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Sample records for maternal serum corticosterone

  1. Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.

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    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N

    2001-07-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. On day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. Using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% NaCl solution or ACTH (cosyntropin; Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). During the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately after defecation. Individual fecal samples were collected approximately at hourly intervals and assayed for corticosterone. We showed previously that serum corticosterone did not vary significantly following saline injection, but peaked significantly 60 min after ACTH injection. Maximal fecal corticosterone concentrations (ng/g) were greater (P cranes under controlled conditions, fecal corticosterone concentration reflects serum corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone, Grus canadensis pratensis, sandhill cranes, serum corticosterone levels.

  2. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Harendt, H.; Vecsei, P.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS) [de

  3. Maternal corticosterone exposure has transgenerational effects on grand-offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicola; Peters, Richard A; Richardson, Emily; Robert, Kylie A

    2016-11-01

    The hormone fluctuations that an animal experiences during ovulation can have lifelong effects on developing offspring. These hormones may act as an adaptive mechanism, allowing offspring to be 'pre-programmed' to survive in an unstable environment. Here, we used a transgenerational approach to examine the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) on the future reproductive success of female offspring. We show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to embryonic CORT produce daughters that have equal reproductive success (clutch sizes, fertility, hatching success) compared with the daughters produced from untreated mothers, but their offspring had accelerated post-hatching growth rates and were significantly heavier by nutritional independence. Although there was no significant effect on primary offspring sex ratio, females from CORT-treated mothers produced significantly female-biased clutches by nutritional independence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of a transgenerational sex ratio bias in response to elevated maternal CORT in any avian species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

    1998-10-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement.

  5. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  6. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  7. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  8. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  9. Circadian variations of serum thyrotropin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, corticosterone and lipids in starved rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Ostrowska, Z.; Kucharzewski, M.; Marek, B.; Kos-Kudla, B.; Buntner, B.; Swietochowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the circadian variation of serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), reverse triiodothyronine (rT 3 ), corticosterone (B) and lipids in male Wistar rats after one-week starvation. Starvation decreased the TSH level and eliminated its 24-h rhythm. The rhythmicity of oscillations of T 3 and B was maintained. Starvation led to a shift in the acrophase of 24-h T 3 and B oscillation and induced the circadian rhythm of T 4 . The T 3 , T 4 and mesor values were lower, while for rT 3 and B they increased. Lipid concentrations remained unchanged in both experimental and control rats. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered Rhythm of Adrenal Clock Genes, StAR and Serum Corticosterone in VIP Receptor 2-Deficient Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    oscillator based on a group of clock genes and their protein products. Mice lacking the VPAC2 receptor display disrupted circadian rhythm of physiology and behaviour, and therefore, we using real-time RT-PCR quantified (1) the mRNAs for the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 in the adrenal gland and SCN, (2......RNA expression and serum corticosterone concentration. Double immunohistochemistry showed that the PER1 protein and StAR were co-localised in the same steroidogenic cells. Circulating corticosterone plays a role in the circadian timing system and the misaligned corticosterone rhythm in the VPAC2 receptor......The circadian time-keeping system consists of clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and in peripheral organs including an adrenal clock linked to the rhythmic corticosteroid production by regulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Clock cells contain an autonomous molecular...

  12. Early social deprivation impairs pair bonding and alters serum corticosterone and the NAcc dopamine system in mandarin voles.

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    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Jianli; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Early life stress has a long-term negative impact on emotion, learning, memory and adult sexual behavior, and these deficits most likely impair pair bonding. Here, we investigated whether early social deprivation (ED) affects the formation of pair bonds in socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). In a partner preference test (PPT), ED-reared adult females and males did not show a preference for their partner, spent more time exploring the cage of an unfamiliar animal and directed high levels of aggression toward unfamiliar animals. In social interaction test, ED increased exploring behavior only in females, but increased movement around the partner and reduced inactivity in both males and females. Three days of cohabitation did not alter serum corticosterone levels in ED-reared males, but increased corticosterone levels in males that received bi-parental care (PC). Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels in ED- and PC-reared females declined after cohabitation. ED significantly increased basal serum corticosterone levels in males, but had no effect on females. ED significantly up-regulated the levels of dopamine and the mRNA expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in females and males. ED suppressed dopamine 2-type receptor mRNA (D2R) expression in females, but increased this in males. After three days of cohabitation, levels of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA expression changed in opposite directions in PC-reared voles, but in the same direction in ED-reared males, and only the expression of D2R mRNA increased in ED-reared females. Our results indicate that early social deprivation inhibits pair bonding at adulthood. This inhibition is possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in serum corticosterone, levels of dopamine and mRNA expression of two types of dopamine receptors in the NAcc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

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    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  14. Application of a naturalistic psychogenic stressor in periadolescent mice: effect on serum corticosterone levels differs by strain but not sex

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    Klein Laura C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.

  15. Benzodiazepine effect of {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

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    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: gzl13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Uchiyama, Mayuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Mori, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P<.05) than those of the D (0) group in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. The serum corticosterone level ratio in the D (10) group was significantly lower than that in the D (0) group (P<.05). From the change in serum corticosterone levels, diazepam attenuated the psychological stress produced by the physical stress to animals in adjacent compartments. From the reduced binding of {sup 125}I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which {sup 125}I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam.

  16. Maternal serum markers in screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Larsen, S O; Arends, J

    1990-01-01

    The addition of two new markers in maternal serum, estriol and HCG, to those already known, namely the level of maternal serum alfa-fetoprotein and maternal age, considerably improves the expected results of a screening strategy for Down syndrome. The detection rate is slightly increased from 53....

  17. {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi E-mail: GZL13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p<0.05). Serum corticosterone level ratio appeared to be slightly elevated in 3-DAY and 5-DAY, although this elevation was not significant. These data suggest that {sup 125}I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress.

  18. Neonatal corticosterone administration in rodents as a tool to investigate the maternal programming of emotional and immune domains

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    Simone Macrì

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels. Environmental influences have been traditionally addressed through experimental paradigms entailing the modification of the neonatal environment and the multifactorial (e.g. behaviour, endocrinology, cellular and molecular biology analysis of the developing individual's phenotype. These protocols suggested that the role of the mother in mediating the offspring's phenotype is often associated with the short-term effects of environmental manipulations on dam's physiology. Specifically, environmental manipulations may induce fluctuations in maternal corticosteroids (corticosterone in rodents which, in turn, are translated to the offspring through lactation. Herein, I propose that this mother-offspring transfer mechanism can be leveraged to devise experimental protocols based on the exogenous administration of corticosterone during lactation. To support this proposition, I refer to a series of studies in which these protocols have been adopted to investigate the neonatal programming of individual phenotype at the level of emotional and immune regulations. While these paradigms cannot replace traditional studies, I suggest that they can be considered a valid complement.

  19. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

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    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  20. [The influence of application of a low-frequency magnetic field on the serum corticosterone level (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabovskiĭ, V V; Gotovskiĭ, M Iu; Vinokurov, A A; Maslov, O V

    2013-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature publications suggest the necessity of experimental studies aimed at investigation of modulating effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on endocrine organs. The present study was carried out using 200 outbred white male rats (body weight 200-220 g). Corticosterone was measured in blood sera following the application of a low-frequency magnetic field (20 and 53 Hz with induction from 0.4 to 6 mT) generated by a Mini-Expert-T apparatus for induction magnetic therapy during 30 minutes. It was shown that the application of the alternating magnetic field to the adrenal region of the rats in the selected frequency and induction ranges caused a significant increase in the serum corticosterone levels. The results of the present study on the hormonal activity of rat adrenals give reason to consider the influence of the alternating magnetic fields as being modulatory. Analysis of the data thus obtained has demonstrated the non-linear dependence of glucocorticoid activity of the rat adrenal glands on the induction strength of the alternating magnetic field.

  1. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  2. Benzodiazepine effect of 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P 125 I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which 125 I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam

  3. Co-variables in first trimester maternal serum screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I. M.; Cuckle, H. S.; Pajkrt, E.; Leschot, N. J.; Bleker, O. P.; van Lith, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determined the influence of maternal weight, maternal smoking habits, gravidity, parity and fetal gender on the level of maternal serum marker used in first trimester screening for Down syndrome. A total of 2449 singleton unaffected pregnancies from two centres

  4. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  5. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal serum leptin concentration in gestational diabetes

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    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Our data showed that serum leptin level was higher in GDM and had a positive correlation with insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that high leptin levels might be a risk factor for GDM and IGT in pregnant women.

  7. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three

  8. Maternal serum levels of adiponectin in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowbeygi, A.; Ahmadvand, H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the serum levels of adiponectin in pre eclamptic patients are conflicting. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess serum levels of adiponectin in women with pre eclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The case group consisted of women with pre eclampsia (n=30). The control group consisted of 30 matched normal pregnant women. Serum levels of adiponectin were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the pre eclamptic group than those in the normal control group. In the pre eclamptic patients serum levels of adiponectin showed a significant negative correlation with body mass index while no correlation was found in the normal pregnant women. In women with pre eclampsia, levels of adiponectin were decreased significantly in the overweight women compared with normal weight women, while in the control group no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, elevation of adiponectin levels might be a physiological feedback response to minimize endothelial dysfunction in pre eclamptic patients. (author)

  9. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal serum fructosamine values after delivery ofmacrosomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expl.anation for this discrepancy is that the half-lives of these. 1. Brudenell M, Wilds PLo Medical and Surgical Problems in Obstetrics. Bristol: John Wright, 1984: 120-124. 2. Baker JR, O'Connor JP, Metcalf P, Lawson MR, Johnson RN. Oinical usefulness of estimation of serum frucrosamine concentration as a screening.

  11. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  12. relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    those obtained by Okonofua et al in Ile-Ife and. 17. Iqbal et al in Bangladesh but lower than the values. 18. 11 reported in studies in India and the United States. The similarity in the mean maternal serum zinc obtained in this study with the studies in Ife and. Bangladesh could be a reflection of the similarity among the study ...

  13. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker in screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael; Spencer, Kevin; Laigaard, Jennie

    2007-01-01

    ADAM 12 is a placenta-derived glycoprotein that is involved in growth and differentiation. The maternal serum concentration of ADAM 12 is a potential first-trimester maternal serum marker of Down syndrome (DS). Here we examine the potential of ADAM 12 as a second-trimester maternal serum marker...

  15. Relationship between Maternal Serum Copper Level and Birth Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzarahimi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem. LBW is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal copper nutrition is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between August 2008 and August 2009. 56 women who had delivered low-birth- weight infants (<2500gr were taken as the case group, and from the mothers who had delivered normal birth weight infants (≥2500gr, 56 were selected at random as the control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method.Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between cases and control groups. Maternal copper concentration (μg/dl differed between Cases and Controls; 231.75±38.12μg/dl vs. 204.42±31.30μg/dl respectively. There is a significant difference (p<0.001 in the serum copper concentration between the two groups.Conclusion: There is a negative relation between low infant birth weight and maternal copper concentration.

  16. ADAM-12 stability in first trimester maternal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowans, N J; Stamatopoulou, A; Jaakohuhta, S; Spencer, K

    2010-06-01

    Maternal serum A Disintergrin And Metaloprotease-12 (ADAM-12) has been proposed as a marker for prenatal screening of chromosomal abnormalities, pre-eclampsia and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we examine the stability of ADAM-12 with time and at different temperatures. Maternal serum and whole blood pools were stored at 30 degrees C, room temperature and refrigerator temperature or subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. ADAM-12 was measured at set time points using an automated DELFIA research assay. Using a 10% change in concentration as a limit of stability, ADAM-12 is stable in serum for less than 15 h at 30 degrees C, less than 20 h at room temperature and for 51 h at refrigerator temperature. ADAM-12 levels are not altered following three - 20 degrees C to room temperature freeze-thaw cycles. The stability of ADAM-12 in whole blood appears similar to that in serum. The findings of this study suggest that ADAM-12 may be unstable under many routine laboratory conditions, and the marker's instability may also be partly responsible for the discrepancies in the literature.

  17. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal corticosterone exposure in the mouse programs sex-specific renal adaptations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 6-month offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, James S M; Burgess, Danielle J; O'Sullivan, Lee; Singh, Reetu R; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-04-01

    Short-term maternal corticosterone (Cort) administration at mid-gestation in the mouse reduces nephron number in both sexes while programming renal and cardiovascular dysfunction in 12-month male but not female offspring. The renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), functions in a sexually dimorphic manner to regulate both renal and cardiovascular physiology. This study aimed to identify if there are sex-specific differences in basal levels of the intrarenal RAAS and to determine the impact of maternal Cort exposure on the RAAS in male and female offspring at 6 months of age. While intrarenal renin concentrations were higher in untreated females compared to untreated males, renal angiotensin II concentrations were higher in males than females. Furthermore, basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in females than males. Cort exposed male but not female offspring had reduced water intake and urine excretion. Cort exposure increased renal renin concentrations and elevated mRNA expression of Ren1, Ace2, and Mas1 in male but not female offspring. In addition, male Cort exposed offspring had increased expression of the aldosterone receptor, Nr3c2 and renal sodium transporters. In contrast, Cort exposure increased Agtr1a mRNA levels in female offspring only. This study demonstrates that maternal Cort exposure alters key regulators of renal function in a sex-specific manner at 6 months of life. These finding likely contribute to the disease outcomes in male but not female offspring in later life and highlights the importance of renal factors other than nephron number in the programming of renal and cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Airborne Precursors Predict Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Colleen M; Webster, Thomas F; Martin, Jonathan W; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Webster, Glenys M

    2017-07-05

    Human exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), can occur directly from contaminated food, water, air, and dust. However, precursors to PFAAs (PreFAAs), such as dipolyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), which can be biotransformed to PFAAs, may also be a source of exposure. PFAAs were analyzed in 50 maternal sera samples collected in 2007-2008 from participants in Vancouver, Canada, while PFAAs and PreFAAs were measured in matching samples of residential bedroom air collected by passive sampler and in sieved vacuum dust (<150 μm). Concentrations of PreFAAs were higher than for PFAAs in air and dust. Positive associations were discovered between airborne 10:2 FTOH and serum PFOA and PFNA and between airborne MeFOSE and serum PFOS. On average, serum PFOS concentrations were 2.3 ng/mL (95%CI: 0.40, 4.3) higher in participants with airborne MeFOSE concentrations in the highest tertile relative to the lowest tertile. Among all PFAAs, only PFNA in air and vacuum dust predicted serum PFNA. Results suggest that airborne PFAA precursors were a source of PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS exposure in this population.

  20. Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which

  1. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Variations in maternal care alter corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and stimulate the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the ovaries of UCh rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim João PA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in maternal care are associated with neonatal stress, hormonal disturbances and reproductive injuries during adulthood. However, the effects of these variations on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovary development remain undetermined. This study aimed to investigate whether variations in maternal care are able to influence the hormonal profile, follicular dynamics and expression of AR, ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of UCh rat offspring. Methods Twenty-four adult UCh rats, aged 120 days, were randomly divided into two groups (UChA and UChB and mated. Maternal care was assessed from birth (day 0 to the 10th postnatal day (PND. In adulthood, twenty adult female rats (UChA and UChB offspring; n = 10/group, aged 120 days, were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus. Results UChA females (providing high maternal care more frequently displayed the behaviors of carrying pups, as well as licking/grooming and arched back nursing cares. Also, mothers providing high care had elevated corticosterone levels. Additionally, offspring receiving low maternal care showed the highest estrous cycle duration, increased corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, overexpression of receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, increased numbers of primordial, antral and mature follicles and accentuated granulosa cell proliferation. Conclusions Our study suggests that low maternal care alters corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, disrupting the estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and differentially regulating the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of adult rats.

  3. Maternal serum theobromine and the development of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cuilin; Levine, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Preeclampsia, a disorder with prominent cardiovascular manifestations, is a cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. Chocolate contains compounds that may promote cardiovascular health. A recent study found chocolate consumption during pregnancy, and, particularly, increasing cord serum concentration of theobromine (the primary methylxanthine alkaloid in chocolate), to be associated with reduced occurrence of preeclampsia. We studied 2769 women who comprised the control group from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. These women were pregnant between 1959 and 1966, with liveborn infants of at least 28 weeks' gestation. Serum was drawn at 26 weeks' gestation, and assayed for theobromine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Odds ratios (ORs) for preeclampsia were estimated using logistic regression, and adjusted for age, education, prepregnant weight, race, parity, smoking, and gestation at blood draw. Preeclampsia occurred in 68 (2.9%) of 2105 eligible women. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia were near unity across most third-trimester theobromine concentrations. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia according to theobromine concentration in serum at theobromine and preeclampsia.

  4. The effects of seeds with hot and cold temperaments on serum thyroid hormones, corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid concentrations of healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinroo, Shirin; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2014-10-28

    Hot and cold temperaments are the basic concepts of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). Nevertheless, studies on the functional mechanisms of medicinal herbs based on hot and cold temperaments are not very extensive. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing hot or cold temperament seeds according to ITM on some hormonal and neuromediator parameters with a regulatory role in thermogenesis and energy metabolism in acute (24 hr) and subacute (7-day) experiments that were performed on rats. Each experiment was performed on 42 male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into 7 groups. while 1 group received usual diet (controls), 6 other groups were fed with a diet containing 10% seeds, namely, anise, fennel, or ajowan (hot temperament groups) or cucumber, pumpkin, or watermelon (cold temperament groups), respectively. The levels of the rats׳ serum free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3), triiodothyronin (T3), thyroxin (T4), corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were analyzed. After 24 hours, a significant decrease in FT3 was observed in groups that were fed anise or fennel seeds. However, a significant increase in T3 was observed in the ajowan seed-fed group, and no changes in other parameters were observed in this group. On the 7th day, FT4 was significantly increased in fennel seed-fed group; T3 was significantly increased in the anise, fennel, ajowan and watermelon seed-fed groups; corticosterone was significantly increased in the watermelon and pumpkin seed-fed groups; and VMA was significantly increased in the fennel seed-fed group and significantly decreased in the cucumber seed-fed group. Alterations induced by hot and cold temperament seeds in measured hormonal and neuromediator levels that have a regulatory role in thermogenesis and the body׳s energy metabolism revealed that hot and cold temperament characteristics of studied seeds may most likely be related to their intervention in the body׳s energy metabolism

  5. Bilateral lesions of suprachiasmatic nuclei affect circadian rhythms in [3H]-thymidine incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid in mouse intestinal tract, mitotic index of corneal epithelium, and serum corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.E.; Tsai, T.H.; Powell, E.W.; Pasley, J.N.; Halberg, F.; Dunn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigations into the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the coordination of circadian rhythms have presented differing results. Several reports have shown that ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNA) alters the phase and amplitude of rhythms but does not abolish them. The present study investigates the effect of SCNA on the rhythms in cell proliferation in various regions of the intestinal tract as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid, in the mitotic activity of the corneal epithelium, and in serum corticosterone levels. The study involved mice with verified lesions of the SCN (six to 13 mice per time point) and control groups of both sham-operated and unoperated mice (seven of each per time point). The mice were killed in groups that represented seven time points over a single 24 hr span (3 hr intervals with the 0800 hr sampled both at start and end of the series). The tissues examined were the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, and colon for DNA synthesis, the corneal epithelium for mitotic index, and blood serum for corticosterone level. The most consistent result of SCNA was a phase advance in the rhythms in cell proliferation in the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, colon, and corneal epithelium. A reduction in rhythm amplitude occurred in the tongue, esophagus, and corneal epithelium; however, there was an amplitude increase for the stomach, colon, and serum corticosterone. The mesor (rhythm-adjusted mean) was increased by SCNA in all tissues except the corneal epithelium. These findings further support the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclear area in the control of rhythms in cell proliferation and corticosterone production, by acting as a ''phase-resetter'' and as a modulator of rhythm amplitude

  6. Maternity care and maternal serum screening. Do male and female family physicians care for women differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Carroll, J C; Ryan, G; Reid, A J; Permaul-Woods, J A; Arbitman, S; Domb, S B; Fallis, B; Kilthei, J

    1997-06-01

    To examine whether male and female family physicians practise maternity care differently, particularly regarding the maternal serum screening (MSS) program. Mailed survey fielded between October 1994 and March 1995. Ontario family practices. Random sample of 2000 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who care for pregnant women. More than 90% of eligible physicians responded. Attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behaviour toward MSS. Women physicians were more likely than men to practise part time, in groups, and in larger communities. Men physicians were more likely to perform deliveries; women were more likely to do shared care. Despite a shorter work week, on average, female physicians cared for more pregnant women than male physicians did. Among those providing intrapartum care, women performed more deliveries, on average, than men. Women physicians were more likely than men to offer MSS to all pregnant patients. Although average time spent discussing MSS before the test was similar, women physicians had better knowledge of when best to do the test and its true-positive rate. All differences reported were statistically significant (P women, women physicians cared for more pregnant women than men did. Both spent similar time discussing MSS with their patients before offering screening, but more women physicians offered MSS to all their patients and were more knowledgeable about MSS than men physicians.

  7. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal complica......The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...... complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  8. Decreased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine a reference level for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the amniotic fluid (AF) in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in order to suggest an explanation for the observed decrease in maternal serum AFP. METHODS: Alpha-fetoprotein was measured in AF, maternal...

  9. Effect of Home Cage Bedding in the Induction Chamber on Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone Levels in Response to Isoflurane-induced Anesthesia in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Cara P; Christy, Amanda C; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2017-03-01

    Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice. These results indicate that familiar surroundings do not appear sufficient to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane.

  10. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhazlina Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

  11. Combined measurement of maternal serum FE3 and HPL for determination of fetus-placenta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yangshui; Li Gefang; Xia Dingwen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of combined measurement of maternal serum FE 3 and HPL for determination of fetus-placenta function. Methods: Maternal serum FE 3 and HPL levels were measured with RIA in 86 complicated and 39 non-complicated pregnant women. Results: Serum FE 3 contents in pregnant women complicated with hypertensive syndrome, intrauterine fetal distress, gestation above 33 wks complicated with diabetes and 3rd grade placenta were significantly lower than those in non-complicated ones (p 3 and HPL could improve the early diagnosis of high-risk pregnancies

  12. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  13. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined...... the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  14. ADAM12: a novel first-trimester maternal serum marker for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laigaard, Jennie; Sørensen, Tina; Fröhlich, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    levels decrease markedly during pregnancy. ADAM12 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) is an IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 protease and is present in human pregnancy serum. The goal of this study was to determine whether ADAM12 concentration in maternal serum is a useful indicator of foetal health. METHODS: We......OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bioavailable insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and II is important to foetal growth. It is regulated by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) 1 through 6. Proteolytic cleavage of IGFBP-3 takes place in human pregnancy serum; accordingly, IGFBP-3 serum...... developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of ADAM12 in serum. The assay range was 42 to 667 micro g/L. Recombinant ADAM12 was used as the standard for calibration. RESULTS: We found that ADAM12 was highly stable in serum. Serum concentration increased from 180 micro g...

  15. Indication of prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies complicated by undetectable second-trimester maternal serum estriol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsart, Anne-Frédérique; Van Onderbergen, Anne; Jacques, Francotte; Kurt, Crener; Gillerot, Yves

    2008-07-01

    Undetectable maternal serum unconjugated estriol levels in the second-trimester screening test have been associated with congenital pathology and an adverse pregnancy outcome. We reviewed outcomes of pregnancies with undetectable levels of estriol (threatened fetal abortion, one case of multiple congenital anomalies and one case of isolated adrenocorticotropin hormone deficiency. There were 6 women remaining with unexplained undetectable estriol. Undetectable maternal estriol values may indicate a severe fetal pathology and should lead to further investigations.

  16. Management strategy in pregnancies with elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein based on a second assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Ruas, Marie; Dreux, Sophie; Valat, Anne-Sylvie; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Guimiot, Fabien; Schmitz, Thomas; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Muller, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    To assess maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancies associated with persistently elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. A retrospective cohort study in 658 patients with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ≥2.5 multiple of median, performed at routine Down syndrome screening. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was assayed a second time in 341 of them. Outcomes were recorded in all cases. The group with unexplained maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein persistently ≥2.5 multiple of median was associated with more pregnancy complications 37 of 92 (40.2%) as fetal death, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and congenital nephrotic syndrome, compared with the group with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein that returned to a normal level 37 of 226 (16.4%) (P alpha-fetoprotein returns to a normal level on a second assay, the risk of adverse outcome significantly decreases, but these pregnancies are still at risk of complications and therefore need close surveillance. Repeat maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein assay allows identification of patients who should be offered amniocentesis to evaluate the risk of nephrotic syndrome and epidermolysis bullosa. Alpha-fetoprotein should be monitored in pregnancies associated with unexplained high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. A management strategy based on ultrasound examination, second maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein assay and amniocentesis is proposed to improve prenatal counseling and management of such pregnancies. However, a prospective study remains necessary to evaluate it. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Serum Lipids in Women with Pre‑eclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density ... higher serum triglyceride levels compared with normal pregnant women (P < 0.01). Other measured .... A positive correlation (r2 = 0.82) was observed between systolic.

  18. Maternal Serum Resistin Is Reduced in First Trimester Preeclampsia Pregnancies and Is a Marker of Clinical Severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether resistin levels in first trimester maternal serum are associated with insulin resistance or preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: A case-control study of maternal serum resistin concentration conducted using 285 normal pregnancies and 123 PE pregnancies matched for gestational...

  19. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi

    2010-01-01

    . The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys....... For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease...

  20. FIRST-TRIMESTER MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AS A MARKER FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...

  2. Maternal serum laeverin (aminopeptidase Q) measured in the first trimester of pregnancy does not predict preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Sørensen, Steen; Nystad, Mona

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the laeverin level in maternal serum from first trimester (11-14 weeks) of pregnancy between normal pregnancies and pregnancies that later developed preeclampsia (PE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a case-cohort study. The laeverin concentration wa...

  3. Maternal serum uric acid level and maternal and neonatal complications in preeclamptic women: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Kazemi, Soudabeh; Pourmarzi, Davood; Mahdipour Keivani, Mina; Dalil Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It has been indicated that increased uric acid might have a predictive role on preeclampsia. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of uric acid with maternal and neonatal complications in women with preeclampsia. In this cross-sectional study, 160 singleton preeclamptic women at more than 28 wk gestational age were included. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, liver and uric acid tests, and maternal and neonatal complications were assessed. The severity of preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm labor, thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), HELLP syndrome, eclampsia and required hospitalization in the ICU was considered as the maternal complication. Fetal complications were: small for gestational age (SGA), intrauterine fetal death, hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, and Apgar score uric acid in women with severe preeclampsia was significantly higher than non-severe preeclampsia (p=0.031), also in those with an abnormal liver test (p=0.009). The mean level of uric acid in women with preterm delivery was significantly higher than women with term delivery (p=0.0001). Also, the level of uric acid had no effect on neonatal hospitalization in neonate invasive care unit. Based on logistic regression, the incidence of severe preeclampsia not affected by decreased or increased serum levels of uric acid. With higher level of uric acid in server preeclampsia we can expected more complications such as hepatic dysfunction and preterm delivery. Thus serum uric acid measurement can be helpful marker for severe preeclampsia.

  4. Observations on the perinatal changes of maternal serum growth hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa Yihua; Su Chenghai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of maternal serum GH levels during late gestation and soon (24 hours) after delivery. Methods: Serum GH levels were measured with RIA in 6 women during late pregnancy, 32 pre-delivery women, 20 women soon after delivery and 76 controls (normal non-pregnant women). Results: Serum GH levels in the late pregnant (20.1±1.87 μg/L) and pre-delivery (21.07±7.77 μg/L) women were significantly higher those in women soon after delivery (2.76±0.88 μg/L) and controls (2.73±2.15 μg/L) (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the levels in late pregnant and pre-delivery women, nor between those in the controls and women soon after delivery. Conclusion: Elevation of maternal serum GH levels during pregnancy reflects the normal maternal adaptation to meet the demand for fetal growth. However, the origin of increase is mainly from the placenta (placental GH or HGH-V) rather than from the pituitary (HGH-N); hence the rapid decline soon after delivery

  5. Simulation analysis of 9033 cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reduce the screening positive rate (SPR and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. Methods Nine thousand and thirty-three cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome were included from Apr. 2013 to Apr. 2014 in the present study. The screening results, all basic data and equation curves were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the data from the authors' laboratory, the important adjustment parameters were simulated. Combined with postnatal follow-up results, the quality and clinical performance of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome were evaluated. Results The SPR of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome was 6.69%(604/9033, the detection rate (DR was 75%(3/4, and FPR was 6.65%(601/9033. The median multiple of median (MOM of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP was low and SPR was high, and MOM of free human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (free hCGβ were high and SPR was high, while MOM of unconjugated estriol (uE3 were a little bit low, and SPR was slightly high. Considering these three factors, it is believed that the screening positive rate is high. By the simulation adjustments of MOM value equations (AFP and free hCGβ and weight correction equation, the SPR reduced to 4.11%(371/9033 after recalculating the risk, FPR declined to 4.07%(368/9033, and no more Down's syndrome fetus were missed compared with postnatal follow-up results. Conclusion Based on a localized setting depending on the local laboratory data, we suggest that the MOM value distributions(AFP, free hCGβ and uE3 and maternal weight should be regularly adjusted since it is a useful way to reduce the false-positive rate and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.13

  6. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...... reference infants (n = 346) (p = 0.01), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Mothers of preterm infants (n = 34) did not differ in serum zinc or copper concentrations from reference mothers (n = 220). Small for date infants (n = 37) and mothers of small for date infants (n = 47) had...... higher serum copper levels than reference infants and mothers (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in malformed infants (n = 14) and their mothers (n = 17) did not differ from concentrations in reference...

  7. Early paternal deprivation alters levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor and serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in a sex-specific way in socially monogamous mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Wang, Siyang; Shui, Li; Tai, Fadao; Qiao, Xufeng; He, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, fathers play an important role in the development of the brain and typical behavior in offspring, but the exact nature of this process is not well understood. In particular, little research has addressed whether the presence or absence of paternal care alters levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basal levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Here, we explored this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a species in which fathers display high levels of paternal care toward their pups. Our immunohistochemical study shows that paternal deprivation (PD) significantly decreased levels of GR and BDNF protein in the CA1 and CA2/3 of the hippocampus. In the dental gyrus, decreases in GR and BDNF induced by PD were evident in females but not in males. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that PD significantly upregulated levels of serum CORT and ACTH in females, but not males. These findings demonstrate that PD alters HPA axis activity in a sex-specific way. The changes in stress hormones documented here may be associated with alteration in hippocampal BDNF and GR levels. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  9. Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 180 mother-infant pairs. Serum of total lycopene as well as the cis- and trans-isomers concentrations were measured using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Descriptive statistics were calculated; Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord concentrations. The relationship between lycopene concentration and outcomes were evaluated with linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal and cord serum lycopene concentrations were positively correlated for total lycopene (r = 0.30, p < 0.0001, cis-lycopene (r = 0.29, p = 0.0002; and trans-lycopene (r = 0.32, p < 0.0001. Maternal concentrations of cis-lycopene were significantly lower in mothers whose infants developed respiratory distress syndrome compared to those who did not (0.336 ± 0.171 vs. 0.445 ± 0.238 µmol/L, p = 0.04 and also in mothers whose babies were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit compared to those who were not (0.380 ± 0.202 vs. 0.458 ± 0.244 µmol/L, p = 0.04. Conversely, cord concentrations of trans-lycopene were significantly higher in infants who developed RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome (0.023 ± 0.012 vs. 0.016 ± 0.012, p = 0.007 for RDS vs. no RDS, and a similar pattern was seen NICU admission (0.023 ± 0.016 vs. 0.015 ± 0.009 µmol/L for NICU (Newborn Intensive Care Unit admission vs. no NICU admission, p = 0.007. Maternal concentrations of total and cis-lycopene were positively associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference after

  10. Maternal serum copper and zinc levels and premature rupture of the foetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, M.; Jahed, F. S.; Yousefi, B.; Ghorbani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the correlation of zinc and copper serum concentration level, body mass index, age and parity with premature rupture of the membranes. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the fertility ward of Amiralmomenin Hospital of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It comprised 100 full-term pregnant women with and without premature rupture of the membranes and 50 non-pregnant women as controls. The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made on the basis of gross leakage of fluid within the vagina and a positive nitrazin test. A sample of 5mL blood was collected. The levels of zinc and copper were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Mean values among the three equal groups were compared using standard analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Pregnant women with (p<0.027) and without (p<0.019) premature rupture of the membranes had significantly lower serum zinc concentration than non-pregnant women. Inversely, the maternal serum copper concentration level was higher in both groups of pregnant women than in the controls (p<0.001). However, the results suggest that the decreased plasma zinc concentration and increased copper concentration in pregnant women were not the cause of premature rupture of the membranes at term. Conclusion: Zinc and copper concentration levels in maternal serum had no effect on premature rupture of the membranes. (author)

  11. Maternal Serum Endocan Concentration in Pregnancies Complicated by Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpera-Gozdziewicz, Agata; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Gozdziewicz, Tomasz; Krzyscin, Mariola; Wirstlein, Przemyslaw; Siemiatkowska, Anna; Glowka, Franciszek; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

    2018-01-01

    Endocan plays a role in the development of vascular tissue in health and disease and is an indicator of endothelial cells activation and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal endocan serum level and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as well as ultrasound Doppler flow measurements indicating placental insufficiency. This study included a group of women with IUGR (n = 37) and a group of healthy pregnant women (controls, n = 37). The endocan serum concentrations were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Every woman underwent an ultrasound examination with Doppler flow measurements of the uterine arteries, umbilical vessels, and fetal middle cerebral artery. We used the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) to determine placental insufficiency. We found significant differences in median (interquartile) endocan serum level (pg/mL) between study and control groups (464 [374-532] vs 339 [189-496], respectively; P < .001). The endocan serum level correlated neither with umbilical cord blood gases nor with Apgar score. Ultrasound Doppler findings revealed significant differences in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (PI), umbilical artery PI, CPR, as well as mean uterine arteries PI between IUGR group and controls. In the study group, we found significant correlations between the serum endocan and CPR ( R = 0.56, P < .001) as well as between serum endocan and mean uterine arteries PI ( R = 0.46, P = .006). Endocan is likely involved in the pathogenesis of IUGR in pregnant women and possibly is a useful marker of endothelial dysfunction in these cases.

