcomes other than birth weight have not been evaluated. The present study examined individual effects of maternal/paternal smoking and their interactions on birth outcomes. A follow-up hospital-based study from pregnancy to delivery was conducted from 1997 to 2010 with parents and newborn infants who delivered at a large hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. The relationships between smoking and growth were evaluated with logistic regression. The individual effects of maternal smoking are related to low birth weight (LBW), short birth length and small head circumference. The individual effects of paternal smoking are related to short birth length and small head circumference. In the adjusted model, both parents' smoking showed clear associations with LBW (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.27) and short birth length (-1 standard deviation [SD] OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.79; -2 SD OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.84-4.10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with birth weight and length, but paternal smoking was not. However, if both parents smoked, the risk of shorter birth length increased. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M; Nigg, Joel T; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (n = 240) using standard neuropsychological and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism was measured as the average level of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 years). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Both alcoholism and smoking were correlated negatively with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was correlated negatively with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was correlated negatively with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism were significant predictors of executive function composite. However, when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer significant. Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism was not independent of IQ, suggesting a generalized effect, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more specific processing speed deficit associated with chronic smoking.

  7. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...... counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period...

  8. The epidemiology of alcohol utilization during pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Farah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern in Canada but despite this, the available epidemiological data on both rates and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is limited. The present study assessed the prevalence and predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of women living in Canada from 2005-2006 who had a singleton live birth and whose child remained in their care 5-9 months following birth. Prevalence of maternal alcohol consumption was examined across the Canadian provinces. Methods The analysis was based on the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, a population-based survey that assessed pregnancy, delivery and postnatal experiences of mothers and their children between November 2005 and May 2006. The main outcome variable assessed was ever drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The sample of mothers who drank during pregnancy consisted mainly of low to moderate level-alcohol drinkers (95.8%, while only 1.7% of the sample were heavy drinkers (>1 drink per day. Socio-economic factors, demographic factors, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy related factors that proved to be significant at the bivariate level were considered for a logistic regression analysis. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results Analysis of 5882 mothers, weighted to represent 72,767 Canadian women, found that 10.8% of women drank alcohol at some point during their pregnancies. This mainly reflects prevalence of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption. Prevalence of drinking alcohol during pregnancy was 13.8% in Eastern-Central provinces, 7.8% in Western Provinces-British Columbia, 4.1% in Eastern-Atlantic provinces and 4.0% in Western-Prairie Provinces. Utilizing alcohol during gestation was significantly associated with several important factors including marital status, smoking status, reaction to the pregnancy and

  9. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Åsa; Hohmann, Cynthia; Orsini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure.......Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure....

  10. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  11. Single Motherhood, Alcohol Dependence, and Smoking During Pregnancy: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lian, Min; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Miller, Ruth Huang; Lynskey, Michael T; Knopik, Valerie S; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2017-09-01

    Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry). We conducted standard logistic regression models predicting smoking during pregnancy from single motherhood at twins' birth, followed by propensity score analyses comparing single-mother and two-parent families stratified by predicted probability of single motherhood. In standard models, single motherhood predicted increased risk of smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry but not African ancestry families. In propensity score analyses, rates of smoking during pregnancy were elevated in single-mother relative to two-parent European ancestry families across much of the spectrum a priori risk of single motherhood. Among African ancestry families, within-strata comparisons of smoking during pregnancy by single-mother status were nonsignificant. These findings highlight single motherhood as a unique risk factor for smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry mothers, over and above alcohol dependence. Additional research is needed to identify risks, beyond single motherhood, associated with smoking during pregnancy in African ancestry mothers.

  12. Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment...... for symptomatic gallstone disease. Studies about the impact of alcohol and smoking on the post-cholecystectomy state are few and future studies should be performed. Pancreatitis is associated with both excessive alcohol intake and smoking in observational studies. Interpretation of associations with pancreatitis...... is hampered by an incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms and by the co-existence of excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence is recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis, but higher-level evidence is needed....

  13. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. METHODS: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: Cases: mothers of children with CL/P (n = 843 and Controls: mothers of children without CL/P (n = 676. All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR = 3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37. By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential.

  14. Association between maternal smoking, gender, and cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Coletta, Ricardo D; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Rodrigues, Laíse A Mendes; Oliveira, Maria Christina; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face. To assess the relationship between maternal smoking, gender and CL/P. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. We interviewed 1519 mothers divided into two groups: mothers of children with CL/P (n=843) and mothers of children without CL/P (n=676). All mothers were classified as smoker or non-smoker subjects during the first trimester of pregnancy. To determine an association among maternal smoking, gender, and CL/P, odds ratios were calculated and the adjustment was made by a logistic regression model. An association between maternal smoking and the presence of cleft was observed. There was also a strong association between male gender and the presence of cleft (OR=3.51; 95% CI 2.83-4.37). By binary logistic regression analysis, it was demonstrated that both variables were independently associated with clefts. In a multivariate analysis, male gender and maternal smoking had a 2.5- and a 1.5-time greater chance of having a cleft, respectively. Our findings are consistent with a positive association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CL/P in male gender. The results support the importance of smoking prevention and introduction of cessation programs among women with childbearing potential. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential correlations between maternal hair levels of tobacco and alcohol with fetal growth restriction clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba; Almeida, Laura; Gratacos, Eduard; Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-08-01

    Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty-four FGR subjects, who were further subclassified into IUGR (n = 36) and SGA (n = 28), and 89 subjects matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), were included. The levels of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol exposure, respectively, were assessed in the maternal hair in the third trimester. Our analysis showed 65% of the pregnant women consumed alcohol, 25% smoked, and 19% did both. The odds ratios (ORs) of IUGR were 21 times versus 14 times for being SGA with maternal heavy smoking, while with alcohol consumption the ORs for IUGR were 22 times versus 37 times for the SGA group. The differential correlations between these toxins with the two subtypes of FGR suggest different mechanisms influencing fetal weight. Our alarming data of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be considered for further confirmation among Spanish women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  17. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  18. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD.

  19. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...

  20. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  1. Associations between bar patron alcohol intoxication and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2013-11-01

    To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.

  2. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  4. Maternal passive smoking and its effect on maternal, neonatal and placental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K N; Vidyadaran, M K; Goh, Y M; Nasaruddin, A A; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S

    2005-08-01

    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results.

  5. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study ... non-alcohol/non-cigarette smoke exposed combined oral contraceptive ..... contraceptives: historical perspective. Johns. Hopkins Med.

  6. Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity among students as a specific sub-group, is an area of concern. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and poor dietary habits are inextricably linked to overweight and obesity. Little is known about trends in smoking, drinking, dietary habits and physical activity ...

  7. Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André Michael; Koletzko, Berthold; Slikker, William; Hermann, Monika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2002-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health issues. Childhood obesity often persists throughout adulthood. Recently a higher prevalence of obesity in adults whose mothers smoked during pregnancy was reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether this association is also detectable in pre-school children in a different setting and to identify the critical period for intrauterine exposure to inhaled smoke products in pregnancy. We analysed questionnaire data on early feeding and lifestyle factors of 8,765 German children aged 5.00 to 6.99 years. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >97th percentile. The prevalence estimates for obesity were: mother never smoked 2.8% (95% CI 2.4%-3.2%), smoked after pregnancy only 1.6% (95%CI 0.4%-4.1%), smoked throughout pregnancy 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-8.3%), smoked before pregnancy, but not throughout 4.5% (95%CI 3.6%-5.7%). These associations could not be explained by confounding due to a number of constitutional, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were: smoked during pregnancy: 2.32 (95% CI 1.63%-3.30%)/1.92 (95% CI 1.29%-2.86%); smoked before, but not throughout pregnancy: 1.67 (95%CI 1.26%-2.22%)/1.74 (95%CI 1.29%-2.34%). the association of maternal smoking in pregnancy and obesity was also detectable in children at school entry. Since smoking after pregnancy was not associated with childhood obesity, intrauterine exposure rather than family lifestyle factors associated with smoking appears to be instrumental. There appears to be a role for early intrauterine exposure.

  8. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

    2006-01-01

    Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks.

  9. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health and oral mucosa. The subjects with tobacco and alcohol use, were subjected to thorough clinical examination of the oral cavity for the evaluation of the ...

  10. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and smoking behavioural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel V; Heron, Jon; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2018-06-01

    n-3 Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), are essential components of neuronal membranes and mediate a range of complex bioactive properties including gene expression, myelination, cell-signalling and dopaminergic function. Deficits in n-3 HUFA have been linked to increased risks for addictive disorders, thus we posited that lower fish consumption would be associated with greater risks for perinatal smoking among 9640 mothers enroled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used univariable and multivariable regression models to examine relationships between self-reported prenatal dietary intakes of n-3 HUFA-rich foods (fish and shellfish) and maternal smoking; outcomes included cessation and the number of cigarettes smoked per d. Both before and during pregnancy, there was consistent evidence (Psmoking associations; relative to mothers reporting no fish consumption, those who reported some fish consumption (smoking (adjusted P values smoking diminished, from a high of 31·6% (pre-pregnancy) to a low of 18·7% (second trimester), the magnitude of fish intake-smoking associations remained stable following adjustment for confounders. These observations suggest that greater fish or n-3 HUFA consumption should be evaluated as an intervention to reduce or prevent smoking in randomised clinical trials.

  11. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  12. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Howe, Laura D; Heron, Jon E; Ware, Jennifer J; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess whether associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation are due to intrauterine mechanisms. Design Comparison of associations of maternal and partner smoking behaviour during pregnancy with offspring smoking initiation using partner smoking as a negative control (n = 6484) and a Mendelian randomization analysis (n = 1020), using a genetic variant in the mothers as a proxy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Setting A longitudinal birth cohort in South West England. Participants Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Measurements Smoking status during pregnancy was self-reported by mother and partner in questionnaires administered at pregnancy. Latent classes of offspring smoking initiation (non-smokers, experimenters, late-onset regular smokers and early-onset regular smokers) were previously developed from questionnaires administered at 14–16 years. A genetic variant, rs1051730, was genotyped in the mothers. Findings Both mother and partner smoking were similarly positively associated with offspring smoking initiation classes, even after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for class membership compared with non-smokers were: experimenters: mother OR = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.67), partner OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.55), late-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.43, 2.26), partner OR = 1.86 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.28) and early-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 2.89 (95% CI = 2.12, 3.94), partner OR = 2.50 (95% CI = 1.85, 3.37). There was no clear evidence for a dose–response effect of either mother or partner smoking heaviness on class membership. Maternal rs1051730 genotype was not clearly associated with offspring smoking initiation class in pre-pregnancy smokers (P = 0.35). Conclusion The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking

  14. PPO.46 Risk of Miscarriage associated with Maternal and Paternal Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O'Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking has been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. However little is known about the influence of paternal smoking. The study aimed to examine maternal and paternal smoking as risk factors for miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted in a large,

  15. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated. In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen. Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  16. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Axelsson

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64% in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  17. Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Talalwah, Narmeen; Woodward, Sue

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is defined as an abnormal reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus, which provokes symptoms and impairs the quality of life. GORD has a high prevalence and incurs costs to the healthcare system. This is the first paper in a series of three exploring the conservative, medical and surgical treatment of GORD. This first paper presents a review of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux symptoms and the impact of smoking and alcohol reduction on symptoms of GORD. A search for English language studies on adults was conducted using three databases, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eleven relevant studies were included in the review. The effect of alcohol on the stimulation of reflux has been debated over the years in different studies. Some studies state that alcohol consumption induces reflux and moderate amounts exacerbate nocturnal gastro-oesophageal heartburn reflux. However, other studies have found no association between alcohol consumption and reflux. Most reflux occurs during smoking because nicotine causes the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax, which increases the risk of reflux. Similarly, the number of cigarettes smoked is associated with the risk of reflux. Nurses need to be aware of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux to provide evidence-based advice to empower patients to change their lifestyle, which results in increased therapeutic compliance and a better clinical status. There is no evidence that reducing alcohol consumption decreases symptoms and only limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation. Further research into the effectiveness of these lifestyle modifications is therefore required.

  18. Are alcohol intake and smoking associated with mycosis fungoides?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, M.M.M.; Olsen, J.; Kærlev, L.

    2001-01-01

    . There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of MF with increased smoking habits, albeit the observed trend was not statistically significant. A combined exposure to high tobacco and alcohol use yielded a significantly increased risk factor for MF (P=0.0073). Alcohol intake was associated with MF.......The incidence of mycosis fungoides (MF) is low, and the aetiology of the disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wine consumption protects against the disease and whether smoking constitutes a risk factor. This paper is part of the European Rare Cancers Study that tries...

  19. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  20. Effect of Maternal Alcohol Consumption on Epididymal Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the growth of epididymis in neonatal mice. Three groups of adult female mice were used. The pups of group 1 served as control while the pups of groups 2 and 3 were given 30% ethanol (v/v) during pregnancy and during pregnancy and ...

  1. The effects of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy on postnatal outcomes: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small chest circumference. Although the incidence of active smoking in Taiwanese pregnant women is low, most of them are exposed to passive smoking environment. Further studies are required to evaluate useful interventions to enhance a smoking-free environment during pregnancy.

  2. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. Objectives We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Methods Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malm?, Sweden, recruited for the ...

  3. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Azary

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral of sporadic retinoblastoma.Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children's Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424 were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma.Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5-20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors.

  5. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2014-01-01

    and registered in the Danish Medical Birth Register containing detailed information on smoking during pregnancy and congenital malformations. METHODS: Associations [odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI] between maternal smoking and risk for various groups of congenital malformations, investigated using the generalized.......e. when two or more malformations are diagnosed in a child) (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.10) and various main groups of congenital malformations including the cardiovascular system (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19), the respiratory system (odds ratio 1.25, 95......% confidence interval 1.11-1.41), the digestive system (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24) and oral clefts (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.46), as well as for some specific congenital malformations including cardiac septal defects, malformations of the pulmonary and tricuspid...

  6. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  7. Breastfeeding and maternal alcohol use: Prevalence and effects on child outcomes and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Botha, Isobel; Roux, Sumien; Doms, Cate; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Manning, Melanie A; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Determine any effects that maternal alcohol consumption during the breastfeeding period has on child outcomes. Population-based samples of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), normally-developing children, and their mothers were analyzed for differences in child outcomes. Ninety percent (90%) of mothers breastfed for an average of 19.9 months. Of mothers who drank postpartum and breastfed (MDPB), 47% breastfed for 12 months or more. In case control analyses, children of MDPB were significantly lighter, had lower verbal IQ scores, and more anomalies in comparisons controlling for prenatal alcohol exposure and final FASD diagnosis. Utilizing a stepwise logistic regression model adjusting for nine confounders of prenatal drinking and other maternal risks, MDPB were 6.4 times more likely to have a child with FASD than breastfeeding mothers who abstained from alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol use during the period of breastfeeding was found to significantly compromise a child's development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  9. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  10. Effect of maternal smoking on birth weight of twins: a study from the Dutch Twin Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Bleker, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since twins weigh about 20% less than singletons at birth, maternal smoking may be a more severe risk for them than for singletons. Therefore, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birth weight was investigated in a group of 5376 twins. All necessary information was collected by a

  11. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking w...

  12. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in South Africa: a third study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; Marais, Anna-Susan; Hendricks, Loretta S; Snell, Cudore L; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Stellavato, Chandra; Buckley, David G; Brooke, Lesley E; Viljoen, Denis L

    2008-05-01

    This is a third exploration of risk factors for the two most severe forms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and Partial FAS (PFAS), in a South African community with the highest reported prevalence of FAS in the world. In a case control design, interview and collateral data concerning mothers of 72 first grade children with FAS or PFAS are compared with 134 randomly selected maternal controls of children from the same schools. Significant differences were found between the mothers of FASD children and controls in socio-economic status, educational attainment, and a higher prevalence of FASD among rural residents. The birth order of the index children, gravidity, and still birth were significantly higher among mothers of FASD children. Mothers of children with a FASD are less likely to be married and more likely to have a male partner who drank during the index pregnancy. Current and gestational alcohol use by mothers of FASD children is bingeing on weekends, with no reduction in drinking reported in any trimester in 75 to 90% of the pregnancies that resulted in an FAS child or during 50 to 87% of PFAS-producing pregnancies. There was significantly less drinking among the controls in the second and third trimesters (11 to 14%). Estimated peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC)s of the mothers of PFAS children range from 0.155 in the first trimester to 0.102 in the third, and for mothers of FAS children the range is from 0.197 to 0.200 to 0.191 in the first, second, and third. Smoking percentage during pregnancy was significantly higher for mothers of FASD children (82 to 84%) than controls (35%); but average quantity smoked is low in the 3 groups at 30 to 41 cigarettes per week. A relatively young average age of the mother at the time of FAS and PFAS births (28.8 and 24.8 years respectively) is not explained by early onset of regular drinking (mean = 20.3 to 20.5 years of age). But the mean years of alcohol consumption is

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Alcohol Consumption in Two Regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525

  15. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  16. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  17. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's cognitive and physical development: a causal risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E; Gardener, Hannah; Buka, Stephen L

    2008-09-01

    There remains considerable debate regarding the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on children's growth and development. Evidence that exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with numerous adverse outcomes is contradicted by research suggesting that these associations are spurious. The authors investigated the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and 14 developmental outcomes of children from birth through age 7 years, using data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974; n = 52,919). In addition to adjusting for potential confounders measured contemporaneously with maternal smoking, the authors fitted conditional fixed-effects models among siblings that controlled for unmeasured confounders. Results from the conditional analyses indicated a birth weight difference of -85.63 g associated with smoking of >or=20 cigarettes daily during pregnancy (95% confidence interval: -131.91, -39.34) and 2.73 times' higher odds of being overweight at age 7 years (95% confidence interval: 1.30, 5.71). However, the associations between maternal smoking and 12 other outcomes studied (including Apgar score, intelligence, academic achievement, conduct problems, and asthma) were entirely eliminated after adjustment for measured and unmeasured confounders. The authors conclude that the hypothesized effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on these outcomes either are not present or are not distinguishable from a broader range of familial factors associated with maternal smoking.

  18. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  19. The social gradient in birthweight at term: quantification of the mediating role of maternal smoking and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term.......Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term....

  20. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Di Dato, Carla; de Angelis, Cristina; Menafra, Davide; Pozza, Carlotta; Pivonello, Rosario; Isidori, Andrea; Gianfrilli, Daniele

    2018-01-15

    In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health. Alcohol consumption is often considered socially acceptable, but its negative effects on gonadal function have been consistently reported in the last 30 years. Several studies have reported a variety of negative effects on male fertility following drug abuse - a worrying phenomenon, as illicit drug consumption is on the rise, most notably in younger subjects. While evidence in these regards is still far from solid, mostly as a result of several confounding factors, it is safe to assume that cessation of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug addiction might represent the best course of action for any couple trying to achieve pregnancy.

  3. Impact of maternal smoking on birth size: effect of parity and sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Anastasia A; Asimakopoulou, Aspasia; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, and offspring's gender. We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004. The 1,443 were born to mothers who did not smoke and 665 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Birth weight, length and head circumference were measured prospectively in all newborns. Also, maternal smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day, age, and parity were recorded. For the analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation, and factorial MANOVA with covariates were used. With increasing parity, in the neonates of nonsmoking mothers there was a gradual increase of growth, whereas in neonates of smoking mothers there was a gradual decrease of growth. This effect was more pronounced in males. A significant negative main effect on growth resulted from the interaction of smoking with parity (p = 0.013), and with gender and parity (p = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between number of cigarettes smoked per day and growth, the strength of which increased with parity, mainly in males. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay in fetal growth, which is greater in male offspring, an effect that is enhanced with parity but is independent of maternal age. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. DNA Methylation in Newborns and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy : Genome-wide Consortium Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joubert, Bonnie R.; Felix, Janine F.; Yousefi, Paul; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Just, Allan C.; Breton, Carrie; Reese, Sarah E.; Markunas, Christina A.; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Xu, Chengjian; Kupers, Leanne K.; Oh, Sam S.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Gruzieva, Olena; Soderhal, Cilla; Salas, Lucas A.; Baiz, Nour; Zhang, Hongmei; Lepeule, Johanna; Ruiz, Carlos; Ligthart, Symen; Wang, Tianyuan; Taylor, Jack A.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Sharp, Gemma C.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Nilsen, Roy M.; Vaez, Ahmad; Fallin, M. Daniele; Hu, Donglei; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Huen, Karen; Kere, Juha; Kull, Inger; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Gehring, Ulrike; Bustamante, Mariona; Saurel-Coubizolles, Marie Jose; Quraishi, Bilal M.; Ren, Jie; Tost, Jorg; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Haberg, Siri E.; Xu, Zongli; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Corpeleijn, Eva; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Eng, Celeste; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Bradman, Asa; Merid, Simon Kebede; Bergstrom, Anna; Herceg, Zdenko; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Brunekreef, Bert; Pinart, Mariona; Heude, Barbara; Ewart, Susan; Yao, Jin; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Franco, Oscar H.; Wu, Michael C.; Hofman, Albert; McArdle, Wendy; Van der Vlies, Pieter; Falahi, Fahimeh; Gillman, Matthew W.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Kumar, Ashish; Wickman, Magnus; Guerra, Stefano; Charles, Marie-Aline; Holloway, John; Auffray, Charles; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Smith, George Davey; Postma, Dirkje; Hivert, Marie-France; Eskenazi, Brenda; Vrijheid, Martine; Arshad, Hasan; Anto, Josep M.; Dehghan, Abbas; Karmaus, Wilfried; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sunyer, Jordi; Ghantous, Akram; Pershagen, Goran; Hollands, Nina; Murphy, Susan K.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Snieder, Harold; Nystad, Wenche; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Relton, Caroline L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Wilcox, Allen; Melen, Erik; London, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The

  5. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA......AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...

  6. Maternal smoking as a model for environmental epigenetic changes affecting birthweight and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa A; Anders, Amber M; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between maternal smoking and low birthweight infants has been well established, the mechanisms behind reduced fetal growth are still being elucidated. While many infants are exposed to tobacco smoke in utero, not all are born growth restricted or small for gestational age. Many hypotheses have emerged to explain the differential response to in utero maternal tobacco smoke exposure (MTSE). Studies have shown that both maternal and fetal genotypes may contribute to the discrepant outcomes. However, the contribution of epigenetic changes cannot be ignored. In this review we address two important questions regarding the effect of MTSE on the fetal epigenome. First, does exposure to maternal tobacco smoke in utero alter the fetal epigenome? Secondly, could these alterations be associated with the reduced fetal growth observed with MTSE?

  7. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and childhood behavioural problems: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained retrospectively at 9 years of age via parental recall and children's behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire across separate parent and teacher-report instruments. A quasi-experimental approach using propensity score matching was used to create treatment (smoking) and control (non-smoking) groups which did not differ significantly in their propensity to smoke in terms of 16 observed characteristics. After matching on the propensity score, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 3.5 % (p parent and teacher-report respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more strongly associated with externalising than internalising behavioural problems. Analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that the differential between matched treatment and control groups increased with level of maternal smoking. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, the promotion of successful cessation in pregnancy may prevent potentially adverse long-term consequences.

  8. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Hansen, Stefan N; Schendel, Diana E; Parner, Erik T; Reichenberg, Abraham; Grice, Dorothy E

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day]). Additional analyses examined the effect of maternal smoking on risk for TS/CT with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. In final adjusted analyses, heavy smoking was associated with a 66% increased risk for TS/CT (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.17-2.35). In addition, heavy smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and both light and heavy smoking were associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with any non-ADHD psychiatric comorbidity. Our parallel analyses of pediatric-onset OCD were likely underpowered but showed similar relationships. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with increased risk for TS/CT as well as TS/CT with comorbid psychiatric conditions, even after adjustment for several important variables, including maternal psychiatric history, socioeconomic status, and partner smoking. Our findings point to a pathway linking prenatal tobacco exposure and altered brain development to TS/CT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  10. Orofacial cleft risk is increased with maternal smoking and specific detoxification-gene variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Min; Christensen, Kaare; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2007-01-01

    Maternal smoking is a recognized risk factor for orofacial clefts. Maternal or fetal pharmacogenetic variants are plausible modulators of this risk. In this work, we studied 5,427 DNA samples, including 1,244 from subjects in Denmark and Iowa with facial clefting and 4,183 from parents, siblings,...