  12. The effect of Ramadan fasting on maternal serum lipids, cortisol levels and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikensoy, Ebru; Balat, Ozcan; Cebesoy, Bahar; Ozkur, Ayhan; Cicek, Hulya; Can, Gunay

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effects of fasting during the month of Ramadan on fetal development and maternal serum cortisol and lipid profile. This study was performed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Gaziantep University Hospital, between 23 September 2006 and 23 October 2006 (during the month of Ramadan). Thirty-six consecutive healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies of 20 weeks or more, who were fasting during Ramadan, were included in the study group (group 1). The control group (group 2) consisted of 29 healthy pregnant women, who were not fasting during the study period. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on fetus, Doppler ultrasonography was performed on all subjects in the beginning and then once a week until the end of Ramadan for the following measurements: increase of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), increase of fetal femur length (FL), increase of estimated fetal body weight (EFBW), fetal biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), and umbilical artery systole/diastole (S/D) ratio. Maternal serum cortisol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and LDL/HDL ratio were also evaluated before and after Ramadan. No significant difference was found between the two groups for the fetal age, maternal weight gain (kilogram), estimated fetal weight gain (EFWG), fetal BPP, AFI, and umbilical artery S/D ratio. In the fasting group, the maternal serum cortisol levels on day 20 were significantly higher than the initial levels obtained 1 week prior to Ramadan (p Ramadan. HDL levels showed a slight increase, but LDL/HDL ratios were significantly decreased in fasting group (p Ramadan. No untoward effect of Ramadan was observed on intrauterine fetal development.

  13. Maternal serum proteome changes between the first and third trimester of pregnancy in rural southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, P F; Cole, R N; Ruczinski, I; Gucek, M; Diez, R; Rennie, A; Nathasingh, C; Schulze, K; Christian, P; Yager, J D; Groopman, J D; West, K P

    2012-05-01

    Characterization of normal changes in the serum proteome during pregnancy may enhance understanding of maternal physiology and lead to the development of new gestational biomarkers. In 23 Nepalese pregnant women who delivered at term, two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to assess changes in relative protein abundance between paired serum samples collected in the first and third trimesters. One-hundred and forty-five of over 700 protein spots in DIGE gels (pI 4.2-6.8) exhibited nominally significant (p < 0.05) differences in abundance across trimesters. Additional filtering using a Bonferroni correction reduced the number of significant (p < 0.00019) spots to 61. Mass spectrometric analysis detected 38 proteins associated with gestational age, cytoskeletal remodeling, blood pressure regulation, lipid and nutrient transport, and inflammation. One new protein, pregnancy-specific β-glycoprotein 4 was detected. A follow-up isotope tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) experiment of six mothers from the DIGE study revealed 111 proteins, of which 11 exhibited significant (p < 0.05) differences between trimesters. Four of these proteins: gelsolin, complement C1r subcomponent, α-1-acid glycoprotein, and α-1B-glycoprotein also changed in the DIGE analysis. Although not previously associated with normal pregnancy, gelsolin decreased in abundance by the third trimester (p < 0.01) in DIGE, iTRAQ and Western analyses. Changes in abundance of proteins in serum that are associated with syncytiotrophoblasts (gelsolin, pregnancy-specific β-1 glycoprotein 1 and β-2-glycoprotein I) probably reflect dynamics of a placental proteome shed into maternal circulation during pregnancy. Measurement of changes in the maternal serum proteome, when linked with birth outcomes, may yield biomarkers for tracking reproductive health in resource poor settings in future studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Is there a correlation between maternal serum TGF-β1 levels and fetal hydronephrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Ali; Savran, Bircan; Koçak, Emel; Tok, Sermin; Yüksel, Kadriye Beril; Gözükara, İlay; Kabil Kucur, Suna

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify a noninvasive marker for clinically significant fetal uropathies. To achieve this aim, we detected TGF (transforming growth factor)-β1 serum level which rises in neonatal hydronephrosis, in pregnant patients with fetal hydronephrosis. We evaluated 44 patients, all of whom were pregnant and had a gestational age between 20 and 30 weeks. Twenty-two patients had normal maternal renal ultrasound imaging and had a fetus with fetal hydronephrosis (Group A). The remaining twenty-two patients had normal maternal and fetal renal ultrasound imaging (Group B). The maternal serum levels of TGF-β1 were measured with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercially available kit. The median value for the study group was 55.90 pg/mL (9.67 ± 574.45) and for the control group was 59.49 pg/mL (12.49 ± 402.04). There was no statistical difference in serum TGF-β1 levels between the groups (p = 0.769 - Mann-Whitney U test). In the study group, the diameter of the right renal pelvis was 5.7 mm (5.1-8.9 mm), while the diameter of left renal pelvis was 5.75 mm (5.3-10.04 mm). In our study, the circulating TGF-β1 levels were not statistically different in the fetal hydronephrosis group when compared to the controls. According to our study, TGF-β1 is not useful in the detection and follow-up of fetal hydronephrosis. We therefore require further studies involving larger groups with moderate or severe fetal hydronephrosis to detect the usefulness of the serum levels of TGF-β1 in pregnant women with fetal hydronephrosis.

  15. Serum alpha-fetoprotein in the three trimesters of pregnancy: effects of maternal characteristics and medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredaki, F E; Sciorio, C; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-07-01

    To define the contribution of maternal variables which influence the measured level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in screening for pregnancy complications. Maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and serum AFP was measured in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for three routine hospital visits at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6, 19 + 0 to 24 + 6 and 30 + 0 to 34 + 6 weeks' gestation. For pregnancies delivering phenotypically normal live births or stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, variables from maternal demographic characteristics and medical history that are important in the prediction of AFP were determined from a linear mixed-effects multiple regression. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases in the first trimester, 8583 in the second trimester and 8607 in the third trimester. Significant independent contributions to serum AFP were provided by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, gestational age at delivery and birth-weight Z-score of the neonate of the previous pregnancy and interpregnancy interval. Cigarette smoking was found to significantly affect serum AFP in the first trimester only. The machine used to measure serum AFP was also found to have a significant effect. Random-effects multiple regression analysis was used to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured level of serum AFP and express the values as multiples of the median (MoMs). The model was shown to provide an adequate fit of MoM values for all covariates, both in pregnancies that developed pre-eclampsia and in those without this pregnancy complication. A model was fitted to express measured serum AFP across the three trimesters of pregnancy as MoMs, after adjusting for variables from maternal characteristics and medical history that affect this measurement. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; White, Kimberly; Overby, Nina; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2018-02-13

    Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 180 mother-infant pairs. Serum of total lycopene as well as the cis - and trans -isomers concentrations were measured using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Descriptive statistics were calculated; Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord concentrations. The relationship between lycopene concentration and outcomes were evaluated with linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal and cord serum lycopene concentrations were positively correlated for total lycopene ( r = 0.30, p lycopene ( r = 0.29, p = 0.0002); and trans -lycopene ( r = 0.32, p lycopene were significantly lower in mothers whose infants developed respiratory distress syndrome compared to those who did not (0.336 ± 0.171 vs. 0.445 ± 0.238 µmol/L, p = 0.04) and also in mothers whose babies were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit compared to those who were not (0.380 ± 0.202 vs. 0.458 ± 0.244 µmol/L, p = 0.04). Conversely, cord concentrations of trans -lycopene were significantly higher in infants who developed RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (0.023 ± 0.012 vs. 0.016 ± 0.012, p = 0.007 for RDS vs. no RDS), and a similar pattern was seen NICU admission (0.023 ± 0.016 vs. 0.015 ± 0.009 µmol/L for NICU (Newborn Intensive Care Unit) admission vs. no NICU admission, p = 0.007). Maternal concentrations of total and cis -lycopene were positively associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference after adjustment for relevant confounders. As serum carotenoids

  17. First-trimester maternal serum human thyroid-stimulating hormone in chromosomally normal and Down syndrome pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratt, JJ; de Wolf, BTHM; Mantingh, A

    Maternal serum human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were investigated in chromosomally normal and Down syndrome pregnancies to determine whether TSH can be used as a marker for Down syndrome in the first trimester. Measurements were conducted on stored serum samples collected from 23 Down

  18. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16–20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Results BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42–49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. PMID:29186464

  19. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (Plevels compared with the HFD (Plevels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (Plevels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  20. Clinical application of maternal serum HPL and INS levels determination for fetal health monitoring during perinatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xu; Tian Ying; Li Baoping; Luo Pengxiang; Wang Hong; Zhang Su'e; Chen Qiaozhi; Wang Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible applicability of maternal serum human placental lactogen (HPL) and insulin levels determination for fetal health monitoring. Methods: Maternal serum HPL and insulin levels were determined with RIA in (1) 70 pregnant women clinically diagnosed as with gestational diabetes (2) 66 pregnant women with hypertension and (3) 110 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum HPL and insulin levels in the women with gestational diabetes were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of abnormally high or low levels of serum HPL and insulin in pregnant women suggested presence of maternal diseases which might affect fetal development (over weight or growth restriction). This approach was much more sensitive than conventional sonographic examination of fetus. (authors)

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...... role in the pathophysiology of ASD makes AFP a good candidate for further larger scale studies to confirm such an association and to determine whether this pattern is unique to ASD or related to other psychiatric disorders as well....

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...... role in the pathophysiology of ASD makes AFP a good candidate for further larger-scale studies to confirm such an association and to determine whether this pattern is unique to ASD or related to other psychiatric disorders as well....

  3. Determinants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in umbilical cord and maternal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöck, A; Weber, S K; Ferrari, N; Fietz, C; Graf, C; Fimmers, R; Gembruch, U; Merz, W M

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in brain development; additionally, it is involved in various aspects of cerebral function, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Involvement of BDNF in parturition has not been investigated. The aim of our study was to analyze determinants of umbilical cord BDNF (UC-BDNF) concentrations of healthy, term newborns and their respective mothers. This cross-sectional prospective study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Maternal venous blood samples were taken on admission to labor ward; newborn venous blood samples were drawn from the umbilical cord (UC), before delivery of the placenta. Analysis was performed with a commercially available immunoassay. Univariate analyses and stepwise multivariate regression models were applied. 120 patients were recruited. UC-BDNF levels were lower than maternal serum concentrations (median 641 ng/mL, IQR 506 vs. median 780 ng/mL, IQR 602). Correlation between UC- and maternal BDNF was low (R=0.251, p=0.01). In univariate analysis, mode of delivery (MoD), gestational age (GA), body mass index at delivery, and gestational diabetes were determinants of UC-BDNF (MoD and smoking for maternal BDNF, respectively). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed a model with MoD and GA as determinants for UC-BDNF (MoD for maternal BDNF). MoD and GA at delivery are determinants of circulating BDNF in the mother and newborn. We hypothesize that BDNF, like other neuroendocrine factors, is involved in the neuroendocrine cascade of delivery. Timing and mode of delivery may exert BDNF-induced effects on the cerebral function of newborns and their mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in Maternal Serum Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in circulating levels of maternal serum transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1, collected from 98 women (AGA at different gestational ages (10–38 weeks were measured and comparisons were made between levels in pregnant and nonpregnant controls and also between 10 women with small-for-gestational age (SGA and 7 with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA fetuses. Maternal serum TGF-β1 levels at all stages of pregnancy were higher than those in normal healthy nonpregnant adults. The mean TGF-β1 levels in SGA pregnancies at 34-week gestation (32.5 + 3.2 ng/mL were significantly less than those in AGA pregnancies (39.2 + 9.8 ng/mL while at 38-week gestation, the levels were similar in the two groups (36.04 + 4.3 versus 36.7 + 7.0 ng/mL. This differential change in TGF-β1 levels is probably an important modulating factor in the aetiopathogenesis of abnormal intrauterine fetal growth.

  6. Maternal serum interleukin-6 in the management of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Waleed Ali; Ahmed, Magdy Refaat; Mohamed, Mariam Lotfi; Hamdy, Mostafa Ahmed; Kamel, Zenab; Elnahas, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of maternal serum interleukin-6 for the detection of subclinical chorioamnionitis and in the prediction of the latency period in patients with preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM). The study group included 60 patients at 24-34 weeks of gestation complaining of PPROM. Laboratory investigations included serial measurements of IL-6, TLC and CRP. Conservative management was carried out till 36 weeks unless delivery was indicated beforehand. The main outcome measures were the latency period and the occurrence of subclinical chorioamnionitis. The mean gestational age at presentation was 30.9 weeks and 35.2 weeks at delivery. The mean IL-6 level at presentation was 4.7 pg/ml. There was no correlation between IL-6 at presentation and the latency period. In addition, those diagnosed as having subclinical chorioamnionitis by placental histopathology had significantly higher levels of IL-6 at delivery. Taking IL-6 level cutoff point of 8.5 pg/ml, histological chorioamnionitis, RDS and NICU admission were significantly higher above that level while neonatal birth weight, Apgar scores at one and five minutes were significantly lower. Maternal serum IL-6 at the time of PPROM has no correlation to the latency period while IL-6 levels at the time of delivery have significant correlation to the subclinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal outcome measures.

  7. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose–response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  8. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Lin, SuLin; Tong, Terry; Baig, Sonia; Ho, Sherry; Sukumar, Ponnusamy; Biswas, Arijit; Hahn, Sinuhe; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Choolani, Mahesh A.

    2013-01-01

    (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified

  9. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion, after intravenous injection of varying corticosterone concentrations, was investigated in female mice. Female BALB/c mice excreted 60% of all corticosterone in the urine with an approximate delay of 5h from tail vein administration. The remaining 40......% were excreted in faeces, with an approximate delay of 9h from administration. The faecal/urinary excretion ratio, as well as time course of excretion, remained unaltered by administration of various doses of corticosterone covering the entire physiological range of serum corticosterone. Although...

  10. Maternal serum C-reactive protein concentration and intra-amniotic inflammation in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Musilova

    Full Text Available To evaluate maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM in relation to the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI.Two hundred and eighty-seven women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 2014 and 2016 were included in this study. Maternal blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected at the time of admission. Maternal serum CRP concentration was measured using a high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentration was measured using a point-of-care test. MIAC was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction result for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and for the 16S rRNA gene. IAI was characterized by an amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration of ≥ 745 pg/mL.Women with MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP concentrations than did women without (with MIAC: median 6.9 mg/L vs. without MIAC: median 4.9 mg/L; p = 0.02; with IAI: median 8.6 mg/L vs. without IAI: median 4.7 mg/L; p < 0.0001. When women were split into four subgroups based on the presence of MIAC and/or IAI, women with the presence of both MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP than did women with IAI alone, with MIAC alone, and women without MIAC and IAI (both MIAC and IAI: median: 13.1 mg/L; IAI alone: 6.0 mg/L; MIAC alone: 3.9 mg/L; and without MIAC and IAI: median 4.8 mg/L; p < 0.0001. The maternal serum CRP cutoff value of 17.5 mg/L was the best level to identify the presence of both MIAC and IAI, with sensitivity of 47%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 42%, negative predictive value of 96%, and the positive likelihood ratio of 10.9.The presence of both MIAC and IAI was associated with the highest maternal serum CRP concentrations. Maternal serum CRP concentration in women with PPROM at the time of admission can rule out the

  11. INCREASED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN IN COMPROMISED PREGNANCIES OTHER THAN FOR NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS OR DOWN-SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLITH, JMM; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    Intrauterine fetal death occurred in four women who were 'screen-positive' in a screening programme for neural tube defects (NTDs) and Down syndrome (DS). These women had very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Therefore,

  12. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia: Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Groen, Henk; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  13. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  14. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p Placental TRAIL-R2 levels and previous cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p Placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were positively correlated. Decreased levels of placental TRAIL-R2 and previous history of cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-level maternal serum Alpha Feto Protein (AFP and ultrasonography findings in second trimester pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Cakmak

    2015-03-01

    Results: AFP levels were detected over 2.5 MoM in 122 (1.14% of 8552 pregnant women. There were no pathologic findings in 85.2% (104/122 of cases, but 14.8% (18/122 of cases had pathologic results; neural tube defect (NTD 9% (11/122 and anhidroamnios 2.5% (3/122. Omphalocele, polycystic kidney, sacrococcygeal teratoma, placental chorangioma were detected in 0.8% ratio. NTDs were found in 11 (0.12% of 8552 pregnant women who evaluated for maternal serum AFP (MSAFP. Conclusion: The routine use of MSAFP may be queried in NTD screening due to common usage of sufficient fetal anatomic ultrasound scan. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 8-12

  16. MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS AND FETAL-OUTCOME IN EARLY 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; HAGENAARS, AM; MARRINK, J; COHENOVERBEEK, TE; GAILLARD, JLJ; BRANDENBURG, H

    Early second-trimester oligohydramnios was associated with normal maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels in nine out of 26 cases (35 per cent). Congenital malformations of the fetal urinary tract resulting in fetal anuria were present in nine cases; in seven of them, normal MSAFP levels

  17. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-12-01

    Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. We conducted a nested case-control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16-20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42-49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  18. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein at 12, 22 and 32 weeks' gestation in screening for pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredaki, F E; Matalliotakis, M; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the distribution of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 12, 22 and 32 weeks' gestation in singleton pregnancies which develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and examine the performance of this biomarker in screening for PE. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases at 11-13 weeks, in 8583 cases at 19-24 weeks and 8609 cases at 30-34 weeks' gestation. Bayes' theorem was used to combine the a-priori risk from maternal characteristics and medical history with AFP. The performance of screening for PE requiring delivery < 32, at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6, < 37 and ≥ 37 weeks' gestation was estimated. In pregnancies that developed PE, serum AFP multiples of the median (MoM) was increased at 11-13 and 19-24 weeks' gestation, but not at 30-34 weeks, and the values were inversely related to gestational age at delivery. Combined screening with maternal factors and serum AFP improved the prediction provided by maternal factors alone for PE delivering < 37 weeks, but not for PE delivering ≥ 37 weeks. The performance of screening for preterm PE was better at 19-24 weeks than at 11-13 weeks and the detection rate (DR) for a given false-positive rate (FPR) was higher for PE delivering < 32 weeks than for PE delivering at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks. The DRs, at 10% FPR, of combined screening at 11-13 weeks for PE delivering < 32 and at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks were 54% and 45%, respectively, and these improved to 72% and 53% with screening at 19-24 weeks. Measurement of serum AFP at 11-13 and 19-24 weeks' gestation improves the prediction of preterm PE provided by maternal factors alone. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Quantification of Maternal Serum Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulan Ren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased serum cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA level of gravidas developed into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE subsequently in the early second trimesters is related to prenatal screening markers. Serum was collected from 1011 gravidas. The level of cffDNA and prenatal screening markers were analyzed in 20 cases with EOPE and 20 controls. All fetuses were male. The maternal serum cffDNA level was assessed by amplification of the Y chromosome specific gene. Correlations between the variables were examined. (Logged cffDNA in EOPE (median, 3.08; interquartile range, 2.93–3.68 was higher than controls (median, 1.79; interquartile range, 1.46–2.53. The increased level of (logged cffDNA was correlated significantly with the increased human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG level (r = 0.628, p < 0.001. Significant reciprocal correlations between cffDNA and babies’ birth weight as well as gestation weeks at delivery were noted (r = −0.516, p = 0.001; r = −0.623, p < 0.001, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of cffDNA to discriminate between the EOPE cases and the controls were 90% and 85%, respectively. CffDNA is a potential marker for EOPE, which had a significant reciprocal correlation with babies’ birth weight and gestation weeks at delivery. Moreover, it may help in indicating the underlying hypoxic condition in the placenta.

  20. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  1. First and second trimester maternal serum inhibin A levels in twins with pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Ran; Maymon, Ron; Melcer, Yaakov; Klog, Esther; Cuckle, Howard

    2016-11-01

    To investigate maternal serum inhibin as a marker of pre-eclampsia (PE) in twins. One hundred forty-three twins and 109 unaffected singleton pregnancies were recruited in the first trimester from the same institution. Blood samples were stored at recruitment and in the second trimester, retrospectively tested for inhibin and values expressed in multiples of the gestation-specific median (MoMs) in singletons, adjusted for maternal weight, as appropriate. The median inhibin level in unaffected twins was 2.04 MoM compared with 1.00 MoM in singletons (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, one-tailed). Excluding early fetal losses the median in 22 samples from 12 twins with PE was 2.65 MoM compared with 1.99 MoM in 201 samples from 120 unaffected twins (P < 0.02, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test). This effect was restricted to second trimester samples with medians in cases and controls of 2.86 and 1.91 MoM respectively. Logistic regression of inhibin A together with established PE marker placental growth factor and placental associated plasma protein showed that in the second trimester, it improved screening performance although not reaching statistical significance (P = 0.08). Inhibin A is a potential second trimester marker of PE in twins. It may improve on existing twin screening protocols but more data are required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maternal serum lead level during pregnancy is positively correlated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Hua; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Lu; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-known developmental toxicant. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between maternal serum Pb level and risk of preterm birth in a population-based birth cohort study. The present study analyzed a sub-study of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort that recruited 3125 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Pb level was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All subjects were classified into three groups by tertile division according to serum Pb level: Low-Pb (L-Pb, <1.18 μg/dl), Medium-Pb (M-Pb, 1.18–1.70 μg/dl), and High-Pb (H-Pb, ≥1.71 μg/dl). The rate of preterm birth was 2.8% among subjects with L-Pb, 6.1% among subjects with M-Pb, and 8.1% among subjects with H-Pb, respectively. After controlling confounding factors, the adjusted OR for preterm birth was 2.33 (95%CI: 1.49, 3.65) among subjects with M-Pb and 3.09 (95%CI: 2.01, 4.76) among subjects with H-Pb. Of interest, maternal Pb exposure in early gestational stage than in middle gestational stage was more susceptible to preterm birth. Moreover, maternal serum Pb level was only associated with increased risk of late preterm birth. The present study provides evidence that maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population. - Highlights: • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of moderate and late preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure at early or middle gestational stage elevates risk of preterm birth. - Maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population.

  3. Reduced utility of serum IGF-1 levels in predicting retinopathy of prematurity reflects maternal ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Ashwin; Patel, Himanshu I; Karim, Shah M; Lock, Helen; Perry, Leslie; Bunce, Catey; Kempley, Steve; Sinha, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    To validate known risk factors and identify a threshold level for serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in an ethnically diverse population at a tertiary neonatal unit, 2011-2013. A prospective cohort masked study was conducted. Serum IGF-1 levels at 31, 32 and 33 weeks were measured and risk factor data collected including gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), absolute weight gain (AWG) and maternal ethnicity. The eventual ROP outcome was divided into two groups: minimal ROP (Stages 0 and 1) and severe ROP (Stage 2 or worse including Type 1 ROP). 36 patients were recruited: 14 had minimal ROP and 22 severe ROP. Significant differences between the groups were found in GA, BW, AWG and IGF-1 at 32 and 33 weeks. There was minimal rise in IGF-1 in Stage 2 patients and/or black patients (p=0.0013) between 32 and 33 weeks but no pragmatic threshold level of IGF-1 that could distinguish between minimal or severe ROP. There were significant differences in GA, BW, AWG and IGF-1 at 32 and 33 weeks between those babies with severe ROP and those with minimal ROP. However, there was no threshold level of IGF-1 at a time point between 31 and 33 weeks that can be used to exclude a large proportion of babies from screening. We also found ethnic differences in IGF-1 levels with infants born to black mothers having significantly lower IGF-1 levels at 32 and 33 weeks gestation. The determination of ROP risk using IGF-1 is a race-specific phenomenon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid Inhibin A Levels in Women who Subsequently Develop Severe Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Young; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Kim, Moon-Young; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Shin, Joong-Sik; Choi, Jun-Seek; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Mi; Lee, Bom-Yi; Kim, Do-Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maternal serum (MS) and amniotic fluid (AF) inhibin A levels are elevated in patients who subsequently develop severe preecalmpsia, and to investigate the correlation between MS and AF inhibin A levels in the second trimester. The study included 40 patients who subsequently developed severe preecalmpsia and 80 normal pregnant women. Inhibin A levels in MS and AF were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The MS and AF inhibin A levels in patients who developed severe preeclampsia were significantly higher than those in the control group (both for p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between MS and AF inhibin A levels in patients who developed severe preeclampsia (r=0.397, p=0.011), but not in the control group (r=0.185, p=0.126). The best cutoff values of MS and AF inhibin A levels for the prediction of severe preeclampsia were 427 pg/mL and 599 pg/mL, respectively; the estimated ORs that were associated with these cut-off values were 9.95 (95% CI 3.8-25.9, p<0.001) and 6.0 (95% CI 2.3-15.8, p<0.001). An elevated level of inhibin A in MS and AF at the time of second trimester amniocentesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of severe preeclampsia. PMID:16778388

  5. Effect of raised serum uric acid level on perinatal and maternal outcome in cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumrun Nassa Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effects of raised serum uric acid level on perinatal and maternal outcome in cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension. One hundred pregnant women with gestational period beyond 28 weeks with pregnancy-induced hypertension-preeclampsia and eclampsia were included in this study and divided into two groups. Group A (n=65 patients with a serum uric acid level >6 mg/dL was compared to Group B (n=35 patients with a uric acid level <6 gm/dL. It revealed that high uric acid level in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension was a risk factor for several maternal complications like postpartum hemorrhage (Group A, 17.4%; Group B, 22.6%, postpartum eclampsia (Group A, 10.1%; Group B, 9.7%, abruptio placentae (Group A, 8.7%; Group B, 6.4%, HELLP syndrome (Group A, 2.9%; Group B, 0% and pulmonary edema (Group A, 4.3%; Group B, 0%. In case of perinatal outcome, the birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, intrauterine death, stillbirth and neonatal death rate were worse in Group A 1.9 kg, 66.7, 19, 7 and 8% in comparison to Group B, where those were 2.1, 13, 6, 2, and 2% respectively. In conclusion, high uric acid in blood in patient with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is a risk factor for several maternal complications.

  6. Measurement of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum: three commercial radioimmunoassay kits and two non-commercial radioimmunoassays compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.C.; Verreault, F.; Pouliot, M.

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated three commercial radioimmunoassay kits (Amersham, Dainabot, Clinical Assays) and two non-commercial methods for determining alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum during pregnancy. All five procedures were found to be acceptable with respect to practicability, sensitivity, linearity, and precision. Similar results were obtained with Dainabot, Clinical Assays, and the two non-commercial methods, but the Amersham method revealed a proportional error, results being about 20% lower than those by the other methods. Use of the international unit system is suggested for reporting results for AFP, to facilitate comparison between methods and laboratories

  7. First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) as a marker of adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Laursen, Inga

    2009-01-01

    MBP and PAPP-A. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The SP1 concentration was measured in first trimester maternal serum in pregnancies with small-for-gestational age fetuses (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40) and in controls (n...... = 500). Concentrations were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver...

  8. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  9. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a

  10. Free leptin index and PAPP-A: a first trimester maternal serum screening test for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) if introduced in first trimester. The performance of first trimester maternal serum screening for PE using free leptin index (fLI) and PAPP-A, where fLI = leptin/leptin soluble receptor was studied. METHODS: F......: First trimester serum samples from 126 PE pregnancies and 289 control pregnancies were studied. fLI and PAPP-A were converted into gestational age and maternal weight independent log MoM values of PAPP-A and fLI. The screening performance of markers was studied by receiver......-operator-characteristics curves. The performance of population screening was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: fLI was significantly (p controls [mean log MoM -0.0368 (SD: 0.3132)] and PAPP-A was significantly (p ....0133 (SD: 0.2661)] compared to controls [mean log MoM 0.0474 (SD: 0.2521)] in PE pregnancies. There was no correlation between fLI and PAPP-A in control or PE pregnancies. Combined fLI and PAPP-A screening for PE had estimated population detection rates of 22% and 35% for false positives rates of 6% and 12...

  11. Sequential combined test, second trimester maternal serum markers, and circulating fetal cells to select women for invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guanciali Franchi

    Full Text Available From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD. The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated, 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated and ≤1:900 (no further action, and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results. For fetal Down syndrome, the overall detection rate was 96.8% for a false-positive rate of 2.8% resulting in an odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR of 1:11, equivalent to a positive predictive value (PPV of 8.1%. Additional chromosome abnormalities were also identified resulting in an OAPR for any chromosome abnormality of 1:6.6 (PPV 11.9%. For a sub-set of cases with positive contingent test results, FISH analysis of circulating fetal cells in maternal circulation identified 7 abnormal and 39 as normal cases with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We conclude that contingent screening using conventional Combined and second trimester screening tests is effective but can potentially be considerably enhanced through the addition of fetal cell analysis.

  12. Maternal and Cord Blood Levels of Serum Amyloid A, C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin -1β, and Interleukin-8 During and After Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marzzullo Cicarelli

    2005-01-01

    after delivery and try to correlate these proteins with tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin -1β, and interleukin-8. Acute-phase proteins and cytokines were measured by ELISA in 24 healthy pregnant women undergoing vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. Cord blood samples in addition to maternal blood were collected. SAA and CRP reached the maximum maternal serum levels 24 hours after delivery, while cytokines remained constant over time. SAA and CRP were significantly higher in maternal serum than in newborn's (P<.001 at the moment of delivery. SAA and CRP, regardless of the type of delivery, reproduce the common pattern observed in most inflammatory conditions. Proinflammatory cytokine serum levels do not mirror the increase in SAA and CRP levels.

  13. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC

  14. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman

    2013-02-01

    Objectives: To use proteomics to identify and characterize proteins in maternal serum from patients at high-risk for fetal trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13 on the basis of ultrasound and maternal serum triple tests. Methods: We performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis on 23 trisomy cases and 85 normal cases during the early second trimester of pregnancy. Protein profiling along with conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/Tandem mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to characterize proteins associated with each trisomy condition and later validated using Western blot. Results: Protein profiling approach using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass (SELDI-TOF/MS) spectrometry resulted in the identification of 37 unique hydrophobic proteomic features for three trisomy conditions. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight/Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified proteins showed differential expression at the subunit level. Conclusions: Maternal serum protein profiling using proteomics may allow non-invasive diagnostic testing for the most common trisomies and may complement ultrasound-based methods to more accurately determine pregnancies with fetal aneuploidies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are normal in Fanconi anemia: Can it be a lack of postnatal inhibition of AFP gene resulting in the elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz; Karabacak, Recep Onur; Aslan, Oner Deniz

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as a screening test for prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia (FA). Serial measurements in maternal serum were recorded. Parents, both heterozygous for FA, had declined prenatal molecular testing. The infant was born with no somatic abnormalities, and FA was confirmed by postnatal molecular analysis. Maternal serum AFP levels during each trimester of pregnancy were normal indicating that these levels cannot be used as a screening test in prenatal diagnosis. Three-year follow-up after birth showed constantly elevated serum levels in the patient from the start, suggesting a lack of postnatal inhibition on AFP gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maternal serum C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Mohamadi, Bita; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohamad; Aliyan Moghadam, Narges

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and later occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. A prospective cohort study that measured maternal serum CRP levels in 778 pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy was performed in the city of Noor (north Iran), and included follow-up of patients up to time of delivery. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth were defined as the occurrence of membranes rupture and birth, respectively before 37 weeks of gestation. Of the 778 pregnancies studied, 19 (2.41%) preterm premature rupture of membranes and 58 (7.3%) preterm births were seen. Median CRP levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth cases were much higher than in term deliveries (7 and 6.8 respectively vs 2.4 mg/L; 66.67 and 64.76, respectively vs 24.38 nmol/L). CRP levels >4 mg/L had statistically significant relationships with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.07-16.89) and preterm birth (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.60-17.43). With a cut-off level of 4 mg/L of CRP, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-) ) for preterm birth were 81, 70, 2.70, 0.28%, respectively, and for preterm premature rupture of membranes they were 79, 67, 2.41 and 0.31%, respectively. It seems that the inflammatory marker, CRP, can be used in the early stages of pregnancy to identify women at risk of experiencing preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination....... Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens....

  18. Comparison between maternal and neonatal serum vitamin D levels in term jaundiced and nonjaundiced cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Aletayeb

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Newborn vitamin D levels were significantly lower in jaundiced cases compared with those in the nonjaundiced healthy groups, which may reveal an association between indirect hyperbilirubinemia and serum vitamin D levels. We suggest that more studies should be conducted including follow-up after 15 days of age, when jaundice has typically been resolved, and before starting vitamin D supplementation.

  19. Mercury concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, and placenta in patients with amalgam dental fillings: effects on fetal biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir Findik, Rahime; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Tasci, Yasemin; Moraloglu, Ozlem; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the extent to which mercury is transmitted from the mother to fetus via the umbilical cord in patients with amalgam dental fillings, and its effect on fetal biometric measurements. Twenty-eight patients as the study group with amalgam fillings, and 32 of them as the control group were included in this prospective case-control study. The mercury levels were measured in the maternal and cord venous sera, and the placental samples. Two groups were compared in terms of these and the fetal/neonatal biometric measurements. In the study group, the maternal and umbilical cord mercury levels were found to be significantly higher than those from the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.010, respectively). These high levels did not affect the fetal biometric measurements. The presence of high serum mercury levels in pregnant women with amalgam fillings is important, and warrants further long-term studies in order to investigate the fetal neurological effects as well.