  11. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  12. Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rickert, Martin E; Langström, Niklas; Donahue, Kelly L; Coyne, Claire A; Larsson, Henrik; Ellingson, Jarrod M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring. To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design. We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. The analyses prospectively predicted multiple indices of substance use and problems while controlling for statistical covariates and comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize confounding. Offspring of a representative sample of women in the United States (sample 1) and the total Swedish population born during the period from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1995 (sample 2). Adolescent offspring of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6904) and all offspring born in Sweden during the 13-year period (n = 1,187,360). Self-reported adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and early onset (before 14 years of age) of each substance (sample 1) and substance-related convictions and hospitalizations for an alcohol- or other drug-related problem (sample 2). The same pattern emerged for each index of substance use/problems across the 2 samples. At the population level, maternal SDP predicted every measure of offspring substance use/problems in both samples, ranging from adolescent alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR](moderate), 1.32 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]; HR(high), 1.33 [1.17-1.53]) to a narcotics-related conviction (HR(moderate), 2.23 [2.14-2.31]; HR(high), 2.97 [2.86-3.09]). When comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize genetic and environmental confounds, however, the association between SDP and each measure of substance use/problems was minimal and not statistically significant. The association between maternal SDP and offspring substance use/problems is likely due to familial background

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of postnatal infections in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2008-01-01

    Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with perinatal complications such as preterm delivery, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking during pregnancy on the risk of postnata...

  14. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been......Background: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. Methods/design: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...

  15. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  16. Effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on pulmonary tuberculosis among Batak ethnic population in Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, B. Y. M.; Siregar, Y.; Amin, M.; Sarumpaet, S.

    2018-03-01

    Simultaneous consumption of tuak, a traditional alcoholic beverage, and smoking is prevalent among Batak ethnic group in Indonesia. This research was to find out the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia. A matched case-control study was conducted on 100 PTB patients and 100 healthy individuals group. Smoking and alcohol consumption was self-reported. Data were analyzed with Epi Info program. Smoking and alcohol consumption habit is a significant difference in case and control group (p<0.01). After conditional logistic regression analysis with non-smoking and non-alcohol consuming as a comparative, the Odds Ratio (OR) for the smoking-only group was 4.08 (95% CI: 1.28-13.05). For the alcohol-only consuming group was 1.83 (95% CI: 0.11-28.95) and for the smoking and alcohol consuming group was 13.7 (95% CI: 4.02-46.94). There is an association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of PTB in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia.

  17. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol...... consumption, smoking and patterns of hospitalization, defined as admission and duration of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was based on 12 698 men and women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We related smoking and alcohol to hospital admission from any cause, smoking...

  18. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and the Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity in Singleton Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Liisa; Korkeila, Jyrki; Gissler, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for psychiatric morbidity. We further studied this with Finnish siblings to control for genetic/familial factors. Methods: From the Finnish Medical Birth Register, sibling pairs were selected as the first two children born 1987–1995 to the same mother (n = 150 168 pairs), along with information on maternal smoking (no smoking/smoking). Information on the children’s psychiatric diagnoses related to outpatient care visits (1998–2013) and inpatient care (1987–2013), and the mothers’ psychiatric morbidity (1969–2013) was derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The first pair analysis compared siblings of mothers who only smoked in the first pregnancy (Quitters, 4.7%) and mothers who smoked in both pregnancies (Smokers, 9.6%); the second analysis included mothers who smoked only in the second pregnancy (Starters, 3.3%) and mothers who did not smoke in either pregnancy (Nonsmokers, 77.5%). Smoking information was missing for 5.0% of pairs. Psychiatric morbidity of the siblings and mother was included in the statistical analyses. Results: The risk of psychiatric diagnoses was significantly lower for the second child of quitters (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72–0.83) compared to the risk among smokers. A higher risk for psychiatric diagnoses was found for the second child of starters (1.39, 1.30–1.49) compared to the risk among nonsmokers. The effect of smoking was more robust for externalizing diagnoses. Conclusions: Maternal smoking was independently associated with a higher risk for psychiatric morbidity in children, even when controlling thoroughly for genetic and familial factors. Implications: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has an independent effect on the risk of psychiatric morbidity in children, even after controlling for non-measurable genetic/familial factors by using a sibling pair design. The effect of maternal smoking was robust

  19. Associations between maternal periconceptional exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and major birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Anderka, Marlene T; Krikov, Sergey V; Tarpey, Morgan K; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2016-11-01

    While associations between secondhand smoke and a few birth defects (namely, oral clefts and neural tube defects) have been noted in the scientific literature, to our knowledge, there is no single or comprehensive source of population-based information on its associations with a range of birth defects among nonsmoking mothers. We utilized data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based multisite case-control study, to examine associations between maternal reports of periconceptional exposure to secondhand smoke in the household or workplace/school and major birth defects. The multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study is the largest case-control study of birth defects to date in the United States. We selected cases from birth defect groups having >100 total cases, as well as all nonmalformed controls (10,200), from delivery years 1997 through 2009; 44 birth defects were examined. After excluding cases and controls from multiple births and whose mothers reported active smoking or pregestational diabetes, we analyzed data on periconceptional secondhand smoke exposure-encompassing the period 1 month prior to conception through the first trimester. For the birth defect craniosynostosis, we additionally examined the effect of exposure in the second and third trimesters as well due to the potential sensitivity to teratogens for this defect throughout pregnancy. Covariates included in all final models of birth defects with ≥5 exposed mothers were study site, previous live births, time between estimated date of delivery and interview date, maternal age at estimated date of delivery, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, nativity, household income divided by number of people supported by this income, periconceptional alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplementation. For each birth defect examined, we used logistic regression analyses to estimate both crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for both

  20. Beliefs about Alcohol Use and Smoking among Sorority and Fraternity Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Maness, Sarah; Huber, Kathleen; Eggleston, Landon; Naberhaus, Bryce; Nichols, Brooklyn; Burt, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have one of the highest smoking rates among college students, yet little is known about the social influences on smoking within this subculture. The objective of this study was to examine sorority and fraternity member beliefs about smoking and alcohol use. Methods: In-depth individual interviews were…

  1. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and self-reported delinquency by offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Widmayer, Alan; Das, Shyamal

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have reported significant positive correlations between smoking during pregnancy by mothers and the involvement of their offspring in criminal/delinquent behaviour later in life, but these findings have been described as modest and the criminality based on official conviction statistics. We sought to verify this relationship and probe for more details on the basis of self-reported offending among college students. Independently completed questionnaires were collected from 6332 students and their mothers. The students provided information about their delinquent acts, if any, according to eight categories. Their mothers provided retrospective reports of their smoking habits, if any, during pregnancy. Mothers who recalled having smoked during pregnancy were significantly more likely than non-smoking mothers to have offspring who self-reported engaging in some types of delinquency. This relationship was more evident for female offspring than for male offspring and was most pronounced for illegal drug use by the offspring. There was, however, no relationship between offspring offending and estimated number of cigarettes smoked by mothers, month of pregnancy when smoked or consistency of smoking throughout pregnancy. Overall, our study confirms that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring involvement in delinquency, but the lack of critical timing or dose-response relationships between maternal smoking and later offspring delinquency cast doubt on the possibility that the associations are due to teratogenic effects of tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol dependent patients in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Marilyn K; Martin, Rosemarie A; Rohsenow, Damaris J; MacKinnon, Selene Varney; Traficante, Regina; Monti, Peter M

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers. In addition to the usual barriers perceived by smokers, alcohol dependent smokers may have a few barriers unique to their addictive lifestyle. The Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) was administered to 96 alcohol dependent smokers in residential substance abuse treatment. The BQS-SAT is designed to assess perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers using eleven true-false items. One open-ended item was included to gather information about potential additional barriers. The majority of respondents reported withdrawal-related barriers such as expecting to feel irritable, anxious, restless, and about half expected intolerable urges to smoke if they were to quit smoking, as most smokers do. However, concerns about effects on sobriety and needing cigarettes to cope with feeling down were also endorsed by almost half of the patients. Total number of perceived barriers was significantly related to smoking history, expected effects from smoking, and smoking temptation but was not associated with severity of alcohol use or dependence on admission. Providing corrective feedback about these barriers could be useful when addressing smoking with patients who have alcohol abuse or dependence.

  3. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  4. Maternal factors predicting cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Adnams, Colleen M

    2013-06-01

    To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70, p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.

  5. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain from birth to early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomosa Mine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have focused on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain (RWG during infancy, the dose-response relationship has not yet been confirmed, and very few studies have included Asian populations. Using a record-linkage method, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and RWG in infants at around 4 months of age to clarify the dose-response relationship. Methods: Two databases were used: maternal check-ups during pregnancy and early infancy check-ups (between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 in Okinawa, Japan were linked via IDs and provided to us after unlinkable anonymizing. For 10,433 subjects (5229 boys and 5204 girls, we calculated the change in infants' weight z-score by subtracting the z-score of their birth weight from their weight at early infancy check-ups. Smoking exposure was categorized into five groups. We used Poisson regression to examine the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with RWG in early infancy. Results: Overall, 1524 (14.6% were ex-smoker and 511 (4.9% were current smoker. Compared with the reference category of non-smokers, the adjusted risk ratio of RWG was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.32 for ex-smokers, 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93–1.50 for those who smoked 1–5 cigarettes per day, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.24–2.00 for those who smoked 6–10 cigarettes per day, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.51–3.01 for those who smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day. There was a clear dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated in a dosedependent manner with increased risk of RWG in early infancy.

  6. Maternal Smoking Among Women With and Without Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bernson, Dana; Copeland, Glenn; Boulet, Sheree L.; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J.; England, Lucinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate smoking prevalence during the year before pregnancy and during pregnancy and adverse outcomes among women who delivered infants with and without assisted reproductive technology (ART) using linked birth certificates (BC) and National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data. Methods Data were analyzed for 384,390 women and 392,248 infants born in Massachusetts and Michigan during 2008–2009. Maternal smoking prevalence was estimated using smoking indicated from BC by ART status. For ART users, to evaluate underreporting, prepregnancy smoking was estimated from BC, NASS, or both sources. Effect of prenatal smoking on preterm and mean birthweight (term only) for singleton infants were examined by ART status. Results Maternal smoking prevalence estimates were significantly lower for ART users than nonusers (pre-pregnancy = 3.2% vs. 16.7%; prenatal = 1.0% vs. 11.1%, p smoking information from BC and NASS, prepregnancy smoking prevalence estimates for ART users could be as high as 4.4% to 6.1%. Adverse effects of smoking on infant outcomes in ART pregnancies were consistent with the effects seen in non-ART pregnancies, specifically decline in infant birthweight and increase in preterm delivery, although association between smoking and preterm was not significant. Conclusion A low, but substantial proportion of ART users smoked before and during pregnancy. As ART users are highly motivated to get pregnant, it should be clearly communicated that smoking can decrease fertility and adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Continued efforts are needed to encourage smoking cessation and maintain tobacco abstinence among all women of reproductive age. PMID:27243366

  7. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  8. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...... individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral...

  9. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  10. Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Rana; Chaaya, Monique

    2008-05-01

    This study assessed the factors related to smoking during pregnancy in two areas in Lebanon, and the association of smoking to selected maternal and newborn health related factors. This was a secondary analysis of data on 538 women who delivered in nine hospitals in two areas in Lebanon. Women were interviewed about their smoking practices, and on demographic and psychosocial variables. 396 women were followed up and re-interviewed about their smoking status, and the mother's and baby's health after delivery. Smoking during pregnancy included both cigarettes and narghile smoking. About 25.7% of women were smoking some kind of tobacco during pregnancy. Older women, Muslim women, women with poor education, those who had financial difficulty, nervousness, lower support, and delay in seeking prenatal care were more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have a low birth weight baby and to stop breastfeeding. It is important to address smoking among women in general, and not only during pregnancy. We discuss the role of public and private sectors in smoking cessation and interventions.

  11. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  12. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  13. Maternal risk factors predicting child physical characteristics and dysmorphology in fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2011-12-01

    Previous research in South Africa revealed very high rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), of 46-89 per 1000 among young children. Maternal and child data from studies in this community summarize the multiple predictors of FAS and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). Sequential regression was employed to examine influences on child physical characteristics and dysmorphology from four categories of maternal traits: physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking. Then, a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to predict influences on child physical characteristics. Individual sequential regressions revealed that maternal drinking measures were the most powerful predictors of a child's physical anomalies (R² = .30, p < .001), followed by maternal demographics (R² = .24, p < .001), maternal physical characteristics (R²=.15, p < .001), and childbearing variables (R² = .06, p < .001). The SEM utilized both individual variables and the four composite categories of maternal traits to predict a set of child physical characteristics, including a total dysmorphology score. As predicted, drinking behavior is a relatively strong predictor of child physical characteristics (β = 0.61, p < .001), even when all other maternal risk variables are included; higher levels of drinking predict child physical anomalies. Overall, the SEM model explains 62% of the variance in child physical anomalies. As expected, drinking variables explain the most variance. But this highly controlled estimation of multiple effects also reveals a significant contribution played by maternal demographics and, to a lesser degree, maternal physical and childbearing variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. 15 observational studies (6 cohort studies and 9 case-control studies, with 17,890 ASD cases and 1,810,258 participants were included for analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93–1.13 comparing mothers who smoked during pregnancy with those who did not. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with ASD risk in offspring. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings.

  15. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, smoking, and recent alcohol use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ian M; Culhane, Jennifer F; Webb, David A; Coyne, James C; Hogan, Vijaya; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T

    2010-06-01

    Perceived discrimination is associated with poor mental health and health-compromising behaviors in a range of vulnerable populations, but this link has not been assessed among pregnant women. We aimed to determine whether perceived discrimination was associated with these important targets of maternal health care among low-income pregnant women. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 4,454 multiethnic, low-income, inner-city women at their first prenatal visit at public health centers in Philadelphia, Penn, USA, from 1999 to 2004. Perceived chronic everyday discrimination (moderate and high levels) in addition to experiences of major discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D >or= 23), smoking in pregnancy (current), and recent alcohol use (12 months before pregnancy) were assessed by patients' self-report. Moderate everyday discrimination was reported by 873 (20%) women, high everyday discrimination by 238 (5%) women, and an experience of major discrimination by 789 (18%) women. Everyday discrimination was independently associated with depressive symptomatology (moderate = prevalence ratio [PR] of 1.58, 95% CI: 1.38-1.79; high = PR of 1.82, 95% CI: 1.49-2.21); smoking (moderate = PR of 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.36; high = PR of 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15-1.74); and recent alcohol use (moderate = PR of 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.36). However, major discrimination was not independently associated with these outcomes. This study demonstrated that perceived chronic everyday discrimination, but not major discrimination, was associated with depressive symptoms and health-compromising behaviors independent of potential confounders, including race and ethnicity, among pregnant low-income women.

  16. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood : prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and

  17. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (pdrugs (pconsumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of terminations of pregnancy represents an high-risk population. Physicians

  18. Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy Alters Fetomaternal Cell Trafficking Leading to Retention of Microchimeric Cells in the Maternal Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Anja; Scapin, Cristina; Barone, Caroline; Tam, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure causes chronic oxidative lung damage. During pregnancy, fetal microchimeric cells traffic to the mother. Their numbers are increased at the site of acute injury. We hypothesized that milder chronic diffuse smoke injury would attract fetal cells to maternal lungs. We used a green-fluorescent-protein (GFP) mouse model to study the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on fetomaternal cell trafficking. Wild-type female mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for about 4 weeks and bred with homozygote GFP males. Cigarette smoke exposure continued until lungs were harvested and analyzed. Exposure to cigarette smoke led to macrophage accumulation in the maternal lung and significantly lower fetal weights. Cigarette smoke exposure influenced fetomaternal cell trafficking. It was associated with retention of GFP-positive fetal cells in the maternal lung and a significant reduction of fetal cells in maternal livers at gestational day 18, when fetomaternal cell trafficking peaks in the mouse model. Cells quickly clear postpartum, leaving only a few, difficult to detect, persisting microchimeric cells behind. In our study, we confirmed the postpartum clearance of cells in the maternal lungs, with no significant difference in both groups. We conclude that in the mouse model, cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy leads to a retention of fetal microchimeric cells in the maternal lung, the site of injury. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the phenotypic characteristics and function of these fetal microchimeric cells, and confirm its course in cigarette smoke exposure in humans. PMID:24832066

  19. Alcohol consumption in relation to maternal deaths from induced-abortions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asamoah Benedict O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The fight against maternal deaths has gained attention as the target date for Millennium Development Goal 5 approaches. Induced-abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths in developing countries which hamper this effort. In Ghana, alcohol consumption and unwanted pregnancies are on the ascendancy. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and maternal mortality from induced-abortion. We further analyzed the factors that lie behind the alcohol consumption patterns in the study population. Method The data we used was extracted from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007. This was a national survey conducted across the 10 administrative regions of Ghana. The survey identified 4203 female deaths through verbal autopsy, among which 605 were maternal deaths in the 12 to 49 year-old age group. Analysis was done using Statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 20. A case control study design was used. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between the different variables. Results Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with abortion-related maternal deaths. Women who had ever consumed alcohol (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 1.38–4.87, frequent consumers (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 0.89–7.40 and occasional consumers (OR adjusted 2.7, 95% CI 1.29–5.46 were about three times as likely to die from abortion-related causes compared to those who abstained from alcohol. Maternal age, marital status and educational level were found to have a confounding effect on the observed association. Conclusion Policy actions directed toward reducing abortion-related deaths should consider alcohol consumption, especially among younger women. Policy makers in Ghana should consider increasing the legal age for alcohol consumption. We suggest that information on the health risks posed by alcohol and abortion be disseminated to communities in the informal sector where

  20. Maternal western diet primes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruis, M. G. M.; Lendvai, A.; Bloks, V. W.; Zwier, M. V.; Baller, J. F. W.; de Bruin, A.; Groen, A. K.; Plosch, T.

    AimMetabolic programming via components of the maternal diet during gestation may play a role in the development of different aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Using a mouse model, we aimed to characterize the role of maternal western-type diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  1. Gender Difference in Offspring's Alcohol Use Disorder by 21 Years: A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam T; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M

    2018-04-16

    There is little known about the extent to which maternal alcohol consumption influences offspring's alcohol use disorder. This study aims to examine whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict gender difference in adolescent alcohol use disorder at child age 21 years. Data are from a prospective cohort, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The study involves 2531 mother-child pairs for whom data are available at the 21-year follow-up survey. Maternal alcohol consumption trajectories were determined by group-based trajectory modelling. Offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder was assessed using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Over 14 years of follow-up after the birth of a child, three distinct alcohol consumption trajectories were identified (abstainer, low-stable. and moderate-escalating drinker). A maternal trajectory of moderate-escalating alcohol consumption independently predicted offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder at 21 years after adjustment for a range of potential confounders. "Cross-gender influence" is observed in the study. A maternal life course pattern of alcohol consumption may have an independent effect on offspring alcohol consumption, with male offspring being more vulnerable to the effects of maternal alcohol use than are female offspring. Programs intended to address alcohol consumption by adolescents and young adults need to focus on the behaviors of both parents but acknowledging that maternal patterns of alcohol consumption may be particularly important for male offspring.

  2. Maternal smoking promotes chronic obstructive lung disease in the offspring as adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In utero and/or childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure is well known to adversely affect lung function and to depreciate child's health in many ways. Fewer studies have assessed the long-term effects on COPD development and disease severity in later adulthood. Methods COPD patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding their personal as well as the smoking habits of their parents. Data were compared with the disease history, e.g. COPD exacerbation rate, and their lung function data. Results Between 2003 and 2004 COPD patients were recruited a in a private practice specialized in pulmonary medicine (n = 133 and b in a hospital (n = 158. 75% of their fathers and only 15.4 of all mothers smoked regularly. COPD patients from smoking mothers had lower FEV1 predicted than those raised in household without maternal smoking exposure: 39.4 ± 9.5% vs. 51.9 ± 6.0% (P = 0.037. Fathers had no effect on FEV1 regardless if they are smokers or non-smokers. Rate of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization remained unaffected by parental second hand smoke exposure. Conclusion Maternal smoking negatively affects lung function of their offspring even in late adulthood when they develop COPD. It even aggravates the cumulative effect of active cigarette consumption. Clinical course of the COPD remained unaffected.

  3. Maternal smoking and newborn sex, birth weight and breastfeeding: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur Taşhan, Sermin; Hotun Sahin, Nevin; Omaç Sönmez, Mehtap

    2017-11-01

    Today, it is acknowledged that smoking during pregnancy and/or the postnatal period has significant risks for a foetus and newborn child. This research examines the relationship between smoking only postnatally, both during pregnancy and postnatally, and the newborn sex, birth weight and breastfeeding. Total 664 women of randomly selected five primary healthcare centres between the dates 20 February 2010 and 20 July 2010 were included in the research. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS for Windows 19.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences software package). Data were described as mean, standard deviation, percentages and Chi-square tests and backward stepwise logistic regression were analysed. It was found that the percentage of smoking women with daughters is 2.5 times higher than women with sons. Women who smoke are 3.9 times more likely to start feeding their baby with supplementary infant foods at 4 months or earlier than those who do not smoke. Finally, the risk of a birth weight under 2500 g is 3.8 times higher for maternal smokers. This study suggests that women who expect a girl smoke more heavily than those who expect a boy. The birth weight of maternal smokers' newborns is lower. Those women who smoke while breastfeeding start feeding their babies with supplementary infant foods at an earlier age.

  4. DNA Methylation in Newborns and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Genome-wide Consortium Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. Joubert (Bonnie); J.F. Felix (Janine); P. Yousefi (Paul); K.M. Bakulski (Kelly M.); A.C. Just (Allan C.); C. Breton (Carrie); S.E. Reese (Sarah E.); C.A. Markunas (Christina A.); R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); C.-J. Xu (Cheng-Jian); L.K. Küpers (Leanne); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); C. Hoyo (Cathrine); O. Gruzieva (Olena); C. Söderhäll (Cilla); L.A. Salas (Lucas A.); N. Baïz (Nour); H. Zhang (Hongmei); J. Lepeule (Johanna); C. Ruiz (Carlos); S. Ligthart (Symen); T. Wang (Tianyuan); J.A. Taylor (Jack A.); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); G.C. Sharp (Gemma C.); S.A. Jankipersadsing (Soesma A.); R.M. Nilsen (Roy M.); A. Vaez (Ahmad); M.D. Fallin (M. Daniele); D. Hu (Donglei); A. Litonjua (Augusto); B.F. Fuemmeler (Bernard F.); K. Huen (Karen); J. Kere (Juha); C.A. Kull (Christian); M.C. Munthe-Kaas (Monica Cheng); U. Gehring (Ulrike); M. Bustamante (Mariona); M.J. Saurel-Coubizolles (Marie José); B.M. Quraishi (Bilal M.); J. Ren (Jie); J. Tost (Jörg); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); S.E. Håberg (Siri E); Z. Xu (Zongli); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); W.E. Corpeleijn (Willemijn); A.P. Feinberg (Andrew P.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); S.E. Benjamin Neelon (Sara E.); A. Bradman (Asa); S.K. Merid (Simon Kebede); A. Bergström (Anna); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); H. Hernandez-Vargas (Hector); B. Brunekreef (Bert); M. Pinart (Mariona); B. Heude (Barbara); S. Ewart (Susan); J. Yao (Jin); N. Lemonnier (Nathanaël); O.H. Franco (Oscar); M.C. Wu (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); P. van der Vlies (P.); F. Falahi (Fahimeh); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.); L.F. Barcellos (Lisa); A. Kumar (Ashish); M. Wickman (Magnus); S. Guerra (S.); M.-A. Charles (Marie-Aline); J. Holloway (John); C. Auffray (C.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); G.D. Smith; D.S. Postma (Dirkje); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); B. Eskenazi (Brenda); M. Vrijheid (Martine); H. Arshad (Hasan); J.M. Antó (Josep M.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); W. Karmaus (Wilfried); I. Annesi-Maesano; J. Sunyer (Jordi); A. Ghantous (Akram); G. Pershagen (Göran); N. Holland (Nina); S.K. Murphy (Susan K.); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); C. Ladd-Acosta (Christine); H. Snieder (Harold); W. Nystad (Wenche); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); C.L. Relton (Caroline); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.J. Wilcox (Allen); E. Melén (Erik); S.J. London (Stephanie J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEpigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences.

  5. Inhibitory Control in Siblings Discordant for Exposure to Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalizzi, Lauren; Marceau, Kristine; Brick, Leslie A.; Palmer, Rohan H.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Evans, Allison; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2018-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been linked to poorer offspring executive function across development, but SDP does not occur independent of other familial risk factors. As such, poor and inconsistent control for potential confounds, notably shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) confounds, preclude concluding causal effects…

  6. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Overt and Covert Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Blacker, Deborah; Biederman, Joseph; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Buka, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Empirical evidence demonstrates that conduct disorder (CD) symptoms tend to cluster into covert and overt domains. We hypothesized that overt and covert CD symptoms may be distinct constructs with distinct risk factors. An important risk factor for CD is maternal smoking during pregnancy. We further investigated this association,…

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and Childhood Behavioural Problems: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study.…

  8. Transcriptome alterations in maternal and fetal cells induced by tobacco smoke

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, H.; Dostálová-Merkerová, M.; Fejglová, K.; Vašíková, A.; Krejčík, Z.; Pastorková, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Topinka, Jan; Veleminský Jr., M.; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 10 (2011), s. 763-770 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : maternal smoking * placenta * cord blood Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.693, year: 2011

  9. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, A.; Hohmann, C.; Pershagen, G.; Eller, E.; Kjaer, H.F.; Gehring, U.; Granell, R.; Henderson, J.; Lau, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Sunyer, J.; Tischer, C.; Torrent, M.; Wahn, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Wickman, M.; Keil, T.; Bergström, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of

  10. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  11. Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and internalizing disorders in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, S M; Plessen, K J; Verhulst, F

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking has consistently been associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing disorders. In contrast the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and internalizing (anxiety and depressive) disorders in offspring has received less...... investigation. Method We conducted a nationwide cohort study including 957635 individuals born in Denmark between 1991 and 2007. Data on MSDP and diagnoses of depression or anxiety disorders were derived from national registers and patients were followed up from the age of 5 years to the end of 2012. Hazard...... severe depression [HRR 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.36] and severe anxiety disorders (HRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.20-1.32) even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. However, there was no association between MSDP and internalizing disorders when controlling for the mother's propensity...

  12. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods: Summary-level

  13. Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruchová, H.; Vašíková, A.; Merkerová, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Pastorková, Anna; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 186-191 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : placenta * gene expression * tobacco smoke exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2010

  14. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  15. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  16. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  17. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi

    2010-01-01

    . The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys....... For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease...

  18. Contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy and lead exposure to early child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Pine, D S; Graziano, J H

    2001-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy elevates risk for later child behavior problems. Because prior studies considered only Western settings, where smoking co-occurs with social disadvantage, we examined this association in Yugoslavia, a different cultural setting. Mothers enrolled in pregnancy as the low-exposure group in a prospective study of lead exposure were interviewed about health, including smoking history. A total of 199 children were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years. Average cumulative blood lead (BPb) was determined from serial samples taken biannually since delivery. Longitudinal analyses were derived from 191 children with available data on behavior and covariates. Smoking was unrelated to social adversity. Controlling for age, gender, birthweight, ethnicity, maternal education, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Acceptance, smoking was associated with worse scores on almost all subscales; BPb concentration was related to small increases in the Delinquency subscale. Daughters of smokers received significantly higher scores on Somatic Complaints compared to daughters of nonsmokers, consistent with other work relating biological factors and internalizing problems in young girls. Because the present smoking/child behavior associations persist after control for individual and social factors also related to behavior problems, possible biological mediators are considered.

  19. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health in children: a review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Berger Håkonsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal cigarette smoking may affect the intrauterine hormonal environment during pregnancy and this early fetal exposure may have detrimental effects on the future trajectory of reproductive health. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological literature on the association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and several aspects of reproductive health. The literature points towards an increased risk of the urogenital malformation cryptorchidism, but a potential protective effect on the risk of hypospadias in sons following prenatal cigarette smoking exposure. Studies on sexual maturation find a tendency towards accelerated pubertal development in exposed boys and girls. In adult life, prenatally exposed men have impaired semen quality compared with unexposed individuals, but an influence on fecundability, that is, the biological ability to reproduce, is less evident. We found no evidence to support an association between prenatal cigarette smoking exposure and testicular cancer. Among adult daughters, research is sparse and inconsistent, but exposure to cigarette smoking in utero may decrease fecundability. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking may cause some long-term adverse effects on the reproductive health.

  20. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  1. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  2. Maternal HIV, substance use role modeling, and adolescent girls' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Guerrero, Erick G; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Vincent, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Parental role modeling has a major influence on adolescent alcohol use. Our study examined maternal factors associated with daughters' alcohol use among inner-city racial minority adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers. A nonprobability sample of 176 mothers (37% with HIV) and their adolescent daughters completed self-administered surveys. Between- and within-group analyses were conducted using hierarchical multivariate logistic regressions. Findings showed that in the full sample, difficulty talking with daughters about alcohol was positively associated with alcohol use among daughters, whereas maternal report of importance of religion was negatively associated with alcohol use among daughters. Within-group analysis of participants by maternal HIV status revealed that maternal beliefs that drinking alcohol in front of their daughters was normative were associated with higher odds of adolescent alcohol use in households with HIV-infected mothers. These preliminary findings highlight the potential increased vulnerability of racial minority adolescent girls living in households with HIV-infected mothers. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal smoking and risk of obesity in school children: Investigating early life theory from the GRECO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella Magriplis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Early Life Theory, maternal smoking may be a factor affecting child weight status, adiposity level and blood pressure later in life. The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy with overweight and obesity, central and total adiposity in school children. Secondarily, to assess the effect of maternal smoking, with children's blood pressure (BP.Data from the Greek Childhood Obesity cross sectional study (GRECO, conducted from October 2008 to May 2009, were used. A total of 2400 questionnaires gathered from children and their parents were analysed. Maternal and gestational data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire. Women were categorized as non-smokers or smokers if they smoked ≥1 cigarettes/day during pregnancy. Children's body weight, height, waist circumference and BP were measured. Multiple logistic and linear regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for covariates. Four models were used in the process.The study found that children of maternal-smokers were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR: 1.6 to 1.82 and to have a larger waist circumference (OR: 1.73 to 1.85, compared to children of non-smokers in all models used. Total fat percentage was not significantly associated with maternal smoking when adjusted. Systolic and diastolic BP was not associated with maternal smoking. Results of this study strengthen the need for smoking cessation during pregnancy in order to possibly reduce the childhood obesity epidemic. Creating public health awareness of the potential risk of maternal-smoking on children's weight status later in life is warranted. Keywords: Maternal smoking, Central adiposity, Childhood obesity, Blood pressure, Public health

  4. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  5. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should......Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery...... and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs...

  6. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  8. Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Chisato; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between smoking exposure and dental caries are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition in young Japanese children. Study subjects were 6412 children aged 3 years. Information on exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home was collected via parent questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with never smoking during pregnancy, maternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in children (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.80). Postnatal SHS exposure was also positively associated with dental caries, with a significant positive exposure-response relationship. Compared with children not exposed to prenatal maternal smoking or postnatal SHS at home, those exposed to both prenatal and postnatal smoking had higher odds of dental caries (adjusted odds ratio=1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.11). Our findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure may be associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The effects of maternal alcohol use disorders on childhood relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joseph D

    2016-10-01

    Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.

  10. Serotonergic dysfunction in addiction: effects of alcohol, cigarette smoking and heroin on platelet 5-HT content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L G; Dufeu, P; Heinz, A; Kuhn, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-10-10

    The impact of ethanol, cigarette smoking and heroin on serotonin function was evaluated, first in alcoholics during chronic ethanol intoxication and in opiate addicts after long-term heroin consumption, and secondly in both patient groups after detoxification treatment (i.e. a short-term abstinence of 8 days). Our results showed that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in platelets was: (1) increased in the subgroup of anti-social alcoholics; (2) transiently and differently altered in alcoholics compared to opiate addicts; and (3) lowered in drinking alcoholics and normal in alcoholics who were drinking as well as smoking (that may occur via MAO-B inhibition by smoke). The findings indicate that alterations of the peripheral and possibly the central serotonin system may occur as predisposing factors for alcoholism in individuals with anti-social traits; they may also have some impact on the progression of alcoholism due to its lowered function during chronic ethanol intoxication that is substantially modified by smoking.

  11. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccani JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer ZJ Maccani, Matthew A Maccani Penn State Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, College of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well

  12. Neighborhood contextual factors, maternal smoking, and birth outcomes: multilevel analysis of the South Carolina PRAMS survey, 2000-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies investigating relationships among neighborhood contexts, maternal smoking behaviors, and birth outcomes (low birth weight [LBW] or preterm births) have produced mixed results. We evaluated independent effects of neighborhood contexts on maternal smoking behaviors and risks of LBW or preterm birth outcomes among mothers participating in the South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey, 2000-2003. The PRAMS data were geocoded to 2000 U.S. Census data to create a multilevel data structure. We used a multilevel regression analysis (SAS PROC GLIMMIX) to estimate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariable logistic regression models, high poverty, predominantly African American neighborhoods, upper quartiles of low education, and second quartile of neighborhood household crowding were significantly associated with LBW. However, only mothers resident in predominantly African American Census tract areas were statistically significantly at an increased risk of delivering preterm (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.29-3.78). In addition, mothers resident in medium poverty neighborhoods remained modestly associated with smoking after adjustment for maternal-level covariates. The results also indicated that maternal smoking has more consistent effects on LBW than preterm births, particularly for mothers living in deprived neighborhoods. Interventions seeking to improve maternal and child health by reducing smoking during pregnancy need to engage specific community factors that encourage maternal quitting behaviors and reduce smoking relapse rates. Inclusion of maternal-level covariates in neighborhood models without careful consideration of the causal pathway might produce misleading interpretation of the results.

  13. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Severe Mental Illness in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Rickert, Martin E; Weibull, Caroline E; Johansson, Anna L V; Lichtenstein, Paul; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Iliadou, Anastasia N; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-06-01

    Several recent population-based studies have linked exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy to increased risk of severe mental illness in offspring (eg, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). It is not yet clear, however, whether this association results from causal teratogenic effects or from confounding influences shared by smoking and severe mental illness. To examine the association between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured confounding using family-based designs. This study analyzed population register data through December 31, 2013, for a cohort of 1 680 219 individuals born in Sweden from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2001. Associations between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring were estimated with adjustment for measured covariates. Cousins and siblings who were discordant on smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness were then compared, which helped to account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding by design. Maternal self-reported smoking during pregnancy, obtained from antenatal visits. Severe mental illness, with clinical diagnosis obtained from inpatient and outpatient visits and defined using International Classification of Diseases codes for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Of the 1 680 219 offspring included in the analysis, 816 775 (48.61%) were female. At the population level, offspring exposed to moderate and high levels of smoking during pregnancy had greater severe mental illness rates than did unexposed offspring (moderate smoking during pregnancy: hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19-1.30; high smoking during pregnancy: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.44-1.59). These associations decreased in strength with increasing statistical and methodologic controls for familial confounding. In sibling comparisons with within-family covariates, associations were substantially weaker and nonsignificant (moderate

  14. Altered brain functional connectivity and behaviour in a mouse model of maternal alcohol binge-drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacorps, Lídia; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L; Valverde, Olga; Conejo, Nélida M

    2018-06-08

    Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of maternal alcohol binge drinking on brain function and behaviour. To address this issue, we used pregnant C57BL/6 female mice with time-limited access to a 20% v/v alcohol solution as a procedure to model alcohol binge drinking during gestation and lactational periods. Male offspring were behaviourally tested during adolescence (30 days) and adulthood (60 days), and baseline neural metabolic capacity of brain regions sensitive to alcohol effects were also evaluated in adult animals from both groups. Our results show that prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure caused age-dependent changes in spontaneous locomotor activity, increased anxiety-like behaviour and attenuated alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in adults. Also, significant changes in neural metabolic capacity using cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) quantitative histochemistry were found in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the mammillary bodies, the ventral tegmental area, the lateral habenula and the central lobules of the cerebellum in adult mice with prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure. In addition, the analysis of interregional CCO activity correlations in alcohol-exposed adult mice showed disrupted functional brain connectivity involving the limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. Finally, increased neurogenesis was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of

  15. Oral clefts, tranforming growth factor alpha gene variants, and maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Olsen, Jørn; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    1999-01-01

    Studies in the United States have indicated that maternal first trimester smoking and infant transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) locus mutations are associated with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and that a synergistic effect of these two risk factors occurs. Based on a Danish case-control......, and no synergistic effect with smoking was observed. The "rare" TGFA allele occurred in 25% of both cases and controls compared with an average of 14% in other white control groups. Furthermore, the frequency of CLP in Scandinavia is among the highest in the world. Hence, it is possible that the previously reported...

  16. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The association of alcohol and smoking with CKD in a Japanese nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayako; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Kuragano, Takahiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol contribute to CKD. Recent cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption attenuates the decline of the GFR and smoking has been previously shown to be associated with CKD. However, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption on CKD is not entirely clear. To examine whether there is evidence to assume that smoking is an effective modifier of the association between CKD and alcohol consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of a population of people who presented for a health checkup under a program that targets the insured population aged ≧40 years using data from the Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. Of the 506 807 participants aged ⩾40 years, 292 013 (57.6%) were included in the present analysis. Outcomes were kidney dysfunction, as an eGFR of smoking might have modified the potential benefits of alcohol to prevent CKD.

  18. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gregory A.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Slivka, Adam; Hawes, Robert H; Anderson, Michelle A.; Burton, Frank R.; Brand, Randall E; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D; DiSario, James A.; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Amann, Stephen T.; Baillie, John; Money, Mary E.; O'Connell, Michael; Whitcomb, David C.; Sherman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcohol has been implicated in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in 60%–90% patients, although percentages in the United States are not known. We investigated the frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers. Methods We studied data from patients with CP (n=539) and controls (n=695) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 from 2000 to 2006 at 20 U.S. referral centers. CP was defined by definitive evidence in imaging or histologic analyses. Subjects and physicians each completed a detailed study questionnaire. Using physician-assigned diagnoses, patients were assigned to the following etiology groups: alcohol (with/without other diagnoses), non-alcohol (any etiology of CP from other than alcohol), or idiopathic (no etiology identified). Results The distribution of patients among etiology groups were: alcohol (44.5%), non-alcohol (26.9%), and idiopathic (28.6%). Physicians identified alcohol as the etiology more frequently in men (59.4% in men vs 28.1% in women), but non-alcohol (18% in men vs 36.7% in women) and idiopathic etiologies (22.6% in men vs 35.2% in women) more often in women (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Non-alcohol etiologies were equally divided among obstructive, genetic, and other causes. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic CP were more likely to have ever smoked (58.6% vs 49.7%, P<0.05) or have a history of chronic renal disease or failure (5.2% vs 1.2%, P<0.01). In multivariate analyses, smoking (ever, current, and amount) was independently associated with idiopathic CP. Conclusions The frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers is lower than expected. Idiopathic CP and non-alcohol etiologies represent a large subgroup, particularly among women. Smoking is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CP. PMID:21029787

  19. Maternal Iron Nutriture as a Critical Modulator of FASD Risk in Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Kaylee K.; Saini, Nipun; Kling, Pamela J.; Smith, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy places the fetus at risk for permanent physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) outcomes vary widely, and growing evidence suggests that maternal nutrition is a modifying factor. Certain nutrients, such as iron, may modulate FASD outcomes. Untreated gestational iron deficiency (ID) causes persistent neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring that affect many of the same domains damaged by PAE. Although chronic alcohol consumption enhances iron uptake and elevates liver iron stores in adult alcoholics, alcohol-abusing premenopausal women often have low iron reserves due to menstruation, childbirth, and poor diet. Recent investigations show that low iron reserves in during pregnancy are strongly associated with a worsening of several hallmark features in FASD including reduced growth and impaired associative learning. This review discusses recent clinical and animal model findings that maternal ID worsens fetal outcomes in response to PAE. It also discusses underlying mechanisms by which PAE disrupts maternal and fetal iron homeostasis. We suggest that alcohol-exposed, ID pregnancies contribute to the severe end of the FASD spectrum. PMID:29017023

  20. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  1. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  2. Maternal active or passive smoking causes oxidative stress in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Varma, Mustafa; Ahmet, Koc; Abdurrahim, Kocyigit; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of active and passive maternal smoking on placenta total oxidant/antioxidant status in term infants. The levels of cord blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured in samples of fetal placental tissue, cord blood, and the maternal peripheral blood serum and from 19 mothers who were active smokers, 19 who were passive smokers, and 22 who were nonsmokers (not exposed to active or passive smoking). The pregnancies were between 37 and 40 weeks' gestation, were uncomplicated, and the infants were delivered vaginally. Birth weight and head circumference in the active smokers were significantly (P antioxidant balance in fetal placental tissue and causes potent oxidative stress.

  3. Is Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy a Risk Factor for Cigarette Smoking in Offspring? A Longitudinal Controlled Study of ADHD Children Grown Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Martelon, MaryKate; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2017-10-01

    This study examined whether exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy in children with and without ADHD is associated with smoking in offspring and whether this association is selective to ADHD children. Ninety-six exposed and 400 unexposed participants were derived from two longitudinal studies of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was defined by interviews with participants' mothers. A significant association was observed between exposure to maternal smoking in pregnancy and cigarette smoking in offspring ( p = .02). Exposed offspring were also more likely to have higher rates of major depression ( p = .04), bipolar disorder ( p = .04), and conduct disorder ( p = .04), and lower IQ ( p = .01), lower Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score ( p = .02), and more impaired Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA) scores versus unexposed offspring, adjusting for social class. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was found to increase the risk for smoking and a wide range of adverse psychiatric, cognitive, and functional outcomes in youth.

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal organ growth: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasuda Anblagan

    Full Text Available To study whether maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the growth of fetal lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, and placenta.A case-control study, with operators performing the image analysis blinded.Study performed on a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner (1.5 T with participants recruited from a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom.A total of 26 pregnant women (13 current smokers, 13 non smokers were recruited; 18 women (10 current smokers, 8 nonsmokers returned for the second scan later in their pregnancy.Each fetus was scanned with MRI at 22-27 weeks and 33-38 weeks gestational age (GA.Images obtained with MRI were used to measure volumes of the fetal brain, kidneys, lungs, liver and overall fetal size, as well as placental volumes.Exposed fetuses showed lower brain volumes, kidney volumes, and total fetal volumes, with this effect being greater at visit 2 than at visit 1 for brain and kidney volumes, and greater at visit 1 than at visit 2 for total fetal volume. Exposed fetuses also demonstrated lower lung volume and placental volume, and this effect was similar at both visits. No difference was found between the exposed and nonexposed fetuses with regards to liver volume.Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to show that maternal smoking is associated with reduced growth of fetal brain, lung and kidney; this effect persists even when the volumes are corrected for maternal education, gestational age, and fetal sex. As expected, the fetuses exposed to maternal smoking are smaller in size. Similarly, placental volumes are smaller in smoking versus nonsmoking pregnant women.

  5. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Nielsen, P R; Lauritzen, J B

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and hazardous drinking are common and important risk factors for an increased rate of complications after surgery. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include organic dysfunctions that can recover with abstinence. Abstinence starting 3-8 weeks before surgery will significantly...... smoking and hazardous drinking, and interventions appropriate for the surgical setting applied....

  6. Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with umbilical cord blood hormones: the Project Viva cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rokoff, Lisa B; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos S; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort. We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers. Outcomes were cord blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, parity, education, and infant sex. We conducted analyses in the full cohort and stratified by infant sex. Thirteen percent of women were early pregnancy smokers, 20% former smokers, and 68% never smokers. Infants of early pregnancy smokers had lower IGF-1 adjusted for IGFBP-3 [-5.2ng/mL (95% CI: -8.6, -1.7)], with more pronounced associations in girls [-10.7ng/mL (95% CI: -18.5, -2.9) vs. -4.0ng/mL (95% CI: -8.4, 0.4) for boys]. Early pregnancy smoking was not associated with cord blood hormones other than IGF-1. Infants of former smokers had a cord blood hormone profile similar to infants of never smokers. As compared to mothers who never smoked, early pregnancy smokers had infants with lower cord blood IGF-1 which could prime adverse metabolic outcomes. This provides further reason to support smoking cessation programs in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Revisiting the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring birthweight: a quasi-experimental sibling analysis in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Pía Juárez

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester, the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify

  8. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age......BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible......-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. RESULTS: The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae...

  9. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  10. The association between maternal smoking and placenta abruption: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have determined that maternal smoking can increase the risk of placenta abruption. To date, only a meta-analysis has been performed for assessing the relationship between smoking and placenta abruption. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the risk of placenta abruption. A literature search was conducted in major databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to April 2016. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effects model. The literature search yielded 1167 publications until April 2016 with 4 309 610 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was a significant association between smoking and placenta abruption (1.80; 95% CI: 1.75, 1.85). Based on the results of cohort studies, smoking and placenta abruption had a significant association (relative risk ratio: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.51, 1.80). Based on reports in epidemiological studies, we showed that smoking is a risk factor for placenta abruption.

  11. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  12. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial perturbations and fetal programming of renal disease induced by maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangenberg, Stefanie; Nguyen, Long T; Chen, Hui; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Killingsworth, Murray C; Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    An adverse in-utero environment is increasingly recognized to predispose to chronic disease in adulthood. Maternal smoking remains the most common modifiable adverse in-utero exposure leading to low birth weight, which is strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in later life. In order to investigate underlying mechanisms for such susceptibility, female Balb/c mice were sham or cigarette smoke-exposed (SE) for 6 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, expression of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial structure as well as renal functional parameters on postnatal day 1, day 20 (weaning) and week 13 (adult age). From birth throughout adulthood, SE offspring had increased renal levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), which left a footprint on DNA with increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosin (8-OHdG) in kidney tubular cells. Mitochondrial structural abnormalities were seen in SE kidneys at day 1 and week 13 along with a reduction in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and activity of mitochondrial antioxidant Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Smoke exposure also resulted in increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (day 1-week 13) and lysosome density (day 1 and week 13). The appearance of mitochondrial defects preceded the onset of albuminuria at week 13. Thus, mitochondrial damage caused by maternal smoking may play an important role in development of CKD at adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  14. Moderating Effects of Positive Parenting and Maternal Alcohol Use on Emerging Adults’ Alcohol Use: Does Living At Home Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R.

    2014-01-01

    Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring’s alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother’s heavy alcohol use on their offspring’s alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18–22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based Internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers’ and daughters’ drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults’ heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277

  15. Prospective Study of Alcohol Drinking, Smoking, and Pancreatitis: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pandol, Stephen J; Porcel, Jacqueline; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pike, Malcolm C; Monroe, Kristine R

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a prospective analysis of 145,886 participants in the multiethnic cohort to examine the relationship of alcohol drinking and smoking with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis cases were categorized as gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (GSAP) (N = 1,065), non-GSAP (N = 1,222), and recurrent acute (RAP)/chronic pancreatitis (CP) (N = 523). We used the baseline questionnaire to identify alcohol intake and smoking history. Associations were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox models. Cigarette smoking was associated with non-GSAP and RAP/CP. Moderate alcohol intake was inversely associated with all types of pancreatitis in women (HRs, 0.66 to 0.81 for risk of non-GS pancreatitis associated with current smoking was highest among men who consumed more than 4 drinks per day (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.28-3.30), whereas among never smokers, moderate drinking was associated with a reduced risk (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.96). In women, drinking less than 2 drinks per day was associated with a reduced risk of GSAP among never smokers (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.80). Smoking is a risk factor for non-GS pancreatitis. Moderate alcohol intake is protective against all types of pancreatitis in women and against RAP/CP in men.

  16. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O

    2014-10-01

    Although childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in cross-sectional research, less is known about the influence of changes in socioeconomic status during childhood. Upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the negative influence of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage on health, while downward mobility may counter the health benefits of earlier socioeconomic advantage. This study evaluated the influence of common trajectories of family income during childhood on smoking and alcohol use during adolescence. Data utilized were part of the 15-year longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. A 5-class trajectory model (two stable, one downward, and two upward income trajectories) was developed previously with this sample (N=1356). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children of the more disadvantaged income trajectories were more likely to engage in tobacco and alcohol use at age 15 relative to those of the most advantaged trajectory. Family income trajectory was significantly associated with ever-smoking (p=.02) and past-year alcohol use at age 15years (p=.008). Children from the less advantaged trajectories were more likely to have ever-smoked than children of the most advantaged trajectory (all p'schildhood socioeconomic disadvantage influences adolescent smoking, while downward socioeconomic mobility influences adolescent alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal waterpipe smoke exposure and the risk of asthma and allergic diseases in childhood: A post hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Waked

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This analysis was conducted with the objective of evaluating association between waterpipe passive smoking exposure and asthma, and allergies among Lebanese children. Material and methods Data were taken from a crosssectional study on children from public and private schools. A sample of 22 schools participated in the study, where standardized written core questionnaires were distributed. From 5 to 12-year-old students filled in the questionnaires at home, while 13–14-year-old students filled it in in the class. In total, 5522 children were evaluated for the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema, and their associated factors, including waterpipe exposure due to parents’ smoking. Results The descriptive results of parental smoking were, as follows: among mothers: 1609 (29% mothers smoked cigarettes, 385 (7% smoked waterpipe and 98 (1.8% smoked both; among fathers: 2449 (44.2% smoked cigarettes, 573 (10.3% smoked waterpipe and 197 (3.5% smoked both. Maternal waterpipe smoking was significantly and moderately associated with allergic diseases (p < 0.001; ORa = 1.71, including probable asthma, rhinitis and dermatitis (p < 0.001 for all. Quite on the opposite, father’s waterpipe smoking was not associated with any of the diseases. Parental cigarette smoking demonstrated some positive effects: father’s cigarette smoking did not show association with dermatitis or asthma diagnosed by a physician, while mother’s cigarette smoking showed a positive association only with probable asthma. Moreover, no interactions between cigarette and waterpipe smoking were observed. Conclusions Maternal waterpipe smoking should be regarded as a high risk behavior; however, additional studies are necessary to confirm this finding.