  20. ABNORMAL LEVELS OF MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AND ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN THE 2ND-TRIMESTER - RELATION TO FETAL WEIGHT AND PRETERM DELIVERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORSSINK, LP; KORNMAN, LH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    The aim of this prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical significance of abnormal maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised 8892 women with a singleton pregnancy,

  1. First trimester maternal serum PAPP-A, beta-hCG and ADAM12 in prediction of small-for-gestational-age fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Krebs, Lone

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of predicting fetuses being small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at delivery with the maternal serum markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) in first...... trimester. METHODS: In all,36 cases being SGA (birth weight gestational age...

  2. Does the Maternal Serum IgG Level during Pregnancy in Primary Antibody Deficiency Influence the IgG Level in the Newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Nagendran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To find out if the serum IgG level in the newborn baby was affected by low maternal serum IgG during pregnancy in two newly diagnosed primary antibody deficient patients. Method. Infant cord blood IgG level was compared with maternal IgG level in 2 mothers with newly diagnosed primary antibody deficiency, who declined replacement IgG treatment during pregnancy. Results. Both mothers delivered healthy babies with normal IgG levels at birth. Conclusions. The normal IgG levels and sound health in these 2 babies in spite of low maternal IgG throughout pregnancy raise interesting discussion points about maternofoetal immunoglobulin transport mechanisms in primary antibody deficiency.

  3. Changes in maternal serum thioredoxin (TRX) levels after delivery in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoratos, Nicolaos; Vlahos, Nikos F; Economou, Emanuel; Panoulis, Konstatninos; Creatsas, George

    2012-01-01

    To investigate changes of maternal plasma thioredoxin (TRX) levels after delivery in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Ten normotensive women (group A) were compared to 17 women with severe preeclampsia (group B). TRX levels were assessed in maternal plasma, immediately after delivery and 12-16 weeks postpartum. There were no differences in plasma TRX levels between the two groups immediately antepartum (p = 0.095). A significant reduction in plasma TRX levels was found immediately following delivery only in normotensive group (117.76 ± 37.19 ng/mL vs. 43.45 ± 21.11 ng/mL, p = 0.002), but not in women with preeclampsia (80.42 ± 59.95 ng/mL vs. 53.82 ± 44.34 ng/mL, p = 0.12). Plasma TRX levels remained unchanged in women with preeclampsia (80.42 ± 59.95 ng/mL vs. 55.37 ± 52.23 ng/mL, p = 0.2) at 12-14 weeks postpartum.

  4. Blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting insulin, and adrenal hormones in 12-year-old children born with maternal preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhola, Sirpa; Rahiala, Eero; Martikainen, Anneli; Halonen, Pirjo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2003-03-01

    Women with prior preeclamptic pregnancies have an increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Maternal preeclampsia has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) in offspring during childhood. The aim of our study was to determine whether elevated BP pressure and metabolic changes, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased adrenal hormonal activity, are found in 12-yr-old children of preeclamptic mothers. Sixty children born after preeclamptic pregnancy (PRE) and 60 matched control subjects born after normotensive pregnancy (non-PRE) were studied at the age of 12 yr. The case-control pairs were matched for sex, gestational age (+/-1 wk), and size at birth. We measured BP and concentrations of blood glucose, serum fasting insulin, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated according to the Friedewald-Fredrickson formula. The PRE children had significantly higher mean systolic (116.4 vs. 113.2 mm Hg; P = 0.021) and diastolic (73.9 vs. 70.3 mm Hg; P = 0.022) BP than the non-PRE children, even when adjusted by current weight and height. At 12 yr of age, systolic BP values correlated inversely with birth weight (r = -0.459; P < 0.001) and length SD scores (r = -0.429; P = 0.001) in the PRE children. The mean concentrations of serum total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting insulin; blood glucose; serum cortisol; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not differ between the PRE and non-PRE groups. However, the mean plasma E concentration was higher in the PRE than in the non-PRE children (0.32 vs. 0.28 nmol/liter; P = 0.042), whereas the mean NE concentration did not differ between these two groups. In conclusion, 12-yr-old children born with maternal preeclampsia had elevated systolic and diastolic BPs and

  5. Assessment of the risk of developing hyperthyroidism in neonates of pregnant women with graves' disease through determination of maternal serum levels of TRAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinhai; Zhang Qingfeng; Wang Jianchun; Yao Qingyun; Bao Jing; Chen Shuangshuang; Guo Guiyou

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the risk of developing hyperthyroidism in neonates of women with Graves's disease through determination of maternal serum levels of TRAb. Methods: Serum TRAb TSH levels were measured with CLIA and thyroid hormones levels were measured with RIA in 258 pregnant women with Graves' disease (98 week during gstation period) and their neonates (n=259, with a case of twin-baby) (umbilical blood specimen and neonates' venous specimen) as well as once in 30 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Of the 258 pregnant women, serum TRAb levels were normal (below 1.75 IU/L) in 146 women and the neonates' serum TRAb levels were also normal. Serum TRAb levels were between 1.75∼8.75 IU/L in 109 women and the neonates' serum TRAb levels were somewhat increased but became normal within 15 days. Only three pregnant women had serum TRAb levels above 8.75 IU/L and two of their neonates were frankly hyperthyroid, requiring ATD treatment. Conclusion: Monitoring serum TRAb levels in pregnant women with history of Graves' disease is desirable. Neonates from those with high serum TRAb levels should be examined carefully for possible development of hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of maternal serum alpha-foetoprotein assay using dry blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C; Guerrero, J M; Elorza, F L; Molinero, P; Goberna, R

    1988-02-01

    The quantification of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots from pregnant women was evaluated, using a conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a monospecific antibody. The stability of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots on filter paper was evaluated with respect to mailing, distances travelled, and the existence of high summer temperatures in our region. The results obtained show that the blood alpha-foetoprotein is stable on dry filter spots sent by mail and is stable for up to four weeks at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. The analytical method used has a minimal detectable concentration of 10 +/- 1.9 international kilo-units/l. Both inter- and intra-assay variabilities are smaller than 10% and this method can provide results comparable with those of conventional serum assays. Results from dry blood spots and serum samples (the latter analysed by both RIA and two-site enzyme immunoassay) exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). The design of the assay and the nature of the samples make this method suitable for a screening programmes for the antenatal detection of open neural tube defects.

  7. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  8. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde B Lauritzen

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs and organochlorines (OCs are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs.Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA births study was collected in 1986-1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models.Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study.Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this study are relevant to

  9. The proform of eosinophil major basic protein: a new maternal serum marker for adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Steen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the first trimester serum levels of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP) in pregnancies with adverse outcome. Furthermore, to determine the screening performance using proMBP alone and in combination with other first trimester markers. METHODS: A case-control...... study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The proMBP concentration was measured in cases with small-for-gestational age (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40), gestational hypertension (n = 10) and in controls (n = 500). Concentrations were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The pro...

  10. Maternal serum anti-Müllerian hormone in Sudanese women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabain, Eiman; Mohamed, Hameed; Elsheikh, Anas E; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-24

    A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Tertiary Hospital, Sudan, during the period from May to August 2014 to investigate AMH level in women with preeclampsia compared to healthy controls. The cases were women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. The obstetrics and medical history was gathered using a questionnaire. AMH level was measured using ELISA. There was no significant difference between the two groups (40 in each arm of the study) in the age, parity and gestational age. Thirty-three of the 40 cases were patients with severe preeclampsia. There was no significant difference in median inter-quartile of the AMH level between the women with preeclampsia and the controls [0.700 (0.225-1.500) vs. 0.700 (0.400-1.275) ng/ml, P = 0.967]. In a linear regression model there was no association between the log of AMH and age, parity, gestational age, BMI, hemoglobin level and preeclampsia.

  11. Genetically determined low maternal serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase levels and the etiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P D; Schutz, C K; Macciardi, F; White, B N; Holden, J J

    2001-04-15

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disability characterized by repetitive stereopathies and deficits in reciprocal social interaction and communication, has a strong genetic basis. Since previous findings showed that some families with autistic children have a low level of serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH), which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, we examined the DBH gene as a candidate locus in families with two or more children with autism spectrum disorder using the affected sib-pair method. DBH alleles are defined by a polymorphic AC repeat and the presence/absence (DBH+/DBH-) of a 19-bp sequence 118 bp downstream in the 5' flanking region of the gene. There was no increased concordance for DBH alleles in affected siblings, but the mothers had a higher frequency of alleles containing the 19-bp deletion (DBH-), compared to an ethnically similar Canadian comparison group (chi(2) = 4.20, df = 1, P = 0.02 for all multiplex mothers; chi(2) = 4.71, df = 1, P autism. DBH genotypes also differed significantly among mothers and controls, with 37% of mothers with two affected sons having two DBH- alleles, compared to 19% of controls (chi(2) = 5.81, df = 2, P = 0.03). DbetaH enzyme activity was lower in mothers of autistic children than in controls (mean was 23.20 +/- 15.35 iU/liter for mothers vs. 33.14 +/- 21.39 iU/liter for controls; t = - 1.749, df = 46, P = 0.044). The DBH- allele was associated with lower mean serum DbetaH enzyme activity (nondeletion homozygotes: 41.02 +/- 24.34 iU/liter; heterozygotes: 32.07 +/- 18.10 iU/liter; and deletion homozygotes: 22.31 +/- 13.48 iU/liter; F = 5.217, df = 2, P = 0.007) in a pooled sample of mothers and controls. Taken together, these findings suggest that lowered maternal serum DbetaH activity results in a suboptimal uterine environment (decreased norepinephrine relative to dopamine), which, in conjunction with genotypic susceptibility of the fetus, results in autism spectrum disorder in some families

  12. Seasonal changes in testosterone and corticosterone levels in four social classes of a desert dwelling sociable rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-04-01

    Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.

  13. Effects of antenatal corticosteroids on maternal serum indicators of infection in women at risk for preterm delivery: A randomized trial comparing betamethasone and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Danesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effect of betamethasone and dexamethasone on maternal white blood cell (WBC and differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, Apgar score, maternal and fetal plasma glucose and length of admission to delivery, gestational age at delivery in women at risk of preterm labor (PTL. Study Design: Two hundred and forty pregnant women at risk for PTL with intact membranes or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM were randomly allocated to receive either two intramuscular injections of 12 mg betamethasone at 24-h intervals or 4 injections of 6 mg dexamethasone at 12-h intervals. Blood tests for WBC and differential count, ESR and fasting plasma glucose were drawn before betamethasone or dexamethasone injection and after injection every 24 h for two days. Pregnancy outcome was assessed as Apgar score, fetal plasma glucose and length of gestation. Result : In the preterm delivery group with intact membranes, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the maternal serum indicators of infection. The mean gestational age at delivery, 1- and 5-min Apgar score were higher in the dexamethasone group than in the betamethasone group. In the PPROM group, a significant rise in WBC count was occurred (12.4 cells/mm 3 vs. 10.5 cells/mm 3 , P < 0.001, none of the other maternal serum indicators of infection and outcome variables showed significant differences between the dexamethasone and betamethasone groups. Conclusions : Dexamethasone compared to betamethasone significantly increased WBC count in women with PPROM, but in women at risk of PTL with intact membranes none of the maternal serum indicators of infection showed significant differences.

  14. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  15. Corticosterone response to gestational stress and postpartum memory function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Mehla, Jogender; Afrashteh, Navvab; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress is a common adversity during pregnancy. Gestational corticosterone alternations are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum behavioral disturbances. However, the impact of stress during pregnancy, in particular noise exposure, on gestational corticosterone fluctuations and spatial cognition in postpartum mice has not been fully understood yet. We hypothesized that noise exposure during pregnancy negatively affects gestational corticosterone levels and postpartum memory function in the dams similar to the physical stressors. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either one of two stress conditions or a control condition. The noise stress (NS) was induced by presenting a loud intermittent 3000 Hz frequency on gestational days (GDs) 12, 14, and 16 for 24 hours, whereas the physical stress (PS) consisted of restraint and exposure to an elevated platform on GDs 12-16. Plasma corticosterone level was collected on GDs 11 and 17, and Morris water task (MWT) was carried out 30 days after parturition. Compared to the control group, the level of corticosterone in the stressed groups was significantly increased on GD17 relative to GD11. Significantly longer swim time and lower swim speed were observed in both stressed groups relative to the control group. Probe time was significantly shorter in the NS group than the other groups. The delta corticosterone level was significantly correlated with the swim time as well as the probe time in the three groups. Given the results, the adverse effects of gestational noise exposure on the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and postpartum spatial learning and memory function were as large as/ or a bit stronger than the physical stresses. The findings suggest the significance of conservation against loud noise exposure in daily living, as well as need to further notice to the different aspects of gestational stress in mothers' behavior like offspring.

  16. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Lee, Sue Y.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response. Methods: Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical–BCG associations among approximately 500 mother–infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders. Results: The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid [interquartile range (IQR): 37–248], and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115–847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: –42, –32; p PCB–DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone. Conclusions: The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown. Citation: Jusko TA, De Roos AJ, Lee SY, Thevenet-Morrison K, Schwartz SM, Verner MA, Palkovicova Murinova L, Drobná B, Kočan A, Fabišiková A, Čonka K, Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lawrence BP. 2016. A birth cohort study of maternal and infant

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  18. Maternal serum interleukin-6 and its association with clinicopathological infectious morbidity in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Agrawal, Swati; Raghunandan, Chitra; Bhattacharya, Jayashree; Saili, Arvind; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sharma, Deepika

    2012-08-01

    To analyze the association of maternal serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) with fetomaternal outcome in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Serial serum IL-6 levels were measured in 45 women with PPROM at gestation 24-34 weeks. The women were followed till pueperium and fetomaternal outcome as well as the histopathology of the placenta and the umbilical cord was studied. The data were analyzed using t test and χ(2) test. IL-6 levels ≥ 8 pg/ml were significantly associated with puerperal sepsis and neonatal sepsis. Histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis were demonstrated in 48.8% and 13.3% women respectively and significantly correlated with elevated serum IL-6 levels and fetomaternal infection. A cut-off value of IL-6 of 8 pg/ml was found to correctly diagnose 19 out of 23 patients with infectious morbidity and showed the best sensitivity (82.6%) and specificity (86.3%) as compared to the total leucocycte count (TLC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in diagnosing infection in PPROM. Maternal serum IL-6 can be used as a biomarker to predict preclinical asymptomatic infection in PPROM with good sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1200 - Corticosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to measure corticosterone (a steroid secreted by the adrenal gland) levels in plasma. Measurements of corticosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal disorders such as adrenal cortex disorders and...

  1. Effects of augmented corticosterone in painted turtle eggs on offspring development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Adams, Clare I M; Janzen, Fredric J

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta. We exposed C. picta eggs to biologically relevant amounts of the stress avoidance hormone, corticosterone, as a proxy for maternal stressors. We allowed the eggs to incubate in the field, then measured offspring phenotypes, conducted performance trials, and simulated nest emergence in a field experiment. Exogenous corticosterone reduced survivorship to hatch, but did not affect incubation duration, offspring size, overwinter survival, or size after hibernation. In performance trials, this hormone treatment reduced the frequency of righting, yet enhanced the righting speed of neonates. Regardless, these performance differences did not detectably alter survivorship in the nest emergence experiment. These results lend insight into the potential effects of maternal stress levels on offspring phenotypes, as well as the robustness of offspring fitness to altered levels of maternal stress in freshwater turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the Agreement of Risk Categorization for Fetal Down Syndrome Screening between Ultrasound-Based Gestational Age and Menstrual-Based Gestational Age by Maternal Serum Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaksuwat, Pakorn; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the agreement of risk categorization for Down syndrome screening between ultrasound scan-based gestational age (GA) and last menstrual period-based gestational age in both first and second trimesters by maternal serum markers. Data comprising 4,055 and 4,016 cases of first and second trimester screening were used. The maternal serum markers were analyzed using the ultrasound-based GA and menstrual age. The subjects whose menstrual age and ultrasound-based GA fell in different trimesters were excluded because the risk could not be calculated due to the different serum markers used in each trimester. The agreement of risk categorization for fetal Down syndrome was evaluated. The agreement of Down syndrome screening in the first and the second trimesters were 92.7% and 89%, respectively. The study found a good agreement of risk categorization by Kappa index, which was 0.615 for the overall screening. The menstrual age had a slight decrease in the detection rate and a lower false-positive rate. Menstrual age is acceptable in cases of accurate last menstrual period. However, in places where ultrasonography is not readily available, gestational age estimation by menstrual age along with clinical examination that corresponds to the gestational age can be reliable.

  3. Differences in the association between maternal serum homocysteine and ADMA levels in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the association between homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in preeclamptic women with and without intrauterine growth restriction compared with normal healthy uncomplicated pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies complicated by idiopathic isolated intrauterine fetal growth restriction. The maternal serum homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations were determined using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A statistically significant positive correlation of maternal serum homocysteine levels with the serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels was observed in healthy normotensive uncomplicated pregnant women from the control group and in preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses (R = 0.380079, p-value = 0.002311* and R = 0.455797, p-value = 0.004030* for the control and the P groups, respectively). However, this correlation was not significant in women with pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, both isolated and in the course of severe preeclampsia. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia are associated with elevated homocysteine levels. But our results also demonstrate that in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, this mechanism is important, although not the only one.

  4. Dechlorane Plus and its dechlorinated analogs from an e-waste recycling center in maternal serum and breast milk of women in Wenling, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yujie; Li Xinghong; Yang Youlin; Li Long; Di Junping; Wang Wenyue; Zhou, Ren-Fang; Xiao Ke; Zheng Meiyun; Tian Yuan; Xu Xiaobai

    2013-01-01

    We measured Dechlorane Plus (DP) and its dechlorinated analogs in the blood and milk from women living in e-waste recycling sites in Wenling of Taizhou region, China (n = 49). Both syn-DP and anti-DP were detected in all samples. Another compound, Cl 11 -DP, was detected in 45% and 84% of milk and serum samples, respectively. DP levels in blood and milk from residents living in the local environment >20 yrs (R 20 group) were significantly higher than those living in Taizhou 3 group) (p anti ) in serum suggested that stereoselective DP bio-accumulation did not occur during the DP transport from blood to milk. This result indicate that DP can bio-accumulate in blood and milk with the low milk/serum partition coefficient and similar blood and milk stereoselective bio-accumulation profiles. - Highlights: ► Our study observed that DP and Cl 11 -DP can bioaccumulate in maternal blood and milk. ► A stable partitioning of DP between milk and serum was observed. ► Stereoselective DP accumulation did not occur during DP transport from blood to milk. ► Exposure from e-waste recycling was a dominant factor affecting the DP level. - DP can bio-accumulate in human with the low milk/serum partition coefficient and similar blood and milk stereo-selective bio-accumulation profiles.

  5. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  6. Maternal serum lipid levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in comparison to normal pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Akbari

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Due to positive correlation of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, it is possible to assume that elevated TGs levels in GDM cases is a reflection of variation in maternal insulin levels.

  7. Direct analysis of the lectin reactivity of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum by crossed affinity radio-immunoelectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerckaert, J.P.; Bayard, B.; Biserte, G.; Puech, F.; Codaccioni, X.

    1980-01-01

    Affinity experiments with the lentil (Lens culinaris) lectin have revealed the existence of two distinct molecular populations of alpha-fetoprotein: lectin reactive and lectin non-reactive. Using a combination of crossed lectin immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immunoelectrophoresis, it has been possible to obtain directly the lentil lectin affinity patterns of alpha-fetoprotein present in maternal sera. The lentil lectin reactivity of maternal alpha-fetoprotein decreases almost linearly with the gestational age from week 15 to 35. (Auth.)

  8. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  9. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborn to brominated flame retardants: Determination of tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Zalko, Daniel; Berrebi, Alain; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Maume, Daniel; Marchand, Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Riu, Anne; Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a French monitoring program, tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) have been measured in maternal and cord serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples, collected from 93 volunteer women during caesarean deliveries. The seven major tri- to heptaBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were detected in adipose tissue and breast milk with cumulated median values of 2.59 and 2.51 ng g -1 l w. Nine highly brominated octa- to decaBDE (BDE-196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209) was performed in the same samples, with cumulated median values of 2.73 and 3.39 ng g -1 l w in adipose tissue and breast milk, respectively. At this opposite, median levels of octa- to decaBDE in maternal and cord serum appeared significantly higher than the levels of tri- to heptaBDE in the same matrices, i.e. 8.85 and 12.34 versus 0.98 and 0.69 ng g -1 l w, respectively. - This study provides the first data at the French level regarding the occurrence of PBDE in human, and demonstrates the exposure of both human foetus at late stage of pregnancy and newborn at early stages of life through breastfeeding with special emphasis on the presence of highly brominated compounds

  10. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborn to brominated flame retardants: Determination of tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: antignac@vet-nantes.fr; Cariou, Ronan [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zalko, Daniel [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Berrebi, Alain [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Hopital Paule de Viguier, Service de gynecologie-obstetrique, Toulouse (France); Cravedi, Jean-Pierre [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Maume, Daniel; Marchand, Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Riu, Anne [Unite Signalisation Hormonale, Environnement et Cancer, U824 INSERM, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-01-15

    In the frame of a French monitoring program, tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) have been measured in maternal and cord serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples, collected from 93 volunteer women during caesarean deliveries. The seven major tri- to heptaBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were detected in adipose tissue and breast milk with cumulated median values of 2.59 and 2.51 ng g{sup -1} l w. Nine highly brominated octa- to decaBDE (BDE-196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209) was performed in the same samples, with cumulated median values of 2.73 and 3.39 ng g{sup -1} l w in adipose tissue and breast milk, respectively. At this opposite, median levels of octa- to decaBDE in maternal and cord serum appeared significantly higher than the levels of tri- to heptaBDE in the same matrices, i.e. 8.85 and 12.34 versus 0.98 and 0.69 ng g{sup -1} l w, respectively. - This study provides the first data at the French level regarding the occurrence of PBDE in human, and demonstrates the exposure of both human foetus at late stage of pregnancy and newborn at early stages of life through breastfeeding with special emphasis on the presence of highly brominated compounds.

  11. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.

  12. Elevated second-trimester maternal serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein as indicators of adverse obstetric outcomes in fetal Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nava, Francisco; Soto, Marisol; Lanes, Roberto; Pons, Hector; Morales-Machin, Alisandra; Bracho, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of biochemical analytes to identify adverse outcomes in pregnancies with Turner syndrome. Maternal serum and amniotic fluid (AF) marker concentrations were measured in 73 singleton pregnancies with Turner syndrome (10-22 weeks of gestation). Fetal Turner syndrome was definitively established by cytogenetic analysis. Two subgroups, fetuses with hydrops fetalis versus fetuses with cystic hygroma, were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curves and relative risk were established for a cut-off multiples of the median ≥3.5 for β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or AF alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Forty-nine (67%) of 73 pregnant women had an abnormal maternal serum. While levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-subunit (fβ)-hCG were not different to those of the control group, AFP, unconjugated estriol and β-hCG concentrations were significantly different in the study group (P Turner syndrome pregnancies with the highest risk of fetal death. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Resveratrol ameliorates depressive-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Hamid; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; K V, Athira; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Pitta, Sathish; Mahareddy, Jalandhar Reddy; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-09-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in animals. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol of phytoalexin family, on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 40mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21days. Resveratrol and fluoxetine were administered 30min prior to the CORT injection. After 21-days treatment with respective drugs, behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant activity of many drugs, we also evaluated the effect of resveratrol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Three weeks of CORT injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant decrease in hippocampus BDNF level in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with resveratrol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. These results suggest that resveratrol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of hippocampal BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of In utero environment and maternal behavior on neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations in a mouse model of prenatal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Y; Canneva, F; Funke, R; Frey, S; Distler, J; von Hörsten, S; Freitag, C M; Kratz, O; Moll, G H; Solati, J

    2016-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma exposure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of affective disorders in children. To investigate the mechanisms by which prenatal trauma and/or maternal PTSD affect brain development and behavior we established a mouse model of prenatal traumatic (PT) experience based on the application of an electric foot shock to C57Bl/6N female mice on the gestational day 12 during their pregnancy. The model is based on a previously validated animal model of PTSD. We found high anxiety levels and poor maternal care along with reduced serum prolactin and increased corticosterone levels in dams following maternal trauma (MT). PT-pups were born smaller and stayed smaller throughout their life. We show increased time and frequency of ultrasonic calls in PT-pups when separated from the mothers on the postnatal day (PND) 9. Cross-fostering experiments reveal lower anxiety levels in PT pups raised by healthy mothers as compared to trauma-naive pups raised by MT-dams. Importantly, the combination of prenatal trauma and being raised by a traumatized mother leads to: (1) the highest corticosterone levels in pups, (2) longest USV-call time and (3) highest anxiety levels in comparison to other experimental groups. Our data indicates a distinct change in maternal care following MT which is possibly associated with trauma-induced decrease in prolactin levels. Furthermore, we show that maternal behavior is crucial for the development of the offspring anxiety and specific aspects in maternal care overwrite to a significant extend the effects of in utero and postnatal environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1254-1265, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  16. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of maternal serum hypoxia inducible factor-1α, progranulin and syndecan-1 levels in pregnancies with early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici Davutoğlu, Ebru; Akkaya Firat, Asuman; Ozel, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Nevin; Uzun, Isil; Temel Yuksel, Ilkbal; Madazlı, Riza

    2018-08-01

    To determine the serum levels of HIF-1 α, progranulin, and syndecan-1 in preeclampsia (PE) and normal pregnancy, and to compare whether these markers demonstrate any difference between early-onset PE (EO-PE) and late-onset PE (LO-PE). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 women with EO-PE, 27 women with LO-PE, and 26 healthy normotensive pregnant controls matched for gestational age. Maternal levels of serum HIF-1 α, progranulin, and syndecan-1 were measured with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the control and the PE groups in progranulin (p progranulin levels were significantly higher in LO-PE compared with the other two groups (EO-PE versus LO-PE and LO-PE versus controls p = .000). Control group presented significantly higher syndecan-1 levels, than EO and LO-PE (p progranulin levels (r = .439, p= .000). Serum progranulin may have potential to be used as a biomarker for the differentiation of EO-PE and LO-PE. The co-operative action between HIF-1 α and progranulin might play a key role in the pathogenesis of LO-PE. The predominant feature of LO-PE seems to be an inflammatory process, whereas in EO-PE placentation problem seems to be the main pathology.

  18. Blood corticosterone concentration reaches critical illness levels early during acute malnutrition in the weanling mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Makinen, Kimberley; Shrum, Bradly; Woodward, Bill

    2006-03-01

    Acute (i.e., wasting) pediatric malnutrition consistently elevates blood glucocorticoid levels, but neither the magnitude of the rise in concentration nor its kinetics is clear. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, and CBA/J mice, initially 23 days old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched control) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or they consumed a purified isocaloric low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor). Serum levels of corticosterone were assessed by double antibody radioimmunoassay after 3, 6, and 14 days (C57BL/6J strain) or after 6 and 14 days in the genetically distant CBA/J strain. Age-matched control groups of both strains exhibited mean corticosterone levels of 5-30 ng/ml, whereas the acutely malnourished groups exhibited mean levels of this hormone that were elevated by more than an order of magnitude as early as 3 days after initiation of weight loss. This outcome was confirmed in a second experiment in which the serum corticosterone level of C57BL/6J weanlings was examined by competitive binding enzyme immunoassay 3 and 14 days after initiation of the dietary protocols. Therefore, deficits of protein and/or energy in weanling murine systems relevant to acute pediatric malnutrition elicit early elevations in blood glucocorticoid levels to a magnitude reminiscent of critical illness and multiple trauma. The key to this novel finding was an exsanguination method that permitted accurate assessment of the blood corticosterone level of the healthy, quiescent mouse. Overall, the results of this investigation provide a new perspective on the glucocorticoids as part of the early hormonal response to acute weanling malnutrition coincident with the shift toward catabolic metabolism and the initiation of depression in cellular immune competence.

  19. Assessment of testicular corticosterone biosynthesis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Maeda

    Full Text Available Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs.

  20. Corticosterone mediates some but not other behavioural changes induced by prenatal stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, S; Bejar, C; Schorer-Apelbaum, D; Weinstock, M

    2011-02-01

    The effect of daily varied stress from days 13-21 of gestation in Wistar rats was investigated by tests of learning and memory and anxiogenic behaviour in the 60-day-old offspring of both sexes. Prenatal stress decreased the anogenital distance in males at 1 day of age. Anxiogenic behaviour in the elevated plus maze was seen in prenatally-stressed rats of both genders. There was no significant gender difference in the rate of spatial learning in the Morris water maze but prenatal stress only slowed that of males. In the object recognition test with an inter-trial interval of 40 min, females but not males, discriminated between a familiar and novel object. Prenatal stress did not affect object discrimination in females but feminised that in males. Maternal adrenalectomy with replacement of basal corticosterone levels in the drinking fluid prevented all of the above effects of prenatal stress in the offspring. To mimic the peak corticosterone levels and time course of elevation in response to stress, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) was injected twice (0 and 30 min) on days 13-16 and once on days 17-20 of gestation to adrenalectomised mothers. This treatment re-instated anxiogenic behaviour similar to that induced by prenatal stress, indicating that it is mediated by exposure of the foetal brain to raised levels of corticosterone. However, steroid administration to adrenalectomised dams did not decrease anogenital distance, feminise object recognition memory or slow spatial learning in their male offspring. The findings indicate that other adrenal hormones are necessary to induce these effects of prenatal stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Elevated maternal placental protein 13 serum levels at term of pregnancy in postpartum major hemorrhage (>1000 mLs). A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonio; Bernabini, Dalila; Zucchini, Cinzia; De Sanctis, Paola; Quezada, Maria Soledad; Mattioli, Mara; Rizzo, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To compare placental protein 13 (PP13) levels in the serum of women with primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with a control population. A prospective cohort study was conducted between May 2014 and May 2016 and included 435 pregnant women at term (38 weeks gestation) without any known risk factor and with normal labor. Multiples of median (MoM) were used to evaluate differences of the PP13 values between cases and controls. PP13 concentrations were adjusted for maternal and neonatal weight. Multivariable analysis was used to detect independent contribution of predictors of PPH. Fifteen had a major PPH >1000 mLs and represented the cases of the study. They were matched with 399 controls. Twenty-one patients who had a minor PPH (500-1000 mLs) were excluded. The mean observed rank in the PPH group was higher than that of controls (28.5 vs 13.5, P-value=.01). PP13 MoM values adjusted for maternal weight were higher than expected being 1.44±0.45 in PPH cases and 1.00±0.59 in controls (P-value .008). This difference was still significant even after adjustment for neonatal weight that represented a confounding variable. Higher PP13 levels are independently associated with major PPH >1000 mLs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Intra-uterine growth restriction impact on maternal serum concentration of PlGF (placental growth factor): A case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, A; Boisson-Gaudin, C; Subtil, F; Rudigoz, R-C; Dubernard, G; Allias, F; Huissoud, C

    2016-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a pro-angiogenic factor mainly assessed in preeclampsia in which its blood concentration is decreased. The aim of this study was to dose the blood concentration of PlGF in women with fetal intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) without associated preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis. Case/control study: IUGR was defined by a fetal biometry with abnormal uterine and/or umbilical doppler (n=23). This group was compared to a control group of fetuses (n=25) matched for gestational age at blood sampling for the dosage of maternal seric PlGF. Women with preeclampsia were not included. The plasma PlGF concentration was 11pg/mL (IQR [11-42,8]) in the IUGR group vs 287pg/mL [135-439] in the control group (P<0.001) and this difference was available after adjustment for gestational age at the time of blood sampling (P<0.001). PlGF sensitivity and specificity for discrimination were respectively 87% (CI 95% [66-97]) and 88% (CI 95% [69-97]). Maternal serum PlGF concentrations were very low in IUGR group compared with those of the control group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  4. Placental protein-13 (PP13) in combination with PAPP-A and free leptin index (fLI) in first trimester maternal serum screening for severe and early preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villiers, Carin P.De; Hedley, Paula L.; Placing, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Placental protein-13 (PP13) is involved in placental invasion and has been suggested as a maternal serum marker of preeclampsia (PE) development. However, the discriminatory ability of PP13 in first trimester has not been completely clarified. PP13 was measured in first trimester (week 10...

  5. Usefulness of maternal serum C-reactive protein with vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum as a marker for prediction of imminent preterm delivery and chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong-Wook; Cho, Hee-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and genital mycoplasmas measured can help predict imminent preterm delivery or chorioamnionitis in patients with preterm labor (PL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The study group consisted of 165 women with PL or PPROM. Vaginal cultures for genital mycoplasmas and maternal blood for CRP were obtained when they were admitted for the management of PL or PPROM. An elevated level of serum CRP was defined as ≥0.8 mg/dL. Histologic evaluation of the placenta was performed after delivery. The prevalence of positive vaginal fluid cultures for Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) was 63.0%, and elevated maternal serum CRP was 32.7%. No outcome variables were associated with vaginal UU infection in patients with lower CRP levels. However, among women with elevated CRP, the mean gestational age at birth was significantly reduced, and low Apgar score, neonatal intensive care unit admission, histologic chorioamnionitis, and delivery within 7 days of admission were significantly more common in patients with vaginal UU. Although vaginal UU in PL or PPROM cannot act as the sole predictor of imminent preterm delivery or chorioamnionitis, it can provide predictive information in patients with elevated maternal serum CRP levels.