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  19. Maternal Alcohol Consumption During the Perinatal and Early Parenting Period: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2016-02-01

    Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design. General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort. Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35. There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols.

  20. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  1. Does maternal environmental tobacco smoke interact with social-demographics and environmental factors on congenital heart defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jimei; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong; Gao, Xiangmin; Qu, Yanji; Bell, Erin M; Lin, Shao; Zhuang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014). The CHDs were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia tomography/catheterization. Controls were randomly chosen from singleton newborns without any malformation, born in the same hospital as the cases and 1:1 matched by infant sex, time of conception, and parental residence (same city and town to ensure sufficient geographical distribution for analyses). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, behavior patterns, maternal disease/medication, and environmental exposures. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ETS exposure on CHDs while controlling for all risk factors. Interactive effects were evaluated using a multivariate delta method for maternal demographics, behavior, and environmental exposures on the ETS-CHD relationship. Mothers exposed to ETS during the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to have infants with CHD than mothers who did not (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.66). We also observed a significant dose-response relationship when mothers were exposed to ETS and an increasing number of risk factors and CHDs. There were greater than additive interactions for maternal ETS and migrant status, low household income and paternal alcohol consumption on CHDs. Maternal low education also modified the ETS

  2. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: provocative and permissive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L; Hannigan, J H

    1995-01-01

    We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context for increased vulnerability. We illustrate how these permissive factors are related to biological factors, e.g., decreased antioxidant status, which in conjunction with alcohol, provoke FAS/ARBDs in vulnerable fetuses. We propose an integrative heuristic model hypothesizing that these permissive and provocative factors increase the likelihood of FAS/ARBDs because they potentiate two related mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis, specifically, maternal/fetal hypoxia and free radical formation.

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, Eva; Wickman, Magnus; Pershagen, Goran; Nordvall, Lennart

    2006-01-05

    Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respiratory disease in children up to two years of age. A birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for two years using parental questionnaires. When the infant was two months old the parents completed a questionnaire on various lifestyle factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and after birth. At one and two years of age information was obtained by questionnaire on symptoms of allergic and respiratory diseases as well as on environmental exposures, particularly exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Adjustments were made for potential confounders. When the mother had smoked during pregnancy but not after that, there was an increased risk of recurrent wheezing up to two years' age, ORadj = 2.2, (95% CI 1.3-3.6). The corresponding OR was 1.6, (95% CI 1.2-2.3) for reported exposure to ETS with or without maternal smoking in utero. Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS also increased the risk of doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age, ORadj = 2.1, (95% CI 1.2-3.7). Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in utero is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing, as well as doctor's diagnosed asthma in children up to two years of age.

  4. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and semen quality in the male offspring: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Toft, G; Jensen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol exposure has been associated with reduced fecundity, but no studies have estimated the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on male fecundity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, semen quality and levels...

  5. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Birth Weight: A Genetically-Informed Approach Comparing Multiple Raters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Smith, Taylor F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the fetus. There is considerable debate about the best method of assessing SDP, including birth/medical records, timeline follow-back approaches, multiple reporters, and biological verification (e.g., cotinine). This is particularly salient for genetically-informed approaches where it is not always possible or practical to do a prospective study starting during the prenatal period when concurrent biological specimen samples can be collected with ease. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we: (1) compare rates of agreement across different types of report—maternal report of SDP, paternal report of maternal SDP, and SDP contained on birth records from the Department of Vital Statistics; (2) examine whether SDP is predictive of birth weight outcomes using our best SDP report as identified via step (1); and (3) use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for genetic and familial influences that siblings share in order to assess the effects of SDP on birth weight. Results show high agreement between reporters and support the utility of retrospective report of SDP. Further, we replicate a causal association between SDP and birth weight, wherein SDP results in reduced birth weight even when accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors via a sibling comparison approach. PMID:26494459

  6. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Benedict, Merle D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated. PMID:23888128

  7. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops.

  9. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  10. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  11. Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P; Helgason, Asgeir R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Population-based cross-sectional survey. School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84-2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99-1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48-1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20) when controlling for other variables. Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use.

  12. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Ormel, J.; Meijer, J. L.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  13. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  14. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a province in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child's family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95%C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child's neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child's family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p < .001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Province in Italy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n=905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. PMID:25456331

  16. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent and combined effects of maternal smoking and solid fuel on infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adedini, Sunday A; Wandera, Stephen O; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Pooled weighted data on 143 602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality. Socio-economic and other confounding variables were included as controls. The distribution of the main explanatory variable in households was as follows: smoking + solid fuel - 4.6%; smoking + non-solid fuel - 0.22%; no smoking + solid fuel - 86.9%; and no smoking + non-solid fuel - 8.2%. The highest infant mortality rate was recorded among children exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (72 per 1000 live births); the child mortality rate was estimated to be 54 per 1000 for this group. In full multivariate models, the risk of infant death was 71% higher among those exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (HR = 1.71, CI: 1.29-2.28). For ages 12 to 59 months, the risk of death was 99% higher (HR = 1.99, CI: 1.28-3.08). Combined exposures to cigarette smoke and solid fuel increase the risks of infant and child mortality. Mothers of under-five children need to be educated about the danger of smoking while innovative approaches are needed to reduce the mortality risks associated with solid cooking fuel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  19. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  1. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...... and midgestation. We identified 139 CP cases including 121 cases of spastic CP (sCP) as confirmed by the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Self-reported vaginal...

  2. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  3. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour.

  4. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy Is Associated With Offspring's Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescence: Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Anni-Julia; Paananen, Markus; Marttila, Riikka; Auvinen, Juha; Miettunen, Jouko; Karppinen, Jaro

    2017-07-01

    Smoking and behavioral problems are related to musculoskeletal (MS) pain in adolescence. Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with offspring's behavioral problems but its relation to MS pain in adolescence is unknown. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is an association between MSDP, the number of pain sites in adolescence, and the factors that potentially mediate this relationship. We evaluated the association of MSDP with offspring's MS pain at 16 years among participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 6436, 3360 girls, 68% of all births) using Chi-square test and independent samples t test. We used structural equation modeling to assess the mediating factors stratified by gender. MSDP was frequent (22%) associating with paternal smoking (p adolescents whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy than among those whose mothers were nonsmokers (p = .002 boys, p = .012 girls). The association between MSDP and MS pain at 16 years was mediated by externalizing problems at 8 years (p adolescence, and the association was mediated by offspring's externalizing problems during childhood and early adolescence. This study indicates that MSDP increases the risk of MS pain in adolescence and the effect is mediated by externalizing problems. Our results add to the evidence on harmfulness of MSDP for offspring, and can be used as additional information in interventions aiming to influence MSDP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    . In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985-2009. DESIGN: A nationwide register-based study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more...... in the period 1985-2009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct...

  6. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  7. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Andersen, Anne T.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To address the possible prospective association between smoking habits and risk of later heavy drinking in the adult population. DESIGN: Pooled population-based long-term cohort studies with repeated assessments of smoking and alcohol habits. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy...

  8. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  9. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  10. Smoking, alcohol use, socioeconomic background and oral health among young Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tarja; Päkkilä, Jari; Karjalainen, Kaisa; Kämppi, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in association with dental caries experience and signs of periodontal disease in a Finnish male group born in the early 1990s. The impacts of health behaviour and socioeconomic factors were included in the analyses. Oral health of 8539 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study (DT, DMFT and CPI). They also answered a questionnaire covering their habits of smoking and alcohol use as well as other behaviours and background factors. The bleeding on probing index (BOP) was available on 6529 conscripts. Cross-tabulation together with a chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. A mosaic figure was used to illustrate associations of smoking frequency, use of dental services and toothache. Majority (80.9%) in the study group consumed alcohol at least once a month, and 39.4% were daily smokers. Smoking was statistically significantly associated with high caries experience and high bleeding values of gums. Consumption of alcohol was not associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. The high BOP value had the strongest association with infrequent tooth brushing and smoking. The participant's own education level was the main protective factor of oral health. The smokers used dental services more frequently compared to the non-smokers mostly for acute care. Young men's health behaviour, especially of those with low education, does not promote oral health, which may indicate need for extensive healthcare services in the future. Health promotion should not be neglected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems: Evidence from three independent genetically-sensitive research designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysina, Darya; Fergusson, David M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Horwood, John; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Elam, Kit K.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.

    2013-01-01

    Context A number of studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty disaggregating prenatal environmental from genetic and postnatal environmental influences. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Design, Setting and Participants Three studies employing distinct but complementary research designs were utilized: The Christchurch Health and Development Study (a longitudinal cohort study that includes biological and adopted children), the Early Growth and Development Study (a longitudinal adoption at birth study), and the Cardiff IVF Study (genetically-related and -unrelated families; an adoption at conception study). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was measured as the average number of cigarettes/day (0, 1–9 or 10+) smoked during pregnancy. A number of possible covariates (child gender, ethnicity, birth weight, breast feeding, maternal age at birth, maternal education, family SES, family breakdown, placement age, and parenting practices) were controlled in the analyses. Main Outcome Measure Child conduct problems (age 4–10 years) reported by parents and/or teachers using the Rutter and Conners behaviour scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results A significant association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child conduct problems was observed among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Results from a meta-analysis affirmed this pattern of findings across pooled study samples. Conclusions Findings across the three studies using a complement of genetically-sensitive research designs suggest smoking during pregnancy is a prenatal risk factor for offspring conduct problems, when

  12. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunst Anton E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived with one or more disabilities, but it is not fully understood which life style factor has the largest potential for such reductions. Therefore, the primary aim of this paper is to compare the effect of BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on life expectancy with disability, using the Sullivan life table method. A secondary aim is to assess potential improvement of the Sullivan method by using information on the association of disability with time to death. Methods Data from the Dutch Permanent Survey of the Living Situation (POLS 1997-1999 with mortality follow-up until 2006 (n = 6,446 were used. Using estimated relative mortality risks by risk factor exposure, separate life tables were constructed for groups defined in terms of BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were fitted to predict the prevalence of ADL and mobility disabilities in relationship to age and risk factor exposure. Using the Sullivan method, predicted age-specific prevalence rates were included in the life table to calculate years lived with disability at age 55. In further analysis we assessed whether adding information on time to death in both the regression models and the life table estimates would lead to substantive changes in the results. Results Life expectancy at age 55 differed by 1.4 years among groups defined in terms of BMI, 4.0 years by smoking status, and 3.0 years by alcohol consumption. Years lived with disability differed by 2.8 years according to BMI, 0.2 years by smoking and 1.6 by alcohol consumption. Obese persons could expect to live more years with disability (5.9 years than smokers (3.8 years and drinkers (3.1 years. Employing

  13. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly...

  14. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  15. Effect of Maternal Smoking on Plasma and Urinary Measures of Vitamin E Isoforms in the First Month after Extreme Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Cosby; Qiu, Yunping; Kurland, Irwin J; Slaughter, James C; Moore, Paul; Cook-Mills, Joan; Hartert, Tina; Aschner, Judy L

    2018-06-01

    We examined the effect of maternal smoking on plasma and urinary levels of vitamin E isoforms in preterm infants. Maternal smoking during pregnancy decreased infant plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations at 1 week and 4 weeks, with 45% of infants of smokers deficient in alpha-tocopherol at 1 month after birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spirometry and Impulse Oscillometry in Preschool Children: Acceptability and Relationship to Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Meyer; Bacharier, Leonard B; O'Connor, George T; Cohen, Robyn; Sorkness, Ronald L; Morgan, Wayne; Gergen, Peter J; Jaffee, Katy F; Visness, Cynthia M; Wood, Robert A; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Doyle, Susan; Burton, Ryan; Gern, James E

    2018-02-13

    Comparisons of the technical acceptability of spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) and clinical correlations of the measurements have not been well studied in young children. There are no large studies focused on African American and Hispanic children. We sought to (1) compare the acceptability of spirometry and IOS in 3- to 5-year-old children and (2) examine the relationship of maternal smoking during pregnancy to later lung function. Spirometry and IOS were attempted at 4 sites from the Urban Environmental and Childhood Asthma Study birth cohort at ages 3, 4, and 5 years (472, 471, and 479 children, respectively). We measured forced expiratory flow in 0.5 s (forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds [FEV 0.5 ]) with spirometry and area of reactance (A X ), resistance and reactance at 5 Hz (R 5 and X 5 , respectively) using IOS. Children were more likely to achieve acceptable maneuvers with spirometry than with IOS at age 3 (60% vs 46%, P < .001) and 5 years (89% vs 84%, P = .02). Performance was consistent among the 4 study sites. In children without recurrent wheeze, there were strong trends for higher FEV 0.5 and lower R 5 and A X over time. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher A X at ages 4 and 5 years (P < .01 for both years). There was no significant difference in FEV 0.5 between children with and without in utero exposure to smoking. There is a higher rate of acceptable maneuvers with spirometry compared with IOS, but IOS may be a better indicator of peripheral airway function in preschool children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal weight misperceptions and smoking are associated with overweight and obesity in low SES preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Shriqui, V; Fraser, D; Novack, Y; Bilenko, N; Vardi, H; Abu-Saad, K; Elhadad, N; Feine, Z; Mor, K; Shahar, D R

    2012-02-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for obesity among low socioeconomic status (LSES) children. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 238 4-7-year-old children and 224 mothers from LSES preschools. Anthropometric measurements were obtained; mothers were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, perceptions and beliefs. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) among children was 29.8% based on the new World Health Organization (WHO) growth standard. Prevalence of OWOB (body mass index ≥25) among mothers was 51.8%. Mean age, sleeping hours, gender distribution and poverty level were similar between normal and OWOB children. Over 82% of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. Of the 62 OWOB children, 74.2% were perceived by their mothers as having 'normal weight' (NW) and 8% were perceived as 'thin'. Mothers perceived 67 out of 158 NW children (42.4%) as 'thin' (Pmaternal underestimation on child's OWOB may be mediated through child's daily sedentary hours (P=0.06). In a multivariable logistic-regression analysis controlling for maternal obesity, knowledge regarding breakfast's importance and child's daily sedentary hours, maternal underestimation of the child's weight status (odds ratio=7.33; 95% confidence interval (CI):2.41-22.37; PMaternal perception of child's weight status and parental smoking are associated with childhood OWOB among LSES children. These parameters can help identify children at risk for obesity. Maternal perception may be amenable to intervention.

  18. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  19. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gregory A; Yadav, Dhiraj; Slivka, Adam; Hawes, Robert H; Anderson, Michelle A; Burton, Frank R; Brand, Randall E; Banks, Peter A; Lewis, Michele D; Disario, James A; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Amann, Stephen T; Baillie, John; Money, Mary E; O'Connell, Michael; Whitcomb, David C; Sherman, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in 60%-90% of patients, although percentages in the United States are unknown. We investigated the epidemiology of alcohol-related CP at tertiary US referral centers. We studied data from CP patients (n = 539) and controls (n = 695) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 from 2000 to 2006 at 20 US referral centers. CP was defined by definitive evidence from imaging or histologic analyses. Subjects and physicians each completed a study questionnaire. Using physician-assigned diagnoses, patients were assigned to an etiology group: alcohol (with/without other diagnoses), nonalcohol (any etiology of CP from other than alcohol), or idiopathic (no etiology identified). The distribution of patients among etiology groups was: alcohol (44.5%), nonalcohol (26.9%), and idiopathic (28.6%). Physicians identified alcohol as the etiology more frequently in men (59.4% men vs 28.1% women), but nonalcohol (18% men vs 36.7% women) and idiopathic etiologies (22.6% men vs 35.2% women) more often in women (P chronic renal disease or failure (5.2% vs 1.2%, P associated with idiopathic CP. The frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary US referral centers is lower than expected. Idiopathic CP and nonalcohol etiologies represent a large subgroup, particularly among women. Smoking is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CP. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  1. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  2. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... a cohort study among 1250 postmenopausal breast cancer patients identified among 29 875 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were made at enrollment. Information on survival, socioeconomic position, and comorbidity...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  3. Communication of alcohol and smoking lifestyle advice to the gastroenterological patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Khasawneh, Mais; Allen, Patrick B; Addley, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component. This review discusses the clinical impact of these factors and how healthcare professionals can improve communication. We discuss how enhancing verbal communication skills through medical training leads to greater outcomes in patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment and advice. In addition, with the rapid digitalisation of society, platforms such as social media and smartphone applications may be considered as adjuncts to traditional forms of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  5. Joint effect of 90Sr, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Mashneva, N.I.; Kupriyanova, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The experiments with white non-inbred mice showed that combined chronic exposure of the animals, preexposed to 90 Sr to ethanol and caused more manifested changes in non-specific humoral immunity (bactericidal properties of blood serum) and in immunologic indices (autoantibodies, immune complexes) than chronic administration of the radionuclide alone. The obtained data proved the possibility of summation and potentiation of the effects of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking

  6. Chronic binge alcohol consumption during pregnancy alters rat maternal uterine artery pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vishal D; Lunde-Young, Emilie R; Davis-Anderson, Katie L; Orzabal, Marcus; Ivanov, Ivan; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate pressure-dependent maternal uterine artery responses and vessel remodeling following gestational binge alcohol exposure. Two groups of pregnant rats were used: the alcohol group (28.5% wt/v, 6.0 g/kg, once-daily orogastric gavage in a binge paradigm between gestational day (GD) 5-19) and pair-fed controls (isocalorically matched). On GD20, excised, pressurized primary uterine arteries were studied following equilibration (60 mm Hg) using dual chamber arteriograph. The uterine artery diameter stabilized at 20 mm Hg, showed passive distension at 40 mm Hg, and redeveloped tone at 60 mm Hg. An alcohol effect (P = 0.0025) was observed on the percent constriction of vessel diameter with greater pressure-dependent myogenic constriction. Similar alcohol effect was noted with lumen diameter response (P = 0.0020). The percent change in media:lumen ratio was higher in the alcohol group (P alcohol affects pressure-induced uterine artery reactivity, inward-hypotrophic remodeling, and adaptations critical for nutrient delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking, low formal level of education, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, U; Jacobsson, L T H; Nilsson, J Å; Wirfält, E; Turesson, C

    2013-01-01

    Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Between 1991 and 1996, 30,447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range 1-13) years]. In bivariate analyses, baseline smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.12] and a low level of formal education (i.e. ≤ 8 years; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.18-4.93 vs. University degree) predicted subsequent development of RA. Infrequent baseline alcohol consumption was a predictor of RA (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.91-6.30) compared to recent use (within the past month), and individuals with moderate baseline alcohol consumption (3.5-15.2 g/day vs. education. Smoking and a low level of formal education were found to be independent predictors of RA. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be associated with a reduced risk.

  8. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  9. [Consumption of medications, alcohol and smoking in pregnancy and assessment of teratogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rebeca Silveira; Bezerra, Samara Cavalcante; Lima, José Welington de Oliveira; Costa, Fabrício da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Medications, alcohol and smoking can cause fetal damage. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 mothers of the Fortaleza General Hospital to evaluate the use of drugs, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy and its relation to teratogenic potential in different population characteristics, between 2006 and 2007. Postpartum women who had their babies in the research site were included and those whose babies were not admitted as hospital inpatients were excluded. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used in the analysis, with a p value drugs/ pregnancy) and self-medication occurred in 11.3% of the cases. Single women took more drugs with high teratogenic potential (p=0.037). 11 cases of fetal malformation were observed, five of them were exposed to high teratogenic risks. Smoking occurred in 11.3% and alcohol use in 16%. Being single was found to be a risk factor for exposure to high teratogenic potential. Quality of prenatal care and other sociodemographic variables weren't related to exposure to teratogenic risks.

  10. Combined effect of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that chronic intake of 0.21 kBq/g 210 Po per day by laboratory animals after three months of experiment results in increase of autoantibody concentration to hepatic tissue and circulating immune complexes (CIC). Combined effect of radionuclide with ethanol or tobacco smokes didn't result in increase of autoantibody and CIC concentration independent of 210 Po concentration in experiments. During combined single chronic effect of radionuclide, ethanol and tobacco smokes considerable increase of autoantibody titers, particularly to hepatic tissue, as compared to mice, which intake of these components was separate, was detected. The results rermit to suppose on additive action of 210 Po, alcohol and tobacco smokes in case of their chronic effect on the boDy of laboratory animals

  11. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  12. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickman Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respiratory disease in children up to two years of age. Methods A birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for two years using parental questionnaires. When the infant was two months old the parents completed a questionnaire on various lifestyle factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and after birth. At one and two years of age information was obtained by questionnaire on symptoms of allergic and respiratory diseases as well as on environmental exposures, particularly exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results When the mother had smoked during pregnancy but not after that, there was an increased risk of recurrent wheezing up to two years' age, ORadj = 2.2, (95% CI 1.3 – 3.6. The corresponding OR was 1.6, (95% CI 1.2 – 2.3 for reported exposure to ETS with or without maternal smoking in utero. Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS also increased the risk of doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age, ORadj = 2.1, (95% CI 1.2 – 3.7. Conclusion Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in utero is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing, as well as doctor's diagnosed asthma in children up to two yearsof age.

  13. Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among U.S. Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Amber D; Rivera, Anna C; Powell, Teresa M; Williams, Emily C; Peterson, Arthur V; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Street, Amy E; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J

    2017-10-01

    In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318). Men who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had sixfold higher risk for smoking relapse: relative risk (RR) = 6.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.34, 18.73], than men who did not. Women who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had almost twice the risk for alcohol relapse: RR = 1.73; 95% CI [1.06, 2.83]. There were no other significant associations. These findings suggest that men and women may respond differently following sexual trauma, and support future concerted policy efforts by military leadership to prevent, detect, and intervene on sexual assault. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, M Z; Rajaraman, P; Park, Y; Inskip, P D; Freedman, N D; Hollenbeck, A R; de González, A Berrington; Kitahara, C M

    2014-01-07

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking increase the risk of several cancers and certain components of cigarette smoke and alcohol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it remains unclear whether these exposures influence the risk of glioma. We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective study of 477,095 US men and women ages 50-71 years at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using models with age as the time metric and adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. During a median 10.5 person-years of follow-up, 492 men and 212 women were diagnosed with first primary glioma. Among men, current, heavier smoking was associated with a reduced risk of glioma compared with never smoking, but this was based on only nine cases. No associations were observed between smoking behaviours and glioma risk in women. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of glioma, particularly among men (>2 drinks per day vs Smoking and alcohol drinking do not appear to increase the risk of glioma.

  15. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  17. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, Harvey; Powers, Karen; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D

    2002-04-15

    A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

  18. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Combined adverse effects of maternal smoking and high body mass index on heart development in offspring : evidence for interaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, M.E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Corpeleijn, E.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Hofstra, R.M.W.; Berger, R.M.F.; Bakker, M.K.

    Objective To study the influence of a possible interaction between maternal smoking and high body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of specific congenital heart anomalies (CHA) in offspring. Design Case-control study. Setting Data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands.