  6. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  7. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  8. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  9. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Yau, Vincent M; Hansen, Robin; Kharrazi, Martin; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Calafat, Antonia M; Windham, Gayle; Croen, Lisa A

    2018-01-02

    Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in children. Participants were from a population-based nested case-control study of children born from 2000 to 2003 in southern California, including children diagnosed with ASD ( n =553), ID without autism ( n =189), and general population (GP) controls ( n =433). Concentrations of eight PFAS from stored maternal sera collected at 15-19 wk gestational age were quantified and compared among study groups. We used logistic regression to obtain adjusted odds ratios for the association between prenatal PFAS concentrations (parameterized continuously and as quartiles) and ASD versus GP controls, and separately for ID versus GP controls. Geometric mean concentrations of most PFAS were lower in ASD and ID groups relative to GP controls. ASD was not significantly associated with prenatal concentrations of most PFAS, though significant inverse associations were found for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) [adjusted ORs for the highest vs. lowest quartiles 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.97), respectively]. Results for ID were similar. Results from this large case-control study with prospectively collected prenatal measurements do not support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to PFAS is positively associated with ASD or ID. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1830.

  11. Prenatal Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Vincent M.; Hansen, Robin; Kharrazi, Martin; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Windham, Gayle; Croen, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in children. Methods: Participants were from a population-based nested case–control study of children born from 2000 to 2003 in southern California, including children diagnosed with ASD (n=553), ID without autism (n=189), and general population (GP) controls (n=433). Concentrations of eight PFAS from stored maternal sera collected at 15–19 wk gestational age were quantified and compared among study groups. We used logistic regression to obtain adjusted odds ratios for the association between prenatal PFAS concentrations (parameterized continuously and as quartiles) and ASD versus GP controls, and separately for ID versus GP controls. Results: Geometric mean concentrations of most PFAS were lower in ASD and ID groups relative to GP controls. ASD was not significantly associated with prenatal concentrations of most PFAS, though significant inverse associations were found for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) [adjusted ORs for the highest vs. lowest quartiles 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.97), respectively]. Results for ID were similar. Conclusions: Results from this large case–control study with prospectively collected prenatal measurements do not support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to PFAS is positively associated with ASD or ID. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1830 PMID:29298162

  12. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  13. Predictive value of C-reactive protein in serum of maternal and cord blood in cases with premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, A M; Marei, S K; Elghorab, N M; Elnewahy, M A; Aboulenin, A A

    1992-02-01

    Physicians compared clinical history, examination, and laboratory data on 10 pregnant women at various gestational ages with intact membranes till labor began (controls) with data on 25 pregnant women also at various gestational ages who experienced premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (cases) to determine the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in maternal and cord blood as a predictor of chorioamnionitis in women with PROM. 32% of cases had clinical chorioamnionitis and 44% histopathological chorioamnionitis. The maternal serum level of CRP in cases with and without chorioamnionitis at delivery was statistically higher than that of the controls (45.82 CRP mg/L and 9.71 CRP mg/L vs. 6.6 CRP mg/l; P.05). Further the CRP level in cord blood of cases with chorioamnionitis also stood much higher than that of the controls (p.001). In addition, the total leukocytic count (TLC) for cases with chorioamnionitis at delivery was much higher than it was for the control group at delivery (12,510 TLC/cubic mm vs. 18,231 TLC/cubic mm; p.05). A significant difference also existed between the temperature of the cases with chorioamnionitis and that of the controls (37.11 degrees Celsius vs. 63.97 degrees Celsius; p.05). Sensitivity and specificity tests showed that CRP 24 mg/L was the most reliable predictor of chorioamnionitis (100% and 93.3% respectively) followed by TLC (77.8% and 92.8% respectively) then temperature (55.6% and 78.6% respectively). Thus CRP can be used to predict premature delivery and simultaneously reduces unnecessary premature delivery of many PROM cases which occur due to fear of developing infections in both the mother and the fetus.

  14. Application of Neural Networks for classification of Patau, Edwards, Down, Turner and Klinefelter Syndrome based on first trimester maternal serum screening data, ultrasonographic findings and patient demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, Aida; Gurbeta, Lejla; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Badnjevic, Almir

    2018-02-13

    The usage of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for genome-enabled classifications and establishing genome-phenotype correlations have been investigated more extensively over the past few years. The reason for this is that ANNs are good approximates of complex functions, so classification can be performed without the need for explicitly defined input-output model. This engineering tool can be applied for optimization of existing methods for disease/syndrome classification. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses are the most frequent tests used in prenatal diagnostic for the early detection of Turner, Klinefelter, Patau, Edwards and Down syndrome. These procedures can be lengthy, repetitive; and often employ invasive techniques so a robust automated method for classifying and reporting prenatal diagnostics would greatly help the clinicians with their routine work. The database consisted of data collected from 2500 pregnant woman that came to the Institute of Gynecology, Infertility and Perinatology "Mehmedbasic" for routine antenatal care between January 2000 and December 2016. During first trimester all women were subject to screening test where values of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were measured. Also, fetal nuchal translucency thickness and the presence or absence of the nasal bone was observed using ultrasound. The architectures of linear feedforward and feedback neural networks were investigated for various training data distributions and number of neurons in hidden layer. Feedback neural network architecture out performed feedforward neural network architecture in predictive ability for all five aneuploidy prenatal syndrome classes. Feedforward neural network with 15 neurons in hidden layer achieved classification sensitivity of 92.00%. Classification sensitivity of feedback (Elman's) neural network was 99.00%. Average accuracy of feedforward neural network was 89.6% and for

  15. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  16. Implications of failure to achieve a result from prenatal maternal serum cell-free DNA testing: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N; Smet, M-E; Sandow, R; da Silva Costa, F; McLennan, A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women who failed to obtain a result in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Historical cohort study. A multicentre private practice in Sydney, Australia. Women who failed to obtain a result from NIPT (n = 131). The maternal characteristics, antenatal investigations and pregnancy outcomes for these women were compared with those who obtained a result at the same practice and to the general Australian obstetric population. Antenatal investigations: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), placental growth factor (PlGF), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI), mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pregnancy outcomes: chromosomal abnormality, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm delivery. Only 1.1% of NIPT samples failed to return a result. This cohort was significantly older and had significantly increased weight compared with the general Australian obstetric population. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 94% of the cohort. There were significantly higher rates of chromosomal aneuploidies (6.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.0001), pre-eclampsia (11% versus 1.5%, P < 0.0001) and gestational diabetes (23% versus 7.5%, P < 0.0001) compared with the general obstetric population. Rates of preterm delivery and SGA were elevated but did not reach significance. Antenatal investigations demonstrated decreased PAPP-A MoM (0.75 versus 1.14, P < 0.0001), decreased free β-hCG (0.71 versus 1.01, P < 0.0001) and increased uterine artery PI (1.79 versus 1.65, P = 0.02). Women who fail to obtain a result from NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular chromosomal aneuploidy, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. None received. Women who fail to obtain a result from cell-free DNA NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Spatial and temporal dynamics of corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin are driven by environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Michael Todd; Kitaysky, Alexander Stanislav

    2008-02-01

    The question of whether changes in glucocorticoid concentrations reflect consistent changes in physiology associated with transitions between different stages of reproduction, or whether they reflect responses to environmental conditions, is one the central issues in field endocrinology studies. We examined the temporal and spatial dynamics of corticosterone (CORT, baseline, and acute stress-induced) and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations in blood of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding at four major colonies in the Bering Sea, Alaska, during 1999-2005. We found that total CORT, free CORT, and CBG capacity varied inconsistently among reproductive stages, colonies, and years. Total CORT levels were positively correlated with CBG capacity. Variation in free CORT was largely driven by variation in total CORT. Results suggest that the adrenocortical function and CBG in breeding kittiwakes do not vary as a consequence of stage-specific modulation associated with a particular reproductive stage as in some short-lived passerine birds. Rather, in accord with predictions for a long-lived species, the lack of consistent colony, year, and reproductive stage patterns in baseline and maximum CORT, and CBG indicates that environmental factors, probably local dynamics of food availability, drive variation in these factors.

  20. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  1. Cell-free fetal DNA versus maternal serum screening for trisomy 21 in pregnant women with and without assisted reproduction technology: a prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jean-Marc; Letourneau, Alexandra; Favre, Romain; Bidat, Laurent; Belaisch-Allart, Joelle; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Quarello, Edwin; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Broussin, Bernard; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Demain, Adèle; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Lohmann, Laurence; Agostini, Hélène; Bouyer, Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    PurposeCell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a primary screening test has been available for years but few studies have addressed this option in a prospective manner. The question is of interest after reports that maternal serum screening (MSS) is less accurate for pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction technologies (ART) than for spontaneous pregnancies (SP).MethodsA prospective interventional study was designed to address the performances of cfDNA compared with MSS in pregnancies with or without ART. Each patient was offered both MSS and cfDNA testing. The primary analysis cohort ultimately included 794 patients with a spontaneous pregnancy (SP) (n = 472) or pregnancy obtained after ART (n = 322).ResultsOverall, the false-positive rate and positive predictive value were 6.6% and 8.8% for MSS but 0% and 100% for cfDNA. MSS false-positive rate and positive predictive values were clearly poorer in the ART group (11.7% and 2.6%) than in the SP group (3.2% and 21.1%). The global rates of invasive procedures were 1.9% (15/794) with cfDNA but 8.4% (65/794) if MSS alone was proposed.ConclusioncfDNA achieved better performance than MSS in both spontaneous and ART pregnancies, thus decreasing the number of invasive procedures. Our findings suggest that cfDNA should be considered for primary screening, especially in pregnancies obtained after ART.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 1 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.4.

  2. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... and can be associated with congenital heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems, leukemia , and thyroid disorders . Many ...

  3. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  4. The development of a radioimmunoassay for 18-hydroxy-corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.I.

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that 18-hydroxy-corticosterone (18-OH-B) is a precursor for aldosterone in the biosynthetic pathway. This steroid had not been measured in peripheral plasma and therefore to evaluate its clinical role a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was developed. The assay is described and was applied to measure the levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone in normal human subjects on (a) an ad libitum sodium intake whilst lying or standing, (b) on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent, (c) before and after treatment with either ACTH, metyrapone or dexamethasone on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent (d) after insulin induced hypoglycaemia and (e) after infusions of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone. The levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone were also measured in patients with (a) 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, (b) primary or secondary aldosteronism, (c) Bartter's syndrome, (d) Cushing's syndrome, (e) adrenalectomised patients or patient's with Addison's disease and (f) patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  5. Development of a radioimmunoassay for 18-hydroxy-corticosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V I

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that 18-hydroxy-corticosterone (18-OH-B) is a precursor for aldosterone in the biosynthetic pathway. This steroid had not been measured in peripheral plasma and therefore to evaluate its clinical role a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was developed. The assay is described and was applied to measure the levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone in normal human subjects on (a) an ad libitum sodium intake whilst lying or standing, (b) on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent, (c) before and after treatment with either ACTH, metyrapone or dexamethasone on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent (d) after insulin induced hypoglycaemia and (e) after infusions of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone. The levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone were also measured in patients with (a) 17chemically bond-hydroxylase deficiency, (b) primary or secondary aldosteronism, (c) Bartter's syndrome, (d) Cushing's syndrome, (e) adrenalectomised patients or patient's with Addison's disease and (f) patients with essential hypertension. (author).

  6. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  7. Antidepressant-like activity of red wine phenolic extracts in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice via BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of red wine phenolic extracts in mouse model exposed to exogenous corticosterone. The results showed that 3-week corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase immobility time in the forced swim test. Red wine phenolic extracts treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels. Moreover, it was found that red wine phenolic extract increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein (BNDF and Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB phosphorylation and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, K252a, an inhibitor of TrkB, completely abolished those antidepressant-like effects. These results suggested that the red wine phenolic extracts produce an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-treated mice, at least in part, which is possibly mediated by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, BDNF, TrkB and CREB phosphorylation levels in the brain region of mice.

  8. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimentally reduced corticosterone release promotes early breeding in black-legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2011-06-15

    Breeding at the right time is important for successful reproduction. In birds, stressful environmental conditions are known to delay the timing of breeding but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The stress hormone corticosterone appears to be a good candidate for mediating egg-laying date according to early environmental conditions and physiological state. By experimentally reducing the release of corticosterone in black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-laying period, we tested whether egg-laying date was mechanistically linked to corticosterone levels. Male and female kittiwakes were implanted with a low dose of exogenous corticosterone to inhibit endogenous corticosterone production. According to our predictions, the experimental reduction of corticosterone release was paralleled by a significant advancement of egg laying in females (around 4 days earlier). In addition, females with experimentally reduced corticosterone release gained mass during the pre-laying period compared with controls. Ultimately, the advancement of egg laying in females with experimentally reduced corticosterone levels was associated with an enhanced breeding success. This effect was strongly sex specific. In corticosterone-treated male kittiwakes, egg-laying date and reproductive success were not affected, but breeding probability was lower than in controls. This corticosterone treatment did not influence immediate clutch size, or return rate and breeding decision the following year. Our results support the hypothesis that corticosterone secretion during the pre-laying period mediates the timing of breeding in this long-lived seabird, possibly through the dynamics of energy reserves.

  10. Leptin in first trimester pregnancy serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula; Pihl, Kasper; Krebs, Lone

    2009-01-01

    and its relation to fetal growth disturbances were examined in this study. The study is a case-control study with 36 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (pregnancies and 108 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) (> or =5th percentile) pregnancies. The groups were matched by maternal age...... maternal BMI. There was no significant difference in maternal serum leptin concentrations between SGA and AGA pregnancies. In conclusion, SGA pregnancies are not associated with a lower maternal serum leptin concentration in first trimester. The maternal serum leptin concentration is largely determined...

  11. The effects of propolis extract on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arabameri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress. Materials and Methods: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1 Control group, 2 Control group+saline, 3 Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4th, 5th and 6th groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively. Then serum corticosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were measured. The ovarian sections were stained by H&E, PAS, and TUNEL methods and were studied with optical microscopy. Results: Stress increased the blood serum corticosterone levels and 17-beta-estradiol reduced significantly (p<0.001 and EIP prevented from this changes (p<0.01. EIP significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles, oocytes and oocytes diameter in neonatal rat following stress (p<0.01. EIP also significantly decreased the number of atretic follicles, TUNEL+granulosa cells, malondialdehyde levels and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in neonatal rats following stress. The dose of 200 mg/kg EIP was more effective. Conclusion: This Study showed that the Iranian Propolis significantly could prevent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the ovary of the neonatal rat the following stress.

  12. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-04-17

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Corticosterone Facilitates Fluoxetine-Induced Neuronal Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsunori; Ikeda, Yumiko; Asada, Minoru; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus has been implicated in a neuronal basis of antidepressant action. We have recently shown a distinct form of neuronal plasticity induced by the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, that is, a reversal of maturation of the dentate granule cells in adult mice. This “dematuration” is induced in a large population of dentate neurons and maintained for at least one month after withdrawal of fluoxetine, suggesting long-lasting strong influence of dematuration on brain functioning. However, reliable induction of dematuration required doses of fluoxetine higher than suggested optimal doses for mice (10 to 18 mg/kg/day), which casts doubt on the clinical relevance of this effect. Since our previous studies were performed in naive mice, in the present study, we reexamined effects of fluoxetine using mice treated with chronic corticosterone that model neuroendocrine pathophysiology associated with depression. In corticosterone-treated mice, fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg/day downregulated expression of mature granule cell markers and attenuated strong frequency facilitation at the synapse formed by the granule cell axon mossy fiber, suggesting the induction of granule cell dematuration. In addition, fluoxetine caused marked enhancement of dopaminergic modulation at the mossy fiber synapse. In vehicle-treated mice, however, fluoxetine at this dose had no significant effects. The plasma level of fluoxetine was comparable to that in patients taking chronic fluoxetine, and corticosterone did not affect it. These results indicate that corticosterone facilitates fluoxetine-induced plastic changes in the dentate granule cells. Our finding may provide insight into neuronal mechanisms underlying enhanced responsiveness to antidepressant medication in certain pathological conditions. PMID:23675498

  14. Binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrieau, A.; Vial, M.; Dussaillant, M.; Rostene, W.; Philibert, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique which permits to study the specific binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rats is described. Under these conditions, the specific binding of the glucocorticoid represents 60 to 70% of the initial binding. The apparent dissociation constant and the number of binding sites, determined by Scatchard analysis, are in the range of 10 -8 M and 100 fmoles/mg of protein respectively [fr

  15. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  16. Selenium and other elements in human maternal and umbilical serum, as determined simultaneously by proton-induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvoenen-Dabek, M.; Nikkinen-Vilkki, P.; Dabek, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Using PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission), we simultaneously determined the concentrations of Se, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb in blood serum from 56 pregnant women, 25 healthy controls, and 31 others with twin pregnancy or some complicating condition (diabetes, hypertension, epilepsy, hepatosis gravidarum, pre-eclampsia, small baby), and in cord-blood serum from 21 newborns. Pellets, pressed from the serum samples after addition of yttrium as an internal standard, mixing, and evaporating at 30 degrees C with or without reduced pressure (less than 1 kPa), were bombarded by 2.2 MeV protons from a Van de Graaff accelerator in the air and the induced X-rays collected by a Ge(Li) detector. Relative to mean Se values for early six- to 12-week pregnancy (0.045 ppm), those for 35-42 week pregnancy (0.028 ppm) were low (p less than 0.001). Umbilical cord blood serum showed even lower values (0.016 ppm, p less than 0.001)--findings in harmony with the incidence pattern of Keshan cardiomyopathy. Pb crossed the placenta; values for cord serum were not significantly different from those in pregnancy serum. Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca showed the significant expected patterns in the different groups. Compared with the late-pregnancy controls, Fe was high in mothers of small-birth-weight babies (1.70 ppm, p less than 0.02). Br was high in pre-eclampsia (3.59 ppm, p less than 0.05) and mothers with twins (3.61 ppm, p less than 0.05)

  17. Circadian variation of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood in rats exposed to different light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Kos-Kudla, B.

    1993-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the regulatory influence of a different light-dark cycle on 24-h rhythm of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood. The present findings suggest that exposure to 'short day' conditions has a suppressive effect on circadian secretion of corticosterone. In rats kept in 'long day' conditions the increase of the mean 24-h corticosterone levels in adrenal vein blood and the acrophase rhythm shift were observed. In rats kept in an inverted illumination cycle the phase reversal in the periodicity of corticosterone was found. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Physiological actions of corticosterone and its modulation by an immune challenge in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sandrine; Haussy, Claudy; Voituron, Yann

    2010-11-01

    Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modulate the animal's phenotype. In particular, corticosterone, the stress hormone in lizards, is known to reallocate energy from non-essential functions to affect morphological, physiological and behavioral traits that help the organism to deal with acute or chronic stressors. However, the effects of corticosterone on life history stages are still unclear primarily because of the dependence of life history stages on both internal and external factors. Using a cross-design, we tested the effect of elevated levels of exogenous corticosterone on the physiology of pregnant females in different immune contexts in a wild population of common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). Immune challenge was induced by the injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and corticosterone levels were increased using a transdermal administration of corticosterone. Thereafter, reproductive traits, metabolism and cellular immune responses were measured. The elevation of corticosterone in pregnant females significantly altered reproductive and physiological performance. The corticosterone treatment decreased clutch success, juvenile size and body condition, but enhanced measures of physiological performance, such as metabolism and catalase activity. These first results reinforce the understanding of the physiological actions of corticosterone in reptiles. The data also demonstrated different direct impacts of immune challenge by SRBC on inflammatory response and antioxidant activity. The injection of SRBC stimulated the SOD activity in larger females. Finally, we demonstrated experimentally the modulation of the corticosterone action by the immune challenge on stamina and hatching date. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  20. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  1. Localization of aldosterone and corticosterone in the central nervous system, assessed by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, M.K.; Sar, M.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear localization of tritiated aldosterone in the CNS was studied in rats by numerical evaluation of silver grains, deposited over neuronal cell nuclei in thaw-mounted autoradiograms, and compared with the localization obtained after prior administration of a 100-fold excess of radioinert aldosterone, corticosterone or 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC). Corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC completely prevented nuclear localization in most regions examined. However, in contrast to pretreatment with aldosterone, pretreatment with corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC did not completely prevent the concentration of radioactivity in the cell nuclei of the indusium griseum. Traces of radioactivity were, furthermore, retained in areas CA1 and CA2 and the dentate gyrus in rats exposed to corticosterone, but not to 18-OH-DOC, prior to [ 3 H]aldosterone. A similar profile of silver grain distribution to that noted with aldosterone was found for corticosterone except that with tritiated corticosterone the most intense concentration of radioactivity occurred in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2 and not in the indusium griseum. The authors conclude that (1) a receptor readily shared by aldosterone, corticosterone, 18-OH-DOC and DOC, but not by dihydrotestosterone, is widely distributed throughout the CNS, (2) a receptor shared by aldosterone and 18-OH-DOC, but not by corticosterone may be present in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2, (3) that both these as well as the receptor accepting dihydrotestosterone can be located within the same cell

  2. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  4. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  5. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A using COLD-PCR combined with HRM genotyping analysis from maternal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Hada C; Martinez-Broca, Maria A; Rubio-Calvo, Amalia; Leon-Garcia, Cristina; Conde-Sanchez, Manuel; Costa, Alzenira; Navarro, Elena; Guerrero, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a monogenic disorder characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance which is characterized by high risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma in all mutation carriers. Although this disorder is classified as a rare disease, the patients affected have a low life quality and a very expensive and continuous treatment. At present, MEN2A is diagnosed by gene sequencing after birth, thus trying to start an early treatment and by reduction of morbidity and mortality. We first evaluated the presence of MEN2A mutation (C634Y) in serum of 25 patients, previously diagnosed by sequencing in peripheral blood leucocytes, using HRM genotyping analysis. In a second step, we used a COLD-PCR approach followed by HRM genotyping analysis for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of a pregnant woman carrying a fetus with a C634Y mutation. HRM analysis revealed differences in melting curve shapes that correlated with patients diagnosed for MEN2A by gene sequencing analysis with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the pregnant woman carrying the fetus with the C634Y mutation revealed a melting curve shape in agreement with the positive controls in the COLD-PCR study. The mutation was confirmed by sequencing of the COLD-PCR amplification product. In conclusion, we have established a HRM analysis in serum samples as a new primary diagnosis method suitable for the detection of C634Y mutations in MEN2A patients. Simultaneously, we have applied the increase of sensitivity of COLD-PCR assay approach combined with HRM analysis for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of C634Y fetal mutations using pregnant women serum.

  6. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A using COLD-PCR combined with HRM genotyping analysis from maternal serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada C Macher

    Full Text Available The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A is a monogenic disorder characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance which is characterized by high risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma in all mutation carriers. Although this disorder is classified as a rare disease, the patients affected have a low life quality and a very expensive and continuous treatment. At present, MEN2A is diagnosed by gene sequencing after birth, thus trying to start an early treatment and by reduction of morbidity and mortality. We first evaluated the presence of MEN2A mutation (C634Y in serum of 25 patients, previously diagnosed by sequencing in peripheral blood leucocytes, using HRM genotyping analysis. In a second step, we used a COLD-PCR approach followed by HRM genotyping analysis for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of a pregnant woman carrying a fetus with a C634Y mutation. HRM analysis revealed differences in melting curve shapes that correlated with patients diagnosed for MEN2A by gene sequencing analysis with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the pregnant woman carrying the fetus with the C634Y mutation revealed a melting curve shape in agreement with the positive controls in the COLD-PCR study. The mutation was confirmed by sequencing of the COLD-PCR amplification product. In conclusion, we have established a HRM analysis in serum samples as a new primary diagnosis method suitable for the detection of C634Y mutations in MEN2A patients. Simultaneously, we have applied the increase of sensitivity of COLD-PCR assay approach combined with HRM analysis for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of C634Y fetal mutations using pregnant women serum.

  7. Corticosterone regulates fear memory via Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ping; Ding, Ze-Yang; Gan, Cheng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Qi-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Stressful events can generate enduring memories, which may induce certain psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the active form of the small G protein Rac1, Rac1-GTP, is involved in fear memory. Firstly, we detected the time course changes of Rac1-GTP after foot shocks (a strong stressor) and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) treatment. The data showed that stress and CORT induced the downregulation of Rac1-GTP in the hippocampus. Changes in the serum CORT level were negatively correlated with the level of Rac1-GTP. Additionally, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, not only recovered the expression of Rac1-GTP but also impaired fear memory. Furthermore, systemic administration of NSC23766, an inhibitor of Rac1-GTP, improved fear memory at 1.5 and 24h. Therefore, Rac1 activity plays a critical role in stress-related cognition and may be a potential target in stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peony glycosides reverse the effects of corticosterone on behavior and brain BDNF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Repeated injections of corticosterone (CORT) induce the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in depressive-like behavior. This study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of total glycosides of peony (TGP) in the CORT-induced depression model in rats. The results showed that the 3-week CORT injections induced the significant increase in serum CORT levels in rats. Repeated CORT injections also caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CORT-treated rats. Treatment of the rats with TGP significantly suppressed the depression-like behavior and increased brain BDNF levels in CORT-treated rats. The results suggest that TGP produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-treated rats, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  10. Corticosterone mitigates the stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Smerin, Stanley E; Zhang, Lei; Xing, Guoqiang; Li, Xiaoxia; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    Activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the stress response to traumatic events has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elevated startle response and hyperarousal are hallmarks of PTSD, and are generally considered to evince fear (DSM V). To further examine the efficacy of corticosterone in treating hyperarousal and elevated fear, the present study utilized a learned helplessness stress model in which rats are restrained and subjected to tail shock for three days. These stressed rats develop a delayed long-lasting exaggeration of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and retarded body weight growth, similar to symptoms of PTSD patients (Myers et al., 2005; Speed et al., 1989). We demonstrate that both pre-stress and post-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) mitigates a subsequent exaggeration of the ASR measured 14 days after cessation of the stress protocol. Furthermore, the mitigating efficacy of pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) appeared to last significantly longer, up to 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol, in comparison to that of post-stress administration of corticosterone. However, pre-stress administration of corticosterone at 0.3 mg/kg/day for three days did not mitigate stress-induced exaggeration of the ASR measured at both 14 and 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol. In addition, pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) mitigates the retardation of body weight growth otherwise resulting from the stress protocol. Congruently, co-administration of the corticosterone antagonist RU486 (40 mg/kg/day for three days) with corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) prior to stress diminished the mitigating efficacy of the exogenous corticosterone on exaggerated ASR and stress-retarded body weight. The relative efficacy of pre versus post administration of

  11. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Nino events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L M; Wikelski, M

    2001-06-19

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of "stress" in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations.

  12. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  13. Corticosterone and time-activity budget: an experiment with Black-legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    In vertebrates, the well established increase in plasma corticosterone in response to food shortage is thought to mediate adjustments of foraging behavior and energy allocation to environmental conditions. However, investigating the functional role of corticosterone is often constrained by the difficulty to track time-activity budget of free-ranging animals. To examine how an experimental increase in corticosterone affects the activity budget of male Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), we used miniaturized activity loggers to record flying/foraging, presence on the sea surface and nest attendance. To investigate how corticosterone affects allocation processes between self-foraging and foraging devoted to the brood, we monitored body mass change of males from capture (day 0) to recapture (day 3). Among control birds, males in poor condition at day 0 spent significantly more time flying/foraging and less time attending the nest site than did males in good condition. Corticosterone treatment affected time spent flying/foraging in interaction with body condition at day 0: corticosterone-implanted males in good condition spent more time flying/foraging than control ones; this was not observed in poor condition males. In control birds, change in body mass was negatively correlated with body condition at day 0. This was reinforced by corticosterone treatment and, on average, corticosterone-implanted males gained much more mass than controls. These results suggest that in Black-legged kittiwakes, body condition and corticosterone levels can interact to mediate foraging decisions and possibly energy allocation: when facing stressful environmental conditions, birds in good body condition may afford to increase the time spent foraging probably to maintain brood provisioning, whereas poor body condition birds seemed rather to redirect available energy from reproduction to self-maintenance.

  14. Corticosterone and foraging behavior in a diving seabird: the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Bost, Charles-André; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bouteloup, Guillaume; Dano, Stéphanie; Chastel, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Because hormones mediate physiological or behavioral responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, they can help us understand how animals adapt their foraging decisions to energetic demands of reproduction. Thus, the hormone corticosterone deserves specific attention because of its influence on metabolism, food intake and locomotor activities. We examined the relationships between baseline corticosterone levels and foraging behavior or mass gain at sea in a diving seabird, the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae. Data were obtained from free-ranging penguins during the brooding period (Adélie Land, Antarctica) by using satellite transmitters and time-depth-recorders. The birds were weighed and blood sampled before and after a foraging trip (pre-trip and post-trip corticosterone levels, respectively). Penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels spent less time at sea and stayed closer to the colony than penguins with low pre-trip corticosterone levels. These short trips were associated with a higher foraging effort in terms of diving activity and a lower mass gain at sea than long trips. According to previous studies conducted on seabird species, these results suggest that penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels might maximize the rate of energy delivery to the chicks at the expense of their body reserves. Moreover, in all birds, corticosterone levels were lower post-foraging than pre-foraging. This decrease could result from either the restoration of body reserves during the foraging trip or from a break in activity at the end of the foraging trip. This study demonstrates for the first time in a diving predator the close relationships linking foraging behavior and baseline corticosterone levels. We suggest that slight elevations in pre-trip corticosterone levels could play a major role in breeding effort by facilitating foraging activity in breeding seabirds.

  15. Association of maternal serum PAPP-A levels, nuchal translucency and crown-rump length in first trimester with adverse pregnancy outcomes: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilagi, Ashwini; Burke, Danielle L; Riley, Richard D; Mills, Ian; Kilby, Mark D; Katie Morris, R

    2017-07-01

    Are first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), nuchal translucency (NT) and crown-rump length (CRL) prognostic factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes? Retrospective cohort, women, singleton pregnancies (UK 2011-2015). Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression. small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB), miscarriage, stillbirth, perinatal mortality and neonatal death (NND). A total of 12 592 pregnancies: 852 (6.8%) PTB, 352 (2.8%) PE, 1824 (14.5%) SGA, 73 (0.6%) miscarriages, 37(0.3%) stillbirths, 73 perinatal deaths (0.6%) and 38 (0.30%) NND. Multivariable analysis: lower odds of SGA [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88 (95% CI 0.85,0.91)], PTB [0.92 (95%CI 0.88,0.97)], PE [0.91 (95% CI 0.85,0.97)] and stillbirth [0.71 (95% CI 0.52,0.98)] as PAPP-A increases. Lower odds of SGA [aOR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70,0.89)] but higher odds of miscarriage [aOR 1.75 95% CI (1.12,2.72)] as NT increases, and lower odds of stillbirth as CRL increases [aOR 0.94 95% CI (0.89,0.99)]. Multivariable analysis of three factors together demonstrated strong associations: a) PAPP-A, NT, CRL and SGA, b) PAPP-A and PTB, c) PAPP-A, CRL and PE, d) NT and miscarriage. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, NT and CRL are independent prognostic factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly PAPP-A and SGA with lower PAPP-A associated with increased risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Adrenal and plasma corticosterone changes in continuously irradiated rats. II. Dependence on additional stress factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1978-01-01

    Adrenal and plasma corticosterone levels were followed in continuously irradiated rats in dependence on additional stress factors - transport of animals, handling and overnight fasting. Rats were gamma irradiated on an open experimental field with a daily dose rate of 15.48x10/sup -3/ C/kg (60 R) continuously up to a total exposure of 387.0x10/sup -3/ C/kg (1500 R) and analyzed after irradiation. The continuous irradiation increased the adrenal and plasma corticosterone concentrations in all groups of animals. The transport and weighing increased mainly adrenal corticosterone in all three groups, irradiated, non-irradiated controls from the field and intact laboratory controls. The scatter of the results made reproducibility difficult. Overnight fasting increased the absolute values in all groups. The radiation effect was evident especially in adrenal corticosterone values of non-handled animals.

  17. Quantitative autoradiography of [3H]corticosterone receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.; Rainbow, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have quantified corticosterone receptors in rat brain by optical density measurements of tritium-film autoradiograms. Rats were injected i.v. with 500 μCi [ 3 H]corticosterone to label brain receptors. Frozen sections of brain were cut with a cryostat and exposed for 2 months against tritium-sensitive sheet film (LKB Ultrofilm). Tritium standards were used to convert optical density readings into molar concentrations of receptor. High levels of corticosterone receptors were present throughout the pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus. Moderate levels of receptors were found in the neuropil of the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the cortical nucleus of the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex. All other brain regions had low levels of receptors. These results extend previous non-quantitative autoradigraphic studies of corticosterone receptors and provide a general procedure for the quantitative autoradiography of steroid hormone receptors in brain tissue. (Auth.)

  18. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  19. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Magellanic penguin telomeres do not shorten with age with increased reproductive effort, investment, and basal corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-08-01

    All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival. High basal corticosterone is indicative of stressful conditions. Corticosterone, and stress, has been linked to telomere shortening in other species. Magellanic penguins are a particularly good model organism for this question as they are an unusually long-lived species, exceeding their mass-adjusted predicted lifespan by 26%. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found adults aged 5 years to over 24 years of age had similar telomere lengths. Telomeres of adults did not shorten over a 3-year period, regardless of the age of the individual. Neither telomere length, nor the rate at which the telomeres changed over these 3 years, correlated with breeding frequency or investment. Older females also produced larger volume clutches until approximately 15 years old and larger eggs produced heavier fledglings. Furthermore, reproductive success ( chicks fledged/eggs laid ) is maintained as females aged. Basal corticosterone, however, was not correlated with telomere length in adults and suggests that low basal corticosterone may play a role in the telomere maintenance we observed. Basal corticosterone also declined during the breeding season and was positively correlated with the age of adult penguins. This higher basal corticosterone in older individuals, and consistent reproductive success, supports the prediction that Magellanic penguins invest more in reproduction as they age. Our results

  1. Increased corticosterone in peripubertal rats leads to long-lasting alterations in social exploration and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana eVeenit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress during childhood and adolescence enhances the risk of psychopathology later in life. We have previously shown that subjecting male rats to stress during the peripubertal period induces long-lasting effects on emotion and social behaviors. As corticosterone is increased by stress and known to exert important programming effects, we reasoned that increasing corticosterone might mimic the effects of peripubertal stress. To this end, we injected corticosterone (5 mg/kg on 7 scattered days during the peripuberty period (P28-P30, P34, P36, P40 and P42, following the same experimental schedule as for stress administration in our peripubertal paradigm. We measured play behavior in the homecage and, at adulthood, the corticosterone response to novelty and behavioral responses in tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, aggression and social exploration. As compared to vehicle, corticosterone-treated animals exhibit more aggressive play behavior during adolescence, increased aggressive behavior in a resident-intruder test while reduced juvenile exploration and corticosterone reactivity at adulthood. Whereas the corticosterone treatment mimicked alterations induced by the peripuberty stress protocol in the social domain, it did not reproduce previously observed effects of peripuberty stress on increasing anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, respectively evaluated in the elevated plus maze and the forced swim tests. Our findings indicate that increasing corticosterone levels during peripuberty might be instrumental to program alterations in the social domain observed following stress, whereas other factors might need to be recruited for the programming of long-term changes in emotionality. Our study opens the possibility that individual differences on the degree of glucocorticoid activation during peripuberty might be central to defining differences in vulnerability to develop psychopathological disorders coursing with alterations in

  2. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity

  3. Could the erythrocyte indices or serum ferritin predict the therapeutic response to a trial with oral iron during pregnancy? Results from the Accuracy study for Maternal Anaemia diagnosis (AMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresani Salvi, Cristiane Campello; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Figueirôa, José Natal; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2016-08-12

    Treatment of maternal iron-deficiency anaemia can reduce risks of prematurity and low birth weight; hence a reliable diagnosis of maternal iron needs is critical. However, erythrocyte indices and serum ferritin have shown a weak correlation with iron status during pregnancy. This study verified the accuracy of those tests to predict the responsiveness to a therapeutic test with oral iron as reference standard for iron deficiency in pregnant women. A prospective diagnostic study phase 3 was conducted in a single prenatal care center in Northeast Brazil. Between August 2011 and October 2012 a consecutive sampling included 187 women in their 2(nd)-3(rd) trimesters of low-risk pregnancy and having anaemia (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL). Until December 2012, 139 women completed a trial with daily pills of ferrous sulfate (40 mg of iron), during 23 to 125 days. Haemoglobin (Hb), other erythrocyte indices and ferritin (index-tests) were assessed pre-treatment by automated analyzers. Hb was performed also post-treatment to assess the therapeutic response by its post-pretreatment differences. We estimated sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values (PV), likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic Odds Ratio (OR), area under Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy ratio and agreement coefficient of the index-tests against an increase of at least 0.55 Hb Z-score (reference standard test). We calculated the Z-scores according to the reference population from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hb had a mean increase of 0.24 Z-score after 30 iron pills (p 0.013). All index-tests demonstrated PV- above 70 %, PV+ around 40 %, LR around 1.0, and AUC of 0.5 to 0.6. Hb and haematocrit had Se of 50 % (95 % CI 40 to 70); and Sp of 59 % (95 % CI 43 to 74) and 47 % (95 % CI 38 to 57), respectively. Ferritin, Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration and Red blood cell Distribution Width had Se below 40

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, R; Hirsh, L; Yadid, G; Weizman, A

    2015-11-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. We have previously shown that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour, and also that DHEA decreases corticosterone (CORT) levels in plasma and the prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that rats demonstrate cocaine-seeking behaviour only when the level of CORT reaches a minimum threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of DHEA on cocaine seeking is a result of it reducing CORT levels rather than a result of any unique neurosteroid properties. Rats received either daily DHEA injections (2 mg/kg, i.p.) alone, daily DHEA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) with CORT infusion (to maintain stable basal levels of CORT; 15 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (i.p.) as control, throughout self-administration training and extinction sessions. We found that both DHEA-treated and DHEA + CORT-treated groups showed a significantly lower number of active lever presses compared to controls throughout training and extinction sessions, as well as at cocaine-primed reinstatement. DHEA-treated rats showed lower CORT levels throughout the experimental phases compared to DHEA + CORT-treated and control rats. Additionally, we show that DHEA administered to cocaine-trained rats throughout extinction sessions, or immediately before reinstatement, attenuated cocaine seeking. These findings indicate that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour independently of fluctuations in CORT levels. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticosterone-responsive and -unresponsive metabolic characteristics of adrenalectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, C R; Currie, P J; Chambers, J W; Castonguay, T W; Coscina, D V

    1994-09-01

    Glucocorticoids are important in influencing substrate flux through the metabolic pathways. This study was designed to answer the question "Does adrenalectomy (ADX) cause a shift toward fat metabolism as measured by a decrease in respiratory quotient (RQ)?" Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, ADX, ADX + 20% corticosterone (Cort) (ADX-20%), ADX + 40% Cort (ADX-40%), or sham-operated controls (Sham). ADX-20% received 50 mg and ADX-40% 100 mg Cort dissolved in 250-mg cholesterol pellets and placed subcutaneously. Each rat was monitored for 90 min four times both during a preoperative period and again after a 1-wk postsurgical recovery period in an indirect calorimeter. Cort prevented ADX-induced suppression of weight gain and food intake. ADX decreased motoric activity in both the light and dark periods. Cort restored activity to Sham levels. ADX decreased RQ only in the dark (0.858 ADX vs. 0.891 Sham) and was reversed only in the ADX-40% group. Energy expenditure (EE) was depressed in both the light and dark by ADX; Cort partially restored EE to Sham values in the light period.

  7. Continuous corticosterone delivery via the drinking water or pellet implantation: A comparative study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Sylvia J; Weber, Marie-Christin; Henneicke, Holger; Kim, Sarah; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid excess in rodent models, reliable methods of continuous glucocorticoid delivery are essential. The current study compares two methods of corticosterone (CS) delivery in regards to their ability to induce typical adverse outcomes such as fat accrual, insulin resistance, sarcopenia and bone loss. Eight-week-old mice received CS for 4weeks either via the drinking water (25-100μgCS/mL) or through weekly surgical implantation of slow release pellets containing 1.5mg CS. Both methods induced abnormal fat mass accrual, inhibited lean mass accretion and bone expansion, suppressed serum osteocalcin levels and induced severe insulin resistance. There was a clear dose dependant relationship between the CS concentrations in the drinking water and the severity of the phenotype, with a concentration of 50μg CS/mL drinking water most closely matching the metabolic changes induced by weekly pellet implantations. In contrast to pellets, however, delivery of CS via the drinking water resulted in a consistent diurnal exposure pattern, closely mimicking the kinetics of clinical glucocorticoid therapy. In addition, the method is safe, inexpensive, easily adjustable, non-invasive and avoids operative stress to the animals. Our data demonstrate that delivery of CS via the drinking water has advantages over weekly implantations of slow-release pellets. A dose of 50μg CS/mL drinking water is appropriate for the investigation of chronic glucocorticoid excess in mice. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of different timing of stress on corticosterone, BDNF and memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Learning and memory seem to be affected by chronic stress. Previous reports have considered chronic stress as a precipitating factor of different neuropsychological disorders, while others reported neurobiological adaptations following stress. The present study investigated the effects of chronic stress before, after, and during learning on the changes of learning and memory, on serum and hippocampal levels of corticosterone (CORT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and body weight in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) including Control (Co), Stress-Learning-Rest (St-L-Re), Rest-Learning-Stress (Re-L-St), and Stress-Learning-Stress (St-L-St) groups. The chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21 days. Moreover, the passive avoidance test was used to assess memory deficit, 1, 7, and 21 days after training. At the end of experiments, CORT and BDNF levels were measured. The findings did not support adaptation in chronic stress conditions. The acquisition time as well as the short and mid-term memories was significantly impaired in the St-L-Re group. Short, mid, and long-term memories were significantly impaired in the Re-L-St and St-L-St groups compared with the Co group, as a result of the enhancement of CORT and reduction of BDNF levels. In the St-L-St group, changes in memory functions were less pronounced than in the Re-L-St group. Also, body weight declined following the chronic stress, while recovery period enhanced the body weight gain in stressed rats. It can be concluded that a potential time-dependent involvement of stress and recovery period on the level of BDNF. Longer duration time of chronic stress might promote adaptive effects on memory and CORT level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  10. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Johannesen, Mads Dyrvig; Bouzinova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  11. Corticosterone release in oxytocin gene deletion mice following exposure to psychogenic versus non-psychogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Janet A; Cai, Hou-ming; Vollmer, Regis R

    2008-09-19

    Both anxiety-related behavior [J.A. Amico, R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, Anxiety and stress responses in female oxytocin deficient mice, J. Neuroendocrinol. 16 (2004) 1-6; R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, J.A. Amico, Female oxytocin-deficient mice display enhanced anxiety-related behavior, Endocrinology 144 (2003) 2291-2296] and the release of corticosterone following a psychogenic stress such as exposure to platform shaker was greater in female [J.A. Amico, R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, Anxiety and stress responses in female oxytocin deficient mice, J. Neuroendocrinol. 16 (2004) 1-6; R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, L. Rinaman, X. Li, J.A. Amico, Enhanced corticosterone concentrations and attenuated Fos expression in the medial amygdala of female oxytocin knockout mice exposed to psychogenic stress, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 287 (2004) R1494-R1504], but not male [R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, J.A. Amico, Corticosterone release is heightened in food or water deprived oxytocin deficient male mice, Brain Res. 1058 (2005) 56-61], oxytocin gene deletion (OTKO) mice compared to wild type (WT) cohorts. In the present study we exposed OTKO and WT female mice to another psychogenic stress, inserting a rectal probe to record body temperature followed by brief confinement in a metabolic cage, and measured plasma corticosterone following the stress. OTKO mice released more corticosterone than WT mice (Pstress. In contrast, if OTKO and WT female and male mice were administered insulin-induced hypoglycemia, an acute physical stress, corticosterone release was not different between genotypes. The absence of central OT signaling pathways in female mice heightens the neuroendocrine (e.g., corticosterone) response to psychogenic stress, but not to the physical stress of insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  12. Stimulation of corticosterone secretion in vitro by brief ACTH exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, L.D.; Tam, B.; Greer, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between ACTH concentration and exposure duration on stimulation of corticosterone (B) secretion in vitro using perifused enzymatically dispersed rat adrenocortical cells. A modular perifusion apparatus was used that permitted evaluation of 20-24 cell chambers per experimental session. In expt 1,20-1000 pg/ml concentrations of synthetic ACTH-(1-24) were presented to cells for 1 min. In expt 2, 100 pg ACTH-(1-24) was presented to adrenal cells in five dose-duration regimens ranging from 5 pg/min for 20 min to 100 pg/min for 1 min. Perifusal rate was 1 ml/min in all sessions. B was determined by radioimmunoassay. In expt 1 (constant-duration paradigm), 1-min presentation of ACTH-(1-24) produced log-linear dose-response effects across these concentrations. In expt 2 (constant-mass paradigm), identical masses administered in different dose-duration regimens had different steroidogenic efficacies: low-dose long-duration regimens provoked greater total release than high-dose short-duration regimens. Overall, every dose-duration regimen was associated with stimulation of B secretion. These results indicate that 1) very brief exposure to physiological concentrations of ACTH-(1-24) is a significant stimulus for corticosteroid secretion; 2) variations in the dose-duration regimen over the physiological range modifies both the maximum rate of secretion and the duration of secretion, but not the response latency; and 3) ACTH-(1-24) presentation mass is not the sole determinant of B secretion

  13. Corticosterone and decision-making in male Wistar rats: the effect of corticosterone application in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, Susanne; Koukou, Magdalini; Baars, Annemarie; Hesseling, Peter; van 't Klooster, José; Joëls, Marian; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones, released after stress, are known to influence neuronal activity and produce a wide range of effects upon the brain. They affect cognitive tasks including decision-making. Recently it was shown that systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT) disrupt reward-based decision-making in rats when tested in a rat model of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT), i.e., rats do not learn across trial blocks to avoid the long-term disadvantageous option. This effect was associated with a change in neuronal activity in prefrontal brain areas, i.e., the infralimbic (IL), lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and insular cortex, as assessed by changes in c-Fos expression. Here, we studied whether injections of CORT directly into the IL and lOFC lead to similar changes in decision-making. As in our earlier study, CORT was injected during the final 3 days of the behavioral paradigm, 25 min prior to behavioral testing. Infusions of vehicle into the IL led to a decreased number of visits to the disadvantageous arm across trial blocks, while infusion with CORT did not. Infusions into the lOFC did not lead to differences in the number of visits to the disadvantageous arm between vehicle treated and CORT treated rats. However, compared to vehicle treated rats of the IL group, performance of vehicle treated rats of the lOFC group was impaired, possibly due to cannulation/infusion-related damage of the lOFC affecting decision-making. Overall, these results show that infusions with CORT into the IL are sufficient to disrupt decision-making performance, pointing to a critical role of the IL in corticosteroid effects on reward-based decision-making. The data do not directly support that the same holds true for infusions into the lOFC.

  14. Anxiogenic-like effect of chronic corticosterone in the light-dark emergence task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardayfio, Paul; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2006-04-01

    Chronic hypercortisolemia is a hallmark of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disorders, such as Cushing's disease and depression. Whether cortisol directly contributes to the altered mood and anxiety symptoms seen in these diseases remains unclear. To address this, the authors have modeled hypercortisolemia by administering corticosterone in the drinking water of female Swiss Webster mice for 17 or 18 days (13 mg/kg). Light-dark emergence, startle habituation, and startle reactivity were measured. Chronic but not acute treatment with corticosterone increased the latency to emerge into the light compartment, an anxiogenic-like effect. Chronic corticosterone treatment did not affect startle habituation, but did reduce startle reactivity. This study suggests that chronic hypercortisolemia may contribute to anxiety-related behavior in patients with Cushing's disease and depression. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Individual differences in pavlovian autoshaping of lever pressing in rats predict stress-induced corticosterone release and mesolimbic levels of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, A; Aguado, A S; Pohorecky, L A; Benjamin, D

    2000-03-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping CRs are directed and reflexive consummatory responses targeted at objects repeatedly paired with rewarding substances. To evaluate the hypothesis that autoshaping may provide an animal learning model of vulnerability to drug abuse, this study relates individual differences in lever-press autoshaping CR performance in rats to stress-induced corticosterone release and tissue monoamine levels in the mesolimbic dopamine tract. Long-Evans rats (n = 14) were given 20 sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of food US. Large between-subjects differences in lever-press autoshaping CR performance were observed, with group high CR frequency (n = 5) performing many more lever press CRs than group low CR frequency (n = 9). Tail-blood samples were obtained before and after the 20th autoshaping session, then 24 h later the rats were sacrificed and dissection yielded tissue samples of nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CP), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Serum levels of postsession corticosterone were elevated in group high CR frequency. HPLC revealed that group high CR frequency had higher tissue levels of dopamine and DOPAC in NAC, lower levels of DOPAC/DA turnover in CP, and lower levels of 5-HIAA and lower 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover in VTA. The neurochemical profile of rats that perform more autoshaping CRs share some features of vulnerability to drug abuse.

  16. Triploidia fetal associada à diminuição da subunidade beta e do estriol não-conjugado no soro materno Fetal triploidy associated with low levels of unconjugated estriol and beta-subunit in maternal serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vieira Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de triploidia fetal não-molar detectada na 20ª semana gestacional por cordocentese realizada em razão de estudo ultra-sonográfico que revelou retardo do crescimento intra-uterino e grave oligoidrâmnio. Na 19ª semana foram verificados acentuada diminuição da subunidade beta livre da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e do estriol não-conjugado e níveis de alfa-fetoproteína normais, apontando para um risco aumentado de síndrome de Edwards. Houve morte fetal um dia após a cordocentese e a resolução do caso foi por parto vaginal induzido com misoprostol e ocitocina, sob analgesia peridural. Estudo cromossômico das células sangüíneas fetais revelou o cariótipo 69,XXX. O grave retardo do crescimento intra-uterino, a macrocefalia, constatada no estudo anatomopatológico do feto, e os níveis muito baixos de hCG e de estriol não-conjugado sugerem um caso de triploidia por diginia, fertilização de um óvulo diplóide por um espermatozóide haplóide.We report a case of nonmolar fetal triploidy detected by fetal blood sampling at 20 weeks of gestation, performed as an investigation of intrauterine growth retardation and severe oligohydramnios found by ultrasound scan. At 19 weeks of gestation very low levels of maternal free serum beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol, and normal levels of alpha-fetoprotein were found, which were interpreted as a high risk of fetal Edwards syndrome. Fetal death supervened the day after fetal blood sampling, and the pregnancy was terminated by vaginal delivery induced by misoprostol and oxytocin, under epidural anesthesia. Chromosome study of the fetal blood cells showed a 69,XXX karyotype. The severe intrauterine growth retardation and macrocephaly noted on pathological review plus the very low levels of hCG and unconjugated estriol suggest a fetal gynoid triploidy case, caused by the fertilization of a diploid egg by a haploid sperm.

  17. Corticosterone Concentrations Reflect Parental Expenditure in Contrasting Mating Systems of Two Coucal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Goymann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The period of parental care can be a demanding life-history stage because parents need to find sufficient resources to feed themselves and their offspring. Often, this is reflected by elevated baseline levels of glucocorticoids—hormones that regulate metabolism and energy allocation. During 10 breeding seasons, we studied plasma corticosterone (the major avian glucocorticoid concentrations as a physiological correlate of parental expenditure in two closely related coucal species with fundamentally different mating systems: the sex-role reversed black coucal (Centropus grillii with female competition and male-only care and the socially monogamous and biparental white-browed coucal (C. superciliosus. The two species live in the same habitat and share a similar breeding biology. However, female black coucals aggressively defend a territory and produce many eggs for their various male partners, and male black coucals feed their offspring much more frequently and rest less often than female and male white-browed coucals. These differences were reflected in baseline and stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone: male black coucals had higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations when they were feeding young than outside a feeding context, and also the concentrations of female black coucals were higher during the main period of breeding when they defended territories and produced multiple clutches. In contrast, baseline and stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone in female and male white-browed coucals did not differ between periods when they were feeding young and periods without dependent offspring. Paradoxically, on an individual basis feeding effort was negatively related to baseline corticosterone in male black coucals and female white-browed coucals. In conclusion, corticosterone concentrations of coucals reflected differences in competition and parental roles and support the notion that a switch from

  18. Effect of Corticosterone and Hen Body Mass on Primary Sex Ratio in Laying Hen (Gallusgallus), Using Unincubated Eggs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2014-01-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  19. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  20. Parental investment and its sensitivity to corticosterone is linked to melanin-based coloration in barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2008-06-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses to unpredictable changes in environmental conditions are, in part, mediated by glucocorticoids (corticosterone in birds). In polymorphic species, individuals of the same sex and age display different heritable melanin-based color morphs, associated with physiological and reproductive parameters and possibly alternative strategies to cope with variation in environmental conditions. We examined whether the role of corticosterone in resolving the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproductive activities covaries with the size of melanin-based spots displayed on the ventral body side of male barn owls. Administration of corticosterone to simulate physiological stress in males revealed pronounced changes in their food-provisioning rates to nestlings compared to control males. Corticosterone-treated males with small eumelanic spots reduced nestling provisioning rates as compared to controls, and also to a greater degree than did corticosterone-treated males with large spots. Large-spotted males generally exhibited lower parental provisioning and appear insensitive to exogenous corticosterone suggesting that the size of the black spots on the breast feathers predicts the ability to cope with stressful situations. The reduced provisioning rate of corticosterone-treated males caused a temporary reduction in nestling growth rates but, did not affect fledgling success. This suggests that moderately elevated corticosterone levels are not inhibitory to current reproduction but rather trigger behavioral responses to maximize lifetime reproductive success.

  1. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  2. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of stress, circadian rhythms, and dietary sodium on brain cell-nuclear uptake of aldosterone and corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongue, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the adrenal steroid hormones aldosterone (ALD) and corticosterone (CORT) in brain cell-nuclei has been implicated as a necessary step in the behavioral and physiological actions of these hormones. In vivo uptake of radioactively labeled ALD and CORT in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats indicates a strong cell-nuclear localization of both of these hormones in limbic brain regions (such as hippocampus, septum and amygdala). Research using sub-cellular fractionation and radioimmunoassay (RIA), has confirmed both the presence of endogenously secreted CORT in cell-nuclei and its limbic localization in the brains of adrenal-intact rats. In this study, environmental and dietary factors were manipulated to induce variation in serum ALD and CORT. A series of experiments employing sub-cellular fractionation and RIA were performed, which reveal that: (1) endogenously secreted ALD and CORT, are concentrated by cell-nuclei of the brain in adrenal-intact rats, (2) the majority of the corticosteroids measured in ethanol extracts of brain cell-nuclei are associated with receptor molecules, and (3) the regional distribution of endogenously secreted ALD differs markedly from the predominantly limbic pattern predicted from in vivo uptake of labeled ALD in ADX rats. Instead, brain cell-nuclear ALD is heavily concentrated in the hypothalamus, which supports the hypothesized relationship between the interaction of ALD and angiotensin in the brain and the behavioral regulation of fluid/electrolyte balance

  4. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a

  5. Corticosterone infused into the dorsal striatum selectively enhances memory consolidation of cued water-maze training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirarte, Gina L.; Sofia Ledesma de la Teja, I.; Casillas, Miriam; Serafin, Norma; Prado-Alcala, Roberto A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones enhance memory consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual learning, but little is known about their possible influence on the consolidation of procedural/implicit memory. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of corticosterone (2, 5, or 10 ng) infused

  6. Delayed effects of elevated corticosterone level on volume of hippocampal formation in laboratory rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Řezáčová, Lenka; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2010), s. 985-990 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * hippocampus * lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  7. Corticosterone binding to tissues of adrenalectomized lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, M M; Cabot, C; Balada, F; Virgili, J; Sanchis, D; Monserrat, C; Fernández-López, J A; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1998-12-01

    The binding of corticosterone, dexamethasone and aldosterone was investigated in plasma and in homogenates of liver, kidney, brain, brown adipose tissue and visceral (periovaric) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats: intact controls, adrenalectomized and sham-operated. Corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) accounted for most of the binding, whereas that of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors was much lower. Plasma corticosterone levels increased in sham-operated and obviously decreased in the adrenalectomized animals. Sham-operated and adrenalectomized lean rats showed decreased plasma CBG; in the obese, CBG levels were lower than in controls and were not affected by either surgery. No variation with obesity or surgery was observed either in dexamethasone or aldosterone binding, the latter being practically zero in most samples. When expressed per unit of tissue protein, CBG activity was maximal in adipose tissues, with lowest values in brain and liver. In lean rats, tissue CBG activity decreased with either surgical treatment; no changes were observed in the obese, which also had lower CBG tissue levels. The relative lack of changes in CBG of obese rats suggests that they have lost -- at least in part -- the ability to counter-modulate the changes in glucocorticoid levels through CBG modulation, thus relying only on the control of corticosterone levels. This interpretation agrees with the postulated role of CBG modulating the availability of glucocorticoids to target cells.

  8. Vasopressin-related peptides increase the hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro) rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; de Kloet, E R

    The binding of [3H]corticosterone to receptors in cytosol of several brain regions and of [3H]dexamethasone to receptors in pituitary cytosol was measured after chronic treatment of homozygous diabetes insipidus rats (Ho-Di) with various neuropeptides. All rats were adrenalectomized 24 h before

  9. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  10. Delayed behavioral effects of postnatal exposure to corticosterone in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spencer, K. A.; Verhulst, S.

    Early developmental conditions can significantly influence the growth and survival of many animal species. We studied the consequences of exposure to corticosterone (CORT), a stress hormone, during the nestling stage on two behavioral traits (neophobia, social dominance) measured when the birds had

  11. Corticosterone and thyroxine in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-09-01

    Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), a critically endangered species, frequently strand on the shores of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) in late autumn in a state of "cold-stunning" exhibiting low body temperature and related clinical issues. Stranded turtles are transported to the New England Aquarium (Boston, Massachusetts, USA) for treatment and rehabilitation. This study tested the hypothesis that cold-stunned sea turtles might exhibit high corticosterone ("stress hormone") or low thyroxine (which is often affected by temperature), or both, and that monitoring of both hormones may be useful for assessing recovery. In a retrospective analysis, 87 archived plasma samples were assayed from 56 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles for corticosterone and free thyroxine (fT4). Upon admission, mean corticosterone was the highest yet reported for a population of sea turtles (39.3 +/- 2.5 ng/ml; mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) and fT4 was usually undetectable. On admission, corticosterone was negatively correlated with white blood cell count but was not correlated with blood glucose. There were no differences in either hormone between survivors and nonsurvivors on admission. After 18+ days in recovery, surviving turtles' corticosterone dropped significantly to levels typical of baseline in other species (0.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) while fT4 increased significantly (1.3 +/- 1.5 pg/ml). During recovery, corticosterone was positively correlated with blood glucose and was not correlated with white blood cell count. Turtles that showed persistent deficits in feeding, activity, or both during recovery had significantly lower fT4 than did turtles with no such deficits. The "high corticosterone, low fT4" endocrine profile seen on admission may be a useful marker of cold-stunning in this and other species. Further studies are necessary to determine whether low thyroid hormones play a causal role in deficits in feeding and activity during recovery

  12. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  13. Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie eVouimba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced activation of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of memory processes in the hippocampus. However, stress effects on amygdala and memory remain complex. The activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA was found to modulate plasticity in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated a differential effect of BLA priming on LTP in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG. While BLA priming suppressed long term potentiation (LTP in CA1, it was found to enhance it in the DG. However, since the amygdala itself is amenable to experience-induced plasticity it is thus conceivable that when activity within the amygdala is modified this will have impact on the way the amygdala modulates activity and plasticity in other brain areas. In the current study we examined the effects of different patterns of BLA activation on the modulation of LTP in the DG and CA1, as well as on serum corticosterone (CORT. In CA1, BLA priming impaired LTP induction as was reported before. In contrast, in the DG, varying BLA stimulation intensity and frequency resulted in differential effects on LTP, ranging from no effect to strong impairment or enhancement. Varying BLA stimulation patterns resulted in also differential alterations in Serum CORT, leading to higher CORT levels being positively correlated with LTP magnitude in DG but not in CA1.The results support the notion of a differential role for the DG in aspects of memory, and add to this view the possibility that DG-associated aspects of memory will be enhanced under more emotional or stressful conditions. It is interesting to think of BLA patterns of activation and the differential levels of circulating CORT as two arms of the emotional and stress response that attempt to synchronize brain activity to best meet the challenge. It is foreseeable to think of abnormal such synchronization under extreme conditions, which would lead to the development of maladaptive behavior.

  14. HYPERPHAGIA INDUCED BY SUCROSE: RELATION TO CIRCULATING AND CSF GLUCOSE AND CORTICOSTERONE AND OREXIGENIC PEPTIDES IN THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinskaya, V. A.; Karatayev, O.; Shuluk, J.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets compared to starch-rich diets are known to stimulate overeating under chronic conditions. The present study in normal-weight rats established an acute “preload-to-test meal” paradigm for demonstrating sucrose-induced hyperphagia and investigating possible mechanisms that mediate this behavioral phenomenon. In this acute paradigm, the rats were first given a small (15 kcals) sucrose preload (30% sucrose) for 30 min compared to an equicaloric, starch preload (25% starch with 5% sucrose) and then allowed to freely consume a subsequent test meal of lab chow. The sucrose preload, when compared to a starch preload equal in energy density and palatability, consistently increased food intake in the subsequent test meal occurring between 60–120 min after the end of the preload. Measurements of hormones, metabolites and hypothalamic peptides immediately preceding this hyperphagia revealed marked differences between the sucrose vs starch groups that could contribute to the increase in food intake. Whereas the sucrose group compared to starch group immediately after the preload (at 10 min) had elevated levels of glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with reduced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subsequent effects (at 30–60 min) just preceding the test meal hyperphagia were the reverse. Along with lower levels of glucose, they included markedly elevated serum and CSF levels of corticosterone and mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP in the ARC. In addition to establishing an animal model for sucrose-induced hyperphagia, these results demonstrate peripheral and central mechanisms that may mediate this behavioral phenomenon. PMID:21036188

  15. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  16. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

  17. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Jernerén, Fredrik; Ransome, Yusuf; Karlsson, Oskar

    2017-08-01

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO 2 inhalation and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO 2 inhalation and decapitation. CO 2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods is critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice H Chin

    Full Text Available Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

  19. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  20. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dosagem de folatos maternos e fetais, séricos e eritrocitários em malformações por defeito de fechamento do tubo neural no feto Maternal and fetal serum and red blood cell folate levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunduki

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar os níveis de folatos maternos e fetais gestações com malformações por defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN. Métodos: o estudo foi do tipo caso-controle, no qual 14 casos de fetos com DFTN (grupo estudo e 14 casos de fetos com outras malformações (grupo controle foram estudados em gestantes de baixo risco para DFTN. Propusemo-nos a dosar o ácido fólico, na sua forma total e metilada, nos compartimentos fetal e materno, utilizando dosagens séricas e tissulares (eritrocitárias, assim como o volume corpuscular médio, o hematócrito e a hemoglobina. As coletas foram realizadas imediatamente antes da interrupção da gestação. Os resultados nos dois grupos foram comparados pelo teste t de Student, método de amostras pareados pela idade gestacional. Resultados: não se encontrou diferença nas taxas de folatos fetais e nos parâmetros hematológicos dos fetos, entre os dois grupos. Por outro lado, taxas anormalmente baixas de folatos foram encontradas nos eritrócitos das mães portadoras de fetos com DFTN, tanto para as formas totais(293,9 ng/mL contra 399,1 ng/mL no grupo controle, p=0,01 quanto para as formas metiladas (201,9 ng/mL contra 314,0 ng/mL para o grupo controle, p=0,02. Os folatos séricos maternos não se mostraram diferentes nos grupos estudo e controle. Conclusão: este estudo demonstrou que há uma menor taxa de folatos intratissulares, nas mães de fetos acometidos por DFTN, porém com taxas de folatos séricos semelhantes em relação ao grupo controle.Objective: to analyze maternal and fetal folate status in cases of neural tube defects (NTD. Methods: a case-control study was designed with 14 cases of fetuses with neural tube defects (study group and 14 cases of fetuses with other unrelated malformations (control group gestational age matched, in low-risk pregnant women. Both total and methylated folic acid levels in fetal and maternal compartments using serum and tissular (red blood cells

  2. Effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on learning and memory via hippocampal BDNF, Arc (Arg3.1) expression in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Zhen; Ning, Li; Tao, Ning; Lian, Yu-Long; Liu, Ji-Wen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-09-01

    The intrauterine environment has a significant long-term impact on individual's life, this study was designed to investigate the effect of stress during pregnancy on offspring's learning and memory abilities and analyze its mechanisms from the expression of BDNF and Arc in the hippocampus of the offspring. A rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy was mating from 3rd day during been subjecting to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The body weights and behavioral changes were recorded, and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The learning and memory abilities of the offspring were measured by Morris water maze testing from PND 42. The expression of hippocampal BDNF and Arc mRNA and protein were respectively measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results indicated that an elevation was observed in the plasma corticosterone level of rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy, a reduction in the crossing and rearing movement times and the preference for sucrose. The body weight of maternal stress's offspring was lower than the control group, and the plasma corticosterone level was increased. Chronic stress during pregnancy had a significant impact on the spatial learning and memory of the offspring. The expression of BDNF mRNA and protein, Arc protein in offspring of maternal stress during pregnancy was attenuated and some relationships existed between these parameters. Collectively, these findings disclose that long-time maternal stress during pregnancy could destroy spatial learning and memory abilities of the offspring, the mechanism of which is related to been improving maternal plasma corticosterone and reduced hippocampal BDNF, Arc of offspring rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Reduction in (/sup 3/H)-corticosterone binding to cytoplasmic receptors in the brain of diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, O; Foglia, V G; de Nicola, A F [Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Esteroides

    1978-07-01

    The binding of (1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H)-corticosterone was studied in brain cytosol from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic male rats. The experiments were performed under conditions of incubation time (4h), temperature (0-4/sup 0/C), time after adrenalectomy (6 days) and corticosterone concentrations (1.2 x 10/sup -8/ and 1.15 x 10/sup -9/M) previously established for determining binding activity in the brain of normal rats. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-corticosterone was found invariably lower in cytosol of the brain from diabetic rats, studied under three different conditions in non-adrenalectomized animals, in adrenalectomized using a non-saturating corticosterone concentration, and in adrenalectomized plus a saturating steroid concentration. These results support previous contentions that the diminished sensitivity to the negative feedback for steroids which is present in diabetics, may be related to a reduction in binding capacity for corticoids in the central nervous system.

  4. The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy on circulating corticosterone and ACTH in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    compared to anaesthetised mice not treated with dexamethasone. Thus, dexamethasone effectively inhibited the corticosterone response in the anaesthetised-only mice, but not in the mice subjected to surgery. In conclusion, both isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy during isoflurane anaesthesia resulted...