  20. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Birth Weight: An Appropriately Adjusted Model From the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Otawa, Sanae; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no large nationwide population-based study to examine the effects of maternal smoking status during pregnancy on birth weight that simultaneously controlled for clinical information, socioeconomic status, and maternal weight. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association between maternal smoking status during pregnancy and birth weight, while taking these confounding factors into consideration. Methods This study examined the first-year fixed dataset from a large nationwide birth cohort study that commenced in 2011. The dataset consisted of information on 9369 singleton infants born before December 31, 2011. Children were divided into 4 groups for statistical analysis: those born to mothers who did not smoke (NS), who quit smoking before pregnancy, who quit smoking during early pregnancy, and who smoked (SM). Multiple linear regression models were conducted for each sex to examine the association between maternal smoking status during early pregnancy and fetal growth. Birth weight was estimated using the least-squares method after controlling for covariates. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, maternal smoking status during pregnancy was significantly associated with birth weight. There was a significant difference in birth weight between NS and SM for both male and female infants (male infants, 3096.2 g [NS] vs 2959.8 g [SM], P Japan, we have shown that maternal smoking during pregnancy may reduce birth weight by 125–136 g. PMID:26902166

  1. Combined effect of incorporated 90Sr, alcohol, and tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits

  2. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations: results of a Danish register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations. Population-based prospective cohort study. Denmark. A total of 838 265 singleton liveborn babies delivered in Denmark between 1997 and 2010 and registered in the Danish Medical Birth Register containing detailed information on smoking during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Associations [odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI] between maternal smoking and risk for various groups of congenital malformations, investigated using the generalized estimating equation for binary outcomes, with adjustment for potential confounders. Groups of congenital malformations. Ever smoking during pregnancy did not increase the overall risk for congenital malformations, but increased risks were observed for multiple malformations (i.e. when two or more malformations are diagnosed in a child) (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.10) and various main groups of congenital malformations including the cardiovascular system (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19), the respiratory system (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.41), the digestive system (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24) and oral clefts (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.46), as well as for some specific congenital malformations including cardiac septal defects, malformations of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves, malformations of the great arteries, pyloric stenosis and clubfoot. Infants of women who quit smoking during the first two trimesters had no increased risk for most groups of congenital malformations. Maternal smoking increases the risk for a number of congenital malformations. Future smoking cessation programs should focus on this adverse health aspect in order to encourage more women to quit smoking before or in early pregnancy. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32(+0)-36(+6) weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. A population-based case-cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  5. Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England. Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogeneous Input (ARIMAX) modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of (a) smoking and high-risk drinking; (b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and (c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Mean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.185% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking 2 months later [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.033 to 0.337, P = 0.017]. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β = 0.324, 95% CI = -0.371 to 1.019, P = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β = -0.026, 95% CI = -1.348 to 1.296, P = 0.969). Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  7. In vitro assessment of reproductive toxicity of cigarette smoke and deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Chin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is known to be a serious health risk factor and considered reproductively toxic. In the current study, we investigated whether constituents of cigarette smoke, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine, adversely affect reproductive functioning such as oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. Our findings indicated that three smoke components were involved in retardation of oocyte maturation in a dose-dependent manner and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL was determined to be 10-10M. However, individual smoke components administrated at the LOAEL did not attenuate oocyte maturation, demonstrating that all three toxicants were equally required for the observed growth impairment. When exposed to all three components at 10-10M during in vitro capacitation, murine sperm lost forward progression and were unable to show adequate hyperactivation, which is indicative of the incompletion of the capacitation process. Only sperm administrated with 3-ethylpyridine alone showed significant reduction in capacitation status, suggesting the chemical is the one responsible for disrupting sperm capacitation. Taken together, this is the first report that documents the effect of cigarette smoke components on oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. The present findings demonstrate the adverse effects of smoke constituents of mammalian reproduction and the differences in sensitivity to smoke components between male and female gametes. Since both processes take place in the female reproductive system, our data provide new insights into deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke.

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  9. Maternal smoking does not affect the amount of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma during the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, F; Picchiassi, E; Centra, M; Pennacchi, L; Galeone, F; Bini, V; Di Renzo, G C; Coata, G

    2015-01-01

    CffDNA, from 344 non-smoking, 38 smoking and 33 ex-smoking pregnant women at 11 (+0)-13 (+6) gestational weeks, was extracted and quantified by the multicopy DYS14, as the fetal DNA marker and using the quantitative real-time PCR 7300 detection system. The smoking habit was based on maternal self-report, confirmed by cotinine levels and male fetuses were verified by phenotype at birth. The genders of newborns were compared with DYS14-cffDNA analysis, achieving a 100% diagnostic accuracy of the test. A total of 177 non-smokers, 18 smokers and 22 ex-smoker pregnancies with male fetuses were identified by the cffDNA concentration. Results showed that smoking status was not associated with different amounts of DYS14-cffDNA (p = 0.159), suggesting the possibility of offering cffDNA testing to all pregnant women, even if they are active smokers or ex-smokers, and the test can be unadjusted for smoking status.

  10. Use of aids for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction: A population survey of adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Beard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important for policy planning to chart the methods smokers and high-risk drinkers use to help them change their behaviour. This study assessed prevalence of use, and characteristics of users, of support for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction in England. Methods Data were used from the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies, which involve monthly face-to-face computer-assisted interviews of adults aged 16+ in England. We included data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 on 1600 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt and 911 high-risk drinkers (defined as scores >8+ on the full AUDIT or 5+ on questions 1–3 of the AUDIT-C who had made an attempt to cut down in the past 12 months. Participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics and use of aids during their most recent quit attempt including pharmacotherapy, face-to-face counselling, telephone support, self-help materials (digital and printed, and complementary medicine. Results A total of 60.3% of smokers used aids in the past year, compared with just 14.9% of high-risk drinkers. Use of pharmacotherapy was high among smokers and very low among drinkers (56.0%versus1.2%. Use of other aids was low for both behaviours: face-to-face counselling (2.6%versus4.8%, self-help materials (1.4%versus4.1% and complementary medicine (1.0%versus0.5%. Use of aids was more common among smokers aged 25–54 compared with 16–24 year olds (25–34,ORadj1.49,p = 0.012; 35–44,ORadj1.93,p 10 relative to 20,ORadj4.23,p = 0.001, and less common among ethnic minorities (ORadj0.69,p = 0.026. For alcohol reduction, use of aids was higher among ethnic minority groups (ORadj2.41;p = 0.015, and those of social-grade D/E relative to AB (ORadj2.29,p = 0.012&ORadj3.13,p < 0.001. Conclusion In England, the use of pharmacotherapy is prevalent for smoking cessation but not alcohol reduction. Other aids are used at a low rate, with

  11. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking: results from a large cross-sectional study with annual investigations over 21 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K; Krause, M; Holmboe, S A; Egeberg Palme, D L; Winge, S B; Mørup, N; Carlsen, E; Joensen, U N; Blomberg Jensen, M; Main, K M; Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Jørgensen, N

    2018-06-01

    How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period and none have studied simultaneous trends in lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional population-based study including ~300 participants per year (total number = 6386) between 1996 and 2016. The study is based on men from the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, with a median age of 19 years, and unselected with regard to fertility status and semen quality. The men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn and a physical examination performed and answered a comprehensive questionnaire, including information on lifestyle and the mother's pregnancy. Temporal trends in semen quality and lifestyle were illustrated graphically, and trends in semen parameters and the impact of prenatal and current lifestyle factors were explored in multiple regression analyses. Throughout the study period, 35% of the men had low semen quality. Overall, there were no persistent temporal trends in semen quality, testicular volume or levels of follicle-stimulating hormone over the 21 years studied. The men's alcohol intake was lowest between 2011 and 2016, whereas BMI, use of medication and smoking showed no clear temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed despite the decrease in this exposure

  13. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  14. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 514 participants (4.8%. Three hundred forty-four participants received biopsy, and 230 patients were proven to have oral cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that those who smoked, consumed alcohol, and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to develop cancer (odds ratio: 46.87, 95% confidence interval: 31.84–69.00. Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cancer and should receive oral screening regularly so potential oral cancer can be detected as early as possible.

  15. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

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    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  16. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-07-17

    To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly meetings and at follow-up. Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been enrolled. Patient accrual is expected to be finalised before the end of 2017 and data will be published in 2018. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02188446 . Registered on 28 May 2014.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation study in human placenta identifies novel loci associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Vilahur, Nadia; Salas, Lucas A; Motta, Valeria; Fernandez, Mariana F; Murcia, Mario; Llop, Sabrina; Tardon, Adonina; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Gallastegui, Mara; Bollati, Valentina; Estivill, Xavier; Olea, Nicolas; Sunyer, Jordi; Bustamante, Mariona

    2016-10-01

    We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of DNA methylation in placenta in relation to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and examined whether smoking-induced changes lead to low birthweight. DNA methylation in placenta was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 179 participants from the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) birth cohort. Methylation levels across 431 311 CpGs were tested for differential methylation between smokers and non-smokers in pregnancy. We took forward three top-ranking loci for further validation and replication by bisulfite pyrosequencing using data of 248 additional participants of the INMA cohort. We examined the association of methylation at smoking-associated loci with birthweight by applying a mediation analysis and a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach. Fifty CpGs were differentially methylated in placenta between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05]. We validated and replicated differential methylation at three top-ranking loci: cg27402634 located between LINC00086 and LEKR1, a gene previously related to birthweight in genome-wide association studies; cg20340720 (WBP1L); and cg25585967 and cg12294026 (TRIO). Dose-response relationships with maternal urine cotinine concentration during pregnancy were confirmed. Differential methylation at cg27402634 explained up to 36% of the lower birthweight in the offspring of smokers (Sobel P-value < 0.05). A two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis provided evidence that decreases in methylation levels at cg27402634 lead to decreases in birthweight. We identified novel loci differentially methylated in placenta in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Adverse effects of maternal smoking on birthweight of the offspring may be mediated by alterations in the placental methylome. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  18. A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Alexandra C; Parshuram, Christopher; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    Background Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world that is a human teratogen whose use among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. It is also probable that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is under diagnosed by physicians. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2) to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns. Methods and Participants A multiple choice anonymous questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected group of family physicians in the Metropolitan Toronto area. Results There was a 73% (75/103) total response rate; Overall, 6/75 (8%) of family physicians reported that they had actually diagnosed a child with FAS. 17.9% had suspicions but did not make a diagnosis and 12.7% reported making a referral to confirm the diagnosis. Physician rated confidence in the ability to diagnosis FAS was low, with 49% feeling they had very little confidence. 75% reported counselling pregnant women and 60.8% reported counselling childbearing women in general on the use of alcohol. When asked what screening test they used to detect the use of alcohol, 75% described frequency/quantity. Not a single respondent identified using the current accepted screening method for alcohol use (TWEAK) which is recommended by The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Conclusions Family physicians do not feel confident about diagnosing FAS. None of the physicians were aware of the current screening methods to accurately gage alcohol use in pregnant and childbearing women PMID:11860607

  19. Potential pathways by which maternal second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy causes full-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongzheng; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Tian, Fuying; Yuan, Shixin; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2016-04-29

    It is well documented that maternal exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy causes low birth weight (LBW), but its mechanism remains unknown. This study explored the potential pathways. We enrolled 195 pregnant women who delivered full-term LBW newborns, and 195 who delivered full-term normal birth weight newborns as the controls. After controlling for maternal age, education level, family income, pre-pregnant body mass index, newborn gender and gestational age, logistic regression analysis revealed that LBW was significantly and positively associated with maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy, lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β, and that SHS exposure was significantly associated with lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β. Structural equation modelling identified two plausible pathways by which maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy might cause LBW. First, SHS exposure induced the elevation of TNF-α, which might directly increase the risk of LBW by transmission across the placenta. Second, SHS exposure first increased maternal secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, which then triggered the secretion of VCAM-1; both TNF-α and VCAM-1 were significantly associated with lower placental weight, thus increasing the risk of LBW. In conclusion, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy may lead to LBW through the potential pathways of maternal inflammation and lower placental weight.

  20. Effects of maternal smoking on the placental expression of genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis during the first trimester.

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    Akihiro Kawashima

    Full Text Available Maternal cigarette smoking is reportedly associated with miscarriage, fetal growth restriction and placental abruption, and is paradoxically associated with a decreased risk of developing preeclampsia. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression levels of villous tissues in early gestation. We compared the expression levels of the genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis in the villous tissues obtained from smoking and non-smoking pregnant women.We collected villous tissue samples from 57 women requesting surgical termination due to non-medical reasons at 6-8 weeks of gestation. The maternal cigarette smoking status was evaluated by the level of serum cotinine and patients were divided into active smokers and non-smokers by the serum cotinine level. The placental levels of VEGFA, PGF, FLT1, HIF1A, TP53, BAX and BCL2 mRNA were quantified by real time PCR.The gene expression level of PGF and HIF1A in the active smoker group was significantly higher than that in the non-smoker group. We did not observe any significant differences in the VEGFA or FLT1 expression between the groups. In active smoker group, the gene expression levels of TP53 and BAX were significantly higher than those in the non-smoker group. The ratio of BAX/BCL2 mRNA in the active smoker group was significantly higher than that in the non-smoker group.Our findings revealed that smoking might affect the placenta during early pregnancy. Maternal cigarette smoking in early pregnancy may be associated with villus hypoxia, which may influence angiogenesis and apoptosis.

  1. Evaluating changes in brain vasculature of murine embryos in utero due to maternal alcohol consumption using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Raksha; Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Liu, Chih-Hao; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-04-01

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to the broad spectrum of developmental and behavioral effects caused due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Wide range of abnormalities vary depending on the amount of alcohol consumed and the period of consumption during gestation. PAE during early stages of pregnancy is very common. However a large number of women continue to consume alcohol even during the second trimester, a critical period for fetal neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown to be extremely useful in embryonic imaging. Our previous work showed that OCT is capable of quantitative assessment of ventriculomegaly caused by maternal alcohol consumption. Although structural changes and changes in blood flow in the fetal brain after maternal alcohol consumption have been studied, acute vasculature changes are not well documented. Speckle variance OCT (SVOCT), is a functional extension of OCT that has been used to study vasculature development in embryos. We use SVOCT, to detect vasculature changes in the embryonic brain in utero, minutes after maternal alcohol consumption.

  2. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  3. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

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    Ingeborg Barišić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6% answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2% schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7% with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0% of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD.

  4. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  5. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and drug use in pregnancy: Prevalence and risk factors in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Saingam, Darika; Apakupakul, Nualta; Edwards, J Guy

    2017-03-01

    Substance use during pregnancy contributes to the risk of adverse health outcomes in mothers and children-in utero and during later development. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of substance use and associated factors in pregnant women receiving antenatal care in public hospitals in Thailand. Women (3578) attending 7 antenatal care clinics in Songkhla for the first time during their current pregnancy were interviewed with a structured questionnaire focusing on demographic data, obstetric history, use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances, and the General Health Questionnaire was administered. The use of substances was confirmed with the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, which were also administered to 1 in 5 to 10 randomly selected women whose screening results were negative. Based on self-reports and General Health Questionnaire results, the weighted prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit substance use and that of "mental health problems" were 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-6.4) and 29.2% (95% CI, 27.5-30.9), respectively. On the basis of the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, the prevalence of likely substance use disorder during the 3 months prior to assessment was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8-1.5) and 7.7% (95% CI, 4.6-10.7), respectively. Factors associated with substance use were religion, unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, previous abortion, and current mental health problem. Our results emphasize the need for identification of substance use and mental health problems, with the help of questionnaires and biological markers, followed by early intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Association of osteoporotic fracture with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, F; Birong, D; Changquan, H; Hongmei, W; Yanling, Z; Wen, Z; Li, L

    2011-05-01

    To observe the association of osteoporotic fracture with habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among very old people. A cross-sectional study conducted in Dujiangyan Sichuan China. 703 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians (67.76% women, mean age 93.48 years) resident in Dujiangyan. Medical history of osteoporosis and the statement of fracture and habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise were collected. In women, subjects with current or former habit of alcohol consumption had significantly higher prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit; but subjects with former habit of exercise had significantly lower prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit. However, in men, there was no significant difference in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without osteoporotic fracture. After adjust for age, gender, sleep habits educational levels, religion habits and temperament, we found that former habit of alcohol consumption had a significant odds ratio (OR=2.473 95% CI (1.074, 5.526)) for osteoporotic fracture. In summary, among nonagenarians and centenarians, among habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise, there seems to be significant association of osteoporotic fracture only with current or former habits of alcohol consumption, former habit of exercise. The habit of alcohol consumption might be associated with a greater risk of osteoporotic fracture, but the former habit of exercise might be associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

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    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  8. Maternal hair analysis for the detection of illicit drugs, medicines, and alcohol exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendoiro, Elena; González-Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro-Guisán, Ana; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Concheiro, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Drug of abuse consumption throughout pregnancy is a serious public health problem and an important economic cost to the health system. The aim of this work was to compare maternal interview and hair analysis to determine drug consumption throughout pregnancy and to study relations among maternal interview, hair results, and neonatal outcomes. Two hundred nine mothers agreed to participate. After delivery, they were interviewed and a hair sample collected. Hair samples were segmented in trimesters and analyzed for 35 drugs [opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ketamine, methadone, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and hypnotics; limits of quantification 5-100 pg/mg] and for ethyl glucuronide (limit of quantification 10 pg/mg) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with χ test and t test. In the interview, 4.3% mothers declared using illicit drugs during pregnancy (cocaine 1.4%, THC 2.9%, and opiates 1%), 3.3% medicines (methadone 1.9%, benzodiazepines 1.9%, and antidepressants 0.5%), 21.5% tobacco, and 13.7% alcohol. Hair analysis showed 15.4% prevalence in illicit drugs (cocaine 12.4%, THC 3.8%, opiates 1%, and ketamine 1%), 22.5% in medicines (methadone 3.3%, benzodiazepines 11%, antidepressants 9.1%, zopiclone 1%, and fentanyl 1.4%), and 3.9% in alcohol. Neonatal abstinence syndrome was developed in 8.1% newborns, all of them from mothers with high methadone-positive hair results (>926.2 pg/mg). Statistically significant lower newborn weight and length were found in neonates from declared smokers compared with nonsmokers (P drug use during pregnancy, except for alcohol. In this preliminary study, no statistically significant differences were found between exposed and nonexposed newborns to drugs, except for tobacco consumption.

  9. Calibrating Self-Reported Measures of Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy via Bioassays Using a Monte Carlo Approach

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    Lauren S. Wakschlag

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major public health problem that has been associated with numerous short- and long-term adverse health outcomes in offspring. However, characterizing smoking exposure during pregnancy precisely has been rather difficult: self-reported measures of smoking often suffer from recall bias, deliberate misreporting, and selective non-disclosure, while single bioassay measures of nicotine metabolites only reflect recent smoking history and cannot capture the fluctuating and complex patterns of varying exposure of the fetus. Recently, Dukic et al. [1] have proposed a statistical method for combining information from both sources in order to increase the precision of the exposure measurement and power to detect more subtle effects of smoking. In this paper, we extend the Dukic et al. [1] method to incorporate individual variation of the metabolic parameters (such as clearance rates into the calibration model of smoking exposure during pregnancy. We apply the new method to the Family Health and Development Project (FHDP, a small convenience sample of 96 predominantly working-class white pregnant women oversampled for smoking. We find that, on average, misreporters smoke 7.5 cigarettes more than what they report to smoke, with about one third underreporting by 1.5, one third under-reporting by about 6.5, and one third underreporting by 8.5 cigarettes. Partly due to the limited demographic heterogeneity in the FHDP sample, the results are similar to those obtained by the deterministic calibration model, whose adjustments were slightly lower (by 0.5 cigarettes on average. The new results are also, as expected, less sensitive to assumed values of cotinine half-life.

  10. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  11. Fetal programming of chronic kidney disease: the role of maternal smoking, mitochondrial dysfunction, and epigenetic modfification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangenberg, Stephanie; Chen, Hui; Wong, Muh Geot; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    The role of an adverse in utero environment in the programming of chronic kidney disease in the adult offspring is increasingly recognized. The cellular and molecular mechanisms linking the in utero environment and future disease susceptibility remain unknown. Maternal smoking is a common modifiable adverse in utero exposure, potentially associated with both mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic modification in the offspring. While studies are emerging that point toward a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney disease, it may have its origin in early development, becoming clinically apparent when secondary insults occur. Aberrant epigenetic programming may add an additional layer of complexity to orchestrate fibrogenesis in the kidney and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease in later life. In this review, we explore the evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic modification through aberrant DNA methylation as key mechanistic aspects of fetal programming of chronic kidney disease and discuss their potential use in diagnostics and targets for therapy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhao, J.K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhou, J.Y.; Wang, X.S.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese

  13. Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; García-García, Carmen J; Padez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents is a growing problem. The objectives were to verify the association among early predictors such as birth weight, breastfeeding, maternal weight status, smoking during pregnancy, and the development of MetS. A cross-sectional study was performed of 976 children and adolescents, 10-15 years of age, at schools in the provinces of Granada and Almeria (Spain). For this purpose, we analyzed the physical characteristics as well as the biochemical markers of the participants with a view to ascertaining the prevalence of the MetS. Relevant data were also extracted from the clinical histories of their mothers. It was found that 3.85% of the female subjects and 5.38% of the male subjects in the sample population suffered from MetS. In both sexes, there was an association between birth weight and positive MetS diagnosis (OR 1.27). For both males and females, there was an inverse association between the length of time that they had been breastfed and positive MetS diagnosis (OR1-3 months 3.16; OR4-6 months 1.70; OR(>6 months) 0.13). There was also a significant association between maternal weight (OR(overweight )30.79; OR(obesity) 49.36) and cigarette consumption during pregnancy (OR 1.47) and the subsequent development of MetS in the children of these mothers. Those subjects born with a higher than average birth weight had a greater risk of developing MetS in childhood and adolescence. Breastfeeding children for longer than 6 months protected them from MetS in their early years as well as in their teens. Other risk factors for MetS were maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as maternal overweight and obesity.

  14. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Shih, Yin-Hwa; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2017-06-06

    Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  15. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  16. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with psource of information about the impact of smoking cigarettes on health for 52.63% women and 56.52% men, about the alcohol effect on health for 57.02% women and 45.65% men, while about energy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63

  17. Investigation of aggravating psychosocial factors on health and predictability of smoking and alcohol use in post adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrosyni Barmpagianni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  18. Partner's and own education: Does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Lenthe, F.J. van; Graaf, N.D. de; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner's education, adjusted for own education, on self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  19. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments...

  20. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups in The Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marlies J.; Ikram, Umar Z.; Derks, Eske M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of

  1. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  2. Geographic Variation in Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy in the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Madden, Pamela A.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Colditz, Graham A.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Schootman, Mario; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite well-known adverse health effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP), it is still unclear if MSP varies geographically and if neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) plays an important role in MSP. This study aims to investigate small-area geographic variation in MSP and examine the association of SED with MSP. Methods The Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS) is a cohort study of female like-sex twins born in Missouri to Missouri-resident parents during 1975–1985. Biological mothers completed a baseline interview in 1995–1998 and reported MSP with the twins. Residential address of the mother at birth was geocoded. We developed a census tract-level SED index using a common factor approach based on 21 area-level socioeconomic variables from the 1980 Census data. Multilevel logistic regressions estimated geographic heterogeneity (random effect) in MSP and the odds ratios (ORs, fixed effects) of neighborhood SED associated with MSP. Results Of 1658 MOAFTS mothers, 35.2% reported any MSP and 21.9% reported MSP beyond the first trimester. Neighborhood SED was associated with any MSP (the highest vs. the lowest quartile: OR = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40–2.57, Ptrendalcohol use, and parents’ cohabitation), neighborhood SED was not associated with MSP, but geographic variation still persisted in MSP (variance = 0.41, P = 0.003) and in MSP beyond the first trimester (variance = 0.82, P<0.001). Conclusions Neighborhood SED was associated with MSP in unadjusted analyses but this association could be explained by individual socioeconomic conditions. Nonetheless, significant geographic variation in MSP persisted and was not accounted for by differences in neighborhood SED. To develop effective interventions to reduce MSP, further studies are necessary to explore underlying reasons for its geographic variation. PMID:27100091

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and academic achievement of offspring over time: A registry data-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Thomas, Sabena; Lilly, Christa L; Thorisdottir, Ingibjorg E; Allegrante, John P; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2018-08-01

    Few studies have assessed the cumulative impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on scholastic outcomes over time. We examined the relations between MSDP and academic achievement in the 4th, 7th and 10th grades using registry data collected at birth, during the neonatal period, and at each grade level from the 2000, LIFECOURSE study birth cohort in Reykjavik, Iceland (N = 1151, girls = 49.3%). Latent growth modeling showed that MSDP influenced Icelandic achievement scores, standardized to a range from 0 to 60, at baseline (β = -0.04), and over time (β = -0.05). Likewise, MSDP was negatively associated with standardized mathematics scores at baseline (ß = -0.09) and continued to exert a negative impact on mathematics scores over time (ß = -0.08) after controlling for gender, income, cohabitation, and baseline mathematics and Icelandic achievement scores. Results provide evidence of the persistent negative impact of MSDP on academic achievement in offspring. Findings support the proposition that children whose mothers smoke during the first trimester of pregnancy are, on average, at greater risk for poor scholastic outcomes over time than children whose mothers do not smoke during their first trimester. To our knowledge, this is the first study using a longitudinal cohort design to assess whether the impacts of maternal smoking during pregnancy may persist over time. This study contributes to the current state of knowledge by providing an assessment that focuses on the impact of smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement from childhood into early adolescence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  5. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-11-02

    Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Cross-sectional general population survey. Scotland. 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45-64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30-59 years surveyed in 1996. Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father-son (0.30) and mother-daughter (0.33) were greater than father-daughter (0.23) or mother-son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (pparental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. There are modest genetic/epigenetic influences on the environmental factors behind adverse adiposity. Maternal smoking appears a specific hazard on obesity and metabolic

  6. Interaction of maternal smoking and preterm birth on future risk of maternal cardiovascular disease: A population-based record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh D; Roberts, Christine L; Chen, Jian S; Figtree, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    While associations of smoking and preterm birth (PTB) with maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks have been established, it is unknown whether the coexistence of these two conditions could synergistically increase the risks. We linked birth records of 902,008 mothers with singleton infants during 1994-2011 in New South Wales, Australia to the mothers' subsequent CVD hospitalisation or death. Multiplicative interaction was tested through an interaction term in a multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression model, while additive interaction was assessed by calculating the synergy index. Relative to never-smokers with term babies, the CVD risk in ever-smokers with PTBs (hazard ratio (HR) 3.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.96-3.80) was significantly greater than the sum of risks in ever-smokers with term babies (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.96-2.24) and in never-smokers with PTBs (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.55-1.93), indicating an additive interaction (synergy index = 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.58). In ever-smokers, the association was stronger for extremely PTB (HR 3.83, 95% CI 3.23-4.69) than moderately PTB (HR 3.18, 95% CI 2.76-3.66), and for ≥2 PTB (HR 4.47, 95% CI 3.39-5.88) than one PTB (HR 3.20, 95% CI 2.81-3.64). Maternal smoking and PTB interact on the additive scale to synergistically increase maternal CVD risks. The interaction was dose-dependent according to both the severity and number of PTBs. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  7. Preventing smoking during pregnancy: the importance of maternal knowledge of the health hazards and of the treatment options available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Bertani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tobacco use and knowledge about tobacco-related diseases, as well as to identify popular types of electronic media, in pregnant women, in order to improve strategies for the prevention or cessation of smoking among such women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 61 pregnant women, seen at primary care clinics and at a university hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. For all subjects, we applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For subjects with a history of smoking, we also applied the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and we evaluated the level of motivation to quit smoking among the current smokers. RESULTS: Of the 61 pregnant women evaluated, 25 (40.9% were smokers (mean age, 26.4 ± 7.4 years, 24 (39.3% were former smokers (26.4 ± 8.3 years, and 12 (19.8% were never-smokers (25.1 ± 7.2 years. Thirty-nine women (63.9% reported exposure to passive smoking. Of the 49 smokers/former smokers, 13 (26.5% were aware of the pulmonary consequences of smoking; only 2 (4.1% were aware of the cardiovascular risks; 23 (46.9% believed that smoking does not harm the fetus or newborn infant; 21 (42.9% drank alcohol during pregnancy; 18 (36.7% reported increased cigarette consumption when drinking; 25 (51.0% had smoked flavored cigarettes; and 12 (24.5% had smoked a narghile. Among the 61 pregnant women evaluated, television was the most widely available and favorite form of electronic media (in 85.2%, as well as being the form most preferred (by 49.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnant women, active smoking, passive smoking, and alternative forms of tobacco consumption appear to be highly prevalent, and such women seem to possess little knowledge about the consequences of tobacco use. Educational programs that include information about the consequences of all forms of tobacco use, employing new and effective formats tailored to this particular population, should be developed, in order to promote

  8. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  9. First-Trimester Maternal Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Infant Oral Clefts in Norway: A Population-based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoo, Lisa A.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Drevon, Christian A.; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2008-01-01

    Although alcohol is a recognized teratogen, evidence is limited on alcohol intake and oral cleft risk. The authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and oral clefts in a national, population-based case-control study of infants born in 1996–2001 in Norway. Participants were 377 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, 196 with cleft palate only, and 763 controls. Mothers reported first-trimester alcohol consumption in self-administered questionnaires com...

  10. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  11. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  12. Association of cognitive impairment with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Quan; Dong, Bi-Rong; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wu, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qing-Xiu

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, we observed the association of cognitive impairment with current/former habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among very old people using a Chinese cohort aged 90 to 108 years. A cross-sectional study. The sample included 681 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians (67.25% women). In men, compared with subjects without cognitive impairment, those with cognitive impairment had significantly higher prevalence of habits of smoking (P=0.048 and 0.004, for former/current, respectively) and alcohol consumption (P=0.003 and 0.049, for former/current, respectively) but had significantly lower prevalence of habits of tea consumption (P=0.041 and 0.044, for former/current, respectively) and current exercise (P=0.020). Subjects with habits of smoking had significantly lower cognitive function scores than those without these habits (mean difference=1.78 and 1.69, P=0.029 and 0.035, for former/current, respectively), but subjects with habit of current exercise had significantly higher cognitive function scores than those without this habit (mean difference=1.53, P=0.038). However, in women, there were no significant differences in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without cognitive impairment and also no significant differences in cognitive function scores between subjects with and without these habits. Only current smoking habits in men had a significant odds ratio for cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 2.125; 95% confidence interval, 1.186-3.998). Among nonagenarians/centenarians, in men, there are associations of cognitive impairment with habits of former/current smoking and current exercise, as well as indefinite associations with habits of alcohol and tea consumption. Smoking may have a significant negative impact on cognitive function, but current exercise significantly improve cognitive function. However, in women, there are no associations of cognitive impairment with all the habits.

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring overweight: is there a dose–response relationship? An individual patient data meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    A number of meta-analyses suggest an association between any maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring overweight obesity. Whether there is a dose–response relationship across number of cigarettes and whether this differs by sex remains unclear. Studies reporting number of cigarettes smoked...... during pregnancy and offspring BMI published up to May 2015 were searched. An individual patient data meta-analysis of association between the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and offspring overweight (defined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference) was computed using...... a generalized additive mixed model with non-linear effects and adjustment for confounders (maternal weight status, breastfeeding, and maternal education) and stratification for sex. Of 26 identified studies, 16 authors provided data on a total of 238,340 mother–child-pairs. A linear positive association...

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring overweight: is there a dose–response relationship? An individual patient data meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    A number of meta-analyses suggest an association between any maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring overweight obesity. Whether there is a dose–response relationship across number of cigarettes and whether this differs by sex remains unclear. Studies reporting number of cigarettes smoked...... a generalized additive mixed model with non-linear effects and adjustment for confounders (maternal weight status, breastfeeding, and maternal education) and stratification for sex. Of 26 identified studies, 16 authors provided data on a total of 238,340 mother–child-pairs. A linear positive association...... during pregnancy and offspring BMI published up to May 2015 were searched. An individual patient data meta-analysis of association between the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and offspring overweight (defined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference) was computed using...

  15. Early maternal alcohol consumption alters hippocampal DNA methylation, gene expression and volume in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Marjonen

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5. Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60: we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in

  16. Smoking during pregnancy and infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Charlotte; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    during this period. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, marital status, alcohol intake, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, caffeine intake postpartum, and paternal smoking did not change the effect measures. Conclusion. The results indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy may increase......Objective. To evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and infantile colic (IC). Methods. A follow-up study of singleton infants delivered by Danish mothers at the Aarhus University Hospital from May 1991 to February 1992 and still living in the municipality of Aarhus...... questionnaire and based on Wessel's criteria, except that we used only the crying criterion. Results. IC was seen in 10.8% of all infants. We observed a twofold increased risk of IC among infants whose mothers smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day during their pregnancy(relative risk: 2.1; 95% confidence...

  17. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should...

  19. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men. Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification, using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68 in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65 in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69 and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44. Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89. When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70 in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61 in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23

  20. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    Full Text Available Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression.Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview.About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7, depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6, and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ≥ 20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression.Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  1. The relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia, C; Ju, X; Mejia, G; Jamieson, L

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to test the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Data were from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC); a population-based cohort study in Australia. Participants were 1,687 Indigenous Australian children aged 5 or less. Biological, social and behavioural variables were tested using log-linear modelling with binomial regression to determine the association with parental-reported experience of dental caries. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods were used for multiple imputation of missing data. Overall 25.8% of Indigenous Australian children had dental caries as reported by a carer. In the multivariable model, increased prevalence of parental-reported caries was significantly associated with low maternal education levels (RR=1.60, 95%CI 1.17,2.20) and high sugar consumption (RR= 1.60, 95%CI 1.26,2.02). In the group of children whose mothers smoked tobacco during pregnancy, the association with parent-reported dental caries approached the threshold of significance, but was not significantly associated with caries status in children (RR=1.19, 95%CI 0.99,1.43). After multiple imputation, the most significant association was evident in children of the least educated mothers (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.25,1.95), breastfeeding more than 12 months (RR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01,1.56), sweet intake more than 30% (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.15,1.74) and 20-30% (RR=1.29 95%CI 1.04,1.59) and residing in outer regional (RR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19,2.05) or inner regional locations (RR=1.50, 95%CI 1.19,1.88). Mothers' tobacco smoking status showed a weak association with parent-reported dental decay (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.20,1.68). This study suggests there is a weak association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prevalence of parentally-reported dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  2. Youthful Smoking: Patterns and Relationships to Alcohol and Other Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined smoking patterns in 27,335 junior and senior high school students. Found smoking was more prevalent among girls than boys, and among whites more than members of minority groups. Marijuana use was the best single predictor of whether a student smoked or not. Heavy drinking was the best predictor of quantity smoked among smokers. (Author/KS)

  3. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  4. Happiness and depression in adolescence after maternal smoking during pregnancy: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother's pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a "causal pathway", public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term.

  5. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Kjærsgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Denny, Clark H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Design: Prospective follow-up study. Setting and population: 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods: Participants were sampled based on maternal...... of Executive Function (BRIEF) was completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, child’s age at testing, child’s sex, and maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy were considered potential confounders. Main outcome measures: Performance...... and sustained attention. Assessment of pre-pregnancy drinking provides additional information regarding potential prenatal alcohol exposure and its implications for child neurodevelopment....

  6. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  7. Maternal educational level and risk of gestational hypertension: the Generation R Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Silva (Lindsay); M. Coolman (Marianne); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether maternal educational level as an indicator of socioeconomic status is associated with gestational hypertension. We also examined the extent to which the effect of education is mediated by maternal substance use (that is smoking, alcohol consumption and illegal drug

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  9. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is identification of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity by General Practitioners improving? A comparison over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Mazza, Danielle; Carey, Mariko; Walsh, Justin; Bisquera, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    Detection of lifestyle risk factors by GPs is the first step required for intervention. Despite significant investment in preventive health care in general practice, little is known about whether GP detection of lifestyle risk factors have improved over time. To examine whether sensitivity and specificity of GP detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity has increased in patients presenting to see their GP, by comparing results from four Australian studies conducted between 1982 and 2011. Demographic characteristics of patient and GP samples and the prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of detection of each risk factor were extracted from published studies. Differences between GP and patient sample characteristics were examined. To identify trends over time in prevalence of risk factors, sensitivity and specificity of detection across studies and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend were calculated for each risk factor for the overall sample and by male and female subgroups. There were no statistically significant changes in the sensitivity of GP detection of smoking or overweight or obesity over time. Specificity of detection of smoking increased from 64.7% to 98% (P investment to increase GP detection and intervention for lifestyle risk factors, accurate detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity occurs for less than two-thirds of all patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed.

  12. Somatic growth in the first six months of life of infants exposed to maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Mariana Lopes; Nunes, Marina; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; da Silva, Clécio Homrich

    2017-03-09

    Some studies suggest a relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and not only intrauterine fetal growth restriction or low birth weight, but also with changes in the postnatal growth and development. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of smoking during pregnancy on infants growth in the first 6 months of life compared with a control group and a group with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. Longitudinal observational study using a convenience sample of newborns divided into three groups: infants of smoking mothers (tobacco), with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a control group. The sample was selected from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, between 2011 and 2015. Newborns were evaluated at birth, 7 and 15 days, and in the first, third, and sixth month. Anthropometric measures were weight, length and head circumference. The growth indicators used were expressed as z-scores. The analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equation method. The sample included 273 mother/newborn pairs: 86 tobacco group, 34 IUGR group, and 153 control group. In terms of weight at birth, all groups differed significantly (p < 0.001). The birth length of tobacco and control groups were similar, but the IUGR group was lower than both (p < 0.001). We found no differences in growth trajectory between tobacco and control group, but there were differences in the growth of the IUGR group when compared with the other groups. At 6 months of age, all groups had similar anthropometric measurements. Intrauterine growth restriction had major impact on the growth trajectory of the infants studied, regardless of other factors, such as smoking and diet.

  13. Use of cigarettes and alcohol by preschoolers while role-playing as adults: "Honey, have some smokes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gibson, Jennifer J; Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Heatherton, Todd F

    2005-09-01

    To examine preschoolers' attitudes, expectations, and perceptions of tobacco and alcohol use. Structured observational study. Children used props and dolls to act out a social evening for adults. As part of the role play, each child selected items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, including beer, wine, and cigarettes, for an evening with friends. A behavioral laboratory at the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College. One hundred twenty children, 2 to 6 years old, participated individually in the role-playing. Whether or not a child purchased cigarettes or alcohol at the store. Children purchased a mean of 17 of the 73 products in the store. Thirty-four children (28.3%) bought cigarettes and 74 (61.7%) bought alcohol. Children were more likely to buy cigarettes if their parents smoked (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-12.63). Children were more likely to buy beer or wine if their parents drank alcohol at least monthly (adjusted OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.02-9.10) or if they viewed PG-13- or R-rated movies (adjusted OR, 5.10; 95% CI, 1.14-22.90). Children's play behavior suggests that they are highly attentive to the use and enjoyment of alcohol and tobacco and have well-established expectations about how cigarettes and alcohol fit into social settings. The data suggest that observation of adult behavior, especially parental behavior, may influence preschool children to view smoking and drinking as appropriate or normative in social situations. These perceptions may relate to behaviors adopted later in life.

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: evidence from the 2D:4D finger length ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizwan, S.; Manning, J. T.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to high fetal testosterone (FT), and an increased risk in offspring for autism, ADHD, conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour and criminal outcomes. The ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D) is thought to be negatively related

  15. The influence of maternal smoking on transferrin sialylation and fetal biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Królik, Małgorzata; Kepinska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Transferrin is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron, an essential metal responsible for proper fetal development. Tobacco is a heavily used xenobiotic having a negative impact on the human body and pregnancy outcomes. Aims of this study was to examine the influence of tobacco smoking on transferrin sialic acid residues and their connection with fetal biometric parameters in women with iron-deficiency. The study involved 173 samples from pregnant women, smokers and non-smokers, iron deficient and not. Transferrin sialylation was determined by capillary electrophoresis. The cadmium (Cd) level was measured by atomic absorption and the sialic acid concentration by the resorcinol method. Women with iron deficiencies who smoked gave birth earlier than non-smoking, non-iron-deficient women. The Cd level, but not the cotinine level, was positively correlated with transferrin sialylation in the blood of iron-deficient women who smoked; 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-sialoTf correlated negatively with fetal biometric parameters in the same group. It has been shown the relationship between Cd from tobacco smoking and fetal biometric parameters observed only in the iron deficient group suggests an additive effect of these two factors, and indicate that mothers with anemia may be more susceptible to Cd toxicity and disturbed fetal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: a prospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagyu, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Shogo; Obata, Yuki; Lin, Yingsong; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-02-15

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis, and few risk factors have been identified to date. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of gallbladder cancer death. A baseline survey in 45 areas throughout Japan was conducted from 1988 to 1990 using a self-administered questionnaire, and a total of 113,496 participants (65,740 women) aged 40-89 years at entry were followed for 15 years. During the follow-up period, 165 gallbladder cancer deaths (95 women) were observed. Among women, the hazard ratio (HR) [95 percent confidence interval: 95% CI] of current smoker was 2.00 [0.91-4.42], when adjusted for age and drinking. There was no clear association between alcohol consumption and the risk. Among men, HR of current smoker was 2.27 [1.05-4.90]. HRs of those who smoked 21 cigarettes or more per day and those with 801-1,000 cigarette-years were 3.18 [1.18-8.53] and 3.44 [1.40-8.45], respectively, and positive linear associations were observed between that risk and the number of cigarettes per day (p for trend = 0.007) or "cigarette-years" (p for trend = 0.012). The alcohol dose was linearly associated with risk (p for trend = 0.004), where the HR among those who consumed 72.0 g or more of alcohol per day was 3.60 [1.29-9.85]. Among both men and women, cigarette smoking may elevate the risk of death from gallbladder cancer. Drinking may pose an elevated risk among men, but that seems to be less true among women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p < .001) and alcohol use (β = .06, p < .05). Whereas adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by higher exposure to risky online pictures (β = -.10, p < .05). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and differential effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO. Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8 region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4 and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6 but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059. No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  19. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  20. Interactive effects of maternal cigarette smoke, heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide on neonatal cardiorespiratory and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia, have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines whether maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress, and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation. Offspring were studied at postnatal days 6–8 at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 µg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory patterns were examined using head-out plethysmography and ECG surface electrodes during normoxia and hypoxia (10% O2). Serum cytokine concentrations were quantified from samples taken at the end of each experiment. Our results suggest maternal CS exposure does not alter minute ventilation (V̇e) or heart rate (HR) response to infection or high temperature, but independently increases apnea frequency. CS also primes the inflammatory system to elicit a stronger cytokine response to bacterial insult. High Ta independently depresses V̇e but augments the hypoxia-induced increase in V̇e. Moreover, higher Ta increases HR during normoxia and hypoxia, and in the presence of an immune challenge, increases HR during normoxia, and reduces the increase normally associated with hypoxia. Thus, while most environmental risk factors increase the burden on the cardiorespiratory system in early life, hyperthermia and infection blunt the normal HR response to hypoxia, and gestational CS independently destabilizes breathing by increasing apneas. PMID:27733384

  1. Association between burnout syndrome, harmful use of alcohol and smoking in nursing in the ICU of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Larissa Santi; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Godoy, Ilda de

    2018-01-01

    The article aims to determine the presence of burnout syndrome among professionals in the field of Nursing in the Intensive Care Unit in a university hospital and a possible association with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Participants were 160 nursing professionals from 04 intensive care unit of a university hospital in the period from March 2013 to February 2014. We used a structured questionnaire, plus the smoking history, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Fagerström Dependence Questionnaire and the measurement of carbon monoxide. We used Fisher's chi-square or Fisher exact test. Syndrome was found in 34 professionals, most of them female, married and young adults. 18 professionals reported being smokers. 6,4% of Nursing Assistants, 50% Practical Nurses and Nurses 71,4% drank moderate; 5,4% Nursing Assistant and 14,3% Nurses scored default risk drinking and only 01 Practical Nurses had possible alcohol dependence. There was a positive association of the syndrome with smoking in 01 ICU. Final considerations: Hospital Intensive Care services need assistance from the managers of services for the purpose of caring for the health of their caregivers.

  2. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  3. Prospective study of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy or lactation and risk of childhood asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; DeRoo, Lisa A; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J

    2014-04-01

    Many women drink during pregnancy and lactation despite recommendations to abstain. In animals, alcohol exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences lung and immune development, plausibly increasing risk of asthma and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Studies in humans are few. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, we examined maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy and lactation in relation to risk of current asthma at 36 months (49,138 children), recurrent LRTIs by 36 months (39,791 children), and current asthma at 7 years (13,253 children). Mothers reported frequency and amount of alcohol intake each trimester and the first 3 months following delivery. We calculated adjusted relative risk (aRR), comparing children of drinkers to nondrinkers, using Generalized Linear Models. A total of 31.8% of mothers consumed alcohol during first trimester, 9.7% during second trimester, and 15.6% during third trimester. Infrequent and low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure showed a modest statistically significant inverse association with current asthma at 36 months (aRRs ~ 0.85). No association was seen with the highest alcohol intakes during the first trimester when alcohol consumption was most common. RRs of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy with recurrent LRTIs were ~1, with sporadic differences in risk for some metrics of intake, but without any consistent pattern. For current asthma at 7 years, similar inverse associations were seen as with current asthma at 36 months but were not statistically significant. Among children breastfed throughout the first 3 months of life, maternal alcohol intake during this time was not significantly associated with any of the 3 outcomes. The low levels of alcohol exposure during pregnancy or lactation observed in this cohort were not associated with increased risk of asthma or recurrent LRTIs. The slight inverse associations of infrequent or low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure with asthma may not be causal

  4. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  5. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  6. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...... education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity...

  7. The effects of Earned Income Tax Credit payment expansion on maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta N.; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective “Diet, Cancer and Health” study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled...... and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993–1997. GPX1 Pro198Leu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among......198Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence....

  9. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    This paper uses Danish survey and register data to examine the effect of maternal inputs on child health at birth. The paper adds to the literature in several ways: First, while previous studies mainly have focused on maternal smoking, this paper factors in a larger number of maternal health beha...... suggest a dose-response relationship. Robustness checks suggest that the sibling sample represents the population of multiple mothers well and that smoking results are not driven by misclassification of smoking status....... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects...

  10. Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Kogan, Steven M; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Juliano, Laura M; Lilly, Christa L; James, Jack E

    2018-04-30

    Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. We hypothesized that caffeine use at baseline would be positively associated with increased alcohol use, drunkenness, smoking, and e-cigarette use. Prospective cohort study with 12 months separating baseline from follow-up. West Virginia, USA. Middle school students (6 th and 7 th grades; N = 3,932) in three West Virginia (WV) counties provided data at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. Youth self-reported their use of caffeine from multiple sources (e.g., soda, energy drinks, coffee and tea), cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness. Cross-lagged path models for individual substance use categories provided good fit to the data. Controlling for demographic variables and other substance use at baseline, caffeine at T1 was positively associated with T2 cigarette smoking (β = .27, p = .001), e-cigarette use (β = .21, p = .001), alcohol use (β = .17, p = .001), and drunkenness (β = .15, p = .001). Conversely, non-significant relations emerged between three of four substances at T1 and caffeine at T2. Positive relations were found between e-cigarette use at T1 and caffeine use at T2 (β = .07, p = .006). These findings were supported by an omnibus model with all substances included. Specifically, significant relations were observed between caffeine at T1 and all substance use outcomes at T2, whereas no significant relations were observed between substance use and caffeine over time. Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS and 32 healthy controls (C were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF, in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96% and specificity (91%; the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937. There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI, and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  12. Meconium indicators of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy and association with patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  13. "Get drunk. Smoke weed. Have fun.": A Content Analysis of Tweets About Marijuana and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-01

    To explore the sentiment and themes of Twitter chatter that mentions both alcohol and marijuana. Cross-sectional analysis of tweets mentioning both alcohol and marijuana during 1 month was performed. The study setting was Twitter. Tweets sent from February 4 to March 5, 2014, were studied. A random sample (n = 5000) of tweets that mentioned alcohol and marijuana were qualitatively coded as normalizing both substances, preferring one substance over the other, or discouraging both substances. Other common themes were identified. More than half (54%) of the tweets normalized marijuana and alcohol (without preferring one substance over the other), and 24% preferred marijuana over alcohol. Only 2% expressed a preference for alcohol over marijuana, 7% discouraged the use of both substances, and the sentiment was unknown for 13% of the tweets. Common themes among tweets that normalized both substances included using the substances with friends (17%) and mentioning substance use in the context of sex or romance (14%). Common themes among tweets that preferred marijuana over alcohol were the beliefs that marijuana is safer than alcohol (46%) and preferences for effects of marijuana over alcohol (40%). Tweets normalizing polysubstance use or encouraging marijuana use over alcohol use are common. Both online and offline prevention efforts are needed to increase awareness of the risks associated with polysubstance use and marijuana use.