  5. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  6. Role of sex steroids in progesterone and corticosterone response to acute restraint stress in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, B; Leite, C M; Carvalho-Lima, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal progesterone secretion increases along with corticosterone in response to stress in male and female rats to modulate some stress responses. Here we investigated the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the progesterone response to 60 min of restraint stress in adult male and female rats. Comparisons between males and females in the progesterone response were evaluated in parallel with corticosterone responses. From day 5 to 7 after gonadectomy, female and male rats were treated with estradiol or testosterone, respectively (OVX-E and ORCH-T groups), or oil (OVX and ORCH groups). Female rats in proestrus, intact and 7 d adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats were also studied. At 10:00 h, blood samples were withdrawn via an implanted jugular cannula before (-5 min), during (15, 30, 45, 60 min) and after (90 and 120 min) restraint stress to measure plasma progesterone and corticosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Intact male and proestrus female rats exhibited similar progesterone responses to stress. Gonadectomy did not alter the amount of progesterone secreted during stress in female rats but decreased secretion in male rats. Unlike corticosterone, the progesterone response to stress in females was not influenced by estradiol. In males, testosterone replacement attenuated the progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress. Basal secretion of progesterone among intact, ORCH and ADX males was similar, but ADX-stressed rats secreted little progesterone. Hence, the gonads differently modulate adrenal progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress in female and male rats. The ovaries enhance corticosterone but not progesterone secretion, while the testes stimulate progesterone but not corticosterone secretion.

  7. Effects of acute temperature change, confinement and housing on plasma corticosterone in water snakes, Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Kyle Lea; Klukowski, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    Body temperature affects many aspects of reptilian behavior and physiology, but its effect on hormonal secretion has been little studied, especially in snakes. Major objectives of this study were to determine if acute changes in body temperature during confinement influenced plasma corticosterone levels and if initial body temperatures upon capture in the field were related to baseline corticosterone levels in water snakes (Nerodia sipedon). Water snakes were bled upon capture in the field and after one hour of confinement in a cooled, control, or heated incubator. Since little is known about the potential metabolic changes in response to stress in reptiles, plasma triglyceride levels were also measured. Upon completion of the field study, snakes were housed for 5-8 days without food to determine the effect of chronic stress on both corticosterone and triglyceride levels. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and plasma triglycerides were determined enzymatically. In the field, experimental alterations of body temperature during confinement had no effect on corticosterone levels. Similarly, there was no correlation between initial body temperature and baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations. However, post-confinement corticosterone levels were approximately three-times greater in females than males. Plasma triglyceride levels were not affected by temperature treatment, confinement, or sex. Compared to field values, both baseline and post-confinement corticosterone levels were elevated after the chronic stress of short-term laboratory housing but triglyceride levels decreased. Overall, these results indicate that sex but not body temperature has a major influence on the adrenocortical stress response in Nerodia sipedon.

  8. Tissue distribution of 3H-corticosterone in response to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolta, M.G.; Soliman, K.F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The level and distribution of 3 H-corticosterone ( 3 H-B) was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in response to diethyl ether stress, epinephrine (EP) and/or dexamethasone administration. Diethyl ether stress caused a significant increase in the 3 H-B counts by some of the body tissues and brain regions studied. Plasma 3 H-B counts in the stressed rats were found to be twice as much as in the control animals. When EP (1.0 mg/kg) was injected, the tissue-plasma ratios of 3 H-B were significantly lower (P 3 H-B count in the plasma in response to diethyl ether stress or EP may indicate a decline in rate of corticosterone metabolism. (author)

  9. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  10. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, immunoglobulin M (IgM, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n+γ-photons radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  12. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  13. Feto portador de síndrome de turner e tetralogia de fallot associadas à elevação de alfafetoproteína materna Fetal turner syndrome and tetralogy of fallot associated with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vieira Neto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Turner fetal e suas complicações, a hidropisia e o higroma cístico, podem produzir alteração dos marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno inicialmente utilizados no rastreamento de síndrome de Down e de defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. Os autores relatam o caso de uma gestante de 37 anos, que foi rastreada para síndrome de Down e DTN no início do 2º trimestre. Foi constatado aumento da alfafetoproteína de soro materno (MSAFP e o rastreamento foi considerado positivo para DTN. Foi realizado exame ultra-sonográfico tridimensional, que não demonstrou nenhuma anormalidade fetal ou placentária, caracterizando o caso como elevação idiopática de MSAFP. No 3º trimestre, a gravidez evoluiu com acentuada oligoidrâmnia e alteração do fluxo uteroplacentário, obrigando à instituição de terapia com corticosteróides e parto cesáreo na 34ª semana gestacional. O concepto do sexo feminino foi encaminhado à UTI neonatal, onde foram diagnosticadas tetralogia de Fallot e síndrome de Turner. Esse caso incentivou os autores a rever a literatura sobre marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno na síndrome de Turner e nas malformações cardíacas congênitas. Ao final, propõe-se um protocolo para elevação idiopática de MSAFP.Turner syndrome and its complications, hydrops and cystic hygroma, can produce alterations in maternal serum biochemical markers used in screening for Down's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTD. The authors report the case of a 37-year-old pregnant woman, screened for Down's syndrome and NTD in the second trimester of pregnancy. The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP level was increased and the test was considered screen positive for NTD. A three-dimensional ultrasound investigation was performed, but no fetal or placental anomalies were found, indicating a case of unexplained increased msafp. In the third trimester severe oligohydramnios and disturbances in uteroplacental arterial circulation

  14. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a reexposure after 24 hr. During the sampling periods, behavioral activities of the rats were recorded. The initial noise-induced CS release was partially reduced following the regular noise present...

  16. Corticotropine-releasing hormone and/or corticosterone differentially affect behavior of rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Řezáčová, Lenka; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 118-118 ISSN 1461-1457. [CINP Congress /26./. 13.07.2008-17.07.2008, Munich] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * corticotropine-releasing hormone * corticosterone * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  18. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  19. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels. PMID:19596019

  20. Effect of deafferentation of the rat tongue on plasma corticosterone, aldosterone, angiotensin and ACTH levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyntsev, Yu.V.; Serova, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of deafferentation of the tongue on the plasma level of hormones involved in regulation of the sodium ion level -- aldosterone, corticosterone, ACTH, and angiotensin -- was studied. Plasma hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the important role of orosensory and taste perception in the processes of regulation of the sodium balance in the body. The experiments in this study were conducted on rats

  1. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  3. Adrenal and plasma corticosterone changes in continuously irradiated rats. I. The dynamics in the course of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1978-01-01

    Adrenal and plasma corticosterone concentration changes in the course of 25 day continuous irradiation of rats with a daily dose of 15.48x10/sup -3/ C/kg (60 R) of gamma radiation on an open experimental field were followed. The changes were evaluated by a comparison with control rats kept in the same conditions but protected against the radiation effect. The first increase in adrenal corticosterone occurred after one day of irradiation and the maximal increase occurred after 7 days of irradiation. The changes in plasma were insignificant within this period. After 14 days of irradiation the adrenal corticosterone concentration decreased to a minimum during the whole period but it remained increased as against controls. Plasma corticosterone, however, increased to the maximal values within this period. A second peak of elevated adrenal corticosterone concentration was evident after 21 days of irradiation; the plasma values decreased. Corticosterone tended to decrease down to the level of the control group 25 days after irradiation.

  4. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro de lactantes e associação com variáveis maternas Alpha-tocopherol level in serum and colostrum of breastfeeding women and association with maternal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar bioquimicamente o estado nutricional de vitamina E de lactantes por meio da análise do alfa-tocoferol no soro e no colostro, verificar sua associação com variáveis maternas e determinar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina E nessas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 103 puérperas que foram classificadas quanto às seguintes variáveis maternas: idade, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional, paridade e tipo de parto. Amostras de soro e colostro foram coletadas em jejum no pós-parto imediato e o alfa-tocoferol foi analisado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Para definir o estado nutricional de vitamina E, foi adotado ponto de corte sérico (697,7 μg/dL. A análise estatística foi realizada com o uso do teste t de Student para amostras independentes e correlação de Pearson. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando pPURPOSE: To determine the nutritional status of vitamin E in breastfeeding women through the analysis of alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum, to analyze its relation with maternal variables and to determine the prevalence of vitamin E deficiency in these women. METHODS: The study included 103 mothers who were classified according to maternal variables: age, nutritional status before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity and mode of delivery. Colostrum and serum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. Alpha-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A serum cutoff of 697.7 μg/dL was adopted to define the nutritional status of vitamin E. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test for independent samples and Pearson's correlation. Differences were significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The average concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1.125±551.0 μg/dL in colostrum and 1,138.6±346.0 μg/dL in serum, indicating adequate

  5. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  7. Diagnosis and prediction of parental origin of triploidies by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Skibsted, L.; Jensen, Lars Nimb

    2008-01-01

    consent, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on the five cases where we received blood from both parents and tissue from fetuses. In four cases the origin of the triploidy was paternal and in one maternal, in accordance with previous findings in type I and type II...... triploidies. Finding triploidy is possible by risk assessment (ultrasound and double test), and thereby women may have the opportunity for early termination of pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  8. Influence of age, strain and season on circadian periodicity of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in the serum of male laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C C; Döhler, K D; Geerlings, H; von zur Mühlen, A

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, strain and season on the circadian pattern of serum levels of LH, FSH, prolactin androgens and corticosterone was studied in five groups of male laboratory rats. Significant 24-hour periodicity was observed for serum levels of corticosterone in all five groups, for androgen levels in four, for prolactin levels in three, for LH levels in two and for FSH levels in one group of rats. There were significant influences of age, strain and season on the temporal patterns and/or on 24-hour mean serum hormone levels. The results indicate that some of the disagreements on existence or nonexistence of circadian rhythms and on rhythm patterns in serum hormone levels may be explained by the fact that animals of different ages or strains had been used or that experiments were performed at different times of the year.

  9. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  10. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  11. The effects of irradiation on the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Mori, Masaki; Honke, Yoshifumi

    1983-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on both the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver were investigated. The liver concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after the irradiation of 1,000 rad/l fraction. The glucocorticoid receptor in the liver cytosol was determined by the measurement of the cytosol binding to 3 H-dexamethasone. The cytosol and nuclear corticosterone levels reached a peak 1 day after the irradiation of the rat liver and declined to the control levels after 2 days. The increase in corticosterone levels may be due to the direct stimulation of the right adrenal gland and/ or the stress induced by the irradiation. The binding capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in rat liver cytosol decreased to the minimum 1 day after the irradiation, and the recovery occurred at 4 days. The Kd value of the glucocorticoid receptor remained unchanged from 1 hour until 4 days but was high at 4 and 7 days. The distinctly increased levels of cyclic GMP in the rat liver were found from 1 hour through 7 days after the irradiation, while cyclic AMP did not change. The inversed relationship between the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and corticosterone levels in cytosol and the nuclei indicates that the receptor-bound corticosterone in cytosol can be transferred to a nucleus and remain there in the presence of appropriate amounts of corticosterone in cytosol, after which the receptor is released from the nucleus into cytosol. The high Kd values observed 4 -- 7 days after the irradiation may be either due to the direct effect of irradiation or to the replenishment of the receptor with a low affinity. (author)

  12. Persistent effects of prior chronic exposure to corticosterone on reward-related learning and motivation in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Peter; Kiraly, Drew D; Gourley, Shannon L; Taylor, Jane R

    2013-02-01

    Repeated or prolonged exposure to stress has profound effects on a wide spectrum of behavioral and neurobiological processes and has been associated with the pathophysiology of depression. The multifaceted nature of this disorder includes despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation, and disrupted cognition, and it has been proposed that depression is also associated with reduced reward-motivated learning. We have previously reported that prior chronic corticosterone exposure to mice produces a lasting depressive-like state that can be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we tested the effects of prior chronic exposure to corticosterone (50 μg/ml) administered to rats or to mice in drinking water for 14 days followed by dose-tapering over 9 days. The exposure to corticosterone produced lasting deficits in the acquisition of reward-related learning tested on a food-motivated instrumental task conducted 10-20 days after the last day of full dose corticosterone exposure. Rats exposed to corticosterone also displayed reduced responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement when tested on day 21 after exposure. Amitriptyline (200 mg/ml in drinking water) exposure for 14 days to mice produced the opposite effect, enhancing food-motivated instrumental acquisition and performance. Repeated treatment with amitriptyline (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; bid) subsequent to corticosterone exposure also prevented the corticosterone-induced deficits in rats. These results are consistent with aberrant reward-related learning and motivational processes in depressive states and provide new evidence that stress-induced neuroadaptive alterations in cortico-limbic-striatal brain circuits involved in learning and motivation may play a critical role in aspects of mood disorders.

  13. Multi-year longitudinal profiles of cortisol and corticosterone recovered from baleen of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Moore, Michael; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-12-01

    Research into stress physiology of mysticete whales has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining repeated physiological samples from individuals over time. We investigated whether multi-year longitudinal records of glucocorticoids can be reconstructed from serial sampling along full-length baleen plates (representing ∼10years of baleen growth), using baleen recovered from two female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) of known reproductive history. Cortisol and corticosterone were quantified with immunoassay of subsamples taken every 4cm (representing ∼60d time intervals) along a full-length baleen plate from each female. In both whales, corticosterone was significantly elevated during known pregnancies (inferred from calf sightings and necropsy data) as compared to intercalving intervals; cortisol was significantly elevated during pregnancies in one female but not the other. Within intercalving intervals, corticosterone was significantly elevated during the first year (lactation year) and/or the second year (post-lactation year) as compared to later years of the intercalving interval, while cortisol showed more variable patterns. Cortisol occasionally showed brief high elevations ("spikes") not paralleled by corticosterone, suggesting that the two glucocorticoids might be differentially responsive to certain stressors. Generally, immunoreactive corticosterone was present in higher concentration in baleen than immunoreactive cortisol; corticosterone:cortisol ratio was usually >4 and was highly variable in both individuals. Further investigation of baleen cortisol and corticosterone profiles could prove fruitful for elucidating long-term, multi-year patterns in stress physiology of large whales, determined retrospectively from stranded or archived specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  15. [Posttrial injections of corticosterone in dorsal hippocampus of the BALB/c mouse facilitate extinction of appetitive operant conditioning in the Skinner box].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheau, J; Destrade, C; Soumireu-Mourat, B

    1982-06-28

    Corticosterone was injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of BALB/c Mice immediately after the first extinction session of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box. Compared with the control animals the Mice that received 1 or 0.1 microgram corticosterone exhibited 24 hrs. later, faster extinction of this conditioning. With a 0.01 microgram dose of corticosterone in each hippocampus we obtained an accelerated extinction during the session. These data suggest that corticosterone modulates hippocampal mechanisms involved in memory processes.

  16. What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisbleau, M; Demongin, L; Angelier, F; Dano, S; Lacroix, A; Quillfeldt, P

    2009-06-01

    Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs. Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) lay two eggs, of which the second egg (B-egg) is larger and hatches faster than the first egg (A-egg). The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs. Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone.

  17. Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joanna; Blasiak, Anna; Czerw, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Sowa, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. We also measured the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal cells and the protein levels of selected subunits of AMPA, NMDA, and GABAA receptors after repeated corticosterone administration. Repeatedly administered corticosterone induced an increase in the frequency but not in the amplitude of sEPSCs, while a single administration had no effect on the recorded excitatory currents. The frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs as well as the excitability of pyramidal cells were changed neither after single nor after repeated corticosterone administration. Treatment with corticosterone for 7 days did not modify the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone influenced neither the protein levels of GluA1, GluA2, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits of glutamate receptors nor those of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor. The increase in sEPSCs frequency induced by repeated corticosterone administration faded out within 7 days. These data indicate that prolonged administration of exogenous corticosterone selectively and reversibly enhances glutamatergic, but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex. Our results suggest that corticosterone treatment results in an enhancement of spontaneous glutamate release from presynaptic

  18. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  19. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  20. Exposure to retrieval cues improves retention performance and induces changes in ACTH and corticosterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Botreau, Fanny; Venero, Cesar; Sandi, Carmen

    2004-05-01

    Memory retrieval can be facilitated by pretest exposure to cues associated with the original training. The present series of experiments was aimed at investigating whether the effectiveness of the retrieval cues might be due to their emotional value and thus be associated to a particular pattern of activation of stress systems. Therefore, the effects of exposing rats to different cueing conditions were investigated both on retention performance and on the level of different stress hormones (ACTH, corticosterone and glucose; the latter as an indirect index of adrenergic/sympathetic nervous system activation). Rats trained in a brightness avoidance discrimination task exhibited an enhancement of the retention performance following exposure to the light discriminative stimulus when delivered 1-day after training and not after 21 days, while exposure to contextual cues led to opposite effects on the retention performance, confirming our previous results. Analyses of the level of stress hormones at the time of testing indicated that when the retrieval cues were effective at the behavioral level, cued rats exhibited higher ACTH plasmatic levels than controls, but did not differ in their glucose or corticosterone levels. Further experiments showed that one day after training, both ACTH and corticosterone levels were elevated in light-cued rats if hormone samples were taken 15 min after cueing. These results show that exposure to an effective retrieval cue is accompanied by the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The possible involvement of the Corticotropin Releasing Factor at the level of the hypothalamus and amygdala (particularly the central nucleus) on the facilitating effect on retention performance following exposure to aversive training-associated cues is discussed. The present results strengthen the notion that emotion can interact with retrieval processes.

  1. Effects of developmental manganese, stress, and the combination of both on monoamines, growth, and corticosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles V. Vorhees

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure to manganese (Mn or stress can each be detrimental to brain development. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two housing conditions and Mn from postnatal day (P4–28. Within each litter two males and two females were assigned to the following groups: 0 (vehicle, 50, or 100 mg/kg Mn by gavage every other day. Half the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. One pair/group in each litter had an acute shallow water stressor before tissue collection (i.e., standing in shallow water. Separate litters were assessed at P11, 19, or 29. Mn-treated rats raised in standard cages showed no change in baseline corticosterone but following acute stress increased more than controls on P19; no Mn effects were seen on P11 or P29. Mn increased neostriatal dopamine in females at P19 and norepinephrine at P11 and P29. Mn increased hippocampal dopamine at P11 and P29 and 5-HT at P29 regardless of housing or sex. Mn had no effect on hypothalamic dopamine, but increased norepinephrine in males at P29 and 5-HT in males at all ages irrespective of rearing condition. Barren reared rats showed no or opposite effects of Mn, i.e., barren rearing + Mn attenuated corticosterone increases to acute stress. Barren rearing also altered the Mn-induced changes in dopamine and norepinephrine in the neostriatum, but not in the hippocampus. Barren rearing caused a Mn-associated increase in hypothalamic dopamine at P19 and P29 not seen in standard reared Mn-treated groups. Developmental Mn alters monoamines and corticosterone as a function of age, stress (acute and chronic, and sex.

  2. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of acrolein on the production of corticosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Jou-Yu; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Hu, Sindy; Wang, Paulus S; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis. In an in vivo study, male rats were administrated with acrolein for 1 or 3days. The plasma corticosterone in response to a single injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased slowly in acrolein-pretreated rats than in control rats. Further investigating the steroidogenic pathway, the protein expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the upper receptor-melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) were attenuated in acrolein-treated groups. Another experiment using trilostane showed less activity of P450scc in zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in acrolein-treated groups. In addition to the suppressed ability of corticosterone production in ZFR cells, acrolein even had extended influence at higher concentrations. The lower ACTH was observed in the plasma from acrolein-pretreated rats. In an in vitro study, ZFR cells were incubated with acrolein and the results showed that corticosterone concentrations in media were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein also desensitized the response of the ZFR cells to ACTH. These results suggested that acrolein decreased the releasing ability of corticosterone via an inhibition on the response of ZFR cells to ACTH and the reduction of protein expressions of StAR and MC2R as well as the activity of P450scc in rat ZFR cells. The present evidences showed that the H-P-A axis was affected by the administration of acrolein. Copyright © 2016

  5. A chronic increase of corticosterone age-dependently reduces systemic DNA damage from oxidation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Kalliokoski, Otto; Forsberg, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Stress and depression are associated with an acceleration of brain and bodily aging; effects which have been attributed to chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. We tested the hypothesis that a three week administration of stress-associated levels of corticosterone (CORT, the principal rodent...... glucocorticoid) would increase systemic and CNS DNA and RNA damage from oxidation; a phenomenon known to be centrally involved in the aging process. We also hypothesized that older individuals would be more sensitive to this effect and that the chronic CORT administration would exacerbate age-related memory...

  6. ACTH, corticosterone, and beta-endorphin in rat blood plasma after prolonged immobilization stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyatkin, E.A.; Amiragova, M.G.; Kushlinskii, N.E.; Polyntsev, Yu. V.

    1986-01-01

    To assess functional relations between changes in ACTH, beta-endorphin (BE), and corticosterone (CS) levels, plasma concentrations of these hormones were studied in rats during the development of prolonged immobilization stress. Plasma hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were analyzed by standard statistical methods on a microcomputer. A particular feature about the kit used to determine BE was the presence of 50% cross-reactivity of the antiserum against beta-lipotrophin. To determine CS a highly specific antiserum produced by a laboratory was used.

  7. Separation and identification of corticosterone metabolites by liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksík, I; Vylitová, M; Pácha, J; Deyl, Z

    1999-04-16

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (API-ESI-MS) was investigated for the analysis of corticosterone metabolites; their characterization was obtained by combining the separation on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column (eluted with a methanol-water-acetic acid gradient) with identification using positive ion mode API-ESI-MS and selected ion analysis. The applicability of this method was verified by monitoring the activity of steroid converting enzymes (20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in avian intestines.

  8. Role of 11. beta. -hydroxyprogesterone in biosynthesis of corticosterone from progesterone in guinea pig adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudaev, N A; Afinogenova, S A [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone Chemistry, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-06-01

    Slices of male guinea pig adrenals were incubated with a trace amount of /sup 3/H-7..cap alpha..-progesterone and the proportion of /sup 3/H incorporation various steroids at various intervals was measured. It was found that /sup 3/H accumulated predominantly in 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone as compared to DOC. This indicated that in guinea pig adrenals 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone plays a predominant role in the formation of corticosterone from progesterone. The observed sequence of changes in progesterone label accumulation in 17-hydroxycompounds indicated the pathway of cortisol synthesis through the intermediate formation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-deoxycortisol.

  9. Stress induced a shift from dorsal hippocampus to prefrontal cortex-dependent memory retrieval: role of regional corticosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle eDominguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the deleterious effects of stress on memory retrieval are due to a dysfunction of the hippocampo-prefrontal cortex interplay. The role of the stress-induced regional corticosterone increase in such dysfunction remains however unclear, since there is no published study as yet dedicated to measuring corticosterone concentrations simultaneously in both the prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the hippocampus (dHPC in relation with memory impairments. To that aim, we first showed in Experiment 1 that an acute stress (3 electric footschocks; 0.9 mA each delivered before memory testing reversed the memory retrieval pattern (MRP in a serial discrimination task in which mice learned two successive discriminations. More precisely, whereas non-stressed animals remembered accurately the first learned discrimination and not the second one, stressed mice remembered more accurately the second discrimination but not the first one. We demonstrated that local inactivation of dHPC or mPFC with the anesthetic lidocaine recruited the dHPC activity in non-stress conditions whereas the stress-induced MRP inversion recruited the mPFC activity. In a second experiment, we showed that acute stress induced a very similar time-course evolution of corticosterone rises within both the mPFC and dHPC. In a 3rd experiment, we found however that in situ injections of corticosterone either within the mPFC or the dHPC before memory testing favored the emergence of the mPFC-dependent MRP but blocked the emergence of the dHPC-dependent one. Overall, our study evidences that the simultaneous increase of corticosterone after stress in both areas induces a shift from dHPC (non stress condition to mPFC-dependent memory retrieval pattern and that corticosterone is critically involved in mediating the deleterious effects of stress on cognitive functions involving the mPFC-HPC interplay.

  10. Effects of long-term corticosterone implants on growth and immune function in juvenile alligators, Alligator mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, L A; Elsey, R M; Lance, V A

    1997-10-01

    Sixty juvenile alligators were implanted subcutaneously with slow release pellets of corticosterone or placebo. Alligators were divided into five different groups such that each group received a different dose. A blood sample was taken prior to and 4 days after the implants were in place to measure hormone levels. Additional blood samples were collected at 1 month and 3 months. At 4 days corticosterone levels ranged from 3,400 ng/ml in the group treated with the high dose to 40 ng/ml in the group implanted with the low dose. The extremely high dose caused 40% mortality within 4 weeks. It was evident that the pellets did not release the hormone for the expected 90 days. Circulating levels of corticosterone were back to baseline levels by 3 months. Hormone levels achieved at 4 days were a reliable predictor of subsequent growth. Rate of growth was negatively correlated with plasma corticosterone at 4 days (r2 = 0.711) and at 1 month (r2 = 0.544) posttreatment. Differential white blood cell counts performed after 1 month of treatment showed a clear effect of the implant. Alligators treated with corticosterone had decreased percentages of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and had a higher heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio than the placebo group. Furthermore, histological examination of the spleen revealed a significant depletion of lymphoid cells in alligators treated with the highest dose of hormone. The results from this study demonstrate that exogenous corticosterone can mimic the effects of prolonged stress in juvenile alligators.

  11. Agmatine, by Improving Neuroplasticity Markers and Inducing Nrf2, Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendia, Izaskun; Gómez-Rangel, Vanessa; Parada, Esther; Navarro, Elisa; Casas, Ana Isabel; Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Cuadrado, Antonio; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Lopez, Manuela G

    2016-07-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is a potential candidate to constitute an adjuvant/monotherapy for the management of depression. A recent study by our group demonstrated that agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in a hippocampal neuronal cell line. The present study is an extension of this previous study by assessing the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone in mice. Swiss mice were treated simultaneously with agmatine or imipramine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (p.o.) and corticosterone for 21 days and the daily administrations of experimental drugs were given immediately prior to corticosterone (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administrations. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (Nrf2 (+/+)) and Nrf2 KO (Nrf2 (-/-)) were treated during 21 days with agmatine (0.1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle. Twenty-four hours after the last treatments, the behavioral tests and biochemical assays were performed. Agmatine treatment for 21 days was able to abolish the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior and the alterations in the immunocontent of mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I, and in the serotonin and glutamate levels. Agmatine also abolished the corticosterone-induced changes in the morphology of astrocytes and microglia in CA1 region of hippocampus. In addition, agmatine treatment in control mice increased noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels, CREB phosphorylation, mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I immunocontents, and reduced pro-BDNF immunocontent in the hippocampus. Agmatine's ability to produce an antidepressant-like effect was abolished in Nrf2 (-/-) mice. The present results reinforce the participation of Nrf2 in the antidepressant-like effect produced by agmatine and expand literature data concerning its mechanisms of action.

  12. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  13. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  14. Selected maternal, fetal and placental trace element and heavy metal and maternal vitamin levels in preterm deliveries with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Zehra; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Demir, Halit; Yoruk, Ibrahim H

    2018-01-25

    To compare maternal, fetal and placental trace element (magnesium, zinc and copper) and heavy metal (cadmium and lead) and maternal vitamin (retinol, α [alpha]-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) levels in preterm deliveries with and without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Sixty-eight patients giving birth preterm were grouped into preterm deliveries with PPROM (n = 35) and without PPROM (n = 33). Following delivery, maternal and umbilical cord blood sera and placental tissue samples were obtained. While magnesium, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead levels were measured in all samples, the levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 were measured only in maternal serum. While magnesium level in maternal serum and zinc levels in both maternal and umbilical cord sera were lower, placental magnesium level was higher in preterm deliveries with PPROM (P 0.05). In preterm deliveries with PPROM, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and retinol levels were higher, while vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 levels were lower in maternal serum (P < 0.05). Maternal serum α-tocopherol levels were similar between the groups. Compared to spontaneous preterm births, PPROM is associated with low maternal serum together with high placental tissue magnesium and low maternal and umbilical cord sera zinc levels. Higher retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and lower vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 maternal serum levels are also evident in these patients. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. The number of insults and the cerebral damage after hypoxia/ischemia are altered after acute pretreatment with corticosterone and metyrapone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knollema, S; Kemper, RHA; Korf, J; Wiersma, A; Ter Horst, GJ; Krugers, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The role of glucocorticoids in neuronal viability is controversial. Most studies which describe the effects of glucocorticoids on ischemic brain damage use surgical adrenalectomy to induce a reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. In the present study we used metyrapone, a corticosterone

  16. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  17. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  18. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  19. Effects of sheltering on behavior and fecal corticosterone level of elderly dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuji Uetake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g (P <0.001. The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001. In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0% to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances, but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence.

  20. Agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendía, Izaskun; Navarro, Elisa; Rada, Patricia; Cuadrado, Antonio; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; López, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a common finding in major depression; this may lead to increased levels of cortisol, which are known to cause oxidative stress imbalance and apoptotic neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, a key region implicated in mood regulation. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has been proposed for the treatment of major depression. Corticosterone induced apoptotic cell death and increased ROS production in cultured hippocampal neuronal cells, effects that were abolished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by agmatine. Interestingly, the combination of sub-effective concentrations of agmatine with fluoxetine or imipramine afforded synergic protection. The neuroprotective effect of agmatine was abolished by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SnPP (HO-1 inhibitor), and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor). Agmatine increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation and induced the transcription factor Nrf2 and the proteins HO-1 and GCLc; induction of these proteins was prevented by yohimbine, ketanserin, LY294002, and PD98059. In conclusion, agmatine affords neuroprotection against corticosterone effects by a mechanism that implicates Nrf2 induction via α2-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors, Akt and ERK pathways, and HO-1 and GCLc expression.

  1. Snow cover and snowfall impact corticosterone and immunoglobulin a levels in a threatened steppe bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Hu, Xiaolong; Kessler, Aimee Elizabeth; Gong, Minghao; Wang, Yihua; Li, Huixin; Dong, Yuqiu; Yang, Yuhui; Li, Linhai

    2018-05-15

    Birds use both the corticosterone stress response and immune system to meet physiological challenges during exposure to adverse climatic conditions. To assess the stress level and immune response of the Asian Great Bustard during conditions of severe winter weather, we measured fecal corticosterone (CORT) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) before and after snowfall in a low snow cover year (2014) and a high snow cover year (2015). A total of 239 fecal samples were gathered from individuals in Tumuji Nature Reserve, located in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. We observed high CORT levels that rose further after snowfall both in high and low snow cover years. IgA levels increased significantly after snowfall in the low snow cover year, but decreased after snowfall in the high snow cover year. These results suggest that overwintering Asian Great Bustards are subjected to climatic stress during severe winter weather, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system react to this challenge. Extreme levels of stress, such as snowfall in already prolonged and high snow cover conditions may decrease immune function. Supplemental feeding should be considered under severe winter weather conditions for this endangered subspecies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Faecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations are not a good predictor of habitat suitability for common gartersnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, William D; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring habitat suitability is important in conservation and in wildlife management. Measuring the abundance or presence-absence of a species in various habitats is not sufficient to measure habitat suitability because these metrics can be poor predictors of population success. Therefore, having some measure of population success is essential in assessing habitat suitability, but estimating population success is difficult. Identifying suitable proxies for population success could thus be beneficial. We examined whether faecal corticosterone metabolite (fCM) concentrations could be used as a proxy for habitat suitability in common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). We conducted a validation study and confirmed that fCM concentrations indeed reflect circulating corticosterone concentrations. We estimated abundance, reproductive output and growth rate of gartersnakes in field and in forest habitat and we also measured fCM concentrations of gartersnakes from these same habitats. Common gartersnakes were more abundant and had higher reproductive outputs and higher growth rates in field habitat than in forest habitat, but fCM concentrations did not differ between the same two habitats. Our results suggest either that fCM concentrations are not a useful metric of habitat suitability in common gartersnakes or that the difference in suitability between the two habitats was too small to induce changes in fCM concentrations. Incorporating fitness metrics in estimates of habitat suitability is important, but these metrics of fitness have to be sensitive enough to vary between habitats.

  3. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  4. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57 0 C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3 H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3 H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  5. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  6. Concentrations of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in serum of laying and broody white rock hens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrak, E; Harvey, S; Chadwick, A

    1981-05-01

    Diurnal variations in circulating concentrations of LH, GH, prolactin, corticosterone, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were followed in laying and broody White Rock domestic fowl. Throughout the 24 h study prolactin concentrations in serum were consistently (two- to fourfold) higher in broody than in laying birds, in which the prolactin level varied with the light:darkness or ovulatory cycles. Concentrations of GH in serum tended to be lower in broody birds but in both groups were very variable and showed no obvious relationship with either the lighting or ovulatory cycles. Broodiness was also characterized by low LH and gonadal steroid levels and by the absence of preovulatory peaks in the serum concentrations of these hormones. A diurnal rhythm in corticosterone was observed in both the laying and broody birds, with high levels during the period of darkness. Corticosterone concentrations were markedly higher in the broody birds than in laying birds during most of the 24 h study. No diurnal rhythm in the blood haematocrit level was observed in either group, although the level was generally lower in broody birds. This difference, however, was insufficient to account for the lower LH and gonadal steroid levels in the broody birds. The results suggest that prolactin is involved in the initiation or maintenance of broodiness in the fowl and the possibility of an antigonadal role for the hormone is discussed.