  14. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  15. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  19. A Descriptive Study of the Prevalence and Typology of Alcohol-Related Posts in an Online Social Network for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zhao, Kang; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Amato, Michael S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Papandonatos, George D; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use and problem drinking are associated with smoking relapse and poor smoking-cessation success. User-generated content in online social networks for smoking cessation provides an opportunity to understand the challenges and treatment needs of smokers. This study used machine-learning text classification to identify the prevalence, sentiment, and social network correlates of alcohol-related content in the social network of a large online smoking-cessation program, BecomeAnEX.org. Data were analyzed from 814,258 posts (January 2012 to May 2015). Posts containing alcohol keywords were coded via supervised machine-learning text classification for information about the user's personal experience with drinking, whether the user self-identified as a problem drinker or indicated problem drinking, and negative sentiment about drinking in the context of a quit attempt (i.e., alcohol should be avoided during a quit attempt). Less than 1% of posts were related to alcohol, contributed by 13% of users. Roughly a third of alcohol posts described a personal experience with drinking; very few (3%) indicated "problem drinking." The majority (70%) of alcohol posts did not express negative sentiment about drinking alcohol during a quit attempt. Users who did express negative sentiment about drinking were more centrally located within the network compared with those who did not. Discussion of alcohol was rare, and most posts did not signal the need to quit or abstain from drinking during a quit attempt. Featuring expert information or highlighting discussions that are consistent with treatment guidelines may be important steps to ensure smokers are educated about drinking risks.

  20. Gender differences in the prospective association between maternal alcohol consumption trajectories and young adult offspring’s problem gambling at 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam T. Tran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a large number of studies have examined the association between young adult’s alcohol consumption and their problem gambling behaviours, none of these studies address the prospective association between mother’s alcohol consumption and their young adult offspring’s problem gambling behaviours. Using data from a 30 year prospective pre-birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia (n = 1691, our study examines whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict offspring’s risk of problem gambling behaviours and whether these associations differ by the young adults’ gender. Offspring’s level of problem gambling behaviours was assessed by the short version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, with about 10.6 % of young adults having some risk of problem gambling behaviours. Trajectories of maternal alcohol consumption were determined by group-based trajectory modelling over five time points. Our study found that mother’s alcohol consumption pattern fits into three drinking trajectory groups, namely abstainers (17.2 %, a low-stable drinkers group (64.6 % and a moderate-escalating drinkers group (18.2 %. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the moderate-escalating alcohol trajectory group is independently associated with a risk of their male young adult offspring having problem gambling behaviours at 30 years—even after adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Mothers who exhibit a persistent life course pattern of moderate-escalating drinking have male children who have a high risk of engaging in problem gambling behaviours. Offspring’s alcohol consumption partially mediated the association between maternal drinking trajectories and young adult’s risk of problem behaviours. High levels of maternal alcohol consumption may lead to male offspring antisocial behaviours. Programs intended to address problem gambling behaviours by young adults may need to

  1. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Park

    Full Text Available We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ≥30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (≥24 g/day and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI: AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]. Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41] was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (20 pack years, 1.80 for ≥24 g/day and ≤20 pack years, 2.03 for ≥24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ≥24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.

  2. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  3. A longitudinal study of work load and variations in psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Lipsey, Z; Mills, R; Oliver, G; Jarvis, M; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of variations in work load (indexed by paid work hours) on psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption were examined in a sample of 71 workers (44 women, 27 men) in the retail industry. Measures were obtained on four occasions over a six-month period, and assessments were ranked individually according to hours of work over the past seven days. Job strain (demand/control) and job social support were evaluated as potential moderators of responses. Paid work hours ranged from a mean of 32.6 to 48.0 hours per week, and ratings of work-home conflict and perceived stress varied across assessments. Salivary cortisol was inversely associated with job strain and did not vary across sessions. Female but not male smokers consumed more cigarettes during periods of long work hours, and self-reported smoking and cotinine concentrations were greater among smokers with higher nicotine dependency scores. Men but not women with poor social supports consumed more alcohol as work hours lengthened. These data indicate that health behaviors are affected only to a limited extent by variations in work load. Results are discussed in the context of adaptation to work and the pathways linking stressful experience with health risk.

  4. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  5. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzer, Siara K.; Cole, Jesse M.; Johnson, Julia M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Diaz, Marvin R.

    2017-01-01

    Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12) heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model modera...

  6. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  8. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  9. The effects of alcoholism and smoking on advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute supportive/palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the characteristics and symptom burden of advanced cancer patients with alcoholism problems and smoking, who were referred to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (ASPCU) of a comprehensive cancer center. Patients' characteristics, indications for admission, kind of admission, awareness of prognosis, and anticancer treatments were recorded. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was used to assess physical and psychological symptoms, and the CAGE questionnaire for the diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients were also divided in three groups: persistent smokers (PS), former smokers (FS), and non-smokers (NS). The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) was used to assess the cognitive status of patients. Analgesic drugs and their doses at admission and discharge were recorded, as well opioid escalation index during hospital stay. Three hundred fourteen consecutive cancer patients were surveyed. Forty-seven (14.9%), 143 (45.5%), and 124 (39.5%) subjects were PS-patients, FS-patients, and NS-patients, respectively. Sixteen patients were CAGE-positive. Females were more frequently NS, while males were more frequently FS (p = 0.0005). Statistical differences were also observed in disease awareness among the categories of smoking (p = 0.048). No statistical differences were found in ESAS items, except for drowsiness at T0 in NS-patients. Differences were found in OME and OEI, although the large variability of data did not determined a statistical difference. Higher values of nausea (at T0, p = 0.0005), dyspnea (at T0 and TX, p = 0.08 and 0.023, respectively), and well-being (at TX p = 0.003) were reported in CAGE-positive patients. No correlation was found between CAGE-positive patients and smokers. Although smoking and alcoholism have obvious implications in advanced cancer patients, data remain controversial, as present data did provide limited data to confirm risk factors for advanced cancer patients

  10. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass......The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested...

  12. Impact of alcohol habits and smoking on the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Reims, Henrik M; Gjesdal, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased by uncontrolled hypertension, and antihypertensive treatment reduces new-onset AF. However, it is unclear whether alcohol intake and smoking influence the risk of new-onset AF during antihypertensive treatment....

  13. Partner’s and own education : does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  14. The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 2006-07 NHS costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin K; Allender, Steve; Foster, Charlie; Rayner, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease to the NHS provide evidence for prioritization of resources for prevention and public health. Previous comparable estimates of the economic costs of poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were based on economic data from 1992-93. Diseases associated with poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were identified. Risk factor-specific population attributable fractions for these diseases were applied to disease-specific estimates of the economic cost to the NHS in the UK in 2006-07. In 2006-07, poor diet-related ill health cost the NHS in the UK £5.8 billion. The cost of physical inactivity was £0.9 billion. Smoking cost was £3.3 billion, alcohol cost £3.3 billion, overweight and obesity cost £5.1 billion. The estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease presented here are based on recent financial data and are directly comparable. They suggest that poor diet is a behavioural risk factor that has the highest impact on the budget of the NHS, followed by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity.

  15. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  16. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases

  17. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  18. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  19. Religiosidade, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e tabagismo em adolescentes Religiousness, alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bezerra

    2009-11-01

    religiousness and exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence. METHODS: The sample included 4 210 high-school students from state schools in Pernambuco, Brazil, selected through two-stage cluster sampling. Information was collected using the Global school-based student health survey (GSHS. Exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking was defined as consumption of either substance at least 1 day in the past 30 days, regardless of intensity. Religious affiliation and practice were analyzed as religiousness-related variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of exposure to alcohol consumption was 30.3% (95%CI: 28.9-31.7. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in males (38.6% than females (24.8%. The prevalence of exposure to smoking was 7.8% (IC95%: 7.0-8.7, higher in males (9.8% than females (6.2%. Crude analyses revealed that regardless of sex, exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking was inversely proportional to religious affiliation or practice. Logistic regression adjustment revealed that the likelihood of reporting exposure to alcohol consumption (OR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.60-0.83 and smoking (OR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0,46-0,79 was lower in adolescents who reported religious practice, independently of affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that religiousness may act as a modulator for the exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence. Further studies should be carried out to analyze how the protective effect of religiousness can be enhanced through health interventions and campaigns.

  20. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993-1994, 1999-2001 and 2005-2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  1. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  2. Association of maternal CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with smoking, preterm delivery, and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing eZheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery (PTD is an adverse birth outcome associated with increased infant mortality and negative lifelong health consequences. PTD may be the result of interactions between genetics and maternal/fetal environmental factors including smoking exposure (SMK. A common deletion in the GSTT1 gene was previously reported to affect birth outcomes in smokers. In this study, we dissect the associations among SMK, birth outcomes, and copy number variations (CNVs in the GSTT1/GSTT2 region.A preterm birth case-control dataset of 1937 mothers was part of the GENEVA preterm birth study, which included genome-wide genotyping used to identify CNVs. We examined the association of SMK with birth outcomes, detected CNVs within the GSTT1/GSTT2 region using PennCNV, and examined associations of the identified CNVs with preterm birth and with birth weight (BW in full term birth controls, including interactions with SMK. Finally, we tested the association of CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with SMK.We confirmed the association of smoking with low BW and PTD. We identified 2 CNVs in GSTT2 (GSTT2a and GSTT2b, 1 CNV in GSTTP1 and 2 CNVs in GSTT1 (GSTT1a and GSTT1b. The GSTT2a deletion was associated with reduced BW (-284g, p=2.5E-7 in smokers, and was more common in smokers (odds ratio[OR]=1.3, p=0.036. We found that the size of the reported common deletion CNV in GSTT1 was larger than previously shown. The GSTTP1 and GSTT1b null genotypes were in high linkage disequilibrium (LD (D’=0.89 and less common in smokers (OR=0.68, p=0.019 and OR=0.73, p=0.055 respectively. These two deletions were in partial LD with GSTT2a and GSTT2b duplications. All 5 CNVs seem to be associated with increased risk of preterm birth before 35 completed weeks.CNVs in the GSTTT1/GSTT2 region appear associated with low BW and PTD outcomes, but LD complicated these CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2. In genetic association studies of BW, multiple CNVs in this region need to be investigated instead of a single

  3. Bidirectional relationship between time preference and adolescent smoking and alcohol use: Evidence from longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae

    2017-07-01

    Scholarly interest in time preference as a potential predictor of risky health behaviors in adolescents has increased in recent years. However, most of the existing literature is limited due to the exclusive reliance on cross-sectional data, precluding the possibility of establishing the direction of causality. Using longitudinal data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (2003-7), which followed up a nationally representative sample of 3449 adolescents aged 14years for five years, this study examines a bidirectional relationship between time preference and smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents. We used discrete time hazard models of smoking and drinking initiation as a function of time preference measured at the baseline and fixed-effects ordered logit model of time preference, respectively. Our measure of time preference was derived from the survey question on a hypothetical choice between immediate enjoyment today and likely higher scores on an exam tomorrow. The overall results provide evidence on the bidirectional relationship; that is, higher time discounting (i.e., greater relative preference for present utility over future utility) results in an increased risk of engaging in smoking and drinking, and conversely, adopting such behaviors leads to a higher discount rate. The bidirectional relationship may function as a mechanism for adolescents to engage in increased smoking and drinking or additional negative health behaviors via gateway effects, strengthening the case for preventing the initiation of risky health behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina; Højbjerre, Lise; Riegels, Mette

    2004-01-01

    in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors...... into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically...... strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences...

  5. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects......-sectional analyses from 2000, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: In participants with diabetes, leisure time PA levels increased from 2000 to 2010: The percentage of those that were physically active increased from 53.5% to 78.2% (p... in participants with diabetes compared to participants without diabetes throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of physically active Danish participants older than 45 years with diabetes increased from 2000 to 2010, and the most beneficial trends in life style were observed among the women. These trends...

  6. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2006-01-01

    hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...... of early weaning was 1.47. Elevated relative risks were also associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (1.52) and unwanted pregnancy status (1.59). Other independent predictors were male gender, maternal psychiatric hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis, and low parental social status......OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...

  7. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  8. What are the Patterns Between Depression, Smoking, Unhealthy Alcohol Use, and Other Substance Use Among Individuals Receiving Medical Care? A Longitudinal Study of 5479 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate and characterize the structure of temporal patterns of depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care, and to inform discussion about whether integrated screening and treatment strategies for these conditions are warranted. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) we measured depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use and other substance use (stimulants, marijuana, heroin, opioids) and evaluated which conditions tended to co-occur within individuals, and how this co-occurrence was temporally structured (i.e. concurrently, sequentially, or discordantly). Current depression was associated with current use of every substance examined with the exception of unhealthy alcohol use. Current unhealthy alcohol use and marijuana use were also consistently associated. Current status was strongly predicted by prior status (p depression in the HIV infected subgroup only (p depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use were temporally concordant, particularly with regard to depression and substance use. These patterns may inform future development of more integrated screening and treatment strategies.

  9. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    , and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P ... abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P 

  10. Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L.M.; Tolley, E.A.; Thodosoff, J.M.; Kerling, E.H.; Sullivan, D.K.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n=54) compared to control formula (n=15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS® that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  11. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...

  12. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  13. Clustering of lifestyle factors in Spanish university students: the relationship between smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Carlos; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tauler-Riera, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Martinez-Andreu, Sonia; Aguilo-Pons, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of and association between main lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking) in students from the Balearic Islands University. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire including questions on lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity habits was administered to the students. Four different diet quality scores were calculated (Diet Diversity Score, Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Guidelines Score and Global Dietary Guidelines Score). A sample of students from the Balearic Islands University. Nine hundred and eighty-seven students (45·5 % males; mean age 21·5 (sd 3·3) years). The dietary pattern of the student population was characterized by a low consumption of cereals and tubers, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes and nuts, and a high consumption of processed meat, sweets, snacks, soft drinks and pastries. Linear, positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the number of meals consumed daily and all of the diet quality scores determined. Determinants of diet quality, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses, were physical activity practice, sex, age and number of meals consumed daily. Risk factors such as smoking, diet and physical inactivity had a tendency of clustering among Spanish university students. Overall diet quality was low, due to important departures from dietary recommendations and loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutritional education campaigns that include promotion of physical activity practice are needed to improve the overall health status of this population.

  14. Maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia: a population cohort record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Lawrence, David; O'Leary, Colleen; Bower, Carol; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. Population cohort study. Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007). Women who had an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10) recorded on the Hospital Morbidity, Mental Health Inpatients and Outpatients, and Drug and Alcohol Office data sets formed the exposed group. The comparison cohort was frequency-matched to the exposed cohort based on maternal age within Indigenous status and child's year of birth. Child's school attendance was obtained from the Department of Education (2008-2012). Poor attendance was defined as alcohol use disorder was significantly associated with increased odds of poor attendance (non-Indigenous: OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.74; Indigenous: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.79). With adjustment for maternal and child factors, there was no significant difference between the timing of alcohol diagnosis relative to pregnancy and attendance outcomes. The population attributable fraction was higher in the Indigenous cohort than the non-Indigenous cohort (6.0% vs 1.3%). Maternal alcohol use disorder was associated with a significantly increased odds of poor school attendance for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children. There was no significant difference between the timing of diagnoses and odds of poor school attendance. This suggests that the effect of maternal alcohol use disorder may not be driven by the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol exposure in utero, but may be mediated through family or social factors for which we were unable to adjust. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  15. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  17. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  18. The Big-Five Personality Traits, Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, and Educational Qualifications as Predictors of Tobacco Use in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations between the Big-Five personality traits, parental social class, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and tobacco use in a longitudinal birth cohort study.17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 11, 33, and 50 years of age. Lifelong tobacco use status (ever/never and current tobacco use status (yes/no at age 50 years were the outcome measures respectively.Logistic regression analyses showed that among the 5,840 participants with complete data, whilst maternal smoking status, educational qualifications, and all the big-5 personality traits were significant predictors of adult lifelong tobacco use; educational qualifications, own occupational levels, traits Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness were significant predictors of current smoking status. In lifelong measure men tended to have a greater rate of tobacco use than women (52.1% in men and 49.2% in women. However, the sex effect on lifelong tobacco use ceased to be significant once a set of socio-economic and psychological variables in childhood and adulthood were taken into account.Educational qualifications and the Big-Five personality traits were significantly associated with both current and lifelong tobacco use status.

  19. The Big-Five Personality Traits, Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, and Educational Qualifications as Predictors of Tobacco Use in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the associations between the Big-Five personality traits, parental social class, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and tobacco use in a longitudinal birth cohort study. 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 11, 33, and 50 years of age. Lifelong tobacco use status (ever/never) and current tobacco use status (yes/no) at age 50 years were the outcome measures respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that among the 5,840 participants with complete data, whilst maternal smoking status, educational qualifications, and all the big-5 personality traits were significant predictors of adult lifelong tobacco use; educational qualifications, own occupational levels, traits Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness were significant predictors of current smoking status. In lifelong measure men tended to have a greater rate of tobacco use than women (52.1% in men and 49.2% in women). However, the sex effect on lifelong tobacco use ceased to be significant once a set of socio-economic and psychological variables in childhood and adulthood were taken into account. Educational qualifications and the Big-Five personality traits were significantly associated with both current and lifelong tobacco use status.

  20. Internet-based self-help smoking cessation and alcohol moderation interventions for cancer survivors: a study protocol of two RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujcic, Ajla; Blankers, Matthijs; Boon, Brigitte; Engels, Rutger; van Laar, Margriet

    2018-04-02

    Brief interventions for smoking cessation and alcohol moderation may contribute considerably to the prevention of cancer among populations at risk, such as cancer survivors, in addition to improving their general wellbeing. There is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of internet-based brief health behaviour interventions. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness, patient-level cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of two new online theory-based self-help interventions among adult cancer survivors in the Netherlands. One of the interventions focuses on alcohol moderation, the other on smoking cessation. Both interventions are tailored to cancer survivors. Effectiveness will be assessed in two separate, nearly identical 2-armed RCTs: alcohol moderation (AM RCT) and smoking cessation (SC RCT). Participants are randomly allocated to either the intervention groups or the control groups. In the intervention groups, participants have access to one of the newly developed interventions. In the control groups, participants receive an online static information brochure on alcohol (AM RCT) or smoking (SC RCT). Main study outcome parameters are the number of drinks post-randomisation (AM RCT) and tobacco abstinence (SC RCT). In addition, cost-data and possible effect moderators and mediators will be assessed. Both treatments are internet-based minimally guided self-help interventions: MyCourse - Moderate Drinking (in Dutch: MijnKoers - Minderen met Drinken) and MyCourse - Quit Smoking (MijnKoers - Stoppen met Roken). They are based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both interventions are optimized in collaboration with the target population of cancer survivors in focus groups and interviews, and in collaboration with several experts on eHealth, smoking cessation, alcohol misuse and cancer survivorship. The present study will add to scientific knowledge on the (cost

  1. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration.We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview.In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4.Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  2. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-02-28

    Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4). Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  3. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  4. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntaro Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett's esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46 and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40. Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett's esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41 and the presence of Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56.Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett's esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.

  5. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Garfield, Melissa J; Sullivan, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58-0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  6. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  8. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  9. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  10. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  11. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  12. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  13. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006. Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  14. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  15. Maternal consumption of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage: relationships to infant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, J R; Allen, L H; Martinez, E; Pelto, G H

    2001-08-01

    To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prospective cohort study. Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984-1985. Seventy mother-infant pairs. Most women (72.9%) consumed pulque during pregnancy, and 28.6% consumed more than 150 g ethanol week(-1) from the beverage. Individuals who consumed pulque showed no compensating decrease in energy obtained from other foods. Pulque consumption possessed curvilinear relationships with both infant length (at 1 and 6 months) and Bayley mental performance (at 6 months). Heavy pulque intakes were associated with smaller infant size and poorer mental performance. In modest quantities, pulque consumption may have been beneficial due to its micronutrient content. Intakes of alcohol from pulque were common among pregnant women in these rural, central Mexican villages. Given current scientific knowledge of the adverse effects of ethanol on foetal development, public health interventions are needed to reduce heavy pulque consumption during pregnancy in some areas of rural Mexico.

  16. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siara K. Rouzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12 heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model moderate PAE (mPAE, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either room air or vaporized ethanol for 6 h on G12. Adolescent offspring were then tested on postnatal days (P 41–47 in one of the following four anxiety assays: novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH, elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and open-field (OF. Our findings revealed significant increases in measures of anxiety-like behavior in male PAE offspring in the NIH, LDB and OF, with no differences observed in females on any test. Additionally, male offspring who demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior as adolescents demonstrated decreased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, as measured by a marble-burying test (MBT, while females continued to be unaffected in adulthood. These results suggest that mPAE leads to dynamic changes in anxiety-like behavior exclusively in male offspring.

  17. Maternal substance use during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruisch, I.H.; Dietrich, A.; Glennon, J.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J

    2018-01-01

    We conducted meta-analyses of relationships between highly prevalent substance use during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder problems. In total 36 studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were 2.06 (1.67-2.54, 25 studies) for maternal smoking, 2.11 (1.42-3.15, 9 studies) for alcohol use, and

  18. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background: Promotion of a healthy lifestyle and non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has received great attention in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking......, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking......, alcohol consumption, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Participants aged 25 years or older with and without COPD were included in the analyses. Results: In multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratio (OR) of being physically active in the leisure time in 2010 compared to 2000 was 1.70 (95...

  19. Maternal smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of uterine small arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Stender, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy.......This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy....

  20. Potential combined effects of maternal smoking and coffee intake on foetal death within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    on the risk of foetal (early and late) death. The study included 90 086 pregnant women, with information about their smoking habit and coffee intake in early pregnancy, and several potential confounding factors. Interaction was studied by calculating both the hazard ratio (HR) in Cox's regression (linear......Background: Several studies have linked coffee intake and smoking to foetal death, but a possible interaction between both exposures remains unknown. Methods: We studied, within the Danish National Birth Cohort, the potential interaction between smoking and coffee drinking while pregnant...... and smoothed restricted cubic spline) and the interaction contrast ratio (ICR). Results: Women who neither smoked nor drank coffee were used as the reference group. Drinking more than 3 cups/d of coffee was associated with the highest risk of foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth for all smoking...

  1. Partner’s and own education: does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual perspective. Recently, applying social–ecological models that include socio-economic factors on various social levels is becoming popular. We argue that partners are an important influence on individual h...

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  3. Are physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men or women? Results from a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Kupelian, Varant; Miyasato, Gavin; McVary, Kevin T; McKinlay, John B

    2012-08-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and the development of lower urinary tract symptoms have been largely unexamined. We investigated physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women. Data were obtained from the BACH (Boston Area Community Health) Survey, a longitudinal observational study. Baseline (2002 to 2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Five-year followup interviews (2006 to 2010 in 4,145) assessed new reports of moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms defined by the AUASI (AUA symptom index). Analysis was conducted using multivariable logistic regression. Lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17, 0.60; p physical activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly storage symptoms (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.30, 3.56; p = 0.003), compared to never smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype. A low level of physical activity was associated with a 2 to 3 times greater likelihood of lower urinary tract symptoms. Smoking may contribute to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in women but not in men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation, noting the additional potential benefits of the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly for women. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  4. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2014-05-01

    NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. From 1992 to 1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% younger than age 65; 67% postmenopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.007; HR = 1.3 for 15-35 years smoking, HR = 1.6 for ≥ 35 years), lung cancer (P cancer (P breast cancer risk only among women assigned to placebo (P = 0.021 activity main effect, P = 0.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR = 1.4 for the placebo group) and endometrial cancer among all women (P = 0.026, HR = 1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0-1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (P = 0.019; HR = 0.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Among women with elevated risk of breast cancer, smoking has an even greater impact on breast cancer risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  5. Survey about the potential effects of economic downturn on alcohol consumption, smoking and quality of life in a sample of Central Italy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fabio; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Peroni, Annalisa; Kracmarova, Lenka; Scuri, Stefania

    2018-03-27

    Negative health effects have been associated with the changes in lifestyles in relation with the low income of population. Consequently, in our study we investigated the frequency changes of alcohol and smoke consumption, physical activity, and quality of life in families of Marche Region in Central Italy. In the period 2016-2017, an anonymous questionnaire has been distributed to junior highschool students of Camerino, Fabriano, and Civitanova Marche of Marche Region. The Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used to assess subjective quality of life. Data obtained in this research were used to analyze lifestyle changes, specifically those involving alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity, and to assess perceived general quality of life. In all categories of population, an increase of frequency in alcohol consumption was observed. On the contrary, for the tobacco smoke we observed a reduction in particular in the parents category. The MANSA mean value was 4.5 with a Standard Deviation of 1.3. As underlighted, also, by results of the MANSA test we can hypothesize a reduction in the family income produces a change of lifestyles.