  7. Corticosterone facilitates extinction of fear memory in BALB/c mice but strengthens cue related fear in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, V; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2009-04-01

    Corticosterone, the naturally occurring glucocorticoid of rodents is secreted in response to stressors and is known for its facilitating and detrimental effects on emotional learning and memory. The large variability in the action of corticosterone on processing of emotional memories is postulated to depend on genetic background and the spatio-temporal domain in which the hormone operates. To address this hypothesis, mice of two strains with distinct corticosterone secretory patterns and behavioural phenotype (BALB/c and C57BL/6J) were treated with corticosterone (250 microg/kg, i.p.), either 5 min before or directly after acquisition in a fear conditioning task. As the paradigm allowed assessing in one experimental procedure both context- and cue-related fear behaviour, we were able to detect generalization and specificity of fear. BALB/c showed generalized strong fear memory, while C57BL/6J mice discriminated between freezing during context- and cue episodes. Corticosterone had opposite effects on fear memory depending on the strain and time of injection. Corticosterone after acquisition did not affect C57BL/6J mice, but destabilized consolidation and facilitated extinction in BALB/c. Corticosterone 5 min before acquisition strengthened stress-associated signals: BALB/c no longer showed lower fear memory, while C57BL/6J mice displayed increased fear memory and impaired extinction in cue episodes. We propose that corticosterone-induced facilitation of fear memory in C57BL/6J mice can be used to study the development of fear memories, corticosterone administration in BALB/c mice presents a model to examine treatment. We conclude that genetic background and time of corticosterone action are modifiers of fear memory with interesting translational implications for anxiety-related diseases.

  8. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  9. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  10. Fetal Serum Metabolites Are Independently Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ping Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM might be associated with alterations in the metabolomic profile of affected mothers and their offspring. Until now, there is a paucity of studies that investigated both, the maternal and the fetal serum metabolome in the setting of GDM. Mounting evidence suggests that the fetus is not just passively affected by gestational disease but might play an active role in it. Metabolomic studies performed in maternal blood and fetal cord blood could help to better discern distinct fetal from maternal disease interactions. Methods: At the time of birth, serum samples from mothers and newborns (cord blood samples were collected and screened for 163 metabolites utilizing tandem mass spectrometry. The cohort consisted of 412 mother/child pairs, including 31 cases of maternal GDM. Results: An initial non-adjusted analysis showed that eight metabolites in the maternal blood and 54 metabolites in the cord blood were associated with GDM. After Benjamini-Hochberg (BH procedure and adjustment for confounding factors for GDM, fetal phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 32: 1 and proline still showed an independent association with GDM. Conclusions: This study found metabolites in cord blood which were associated with GDM, even after adjustment for established risk factors of GDM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an independent association between fetal serum metabolites and maternal GDM. Our findings might suggest a potential effect of the fetal metabolome on maternal GDM.

  11. Radioimmunological determination of cortisol in serum or plasma of cattle, swine, and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzsch, J.; Bier, H.; Leistner, E.; Hubald, J.; Forschungsinst. fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig

    1987-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the determination of the glucocorticoid cortisol in serum or plasma of swine, cattle, and sheep was tested for its clinical validity. Specific antisera were obtained from rabbit, following immunization, using the immunogenic cortisol-3-0-(carboxymethyl)oxime bovine serum albumin. The sensitivity of the method is 6 pg per measured sample or 1.7 nmol/l serum. Cross reactivities of physiologically relevant hormones were below two per cent but for 11-deoxycortisol (9.1 per cent). The resulting high specificity of the RIA proved to enable high accuracy determination of cortisol under conditions of corticosterone or progesterone levels of about 100 per cent with regard to cortisol concentration, that is conditions likely to occur primarily during pregnancy of swine, cattle, and sheep. The cortisol concentrations recorded from serum or plasma of the above species provided a general picture of hormone concentrations and their dimensions which have to be expected under various physiological conditions. (author)

  12. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  13. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome

  14. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  15. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  16. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  17. Corticosterone primes the neuroinflammatory response to DFP in mice: potential animal model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Locker, Alicia R; Miller, Diane B; Lasley, Steve M

    2015-06-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disorder with features characteristic of persistent sickness behavior. Among conditions encountered in the Gulf War (GW) theater were physiological stressors (e.g., heat/cold/physical activity/sleep deprivation), prophylactic treatment with the reversible AChE inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and potentially the nerve agent, sarin. Prior exposure to the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), at levels associated with high physiological stress, can paradoxically prime the CNS to produce a robust proinflammatory response to neurotoxicants and systemic inflammation; such neuroinflammatory effects can be associated with sickness behavior. Here, we examined whether CORT primed the CNS to mount neuroinflammatory responses to GW exposures as a potential model of GWI. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with chronic (14 days) PB/ DEET, subchronic (7-14 days) CORT, and acute exposure (day 15) to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin surrogate and irreversible AChE inhibitor. DFP alone caused marked brain-wide neuroinflammation assessed by qPCR of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, IL-1β, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M. Pre-treatment with high physiological levels of CORT greatly augmented (up to 300-fold) the neuroinflammatory responses to DFP. Anti-inflammatory pre-treatment with minocycline suppressed many proinflammatory responses to CORT+DFP. Our findings are suggestive of a possible critical, yet unrecognized interaction between the stressor/environment of the GW theater and agent exposure(s) unique to this war. Such exposures may in fact prime the CNS to amplify future neuroinflammatory responses to pathogens, injury, or toxicity. Such occurrences could potentially result in the prolonged episodes of sickness behavior observed in GWI. Gulf War (GW) veterans were exposed to stressors, prophylactic

  18. Single, but not multiple pairings of sucrose and corticosterone enhance memory for sucrose drinking and amplify remote reward relativity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Gomez, Francisca; La Fleur, Susanne; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether pre-training pairings of ingestion of a 32% sucrose solution and injection(s) of corticosterone (B) would enhance later ingestion in the absence of B, and whether these effects would carry over into later contrast-like effects when animals were subsequently shifted to 4%

  19. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and buspirone on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in rats under basal and stress conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    The effects of the classical benzodiazepine (BDZ) anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the non-BDZ anxiolytic agent buspirone (BUSP) on basal and stress-induced plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) release were investigated. Male Wistar rats provided with a

  20. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  1. Significance of ACTH4-10 in the control of hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of hypophysectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Kloet, E R

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypophysectomy on the number of corticosterone receptor sites was investigated in three rat brain regions and was compared with the effect of long-term adrenalectomy. Subsequently, the effect on receptor capacity was measured after the hypophysectomized rats had received as

  2. The effects of chronic corticosterone on hippocampal astrocyte numbers: A comparison of male and female Wistar rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bridges, N.; Šlais, Karel; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2008), s. 131-138 ISSN 0065-1400 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA309/04/0753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Hippocampus * Astrocyte * Corticosterone Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.091, year: 2008

  3. Long-term decreases of corticosterone in captive migrant shorebirds that maintain seasonal mass and moult cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Ramenofsky, M

    Two flocks of Red Knots Calidris canutus, belonging to the temperate-wintering subspecies islandica and to the tropical-wintering subspecies canutus, were kept in outdoor cages at north-temperate latitudes over two annual cycles during which their plasma concentrations of corticosterone were

  4. Are birds stressed during long-term flights? A wind-tunnel study on circulating corticosterone in the red knot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindstrom, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis; Lindström, Åke

    2009-01-01

    During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood. the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes

  5. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  6. Studies into the anxiolytic actions of agomelatine in social isolation reared rats: Role of corticosterone and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenass, Wilmie; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are severely disabling, while current pharmacological treatments are complicated by delayed onset, low remission rates and side-effects. Sex is also noted to contribute towards illness severity and treatment response. Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT 1 /MT 2 ) agonist and serotonin (5-HT 2C ) antagonist purported to be anxiolytic in clinical and some pre-clinical studies. We undertook a detailed analysis of agomelatine's anxiolytic activity in a neurodevelopmental model of anxiety, the social isolation reared rat. Rats received sub-chronic treatment with vehicle or agomelatine (40 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally at 16:00 h for 16 days), with behaviour analysed in the open field test, social interaction test and elevated plus maze. The contribution of corticosterone and sex was also studied. Social isolation rearing increased locomotor activity and reduced social interaction in the social interaction test, and was anxiogenic in the elevated plus maze in males and females. Agomelatine reversed these behaviours. Male and female social isolation reared rats developed anxiety-like behaviours to a similar degree, although response to agomelatine was superior in male rats. Social isolation rearing decreased plasma corticosterone in both sexes and tended to higher levels in females, although agomelatine did not affect corticosterone in either sex. Concluding, agomelatine is anxiolytic in SIR rats, although correcting altered corticosterone could not be implicated. Sex-related differences in the response to agomelatine are evident.

  7. Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood by ion pair reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere; Berg, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A novel ion pair reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the stress hormones adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was developed and fully validated. Separations were performed on an Acquity HSS T3 column (2.1mm i.d.×100mm, 1.8μm) with gradient elution and a runtime of 5.5min. The retention of adrenaline and noradrenaline was substantially increased by employing the ion pair reagent heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Ion pair reagents are usually added to the mobile phase only, but we demonstrate for the first time that including HFBA to the sample reconstitution solvent as well, has a major impact on the chromatography of these compounds. The stability of adrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was investigated using the surrogate analytes adrenaline-d 3 and corticosterone-d 8 . The applicability of the described method was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of stress hormones in rodent blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  10. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  11. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  12. Antidepressant activity of vorinostat is associated with amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kv, Athira; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Js, Indu Chandran; Lahkar, Mangala; Sinha, Swapnil; Naidu, V G M

    2018-05-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to rodents is used to mimic the stress associated dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a well-established feature found in depressive patients. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the antidepressant potential of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. So, we examined the antidepressant potential of vorinostat (VOR), a HDAC inhibitor against CORT injections in male mice. VOR (25 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and fluoxetine (FLX) (15 mg/kg; oral) treatments were provided to CORT administered mice. At the end of dosing schedule, neurobehavioral tests were conducted; followed by mechanistic evaluation through biochemical analysis, RTPCR and western blot in serum and hippocampus. Neurobehavioral tests revealed the development of anxiety/depressive-like behavior in CORT mice as compared to the vehicle control. Depressive-mice showed concomitant HPA axis dysregulation as observed from the significant increase in serum CORT and ACTH. Chronic CORT administration was found to significantly increase hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and iNOS levels while lowering glutathione (GSH) content, as compared to vehicle control. VOR treatment, in a similar manner to the classical antidepressant FLX, significantly ameliorated anxiety/depressive-like behavior along with HPA axis alterations induced by CORT. The antidepressant-like ability of drug treatments against chronic CORT induced stress model, as revealed in our study, may be due to their potential to mitigate inflammatory damage and oxidative stress via modulation of hippocampal NF-κB p65, COX-2, HDAC2 and phosphorylated JNK levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression profiling following maternal deprivation: Involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liebl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal development of the mouse is characterized by a stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP, where basal corticosterone levels are low and responsiveness to mild stressors is reduced. Maternal separation is able to disrupt the SHRP and is widely used to model early trauma. In this study we aimed at identifying of brain systems involved in acute and possible long-term effects of maternal separation. We conducted a microarray-based gene expression analysis in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after maternal separation, which revealed 52 differentially regulated genes compared to undisturbed controls, among them are 37 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated genes. One of the prominently up-regulated genes, angiotensinogen, was validated using in-situ hybridization. Angiotensinogen is the precursor of angiotensin II, the main effector of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS, which is known to be involved in stress system modulation in adult animals. Using the selective angiotensin type I receptor (AT(1 antagonist candesartan we found strong effects on CRH and GR mRNA expression in the brain a nd ACTH release following maternal separation. AT(1 receptor blockade appears to enhance central effects of maternal separation in the neonate, suggesting a suppressing function of brain RAS during the SHRP. Taken together, our results illustrate the molecular adaptations that occur in the paraventricular nucleus following maternal separation and contribute to identifying signaling cascades that control stress system activity in the neonate.

  14. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  15. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of peony glycosides against corticosterone-induced cell death in PC12 cells through antioxidant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-02-16

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. However, the molecular mechanism by which TGP exerts antidepressant-like effect is not fully understood. This study examined the protective effects of TGP against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and ts possible mechanisms. The direct antioxidant effect of TGP was investigated by using a 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation-scavenging assay in a cell-free system. PC12 cells were treated with 200 μM of corticosterone in the absence or presence of TGP in varying concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were then determined. TGP displayed antioxidant properties in the cell-free system, and the IC50 value in the ABTS radical cation-scavenging assay was 9.9 mg/L. TGP treatment at increasing doses (1-10 mg/L) protected against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cytoprotection afforded by TGP treatment was associated with decreases in the intracellular ROS and MDA levels, and increases in the GSH level, SOD activity, and CAT activity in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. The results suggest that TGP has a neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, which may be related to its antioxidant action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corticosterone and the transition from courtship behavior to dispersal in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal modulation of baseline glucocorticoid concentrations as well as the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events such as seasonal reproduction and migration. Despite numerous studies on adrenocortical modulation, little is known about the exact timing of this seasonal modulation with respect to critical life-history stages. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal modulation of the HPA axis during the spring mating season in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is temporally linked to the mechanisms regulating dispersal. We compared hormonal responses to capture stress in courting male red-sided garter snakes collected from the den site and den perimeter to those of dispersing snakes collected 0.6 km from the den. We also investigated possible changes in steroid hormones during the spring mating season. These studies support previous findings that plasma androgen and corticosterone concentrations significantly decline over the mating season. Our results demonstrate that males 0.6 km into a 15-20 km route to the feeding grounds have lower baseline corticosterone concentrations than male snakes actively courting at the den. Dispersing males also exhibit a typical stress response marked by a significant increase in corticosterone while actively courting males do not. Capture stress did not significantly influence androgen concentrations of either courting or dispersing male red-sided garter snakes. There were no significant differences in body composition indices among male snakes collected from the den, den perimeter, or 0.6 km away from the den. However, we did observe a significant negative correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and body composition indices. These data suggest that breeding is a distinct stage accompanied by specific physiological parameters that differ from those during dispersal to the feeding grounds. Our results

  18. Ozone modifies the metabolic and endocrine response to glucose: Reproduction of effects with the stress hormone corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Pilon, Shinjini; Guénette, Josée; Williams, Andrew; Holloway, Alison C

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased incidence of metabolic disease (e.g. metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Air pollutants increase the release of stress hormones (human cortisol, rodent corticosterone), which could contribute to metabolic dysregulation. We assessed acute effects of ozone, and stress axis involvement, on glucose tolerance and on the metabolic (triglyceride), endocrine/energy regulation (insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, leptin, ghrelin, corticosterone), and inflammatory/endothelial (TNF, IL-6, VEGF, PAI-1) response to exogenous glucose. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to clean air or 0.8 ppm ozone for 4 h in whole body chambers. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis involvement in ozone effects was tested through subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (50 mg/kg body weight), corticosterone (10 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle (40% propylene glycol) prior to exposure. A glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg body weight glucose) was conducted immediately after exposure, with blood samples collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Ozone exposure impaired glucose tolerance, an effect accompanied by increased plasma triglycerides but no impairment of insulin release. Ozone diminished glucagon, GLP-1, and ghrelin responses to glucose, but did not significantly impact inflammatory/endothelial analytes. Metyrapone reduced corticosterone but increased glucose and triglycerides, complicating evaluation of the impact of glucocorticoid inhibition. However, administration of corticosterone reproduced the profile of ozone effects, supporting a role for the HPA axis. The results show that ozone-dependent changes in glucose tolerance are accompanied by altered metabolic and endocrine responses to glucose challenge that are reproduced by exogenous stress hormone. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma catecholamines and plasma corticosterone following restraint stress in juvenile alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1999-05-01

    Ten juvenile alligators, mean body mass 793 g, hatched from artificially incubated eggs and raised under controlled conditions, were held out of water with their jaws held closed for 48 hr. An initial blood sample was taken and further samples collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were measured in plasma aliquots of 1.5 ml using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose was measured using the Trinder method and plasma calcium, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in an autoanalyzer. Epinephrine was about 4 ng/ml at the initial bleed, but declined steadily to blood cells showed changes indicating immune system suppression. By the end of the treatment the hetorophil/lymphocyte ratio increased to 4.7. These results suggest that handling alligators, taking multiple blood samples, and keeping them restrained for more than 8 hr is a severe stress to the animals.

  20. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT- treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  1. Validation of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of total corticosterone in rat plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tine Karen Hjort

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for total corticosterone (CORT) in rat plasma requiring a plasma volume of 2 μl was established. The importance of inactivating plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), denatured by heat, before measuring CORT was shown. The method was evaluated and shown...... the blood sampling procedure. The result showed that the method had a capacity to detect CORT concentrations comparable with previous reported basal concentrations. Finally, the possible stress inducing effect of the blood sampling procedure was examined using two groups of male rats housed under either...... conventional or enriched environmental conditions. The result indicated that conventional environment housing induces slightly stressed animals compared to enriched housing. Enriched housing may provide an environment that makes it possible for rats to compensate for a stressful situation, i.e., the blood...

  2. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of 3 H-NA and the intensity of 3 H-Na and 3 H-DA synthesis from 3 H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS

  4. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, G; Heath, J L; Wabeck, C J; Owens, S L; Mench, J A

    1998-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers (Arbor Acres) were either 1) fed a diet containing corticosterone (CORT) prior to processing, 2) transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3) processed without either of the above treatments. Six crates of birds (10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment) were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time (ST), Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen (IQF) in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice (AOI) for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides (R-value), cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses. The IQF Biceps femoris samples were used for pH, R-value, color, and heme pigment analysis. Mean (+/- SEM) CORT concentrations were 12.9+/-2.57, 11.7+/-1.38 and 7.9+/-0.79 ng/mL, respectively, in the CORT, transported, and control groups. There were significant treatment by ST (P < 0.05) and ST (P < 0.001) effects on the R-value of IQF P. superficialis samples. The CORT group had the highest L* value (P < 0.01) and the lowest a* value (P < 0.06). There was also a significant main effect of ST on shear values (P < 0.05) of AOI P. superficialis samples, with the means higher at 4 h than at 20 min post-mortem. The R-value of IQF B. femoris samples was markedly influenced by treatment (P < 0.001) and ST (P < 0.001). The results indicate that artificially elevating circulating CORT concentrations results in lighter meat color in broilers.

  5. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  7. Metabolomic study of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Zheng, Hua; Zhao, Gan; Tang, Chaoling; Lu, Shiyin; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Fang; Wei, Jinbin; Liang, Yonghong; Ruan, Junxiang; Song, Hui; Su, Zhiheng

    2016-03-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been proved to be an important pathogenic factor of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Usually, a classical injury model based on corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity of differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was used to stimulate the state of GC damage of hippocampal neurons and investigate its potential mechanisms involved. However, up to now, the mechanism of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells was still looking forward to further elucidation. In this work, the metabolomic study of the biochemical changes caused by corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells with different corticosterone concentrations was performed for the first time, using the ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that metabolic profiles of different corticosterone treatment groups deviated from the control group. A total of fifteen metabolites were characterized as potential biomarkers involved in corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity, which were corresponding to the dysfunctions of five pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, oxidation of fatty acids, glycerolipid metabolism and sterol lipid metabolism. This study indicated that the rapid and holistic cell metabolomics approach might be a powerful tool to further study the pathogenesis mechanism of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

  8. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  9. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  10. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  11. Feto-maternal haemorrhage associated with genetic amniocentesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Bang, J; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B

    1987-01-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were determined before and after genetic amniocentesis (n = 283) or ultrasound scan (n = 268) in a group of women participating in a randomized trial of genetic amniocentesis. Increases in AFP levels were seen significantly more often after amniocente......Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were determined before and after genetic amniocentesis (n = 283) or ultrasound scan (n = 268) in a group of women participating in a randomized trial of genetic amniocentesis. Increases in AFP levels were seen significantly more often after...

  12. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-06-21

    This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers' breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m² (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm² (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants' BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  13. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  14. Obesity Disrupts the Rhythmic Profiles of Maternal and Fetal Progesterone in Rat Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Mark, Peter J; Clarke, Michael W; Waddell, Brendan J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of abnormal fetal growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because steroid hormones regulate fetal growth, and both pregnancy and obesity markedly alter circadian biology, we hypothesized that maternal obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic profiles of steroid hormones in rat pregnancy. Obesity was established by cafeteria (CAF) feeding for 8 wk prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. Control (CON) animals had ad libitum access to chow. Daily profiles of plasma corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, progesterone, and testosterone were measured at Days 15 and 21 of gestation (term = 23 days) in maternal (both days) and fetal (Day 21) plasma. CAF mothers exhibited increased adiposity relative to CON and showed fetal and placental growth restriction. There was no change, however, in total fetal or placental mass due to slightly larger litter sizes in CAF. Nocturnal declines in progesterone were observed in maternal (39% lower) and fetal (45% lower) plasma in CON animals, but these were absent in CAF animals. CAF mothers were hyperlipidemic at both days of gestation, but this effect was isolated to the dark period at Day 21. CAF maternal testosterone was slightly lower at Day 15 (8%) but increased above CON by Day 21 (16%). Despite elevated maternal testosterone, male fetal testosterone was suppressed by obesity on Day 21. Neither maternal nor fetal glucocorticoid profiles were affected by obesity. In conclusion, obesity disrupts rhythmic profiles of maternal and fetal progesterone, preventing the normal nocturnal decline. Obesity subtly changed testosterone profiles but did not alter maternal and fetal glucocorticoids. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  16. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Effects of sex and time of day on metabolism and excretion of corticosterone in urine and feces of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Chadi; Sachser, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Palme, Rupert

    2003-02-15

    Non-invasive techniques to monitor stress hormones in small animals like mice offer several advantages and are highly demanded in laboratory as well as in field research. Since knowledge about the species-specific metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids is essential to develop such a technique, we conducted radiometabolism studies in mice (Mus musculus f. domesticus, strain C57BL/6J). Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 740 kBq of 3H-labelled corticosterone and all voided urine and fecal samples were collected for five days. In a first experiment 16 animals (eight of each sex) received the injection at 9 a.m., while eight mice (four of each sex) were injected at 9 p.m. in a second experiment. In both experiments radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the feces, although males excreted significantly higher proportions via the feces (about 73%) than females (about 53%). Peak radioactivity in the urine was detected within about 2h after injection, while in the feces peak concentrations were observed later (depending on the time of injection: about 10h postinjection in experiment 1 and about 4h postinjection in experiment 2, thus proving an effect of the time of day). The number and relative abundance of fecal [3H]corticosterone metabolites was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC separations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized mainly to more polar substances. Regarding the types of metabolites formed, significant differences were found between males and females, but not between the experiments. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of these metabolites was assessed by screening the HPLC fractions with four enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, only a newly established EIA for 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,11beta,21-triol-20-one (measuring corticosterone metabolites with a 5alpha-3beta,11beta-diol structure) detected several peaks of radioactive metabolites with high intensity in both sexes, while

  18. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  19. Maternal exposure to UV filters: associations with maternal thyroid hormones, IGF-I/IGFBP3 and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Frederiksen, H; Sundberg, K; Jørgensen, F S; Jensen, L N; Nørgaard, P; Jørgensen, C; Ertberg, P; Petersen, J H; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Juul, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Skakkebaek, N E; Andersson, A M

    2018-02-01

    Several chemical UV filters/absorbers ('UV filters' hereafter) have endocrine-disrupting properties in vitro and in vivo . Exposure to these chemicals, especially during prenatal development, is of concern. To examine maternal exposure to UV filters, associations with maternal thyroid hormone, with growth factor concentrations as well as to birth outcomes. Prospective study of 183 pregnant women with 2nd trimester serum and urine samples available. Maternal concentrations of the chemical UV filters benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in urine and 4-hydroxy-benzophenone (4-HBP) in serum were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relationships between 2nd trimester maternal concentrations of the three chemical UV filters and maternal serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and growth factors, as well as birth outcomes (weight, height, and head and abdominal circumferences) were examined. Positive associations between maternal serum concentrations of 4-HBP and triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP3 were observed in mothers carrying male fetuses. Male infants of mothers in the middle 4-HBP exposure group had statistically significantly lower weight and shorter head and abdominal circumferences at birth compared to the low exposure group. Widespread exposure of pregnant women to chemical UV filters and the possible impact on maternal thyroid hormones and growth factors, and on fetal growth, calls for further studies on possible long-term consequences of the exposure to UV filters on fetal development and children's health. © 2018 The authors.

  20. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfil de retinol no soro e colostro de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública Brasileira e sua associação com características maternas e obstétricas Perfil de retinol en el suero y calostro de puérperas atendidas en maternidad pública brasileña y su asociación con características maternas y obstétricas Serum and colostrum retinol profile in postpartum women in a Brazilian public maternity and its association with maternal and obstetric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2011-12-01

    corte transversal 97 puérperas sanas que fueron clasificadas respecto a la edad, estado nutricional, paridad, vía de parto, peso al nacimiento y edad gestacional del recién nacido. Tres muestras de calostro y una de suero fueron recogidas en ayuno en el postparto inmediato. El retinol fue analizado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Para caracterizar el estado nutricional en vitamina A se adoptó punto de corte para retinol en el suero (30µg/dL y en el calostro (60µg/dL. RESULTADOS: En el grupo total de puérperas, la concentración mediana de 60µg/dL de retinol en el calostro y 43µg/dL en el suero indicó estado bioquímico adecuado. Sin embargo, al evaluar el individuo, se constató alta prevalencia de DVA subclínica en el suero (15% y calostro (50%. No se verificó influencia de las características maternas, obstétricas y del neonato sobre los niveles de retinol en el suero y en el calostro de las mujeres (p>0,05. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de DVA puede ocurrir en gestantes/puérperas independientemente de las características maternas y obstétricas consideradas. Este hecho refuerza la necesidad de la atención especial al seguimiento prenatal de todas las mujeres a fin de prevenir la instalación de la DVA y garantizar la reducción de los índices de morbimortalidad infantil y materna.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between serum and colostrum retinol levels and maternal and obstetric characteristics of women attending a Brazilian public maternity hospital, and to establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD in this population. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 97 healthy postpartum women classified according to age, nutritional status, parity, mode of delivery, newborn's weight and gestational age. Three samples of colostrum pool and a single serum sample were collected after overnight fasting in the immediate postpartum period. Retinol was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To characterize the

  2. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  3. Progesterone regulates corticosterone elevation and alterations in spatial memory and exploratory behavior induced by stress in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Burke, Yolanda; Universidad de Guadalajara; Valencia-Alfonso, Carlos Eduardo; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience; González-Sandoval, Claudia Elena; Universidad de Guadalajara; Huerta, Miguel; Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima; Diaz, Lourdes; Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco; García-Estrada, Joaquín; Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, IMSS-Jalisco; Luquín, Sonia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids. During stress response, it suffers biochemical and cellular changes that affect functions such as spatial memory and exploratory behavior. In this study, we analyzed the influence of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG), on stress-induced changes in urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels, spatial memory and exploratory behavior. Castrated adult male rats were implanted with PROG or vehicle (VEHI), and then exposed to chronic stres...

  4. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  5. EFFECT OF ROUTINE HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION ON BLOOD LEUKOCYTE CONCENTRATIONS AND PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE IN CAPTIVE HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS ( AMAZONA VENTRALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Ammersbach, Melanie; Gaunt, Stephen D; Fuller, Rory G; Romero, L Michael

    2018-06-01

      Increased glucocorticoids cause a characteristic stress leukogram in mammalian taxa. It is assumed that avians exhibit a similar response, but to date, there have been no controlled studies to correlate serial endogenous corticosterone levels to hematologic values. An established flock of 18 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis) was used as a model in a crossover study. The treatment group was subjected to the stress of transport, restraint, and common clinical procedures with serial blood samples collected at 20-min intervals for hematology and corticosterone levels; the control group was sampled at the same intervals. Longitudinal data analysis was performed with linear mixed modeling. For all hematologic analytes, the baseline value had a significant positive effect on subsequent values (all P < 0.001). The white blood cell, heterophil, and eosinophil counts and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased over time in the treatment group, whereas it remained stable in the control group ( P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, respectively, for the time*treatment effect). Lymphocyte absolute counts decreased over time, although not significantly; the decrease was significant for the relative lymphocyte count in the treatment group. Monocytes and basophils were not significantly altered. The treatment group had a higher mean corticosterone level overall than the control group by approximately 60% ( P = 0.008). The mean corticosterone level also increased over time in both groups by three- to fourfold ( P < 0.001) by 20 min then plateaued. These results demonstrate that some significant hematologic changes may arise with routine handling and transportation of birds and should be accounted for in hematologic interpretation of cell counts.

  6. A comparative evaluation of acute stress and corticosterone on the process of learning and emotional memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei AA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Previous studies suggested that stressful events that release Glucocorticoid from adrenal cortex and also injection of agonists of glucocorticoids receptors probably affect emotional learning and memory process and modulate them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute stress and systemic injection of Corticosterone (as agonist of glucocorticoid receptors on acquisition (ACQ, consolidation (CONS and retrieval (RET of emotional memory in rat. "nMethods: In this experimental study we used 180 male Wistar rats (220-250. At the first rats was training in one trial inhibitory avoidance task. On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment of the apparatus (Step-through latency, STL and the time spent in light chamber (TLC were recorded during 10 min test. Intraperitoneal corticosterone in doses of 0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg injected 30min before, immediately after instruction and 30min before retrieval test. Also some groups received 10min stressful stimulation by restrainer at the same time. At the end locomotor's activity was measured for all animals. "nResults: The data indicated that administration of corticosterone 30min before ACQ (1mg/kg, and immediately after CONS (1, 3mg/kg enhance and 30min before RET (1, 3mg/kg impair emotional memory (p<0.05. Acute stress impaired emotional memory in all phases (p<0.05. Also acute stress and injection of Corticosterone have not significantly affect motor activity.  "nConclusions: These findings show that Glucocorticoid receptors in activation dependently plays an important role in modulation of emotional spatial memory processes (ACQ, CONS and RET in new information for emotional events and these effects varies in different phases.

  7. Corticosterone manipulation reveals differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional reproductive trade-offs in r-strategist and K-strategist females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, L T; Hazard, L C; Clobert, J; Sinervo, B R

    2008-03-01

    Life history trade-offs are often hierarchical with decisions at one level affecting lower level trade-offs. We investigated trade-off structure in female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana), which exhibit two evolved strategies: yellow-throated females are K-strategists and orange-throated are r-strategists. Corticosterone treatment was predicted to differentially organize these females' reproductive decisions. Corticosterone-treated yellow females suppressed reproduction but survived well, and augmented egg mass without decreasing clutch size. Conversely, corticosterone enhanced mortality and reproductive rates in orange females, and increased egg mass only after lengthy exposure. Corticosterone did not affect post-laying condition, suggesting that corticosterone increased egg mass through enhanced energy acquisition (income breeding). Corticosterone enhanced survival of lightweight females, but decreased survival of heavy females, introducing a foraging vs. predation trade-off. We conclude that rather than being a direct, functional relationship, observed trade-offs between offspring size and number represent evolved differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional trade-offs, particularly in response to stress.

  8. Stressful dieting: nutritional conditions but not compensatory growth elevate corticosterone levels in zebra finch nestlings and fledglings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Honarmand

    Full Text Available Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model species. As nestlings (day 0-17 or fledglings (day 17-35, subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

  9. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  10. Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Nucleus in Wistar Rats Alters Circulatory Levels of Corticosterone and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Castillo, Juan Manuel; De La Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Morales-Espinoza, Gabriel; Moreno-Aguilar, Julia; Hernández, Maria Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for several diseases, but its effects on HPA axis activity and systemic inflammation are unknown. This study aimed to detect circulatory variations of corticosterone and cytokines levels in Wistar rats, after 21 days of DBS-at the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), unilateral cervical vagotomy (UCVgX), or UCVgX plus DBS. We included the respective control (C) and sham (S) groups (n = 6 rats per group). DBS treated rats had higher levels of TNF-α (120%; P < 0.01) and IFN-γ (305%; P < 0.001) but lower corticosterone concentration (48%; P < 0.001) than C and S. UCVgX animals showed increased corticosterone levels (154%; P < 0.001) versus C and S. UCVgX plus DBS increased IL-1β (402%; P < 0.001), IL-6 (160%; P < 0.001), and corsticosterone (178%; P < 0.001 versus 48%; P < 0.001) compared with the C and S groups. Chronic DBS at VMHvl induced a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by a decrease of HPA axis function. UCVgX rats experienced HPA axis hyperactivity as result of vagus nerve injury; however, DBS was unable to block the HPA axis hyperactivity induced by unilateral cervical vagotomy. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and their clinical implication. PMID:24235973

  11. Corticosterone induces rapid spinogenesis via synaptic glucocorticoid receptors and kinase networks in hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Komatsuzaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modulation of dendritic spines under acute stress is attracting much attention. Exposure to acute stress induces corticosterone (CORT secretion from the adrenal cortex, resulting in rapid increase of CORT levels in plasma and the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrated the mechanisms of rapid effect (∼1 h of CORT on the density and morphology of spines by imaging neurons in adult male rat hippocampal slices. The application of CORT at 100-1000 nM induced a rapid increase in the density of spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The density of small-head spines (0.2-0.4 µm was increased even at low CORT levels (100-200 nM. The density of middle-head spines (0.4-0.5 µm was increased at high CORT levels between 400-1000 nM. The density of large-head spines (0.5-1.0 µm was increased only at 1000 nM CORT. Co-administration of RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR, abolished the effect of CORT. Blocking a single kinase, such as MAPK, PKA, PKC or PI3K, suppressed CORT-induced enhancement of spinogenesis. Blocking NMDA receptors suppressed the CORT effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply that stress levels of CORT (100-1000 nM drive the spinogenesis via synaptic GR and multiple kinase pathways.