  6. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  7. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Pietinen, Pirjo; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2002-05-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity worldwide are suggested to be caused largely by an environment that promotes sedentariness and excessive food intake. We investigated associations of body mass index (BMI) and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol consumption, and smoking history. In addition, we examined the consistency of these associations over time, with the aim of assessing whether the significance of lifestyle variables as correlates of obesity increased over a 15-y period. Independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Altogether, 24604 randomly selected men and women (aged 25-64 y) participated in these surveys. The subjects' weights and heights were measured, and data on lifestyle were collected with self-administered questionnaires. In men and women, perceived general health, leisure-time physical activity, and daily vegetable consumption were inversely associated with obesity, as were bread consumption in women and activity at work in men. Consumption of sausages, milk, and sour milk and heavy work (in women only) were positively associated with obesity. Obesity was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking history. Most associations were constant over the 15-y period. However, the inverse associations of BMI with physical activity in women and with perceived health in men seemed to strengthen over time. A physically active lifestyle with abstention from smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, and consumption of healthy foods maximizes the chances of having a normal weight. The significance of avoiding sedentariness increases over time as a factor associated with normal weight.

  8. With friends like these…: peer delinquency influences across age cohorts on smoking, alcohol and illegal substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C J; Meehan, D C

    2011-01-01

    Discussions and debate about youth smoking, alcohol use, and illegal substance use (collectively referred to as youth substance use) continue to receive wide attention among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. Previous research has suggested that peer delinquency is a particularly strong correlate of youth substance use. The current study focuses on the influence of delinquent peers on substance use, and how peer delinquency influences change across age cohorts of youth. The current study examines multiple correlates for youth substance use in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the influence of delinquent peers across age cohorts while controlling for other correlates. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Results from multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency as the strongest correlate of youth substance use even when other relevant factors related to family, neighborhood, and media use were controlled. Correlations between peer delinquency and substance use behavior increased across age cohorts and for individuals who first used in middle teen years (13-16) irrespective of current age. Age appears to be a moderating factor regarding the correlation between peer delinquency and youth substance abuse. Primary and secondary prevention and intervention strategies that focus on peers are potentially more likely to reduce youth substance use and improve peer relationships than those focused on other areas such as schools or media. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  10. Non-random mating and convergence over time for alcohol consumption, smoking, and exercise: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Helga; Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    Spouses tend to have similar lifestyles. We explored the degree to which spouse similarity in alcohol use, smoking, and physical exercise is caused by non-random mating or convergence. We used data collected for the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study from 1984 to 1986 and prospective registry information about when and with whom people entered marriage/cohabitation between 1970 and 2000. Our sample included 19,599 married/cohabitating couples and 1,551 future couples that were to marry/cohabitate in the 14-16 years following data collection. All couples were grouped according to the duration between data collection and entering into marriage/cohabitation. Age-adjusted polychoric spouse correlations were used as the dependent variables in non-linear segmented regression analysis; the independent variable was time. The results indicate that spouse concordance in lifestyle is due to both non-random mating and convergence. Non-random mating appeared to be strongest for smoking. Convergence in alcohol use and smoking was evident during the period prior to marriage/cohabitation, whereas convergence in exercise was evident throughout life. Reduced spouse similarity in smoking with relationship duration may reflect secular trends.

  11. The developmental effects of HIV and alcohol: a comparison of gestational outcomes among babies from South African communities with high prevalence of HIV and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A M; Fernandez, Anne; Claborn, Kasey; Kuo, Caroline; Koen, Nastassja; Zar, Heather; Stein, Dan J

    2017-05-08

    There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine whether maternal alcohol use, maternal HIV status and other risk factors (socioeconomic status, smoking, depression) predicted infant outcomes. Our results showed severity of recent alcohol use and lifetime alcohol use predicted low birth weight. Similarly lifetime alcohol use predicted shorter infant length, smaller head length, smaller head circumference, and early gestational age. However, HIV status was not a significant predictor of gestational outcomes. The unexpected finding that maternal HIV status did not predict any of the gestational outcomes may be due to high rates of ART usage among HIV-infected mothers. The potentially negative effects of HIV on gestational outcomes may have been attenuated by improved maternal health due to high coverage of antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Interventions are needed to reduce alcohol consumption among pregnant mothers and to support healthy growth and psychosocial development of infants.

  12. The Role of Nicotine in the Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Lung Development and Childhood Respiratory Disease. Implications for Dangers of E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Eliot R; McEvoy, Cindy T

    2016-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes, especially among the young, is increasing at near-exponential rates. This is coupled with a perception that e-cigarettes are safe and with unlimited advertising geared toward vulnerable populations, the groups most likely to smoke or vape during pregnancy. There is now wide appreciation of the dangers of maternal smoking during pregnancy and the lifelong consequences this has on offspring lung function, including the increased risk of childhood wheezing and subsequent asthma. Recent evidence strongly supports that much of the effect of smoking during pregnancy on offspring lung function is mediated by nicotine, making it highly likely that e-cigarette use during pregnancy will have the same harmful effects on offspring lung function and health as do conventional cigarettes. In fact, the evidence for nicotine being the mediator of harm of conventional cigarettes may be most compelling for its effects on lung development. This raises concerns about both the combined use of e-cigarettes plus conventional cigarettes by smokers during pregnancy as well as the use of e-cigarettes by e-cigarette-only users who think them safe or by those sufficiently addicted to nicotine to not be able to quit e-cigarette usage during pregnancy. Thus, it is important for health professionals to be aware of the risks of e-cigarette usage during pregnancy, particularly as it pertains to offspring respiratory health.

  13. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  14. Metabolomics reveals effects of maternal smoking on endogenous metabolites from lipid metabolism in cord blood of newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike E.; Krumsiek, Jan; Otto, Wolfgang; Röder, Stefan W; Kohajda, Tibor; Borte, Michael; Theis, Fabian; Lehmann, Irina; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A general detrimental effect of smoking during pregnancy on the health of newborn children is well-documented, but the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Objectives Beside the specific influence of environmental tobacco smoke derived toxicants on developmental regulation the impact on the metabolism of newborn children is of particular interest, first as a general marker of foetal development and second due to its potential predictive value for the later occurrence of metabolic ...

  15. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  17. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  18. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  19. Does the population living in Roma settlements differ in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption from the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Stefková, Gabriela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have revealed a high prevalence of risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In Slovakia, one of the most socially and health-disadvantaged groups is the Roma minority. The aim of this study is to explore differences in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population in Slovakia. Data from the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. The differences in health-related behaviour between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were analysed using logistic models separately for males and females. These data show a clear difference between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population with regard to leisure-time physical activity (only in women) and smoking, although not alcohol consumption. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activities such as walking or some other type of sport was significantly lower among Roma women than among non-Roma women. Men and women living in Roma settlements are more likely to smoke on a daily basis and they are heavier smokers in comparison with the majority population. HepaMeta study did not find differences in alcohol consumption between the Roma and non-Roma men. However, Roma women reported less frequent recent drinking and binge-drinking of 6 or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion. The higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle activities among Roma seem to contribute to these inequalities in cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in comparison with the majority population.

  20. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

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    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  1. Women's Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy.

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    Giuseppe Esposito

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy.Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity. Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9% reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity.The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women's levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy.

  2. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

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    Stojanović Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ≥ 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.

  4. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

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    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  5. Do health behaviours change after colonoscopy? A prospective cohort study on diet, alcohol, physical activity and smoking among patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gill; Brown, Alistair; Campbell, Anna; Campbell, Neil; Diament, Bob; Fielding, Shona; Forbat, Liz; Masson, Lindsey F; O'Carroll, Ronan; Stein, Kevin; Morrison, David S

    2014-01-14

    To describe diet, alcohol, physical activity and tobacco use prospectively, that is, before and 10 months after colonoscopy for patients and their partners. Prospective cohort study of health behaviour change in patients and partners. Comparison groups are patients receiving a normal result notification (NRN) versus patients receiving an abnormal result notification (ARN). Patients and partners (controls) are also compared. 5 Scottish hospitals. Of 5798 colonoscopy registrations, 2577 (44%) patients met the eligibility criteria of whom 565 (22%) were recruited; 460 partners were also recruited. International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Scottish Collaborative Group Food Frequency Questionnaire (includes alcohol), smoking status, sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, medical conditions, colonoscopy result, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, behaviour-specific self-efficacy scales. 57% of patients were men, with a mean age of 60.8 years (SE 0.5) and 43% were from more affluent areas. 72% (n=387) of patients received an ARN and 28% (n=149) received an NRN. Response rate of the second questionnaire was 68.9%. Overall, 27% of patients consumed <5 measures of fruit and vegetables/day, 20% exceeded alcohol limits, 50% had low levels of physical activity and 21% were obese. At 10-month follow-up, a 5% reduction in excessive alcohol consumption and an 8% increase in low levels of physical activity were observed among patients; no significant changes occurred in partners. Baseline high alcohol consumption and low physical activity were the strongest predictors of these behaviours at follow-up. Low alcohol self-efficacy and increasing age were associated with poorer health-related behaviours at follow-up for alcohol consumption and physical activity, respectively. Colonoscopy is associated with marginal beneficial changes in some behaviours but not others. Further work is needed to explore how services can optimise increases in beneficial

  6. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  7. Estimating the Impact of Large Cigarette Tax Hikes--The Case of Maternal Smoking and Infant Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Diana S.; Evans, William

    2005-01-01

    Substantial increases in cigarette taxes result in decrease in smoking by pregnant women. It is also observed that there is consequent improvement in infant birth weight. The conclusions are based on the data from four states that opted to raise cigarette taxes by a large margin.

  8. A case-control study of the protective effect of alcohol, coffee, and cigarette consumption on Parkinson disease risk: time-since-cessation modifies the effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Huss, Anke; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (total smoking) and PD risk. Data of a hospital based case-control study was used including 444 PD patients, diagnosed between 2006 and 2011, and 876 matched controls from 5 hospitals in the Netherlands. A novel modeling method was applied to derive unbiased estimates of the potential modifying effects of smoking intensity, duration, and time-since-cessation by conditioning on total exposure. We observed no reduced risk of PD by alcohol consumption and only a weak inverse association between coffee consumption and PD risk. However, a strong inverse association of total smoking with PD risk was observed (OR=0.27 (95%CI: 0.18-0.42) for never smokers versus highest quartile of tobacco use). The observed protective effect of total smoking was significantly modified by time-since-cessation with a diminishing protective effect after cessation of smoking. No effect modification by intensity or duration of smoking was observed indicating that both intensity and duration have an equal contribution to the reduced PD risk. Understanding the dynamics of the protective effect of smoking on PD risk aids in understanding PD etiology and may contribute to strategies for prevention and treatment.

  9. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

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    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  10. The association of measures of the serotonin system, personality, alcohol use, and smoking with risk-taking traffic behavior in adolescents in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luht, Kadi; Eensoo, Diva; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets. The purpose of the present study was to examine how measures of the serotonin system (platelet MAO activity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism), personality variables, alcohol use and smoking are associated with risk-taking traffic behavior in schoolchildren through late adolescence. The younger cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (originally n = 583) filled in questionnaires about personality traits, smoking status, alcohol use and traffic behavior at age 15 and 18 years. From venous blood samples, platelet MAO activity was measured radioenzymatically and 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. During late adolescence, subjects with lower platelet MAO activity were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group. Male 5-HTTLPRs'-allele carriers were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group compared to the l'/l' homozygotes. Other variables predicting risk group were alcohol use, smoking and Maladaptive impulsivity.The results suggest that lower capacity of the serotoninergic system is associated with more risky traffic behavior during late adolescence, but possibly by different mechanisms in boys and girls.

  11. Oral clefts, consanguinity, parental tobacco and alcohol use: a case-control study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This hospital-based, case-control study investigated the possible associations between family history of malformations, parental consanguinity, smoking and alcohol drinking and nonsyndromic orofacial cleft (OC, subdivided in 2 main groups: CL/P - cleft lip with or without cleft palate and CP - cleft palate alone. 274 cases were matched (age, sex and place of residence to 548 controls. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI - adjusted for maternal age, schooling and smoking / alcohol use - were calculated by conditional logistic regression. The results demonstrated that the history of oral clefts either in the father's (CL/P: OR = 16.00, 5.64-69.23; CP: OR = 6.64, 1.48-33.75 or in the mother's family (CL/P: OR = 5.00, 2.31-10.99, CP: OR = 12.44, 1.33-294.87 was strongly associated with both types of clefts, but parental consanguinity was associated only with CL/P (OR = 3.8, 1.27-12.18. Prevalence of maternal smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy was higher among cases but the OR (1.13, 0.81-1.57 was not statistically significant. Maternal passive smoking (nonsmoking mothers during pregnancy was associated with CL/P (1.39, 1.01-1.98 but not with CP. Maternal alcohol use during the 1st trimester increased odds for CL/P (OR = 2.08, 1.27-3.41 and CP (OR = 2.89, 1.25-8.30, and odds for OC tended to increase with dose. Neither smoking nor alcohol use by fathers increased risks for OC. This study provides further evidence of a possible role of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke and alcohol in the etiology of nonsyndromic oral clefts.

  12. Comprehensive phenotype/genotype analyses of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 in ADHD: relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

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    Geeta A Thakur

    Full Text Available Despite strong pharmacological evidence implicating the norepinephrine transporter in ADHD, genetic studies have yielded largely insignificant results. We tested the association between 30 tag SNPs within the SLC6A2 gene and ADHD, with stratification based on maternal smoking during pregnancy, an environmental factor strongly associated with ADHD.Children (6-12 years old diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria were comprehensively evaluated with regard to several behavioral and cognitive dimensions of ADHD as well as response to a fixed dose of methylphenidate (MPH using a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Family-based association tests (FBAT, including categorical and quantitative trait analyses, were conducted in 377 nuclear families.A highly significant association was observed with rs36021 (and linked SNPs in the group where mothers smoked during pregnancy. Association was noted with categorical DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (Z=3.74, P=0.0002, behavioral assessments by parents (CBCL, P=0.00008, as well as restless-impulsive subscale scores on Conners'-teachers (P=0.006 and parents (P=0.006. In this subgroup, significant association was also observed with cognitive deficits, more specifically sustained attention, spatial working memory, planning, and response inhibition. The risk allele was associated with significant improvement of behavior as measured by research staff (Z=3.28, P=0.001, parents (Z=2.62, P=0.009, as well as evaluation in the simulated academic environment (Z=3.58, P=0.0003.By using maternal smoking during pregnancy to index a putatively more homogeneous group of ADHD, highly significant associations were observed between tag SNPs within SLC6A2 and ADHD diagnosis, behavioral and cognitive measures relevant to ADHD and response to MPH. This comprehensive phenotype/genotype analysis may help to further understand this complex disorder and improve its treatment. Clinical trial registration information - Clinical

  13. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS.

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    Younghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI], and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4 and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1 participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years, but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  14. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... were analysed with logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of hand eczema was higher among previous smokers (OR = 1.13; CI = 0.90-1.40), current light smokers (OR = 1.51; CI = 1.14-2.02) and current...... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  15. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

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    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China.We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM.We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years.Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should be developed to focus on these modifiable

  16. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2011-10-25

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P < 0.05), and smoking was only associated with increased risks among 1298A-carriers (P < 0.01), but no significant interaction was seen. There was a synergistic interaction between the A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P < 0.05). The highest risk was seen for the CC-carriers with excessive drinking (OR = 7.24, 95% CI = 1.89 - 27.7) compared with the A-carriers without excessive drinking). The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk

  18. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity, their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05 and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03 whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001 whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002 and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009 respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower

  19. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  20. Questioning the causal link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring use of psychotropic medication: a sibling design analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Söderström

    Full Text Available A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate the effect of SDP by means of a sibling design that to some extent allows controlling for unknown environmental and genetic confounders. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1987-1993, which was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register (July 2005-December 2008, we investigated 579,543 children and among them 39, 007 were discordant for use of psychotropic medication and 4,021 siblings discordant for both use of psychotropic medication and for smoking exposure. Replicating the Finnish study using traditional logistic regression methods we found an association between exposure to ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy and psychotropic drug use (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 1.66. Similar in size to the association reported from Finland (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.74. However, in the adjusted sibling analysis using conditional logistic regression, the association was considerably reduced (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.38. Preventing smoking is of major public health importance. However, SDP per se appears to have less influence on offspring psychotropic drug use than previously suggested.

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Koichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133 and A1298C (rs1801131 polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.

  2. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  3. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  4. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  5. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English from 2000 to April 2015 and evaluating eHealth interventions aiming to change one or multiple SNAPO outcomes, and including young adult (18-35years) participants. Of 2,159 articles identified, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions targeted alcohol (n=26), followed by smoking (n=7), physical activity (n=4), obesity (n=4) and nutrition (n=1). Three interventions targeted multiple behaviors. The eHealth interventions were most often delivered via websites (79.5%). Most studies (n=32) compared eHealth interventions to a control group (e.g. waiting list control, minimal intervention), with the majority (n=23) showing a positive effect on a SNAPO outcome at follow-up. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly lower mean number of drinks consumed/week in brief web or computer-based interventions compared to controls (Mean Difference -2.43 [-3.54, -1.32], PeHealth delivery modes, with inconsistent results across target behaviors and technology types. Nine studies compared eHealth to other modes of delivery (e.g. in person) with all finding no difference in SNAPO outcomes between groups at follow-up. This review provides some evidence for the efficacy of eHealth SNAPO interventions for young adults, particularly in the short-term and for alcohol interventions. But there is insufficient evidence for their efficacy in the longer-term, as well as which mode of delivery is most effective. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and betel quid chewing on upper digestive diseases: a large cross-sectional study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yun-Shiuan; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wang, Yao-Kuang; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, I-Chen

    2017-09-29

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor of upper digestive diseases. Findings on alcohol's effect on these diseases are inconsistent and with the exception of its association with esophageal cancer, little is known about betel quid chewing. This study investigated the association between use of these three substances and upper digestive diseases. We collected data from 9,275 patients receiving upper endoscopies between April 2008 and December 2013. Polynomial regressions were used to analyze the association between risk factors and diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Meta-analysis for use of these substances and esophageal diseases was also performed. Participants who simultaneously consumed cigarettes, alcohol and betel quid had a 17.28-fold risk of esophageal cancer (95% CI = 7.59-39.33), 2.99-fold risk of Barrette's esophagus (95% CI = 2.40-4.39), 1.60-fold risk of grade A-B erosive esophagitis (95% CI = 1.29-2.00), 2.00-fold risk of gastric ulcer (95% CI = 1.52-2.63), 2.12-fold risk of duodenitis (95% CI = 1.55-2.89) and 1.29-fold risk of duodenal ulcer (95% CI = 1.01-1.65). Concurrent consumption of more substances was associated with significantly higher risk of developing these diseases. Meta-analysis also revealed use of the three substances came with a high risk of esophageal diseases. In conclusions, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing were associated with upper digestive tract diseases.

  7. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi: Analysis of data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Edith B; Namacha, Ndifanji M

    2017-06-01

    Use of biomass fuels has been shown to contribute to ill health and complications in pregnancy outcomes such as low birthweight, neonatal deaths and mortality in developing countries. However, there is insufficient evidence of this association in the Sub-Saharan Africa and the Malawian population. We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, birthweight, and size of child at birth as well as other relevant information on risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. We used linear regression models for continuous birth weight outcome and logistic regression for the binary outcome. Models were systematically adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Use of high pollution fuels resulted in a 92 g (95% CI: -320.4; 136.4) reduction in mean birth weight compared to low pollution fuel use after adjustment for child, maternal as well as household characteristics. Full adjusted OR (95% CI) for risk of having size below average at birth was 1.29 (0.34; 4.48). Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not statistically significant. More carefully designed studies need to be carried out to explore effects of biomass fuels on pregnancy outcomes and health outcomes in general.

  8. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  9. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey). Patients and their family members or friends were recruited from gastrointestinal medical-surgical, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and rehabilitation clinics or wards at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data for this descriptive, cross-sectional study were extracted from a large series of research studies. A Web-based survey system was developed using a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack solution. The Web survey was set up to include four questionnaires: the Chinese-version Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the Chinese-version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Betel Nut Dependency Scale, and a sociodemographic form with several chronic diseases. After the participants completed the survey, the system automatically calculated their score, categorized their risk level for each behavior, and immediately presented and explained their results. The system also recorded the time each participant took to complete the survey. Of 782 patient participants, 29.6% were addicted to nicotine, 13.3% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 1.5% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Of 425 family or friend participants, 19.8% were addicted to nicotine, 5.6% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 0.9% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Regarding the mean time to complete the survey, patients took 7.9 minutes (SD 3.0; range 3-20) and

  10. Estimating the Potential Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Adverse Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in the United States Using the SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; Mohlman, Mary Katherine; Zhang, Yian

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies document the causal relationship between prenatal smoking and adverse maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes. Studies also reveal the impact that tobacco control policies have on prenatal smoking. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of tobacco control policies on prenatal smoking prevalence and adverse MCH outcomes. The US SimSmoke simulation model was extended to consider adverse MCH outcomes. The model estimates prenatal smoking prevalence and, applying standard attribution methods, uses estimates of MCH prevalence and relative smoking risks to estimate smoking-attributable MCH outcomes over time. The model then estimates the effect of tobacco control policies on adverse birth outcomes averted. Different tobacco control policies have varying impacts on the number of smoking-attributable adverse MCH birth outcomes. Higher cigarette taxes and comprehensive marketing bans individually have the biggest impact with a 5% to 10% reduction across all outcomes for the period from 2015 to 2065. The policies with the lowest impact (2%-3% decrease) during this period are cessation treatment, health warnings, and complete smoke-free laws. Combinations of all policies with each tax level lead to 23% to 28% decreases across all outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the substantial impact of strong tobacco control policies for preventing adverse MCH outcomes, including long-term health implications for children exposed to low birth weight and preterm birth. These benefits are often overlooked in discussions of tobacco control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  12. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  13. Education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 gene polymorphisms in the survival of head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.M. López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and interleukin-2 (IL-2 +114 and -384 and -6 (IL-6 -174 DNA polymorphisms with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC was investigated in a cohort study of 445 subjects. IL-2 and IL-6 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI of disease-specific survival according to anatomical sites of the head and neck. Mean age was 56 years and most patients were males (87.6%. Subjects with 5 or more years of schooling had better survival in larynx cancer. Smoking had no effect on HNSCC survival, but alcohol consumption had a statistically significant effect on larynx cancer. IL-2 gene +114 G/T (HR = 0.52; 95%CI = 0.15-1.81 and T/T (HR = 0.22; 95%CI = 0.02-3.19 genotypes were associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer. IL-2 +114 G/T was a predictor of poor survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer and larynx cancer (HR = 1.32; 95%CI = 0.61-2.85. IL-2 -384 G/T was associated with better survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer (HR = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.45-1.42 and hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.21-2.20, but an inverse relationship was observed for larynx cancer. IL-6 -174 G/C was associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.26-1.78 and larynx cancer (HR = 0.93; 95%CI = 0.42-2.07, and C/C reduced mortality in larynx cancer. In general, our results are similar to previous reports on the value of education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 genetic polymorphisms for the prognosis of HNSCC, but the risks due to these variables are small and estimates imprecise.

  14. Social Disparities in Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: Comparison of Two Birth Cohorts (1996-2002 and 2003-2012) Based on Data from the German KiGGS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, B; Lampert, T

    2016-03-01

    Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy represents a significant developmental risk for the unborn child. This study investigated social differences in maternal smoking behavior during pregnancy in mothers living in Germany. The study focused on maternal age at delivery, social status and migration background. Method: The evaluation of data was based on two surveys carried out as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) carried out in 2003-2006 and in 2009-2012. The study compared the information given by parents of children aged between 0 and 6 years who were born either in the period from 1996 to  2002 (KiGGS baseline study, n = 4818) or in the period from 2003 to 2012 (KiGGS Wave 1, n = 4434). Determination of social status was based on parental educational levels, occupational position and income. Children classified as having a two-sided migration background either had parents, both of whom had immigrated to Germany, or were born abroad and had one parent who had immigrated to Germany; children classified as having a one-sided migration background had been born in Germany but had one parent who had immigrated to Germany. Results: The percentage of children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy was 19.9 % for the older birth cohort and 12.1 % for the younger birth cohort. In both birth cohorts, the probability of being exposed to tobacco smoke was twice as high for children whose mothers were aged migration background was associated with a lower risk of exposure to smoking. Conclusions: The KiGGS results are in accordance with the results of other national and international studies whi