  12. Corticosterone suppresses immune activity in territorial Galápagos marine iguanas during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Silke; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Vitousek, Maren N; Rödl, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Individuals that display elaborate sexually selected characters often show reduced immune function. According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, testosterone (T) is responsible for this result as it drives the development and maintenance of sexual characters and causes immunosuppression. But glucocorticoids also have strong influences on immune function and may also be elevated in reproductively active males. Here, we compared immune activity using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test in three discrete groups of male marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus): territorials, satellites, and bachelors. Males of these three reproductive phenotypes had indistinguishable T concentrations during the height of the breeding season, but their corticosterone (cort) concentrations, body condition and hematocrit were significantly different. Territorial males, the animals with the most elaborate sexual ornaments and behaviors, had lower immune responses and body condition but higher cort concentrations and hematocrit than satellites or bachelors. To test directly cort's immunosuppressive role, we elevated cort by either restraining animals or additionally injecting cort and compared their PHA swelling response with the response of free-roaming animals. Such experimental elevation of cort significantly decreased immune activity in both restrained and cort-injected animals. Our data show that cort can induce immunosuppression, but they do not support the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in its narrow sense because T concentrations were not related to immunosuppression.

  13. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  14. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (Phens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (Pfeeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune responses of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) to repeated acute elevation of corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Langkilde, Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged elevations of glucocorticoids due to long-duration (chronic) stress can suppress immune function. It is unclear, however, how natural stressors that result in repeated short-duration (acute) stress, such as frequent agonistic social encounters or predator attacks, fit into our current understanding of the immune consequences of stress. Since these types of stressors may activate the immune system due to increased risk of injury, immune suppression may be reduced at sites where individuals are repeatedly exposed to potentially damaging stressors. We tested whether repeated acute elevation of corticosterone (CORT, a glucocorticoid) suppresses immune function in eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus), and whether this effect varies between lizards from high-stress (high baseline CORT, invaded by predatory fire ants) and low-stress (low baseline CORT, uninvaded) sites. Lizards treated daily with exogenous CORT showed higher hemagglutination of novel proteins by their plasma (a test of constitutive humoral immunity) than control lizards, a pattern that was consistent across sites. There was no significant effect of CORT treatment on bacterial killing ability of plasma. These results suggest that repeated elevations of CORT, which are common in nature, produce immune effects more typical of those expected at the acute end of the acute-chronic spectrum and provide no evidence of modulated consequences of elevated CORT in animals from high-stress sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  17. The association of maternal social factors and antenatal care with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc is a crucial micronutrient in early childhood survival and the development of innate and acquired immunity. The objective is to determine the relationship between of maternal social class and antenatal care to serum zinc level in newborns in a tertiary and a rural hospital. It is prospective study using questionnaires on ...

  18. Maternal Vitamin D Levels and the Autism Phenotype among Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Holt, Barbara J.; Serralha, Michael; Holt, Patrick G.; Hart, Prue H.; Kusel, Merci M. H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is related to the autism phenotype. Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 929 women were measured at 18 weeks' pregnancy. The mothers of the three children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder had 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations above the population mean.…

  19. Alterations in glucocorticoid negative feedback following maternal Pb, prenatal stress and the combination: A potential biological unifying mechanism for their corresponding disease profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi-George, A.; Virgolini, M.B.; Weston, D.; Cory-Slechta, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Combined exposures to maternal lead (Pb) and prenatal stress (PS) can act synergistically to enhance behavioral and neurochemical toxicity in offspring. Maternal Pb itself causes permanent dysfunction of the body's major stress system, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. The current study sought to determine the potential involvement of altered negative glucocorticoid feedback as a mechanistic basis of the effects in rats of maternal Pb (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water beginning 2 mo prior to breeding), prenatal stress (PS; restraint on gestational days 16-17) and combined maternal Pb + PS in 8 mo old male and female offspring. Corticosterone changes were measured over 24 h following an i.p. injection stress containing vehicle or 100 or 300 μg/kg (females) or 100 or 150 μg/kg (males) dexamethasone (DEX). Both Pb and PS prolonged the time course of corticosterone reduction following vehicle injection stress. Pb effects were non-monotonic, with a greater impact at 50 vs. 150 ppm, particularly in males, where further enhancement occurred with PS. In accord with these findings, the efficacy of DEX in suppressing corticosterone was reduced by Pb and Pb + PS in both genders, with Pb efficacy enhanced by PS in females, over the first 6 h post-administration. A marked prolongation of DEX effects was found in males. Thus, Pb, PS and Pb + PS, sometimes additively, produced hypercortisolism in both genders, followed by hypocortisolism in males, consistent with HPA axis dysfunction. These findings may provide a plausible unifying biological mechanism for the reported links between Pb exposure and stress-associated diseases and disorders mediated via the HPA axis, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, schizophrenia and depression. They also suggest broadening of Pb screening programs to pregnant women in high stress environments

  20. The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Linqi; Guo Sheng; Yu Xin; Feng Xing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

  1. Maternal and neonatal copeptin levels at cesarean section and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; Abdel Aal, Ibrahim A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the copeptin levels in maternal serum and umbilical cord serum at cesarean section and vaginal delivery in normotensive pregnancy and pre-eclamptic women. This was a prospective study at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Ninety cases were included. They were divided into six groups: (1) normal pregnancy near term, as a control group, (2) primiparas who had vaginal delivery, (3) primiparas who had vaginal delivery and mild preeclampsia, (4) elective repeat cesarean section, (5) intrapartum cesarean section for indications other than fetal distress, and (6) intrapartum cesarean section for fetal distress. Serum copeptin concentrations were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test were used to test for significant change in quantitative data. The vaginal delivery groups had higher levels of maternal serum copeptin than the elective cesarean section group (P<0.01). Higher maternal serum copeptin levels were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases. The maternal copeptin levels during intrapartum cesarean section were higher than that during elective repeat cesarean section. There was a significant correlation between maternal copeptin levels and the duration of the first stage. In the presence of fetal distress, umbilical cord serum copeptin levels were significantly higher than other groups. Vaginal delivery can be very painful and stressful, and is accompanied by a marked increase of maternal serum copeptin. Increased maternal levels of serum copeptin were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases, and it may be helpful in assessing the disease. Intrauterine fetal distress is a strong stimulus to the release of copeptin into the fetal circulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal exposure to UV filters and associations to maternal thyroid hormones and IGF-I/IGFBP3 and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Marianna; Frederiksen, Hanne; Sundberg, Karin

    2018-01-01

    as birth outcomes (weight, height, and head and abdominal circumferences) were examined. RESULTS: Positive associations between maternal serum concentrations of 4-HBP and triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP3, were observed in mothers...

  3. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  4. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin A levels. Children who had measles, persistent diarrhoea, low maternal educational levels and low social class were at a higher risk of having low serum vitamin A levels ... its environs and is the Primary Health Care outlet of. Ahmadu Bello ... eye changes of vitamin A deficiency,10 skin changes, hair changes and ...

  5. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine C; Bech, Bodil H; Nohr, Ellen A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known...... was restricted to term births (n=1426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were -50 [95 % CI: -123; 23] g in all births and -62 [95 % CI: -126; 3] g in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association...... with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those...

  7. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartu, S.; Angelier, F.; Bustnes, J.O.; Moe, B.; Hanssen, S.A.; Herzke, D.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Verboven, N.; Verreault, J.; Labadie, P.; Budzinski, H.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination

  9. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  10. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  11. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung eTse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is relatively stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress related psychopathologies including depression.

  13. Forced swimming-induced oxytocin release into blood and brain: Effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Luz; Plotsky, Paul M; Neumann, Inga D; de Jong, Trynke R

    2017-03-01

    The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood samples and dialysates were collected before and after forced swimming (FS) and analyzed for CORT, ACTH and AVP concentrations (in plasma) and OXT concentrations (in plasma and dialysates). Experimental treatments included acute infusion of CORT (70 or 175μg/kg i.v.) 5min prior to FS, or subcutaneous placement of 40% CORT pellets resulting in stable CORT levels in the normal basal range. Although ADX did not alter basal OXT concentrations either in plasma or in microdialysates from the PVN, it did cause an exaggerated peripheral secretion of OXT and a blunted intra-PVN release of OXT in response to FS. CORT pellets did not influence either of these ADX-induced effects, while acute infusion of 175μg/kg CORT rescued the stress-induced rise in OXT release within the PVN and modestly increased peripheral OXT secretion. In conclusion, these results indicate that CORT regulates both peripheral and intracerebral OXT release, but in an independent manner. Whereas the peripheral secretion of OXT occurs simultaneously to HPA axis activation in response to FS and is modestly influenced by CORT, HPA axis activation and circulating CORT strongly contribute to the stress-induced stimulation of OXT release within the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2014-04-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10μg and 20μg) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10μg CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10μg dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Harms, N Jane; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bortolotti, Gary; Bêty, Joël; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions) on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring) body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  16. Influence of corticosterone treatment on nestling begging in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderbrock, Emily K; Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2018-04-01

    Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior. One intrinsic factor of interest is corticosterone (CORT), a metabolic hormone hypothesized to play a role in regulating a nestling's begging behavior. We investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to CORT influences nestling begging behavior in an altricial species, the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). We treated one nestling per treatment nest with a twice-daily dose of exogenous hormone via a CORT-injected waxworm, whereas a second individual received a vehicle-injected waxworm. We monitored individual nestling and adult behavior at all nests with the use of high-definition video cameras on several days during treatment. We found no difference in begging rate between CORT fed and vehicle fed nestlings within a treatment nest. Further, to determine whether CORT treatment had indirect effects on the entire brood, we monitored additional nests, in which nestlings were not manipulated. When treatment and controls were compared, overall begging rates of nestlings in treatment nests were greater than those in control nests. This result suggests that CORT treatment of an individual altered its behavior, as well as that of its siblings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Possible roles for corticosterone and critical size in the fledging of nestling pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M; Bacon, W; Long, D; Cowie, R J

    2001-01-01

    Our study was designed to see whether corticosterone (B) rises abruptly in the blood of nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) at the time they fledge, as reported recently for kestrels, and if so, why. We measured the growth and blood levels of B and selected nutrients of nestlings in broods of five, seven, and nine chicks during 1998 and 1999. In half of the broods, we clipped selected wing and tail feathers of both parents with the intention of making it more difficult for them to provide their chicks with food. We collected blood samples when the chicks were six to 10 d old (period of rapid growth) and 15 d of age or older (0-5 d before fledging). B increased substantially several days before the chicks left the nest and then declined somewhat. We found no differences in rates of growth or blood levels of B, nutrients, and hematocrit as a function of either brood size or parental handicapping. Nestlings within a day of fledging appear to have been food deprived in 1998; their glucose was significantly reduced, and B, free fatty acids, and glycerol were significantly elevated compared to levels in chicks 1-4 d younger. Such changes did not occur in 1999. Blood levels of B were significantly correlated with brood size near the day of fledging, but not earlier, in both years of the study. It was possible to predict the day on which chicks would leave the nest, using their wing length when 12 d old. These results suggest that high blood levels of B associated with food restriction and sibling competition induce chicks to fledge, provided they have reached a critical size, and that the importance of fasting, sibling competition, and B may vary from year to year.

  18. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  19. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  20. Effect of corticosterone on larval growth, antipredator behaviour and metamorphosis of Hylarana indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P S; Gramapurohit, N P

    2017-09-15

    Corticosterone (CORT), a principal glucocorticoid in amphibians, is known to regulate diverse physiological processes including growth and metamorphosis of anuran tadpoles. Environmental stressors activate the neuroendocrine stress axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, HPI) leading to an acute increase in CORT, which in turn, helps in coping with particular stress. However, chronic increase in CORT can negatively affect other physiological processes such as growth and metamorphosis. Herein, we studied the effect of exogenous CORT on larval growth, antipredator behaviour and metamorphic traits of Hylarana indica. Embryonic exposure to 5 or 20μg/L CORT did not affect their development, hatching duration as well as larval growth and metamorphosis. Exposure of tadpoles to 10 or 20μg/L CORT throughout larval development caused slower growth and development leading to increased body mass at stage 37. However, body and tail morphology of tadpoles was not affected. Interestingly, larval exposure to 5, 10 or 20μg/L CORT enhanced their antipredator response against kairomones in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, larval exposure to increasing concentrations of CORT resulted in the emergence of heavier froglets at 10 and 20μg/L while, delaying metamorphosis at all concentrations. Interestingly, the heavier froglets had shorter hindlimbs and consequently shorter jump distances. Tadpoles exposed to 20μg/L CORT during early, mid or late larval stages grew and developed slowly but tadpole morphology was not altered. Interestingly, exposure during early or mid-larval stages resulted in an enhanced antipredator response. These individuals metamorphosed later but at higher body mass while SVL was unaffected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher M; Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications.

  2. Peripheral mechanisms contributing to the glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in proopiomelanocortin null mice treated with corticosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Zoi; Coll, Anthony P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Morton, Nicholas M; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency causes severe obesity through hyperphagia of hypothalamic origin. However, low glucocorticoid levels caused by adrenal insufficiency mitigate against insulin resistance, hyperphagia and fat accretion in Pomc−/− mice. Upon exogenous glucocorticoid replacement, corticosterone-supplemented (CORT) Pomc−/− mice show exaggerated responses, including excessive fat accumulation, hyperleptinaemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the peripheral mechanisms underlying this glucocorticoid hypersensitivity, we examined the expression levels of key determinants and targets of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue and liver. Despite lower basal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which generates active glucocorticoids within cells, CORT-mediated induction of 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels was more pronounced in adipose tissues of Pomc−/− mice. Similarly, CORT treatment increased lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels in all fat depots in Pomc−/− mice, consistent with exaggerated fat accumulation. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were selectively elevated in liver and retroperitoneal fat of Pomc−/− mice but were corrected by CORT in the latter depot. In liver, CORT increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels specifically in Pomc−/− mice, consistent with their insulin-resistant phenotype. Furthermore, CORT induced hypertension in Pomc−/− mice, independently of adipose or liver renin–angiotensin system activation. These data suggest that CORT-inducible 11β-HSD1 expression in fat contributes to the adverse cardiometabolic effects of CORT in POMC deficiency, whereas higher GR levels may be more important in liver. PMID:17592030

  3. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  4. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Moussaoui

    Full Text Available A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%, self-grooming (69%, and putting the pups back to the nest (167%. LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring.

  5. Few long-term consequences after prolonged maternal separation in female Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Lundberg

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during the early-life period are known to have long-term consequences for the adult phenotype. An intimate interplay between genes and environment shape the individual and may affect vulnerability for psychopathology in a sex-dependent manner. A rodent maternal separation model was here used to study the long-term effects of different early-life rearing conditions on adult behavior, HPA axis activity and long-term voluntary alcohol intake in female rats. Litters were subjected to 15 min (MS15 or 360 min (MS360 of daily maternal separation during postnatal day 1-21. In adulthood, the behavioral profiles were investigated using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test or examined for HPA axis reactivity by cat-odor exposure with subsequent characterization of voluntary alcohol intake and associated changes in HPA axis activity. Adult female MS360 offspring showed mostly no, or only minor, effects on behavior, HPA axis reactivity and long-term alcohol intake relative to MS15. Instead, more pronounced effects were found dependent on changes in the natural hormonal cycle or by the choice of animal supplier. However, changes were revealed in corticosterone load after long-term alcohol access, as females subjected to MS360 had higher concentrations of fecal corticosterone. The present findings are in line with and expand on previous studies on the long-term effects of maternal separation in female rats with regard to behavior, HPA axis activity and voluntary alcohol intake. It can also be a window into further studies detailing how early-life experiences interact with other risk and protective factors to impact the adult phenotype and how possible sex differences play a role.

  6. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  7. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  8. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  9. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation is the process of gradual stabilization of long-term memory after learning (Alberini & Taubenfeld, 2008. This process involves the activation of intracellular signaling cascades that lead to the reorganization of synaptic proteins. Activation of these signaling pathways can regulate gene expression and protein synthesis (Brivanlou & Darnell, 2002. It is considered that the new proteins synthesized after learning are responsible for the changes in the neural architecture associated with memory consolidation (Mileusnic, 2004. In this sense, it has been shown that consolidation may be interrupted by inhibiting protein synthesis, leading to forgetfulness of the experience (Meeter & Murre, 2004. Although the dominant hypothesis is that memory consolidation requires a single molecular cascade, it has been suggested that multiple sets of synaptic modifications are required to reinforce changes after memory acquisition (Wittenber & Tsien, 2002. Consistently, recent studies have shown that protein synthesis associated with memory consolidation occurs in at least two post-training periods: immediately and 3-6 hours after training (Igaz et al., 2002; Bekinschtein et al., 2007. These memory consolidation periods share some molecular phenomena; however, each period is also associated with events that are different from the other (Igaz et al., 2002. To date, there is a substantial amount of evidence showing that stressful events may facilitate neuronal function and cognition. The term "stress" usually refers to a nonspecific response of the body to stimuli that threaten the physiological/psychological homeostasis (Selye, 1976; Chrousos et al., 1988. The stress response is associated with the activation of two physiological systems: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM. Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents are steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands as a

  10. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  12. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  13. Corticosterone metabolite concentrations in greater sage-grouse are positively associated with the presence of cattle grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Dusek, Robert J.; Hines, M.K.; Gregg, M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    The sagebrush biome in the western United States is home to the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and encompasses rangelands used for cattle production. Cattle grazing activities have been implicated in the range-wide decline of the sage-grouse, but no studies have investigated the relationship between the physiological condition of sage-grouse and the presence of grazing cattle. We sampled 329 sage-grouse across four sites (two grazed and two ungrazed) encompassing 13 600 km2 during the spring and late summer–early autumn of 2005 to evaluate whether demographic factors, breeding status, plasma protein levels, and residence in a cattle-grazed habitat were associated with the stress hormone corticosterone. Corticosterone was measured in feces as immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM). Males captured during the lekking season exhibited higher ICM levels than all others. Prenesting female sage-grouse captured in a grazed site had higher ICM levels than those in ungrazed sites and prenesting female plasma protein levels were negatively correlated with ICM concentrations. With the use of a small-scale spatial model, we identified a positive correlation between cattle pat count and sage-grouse ICM levels. Our model indicated that ICM levels increased by 2.60 ng · g-1 dry feces for every increase in the number of cow pats found in the vicinity. Management practices will benefit from future research regarding the consistency and mechanism(s) responsible for this association and, importantly, how ICM levels and demographic rates are related in this species of conservation concern.

  14. Differential effects of stable elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and systemic corticosterone on various types of rat learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Lenka; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 64-76 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * CRH * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011

  15. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  17. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg·d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg·d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose-effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time-course study were analyzed by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  19. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  20. Seasonal variation of the impact of a stressful procedure on open field behaviour and blood corticosterone in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Caston, J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2006-02-28

    Behavioural and hormonal seasonal changes are well documented in various vertebrate species living in their natural environment but circannual variations that may occur in laboratory animals reared in standard conditions are poorly investigated. This study shows that, in laboratory mice, the effects of stress on behavioural inhibition, investigatory behaviour and blood concentration of corticosterone are seasonally dependent. No consistency was observed between the reactivity of biological structures controlling the hormonal response to stress and the behavioural activities investigated at every period of the year. During the spring time, stress, which elicited a decrease of investigatory behaviour (estimated by the walking time in an open field), increased behavioural inhibition (estimated by the percentage of walking in the central area of the open field) as well as the blood corticosterone concentration in laboratory mice. In autumn, stress had no significant effect on behaviour despite the great hormonal concentration increase. The results reveal that, at certain period of the year, a stressful procedure is unable to affect behavioural parameters in laboratory mice which were maintained in constant 12-h dark/12-h light cycle. The report constitutes a novel piece of information suggesting a potential role of the endogenous biological clock in the modulation of stress response in mammals.

  1. High corticosterone, not high energy cost, correlates with reproductive success in the burrow-nesting ancient murrelet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Shoji

    Full Text Available Theory and observations suggest that offspring abandonment in animals may occur when the costs to future reproductive output of current reproductive effort outweigh the fitness benefits of rearing the current brood. While hormonal cues (i.e. corticosterone or energy reserves are believed to be involved, few studies have directly focused on the proximate cues influencing behaviours directly related to reproductive success. To address this information gap, we determined the incubation metabolic rates and corticosterone (CORT levels of naturally fasting and freely incubating ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus. Respiratory quotient (RQ increased with date, suggesting that incubating ancient murrelets shifted from strictly lipid-based metabolism towards more protein-based metabolism as incubation progressed. Birds that hatched only one nestling had higher levels of circulating CORT than those which hatched two, suggesting that birds which laid only a single egg found incubation more stressful than those which laid two. However, CORT levels and incubation shift lengths were not correlated, suggesting that birds that undertook prolonged incubation shifts did so only when their energy stores were not jeopardized.

  2. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  3. Serum concentrations of antibodies against vaccine toxoids in children exposed perinatally to immunotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Carsten; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Nielsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    -2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. Total PCB concentrations were determined in serum from ages 5 and 7 years, and data were also available on PCB concentrations in maternal...... pregnancy serum, maternal milk, and, for a subgroup, the child's serum at 18 months of age. RESULTS: A total of 587 children participated in the examinations at ages 5 and/or 7 years. At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB......BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause immunotoxic effects, but the detailed dose-response relationship and possible vulnerable time windows of exposure are uncertain. In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels...

  4. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  5. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and increased risk of schizophrenia in a national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein, an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large, national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. A nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort was utilized. A total of 777 schizophrenia cases (schizophrenia, N=630; schizoaffective disorder, N=147) with maternal sera available for C-reactive protein testing were identified and matched to 777 control subjects in the analysis. Maternal C-reactive protein levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Increasing maternal C-reactive protein levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.10-1.56). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Effect of maternal probiotic intervention on HPA axis, immunity and gut microbiota in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Barouei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether maternal probiotic intervention influences the alterations in the brain-immune-gut axis induced by neonatal maternal separation (MS and/or restraint stress in adulthood (AS in Wistar rats. DESIGN: Dams had free access to drinking water supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12® (3 × 10(9 CFU/mL and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 (8.0 × 10(8 CFU/mL from 10 days before conception until postnatal day (PND 22 (weaning day, or to control ad lib water. Offspring were subjected to MS from PND 2 to 14 or left undisturbed. From PND 83 to 85, animals underwent 30 min/day AS, or were left undisturbed as controls. On PND 24 and 86, blood samples were collected for corticosterone, ACTH and IgA measurement. Colonic contents were analysed for the composition of microflora and luminal IgA levels. RESULTS: Exposure to MS significantly increased ACTH levels and neonatal fecal counts of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, E. coli, enterococci and clostridia, but reduced plasma IgA levels compared with non-MS animals. Animals exposed to AS exhibited significantly increased ACTH and corticosterone levels, decreased aerobic bacteria and bifidobacteria, and increased Bacteroides and E. coli counts compared to non-AS animals. MS coupled with AS induced significantly decreased anaerobes and clostridia compared with the non-stress adult controls. Maternal probiotic intervention significantly increased neonatal corticosterone levels which persisted until at least week 12 in females only, and also resulted in elevated adult ACTH levels and altered neonatal microflora comparable to that of MS. However, it improved plasma IgA responses, increased enterococci and clostridia in MS adults, increased luminal IgA levels, and restored anaerobes, bifidobacteria and E. coli to normal in adults. CONCLUSION: Maternal probiotic intervention induced activation of neonatal stress pathways and an imbalance in gut microflora. Importantly

  7. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  8. Icariin reverses corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabolic network disturbances revealed by NMR-based metabonomics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Meng-Juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang; Zou, Zhong-jie

    2016-05-10

    Previously published reports have revealed the antidepressant-like effects of icariin in a chronic mild stress model of depression and in a social defeat stress model in mice. However, the therapeutic effect of icariin in an animal model of glucocorticoid-induced depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of icariin in a rat model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression by using a combination of behavioral and biochemical assessments and NMR-based metabonomics. The depression model was established by subcutaneous injections of CORT for 21 consecutive days in rats, as evidenced by reduced sucrose intake and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, together with an increase in immobility time in a forced swim test (FST). Icariin significantly increased sucrose intake and hippocampal BDNF level and decreased the immobility time in FST in CORT-induced depressive rats, suggesting its potent antidepressant activity. Moreover, metabonomic analysis identified eight, five and three potential biomarkers associated with depression in serum, urine and brain tissue extract, respectively. These biomarkers are primarily involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microbe metabolism. Icariin reversed the pathological process of CORT-induced depression, partially via regulation of the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of icariin against CORT-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among a Sample of Egyptian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among a sample of Egyptian schoolchildren and to evaluate predictors of deficiency and insufficiency. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 200 prepubescent schoolchildren aged from 9 to 11 years was performed. A questionnaire including frequency of midday sun exposure, milk intake, physical activity, and level of maternal education was taken. Body mass index (BMI was calculated; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD], serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results. Vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OHD < 20 ng/mL] was detected in 11.5% of subjects while its insufficiency (serum 25(OHD is between 20 and 29.9 ng/mL was detected in 15%. Results revealed that obesity, low physical activity, low sun exposure, and low maternal education level are significant predictors of insufficiency, though female gender, low maternal education level, and low milk intake are significant predictors of deficiency. Lower serum phosphorus and higher serum parathyroid hormone were significantly associated with both deficiency and insufficiency (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common among schoolchildren in Egypt. Food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and increasing maternal awareness about the importance of physical activity and exposure of their children to ultraviolet light may help to overcome this problem.

  10. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  11. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  12. Serum biochemical responses under oxidative stress of aspartame in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study whether the oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight for 15 d, 30 d and 90 d have any effect on marker enzymes, some selective liver and kidney function parameter, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in serum. To mimic human methanol metabolism, folate deficient animals were used. Method: Animal weight, complete hemogram, marker enzyme in serum, some selected serum profile reflect liver and kidney function, plasma corticosterone level, and in serum, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level was measured . Result: After 15 d of aspartame administration animals showed a significant change in marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. However, after repeated long term administration (30 d and 90 d showed a significant change in some selected serum profile reflects liver and kidney function, along with marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. Conclusions: This study concludes that oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight causes oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats by altering their oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  13. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  14. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenes, Victoria; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Benthin, Lisbet; Lawrance, Dominic; Chambers, Jenny; Gurung, Vinita; Thornton, Jim; Chappell, Lucy; Khan, Erum; Dixon, Peter; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Williamson, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18), UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46) and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15) cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = acid (LCA) concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.

  15. Maternal exposure to Great Lakes sport-caught fish and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, but not polychlorinated biphenyls, is associated with reduced birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, M.G.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Kanarek, M.S.; Falk, C.M.; Steenport, D.M.; Draheim, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fish consumption may be beneficial for a developing human fetus, but fish may also contain contaminants that could be detrimental. Great Lakes sport-caught fish (GLSCF) are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), but the effects of these contaminants on birth outcome are not clear. To distinguish potential contaminant effects, we examined (1) whether the decrease over time in contaminant levels in GLSCF is paralleled by an increase in birth weight of children of GLSCF-consuming mothers and (2) the relation between maternal serum concentrations of these contaminants and birth weight. Mothers (n=511) were interviewed from 1993 to 1995, and maternal serum was collected from 1994 to 1995 (n=143). Potential confounders considered were child gender, maternal age at delivery, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy, maternal education level, maternal parity, and maternal breastfeeding. Children born during 1970-1977, 1978-1984, and 1985-1993 to mothers who ate more than 116 meals of GLSCF before pregnancy were, on average, 164 g lighter, 46 g heavier, and 134 g heavier, respectively, than children of mothers who ate no GLSCF before pregnancy (P trend=0.05). GLSCF-consuming mothers had higher serum PCB and DDE concentrations, but only increased DDE was associated with lower birth weight. The data suggest that fetal DDE exposure (as indicated by maternal serum DDE concentration) may decrease birth weight and that decreased birth weight effects associated with GLSCF consumption have decreased over time

  16. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A; Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84-195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98-170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring.

  17. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2013-01-01

    consumption, and an animal welfare assessment (AWA) protocol revealed marked differences between control and cancer lines as the size of the tumor increased. However, only the AWA protocol was effective in predicting the tumor size and the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM). FCM levels were...

  18. Validation of the long-term assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in rats using hair corticosterone as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorrano, Fabrizio; Carrasco, Javier; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Belda, Xavier; Rami-Bastante, Alicia; Bacci, Maria Laura; Armario, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The evaluation of chronic activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for determining the impact of chronic stressful situations. However, current methods have important limitations. The potential use of hair glucocorticoids as a noninvasive retrospective biomarker of long-term HPA activity is gaining acceptance in humans and wild animals. However, there is no study examining hair corticosterone (HC) in laboratory animals. The present study validates a method for measuring HC in rats and demonstrates that it properly reflects chronic HPA activity. The HC concentration was similar in male and female rats, despite higher total plasma corticosterone levels in females, tentatively suggesting that it reflects free rather than total plasma corticosterone. Exposure of male rats to 2 different chronic stress protocols (chronic immobilization and chronic unpredictable stress) resulted in similarly higher HC levels compared to controls (1.8-fold). HC also increased after a mild chronic stressor (30 min daily restraint). Chronic administration of 2 different doses of a long-acting ACTH preparation dramatically increased HC (3.1- and 21.5-fold, respectively), demonstrating that a ceiling effect in HC accumulation is unlikely under other more natural conditions. Finally, adrenalectomy significantly reduced HC. In conclusion, HC measurement in rats appears appropriate to evaluate integrated chronic changes in circulating corticosterone. © FASEB.

  19. Regulation of breeding behavior: do energy-demanding periods induce a change in prolactin or corticosterone baseline levels in the common tern (Sterna hirundo)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Hormones are involved in reproductive decisions, linking environmental cues and body condition and adapting behavior. Mass loss is often accompanied by decreased prolactin and increased corticosterone concentrations, influencing incubation and brooding behavior and ultimately triggering nest desertion. Using blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima), we measured baseline prolactin, corticosterone, and ketone body values in incubating common terns (Sterna hirundo) between 2006 and 2009 during energy-demanding periods: 50 pairs were sampled hungry (after an incubation bout) and again fed (after foraging). In a second approach, we sampled 57 other pairs (experienced and inexperienced birds) three times over their individual breeding period, because reproduction, especially chick rearing, is a very energy-demanding process. In line with the common physiological pattern of fasting, we found significantly lower baseline prolactin values in hungry terns, which were negatively related to mass loss over the incubation bout, whereas corticosterone and ketone body levels were marginally increased. Compared to that in the incubation phase, the prolactin level dropped after hatching of chicks in inexperienced birds, perhaps indicating lower parental expenditure. Corticosterone, on the other hand, increased after hatching in males, probably linked to higher foraging activity, as males mainly deliver food during the first days. These energy-demanding periods clearly influenced hormones and ketone bodies, maybe reinforced by the low energy margin of this small seabird species, but energy reserves were not depleted to a level affecting behavior or reproductive success.

  20. Baseline corticosterone peaks in shorebirds with maximal energy stores for migration : A general preparatory mechanism for rapid behavioral and metabolic transitions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Reneerkens, J; Ramenofsky, M

    2000-01-01

    In captive red knots (Calidris canutus, Scolopacidae) showing a regulated body mass increase of 50% related to their migration from temperate staging sites to tundra:breeding grounds, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased from less than 10 ng.ml(-1) to levels as high-as 30 ng.ml(-1) when

  1. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon , which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  2. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  3. IGF-I during primiparous pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tianhui; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Johansson, Robert; Schock, Helena; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previously, we reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I during early pregnancy is positively associated with maternal risk of breast cancer. To further explore this association, we designed a new study limited to women who donated a blood sample during their first pregnancy ending with childbirth. A case?control study was nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort in which repository since 1975, serum specimens remaining after early pregnancy screening for ...

  4. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  5. Effects of delivery on maternal & neonatal irisin levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; Foda, Engy A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the irisin levels in maternal and umbilical cord serums at cesarean section and vaginal delivery. This is a case-control study conducted at the Obstetric Department of the Mansoura University Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt. The 150 nulliparous cases were divided into three groups. Serum irisin concentrations were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Unpaired t-test and correlation were done by using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The maternal irisin levels in cases with mild preeclampsia were found to be significantly lower than that of the normal cases. In cases with mild preeclampsia, the maternal irisin levels early in labor for vaginal deliveries were significantly higher than that during cesarean section. The maternal irisin levels after vaginal deliveries were significantly higher than the levels early in labor. The maternal serum irisin was a significantly correlated with the duration of the first stage. The umbilical cord serum irisin levels were significantly correlated with the neonatal weight and with the duration of the first stage of labor. Labor is a strong stimulus to the release of irisin into the maternal and fetal circulations. Neonatal serum irisin levels are positively correlated with the birth weight and with the duration of the first stage. The neonatal birth weight and the duration of the first stage of labor are positively correlated with the umbilical cord serum irisin levels. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  7. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  8. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  9. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  10. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Maternal Obesity, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration, and Bone Density in Breastfeeding Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Penfield-Cyr, Annie; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and bone density in mother-infant pairs. The study was a secondary analysis of 234 exclusively breastfeeding dyads who were recruited in the first postpartum month for a randomized controlled trial of maternal vs infant vitamin D supplementation. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared by BMI group. The adjusted association between maternal BMI and 25(OH)D and bone density was examined at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Obese breastfeeding women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations and higher BMD than lean women at all 3 time points (P  maternal BMI was associated with lower maternal serum levels of 25(OH)D at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum (adjusted β = -0.45 ng/ml per kg/m 2 , 95% CI -.076, -0.14, at 1 month) and higher BMD at the same time points (β = 0.006 BMD z score; 95% CI 0.003, 0.01 at 1 month). Seventy-six percent of infants were vitamin D deficient at 1 month of age. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than infants of lean mothers (P maternal supplementation group, higher maternal BMI was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentrations at 4 months (β = -0.68; 95% CI -1.17, -0.20) and lower bone density at 7 months (β = -0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). In exclusively breastfeeding dyads, maternal obesity is associated with lower maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which may impact infant bone density. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00412074. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infe