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Sample records for maternal selenium supplementation

  1. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-04-01

    Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Overall, mean (± SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine effects of more readily incorporated forms of selenium (ie, selenomethionine) in HIV-infected breastfeeding women.

  2. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  3. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  4. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake....... DESIGN: The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  5. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... understand how selenium in food and dietary supplements affects heart health. Cognitive decline Blood selenium levels decrease as people age, ...

  6. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...

  7. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian H.; Bonnema, Steen; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid...... diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing...... proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism...

  8. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  9. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Hrda, P.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Hill, M.; Jiranek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential component of selenoproteins, enzymes with extensive regulatory and protective effect in organism. Immunological effects of Se are documented and are distinct even above concentrations necessary for maximal activity of selenoenzymes. Therefore, we investigated effect of supplementation by 100 μg of yeast-bound Se on concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies TPOAb and TgAb in the group of 253 seniors living in the Asylum Houses of South Bohemia. Increase of serum selenium from 59 to 150 μg Se/L serum in supplemented group and from 59 to 72 μg Se/L serum in group with placebo were detected by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and proved increased Se intake during the trial. Autoantibodies were analyzed by ELISA at the beginning of the trial and after 1 year. Statistical evaluation of results in whole groups (regardless of increased autoantibodies) by ANOVA manifested significant decrease of TPOAb and TgAb in non-supplemented group while supplementation did not effect serum autoantibodies concentrations. Evaluation of groups of seniors created from those with increased autoantibodies, ANOVA demonstrated decrease of TPOAb in both groups but Se supplementation did not affect the decrease. In opposite, TgAb increased significantly and Se supplementation led to higher increase of TgAb. Recent results of possibility to decrease serum concentration of TPOAb proved this effect only for high TPOAb concentrations and for higher Se supplements. From this point of view, it is necessary to conduct subsequent trials with the patients with autoimmune thyreoiditis with different levels of autoantibodies and detect also serum Se levels. (author)

  10. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Kristian H; Bonnema, Steen J; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-10-01

    This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves' disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves' orbitopathy. The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.

  11. Search for relevant indications for selenium supplementation in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Katarzyna; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Selenium plays a significant role in the thyroid function and its deficiency is considered by some authors to be a cause of thyroid disorders. The potential therapeutic influence of selenium supplementation in thyroid disease was investigated in several studies and some results were encouraging, however results were inconsistent and did not allow conclusion to be drawn. For that reason, we have performed a review study on relevance of selenium supplementation in thyroid disease. Till now, there is no strong evidence that selenium supplementation leads to clinical improvement in the course of autoimmune thyroiditis, nodular goitre or thyroid cancer. On the other hand, there is some evidence that selenium is effective in the treatment of orbitopathy; thus, the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) recommends selenium administration in mild active orbitopathy.

  12. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  13. Effect of long-term selenium supplementation on mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayman, Margaret P.; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Background: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ∼ 125 μg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained...... concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. Objective: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels. Design: The Denmark PRECISE study was a single...... for extension of the study and mortality assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with 100, 200, or 300 μg selenium/d as selenium-enriched-yeast or placebo-yeast for 5 years from randomization in 1998-1999 and were followed up for mortality for a further 10 years (through March 31, 2015...

  14. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  15. Effects of selenium supplementation on four agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Kathleen M; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T; Benson, Robert F; Martin, Dean F

    2003-01-29

    Agricultural crops can be used either to remediate selenium-contaminated soils or to increase the daily selenium intake of consumers after soil supplementation using inorganic or organic selenium sources. In this study, four agricultural crops were examined for potential selenium enhancement. Soils containing tomato, strawberry, radish, and lettuce plants were supplemented with either an inorganic or an organic form of selenium. Two different soils, i.e., low Se and high Se containing, were also used. Statistically significant differences in appearance, fruit production, and fresh weights of the fruit produced were studied. Next, the amount of selenium retained in the edible fruits, nonedible plant, and soil for each was analyzed by acid digestion followed by hydride generation atomic absorption analysis. Finally, inhibition effects on the seeds of the agricultural plants were studied. The results show that supplementation with an inorganic form of selenium led to higher retention in the plants, with a maximum of 97.5% retained in the edible portion of lettuce plants.

  16. Supplementation of Merino ewes with vitamin E plus selenium increases α-tocopherol and selenium concentrations in plasma of the lamb but does not improve their immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterndale, S; Broomfield, S; Currie, A; Hancock, S; Kearney, G A; Lei, J; Liu, S; Lockwood, A; Scanlan, V; Smith, G; Thompson, A N

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin E and selenium have been reported to improve immune function across a range of species. Ewes lambing on poor-quality dry pasture in autumn in Western Australia are at risk of being deficient in vitamin E and selenium at lambing thus predisposing their lambs to deficiencies and increasing the risk of infection and disease. This study tested the hypotheses that (i) supplementation of autumn-lambing ewes with vitamin E plus selenium in late gestation will increase the concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the ewe and lamb and (ii) that the increased concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the lambs will improve their innate and adaptive immune responses and thus survival. Pregnant Merino ewes were divided into a control group (n=58) which received no supplementation or a group supplemented with vitamin E plus selenium (n=55). On days 111, 125 and 140 of pregnancy ewes in the vitamin E plus selenium group were given 4 g all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate orally. On day 111 the ewes were also given 60 mg of selenium as barium selenate by subcutaneous injection. The concentrations of α-tocopherol and selenium were measured in ewes and/or lambs from day 111 of pregnancy to 14 weeks of age±10 days (weaning). Immune function of the lamb was assessed by analysing the numbers and phagocytic capacities of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes and plasma IgG and anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations between birth and 14 weeks of age±10 days. Maternal supplementation with vitamin E plus selenium increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma (1.13 v. 0.67 mg/l; P<0.001) and selenium in whole blood (0.12 v. 0.07 mg/l; P<0.01) of the ewes at lambing compared with controls. Supplementation also increased the concentration of α-tocopherol (0.14 v. 0.08 mg/l; P<0.001) and selenium (0.08 v. 0.05 mg/l; P<0.01) in lambs at birth compared with controls. There was no significant effect of supplementation on immune function or

  17. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  18. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khera, A.; Dong, L. F.; Holland, O.; Vanderlelie, J.; Pasdar, E.A.; Neužil, Jiří; Perkins, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2015), s. 363-369 ISSN 0143-4004 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Selenium * Reactive oxygen species * Mitochondrial biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.972, year: 2015

  19. Effect of selenium supplementation on pigeon reproductive performance, selenium concentration and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yang, H M; Cao, W; Li, Y B

    2017-09-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of sodium selenite (SS) on the reproductive performance and the concentration of selenium, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined, and expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15) was evaluated. Paired pigeons (n = 864) were fed: T1 received no SS, while T2, T3, and T4 received 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of SS/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Treatments were performed in triplicate with 72 pairs in each replicate. The results showed that selenium supplementation significantly affected pigeon reproductive performance. Birds fed 1.0 mg of SS/kg displayed higher egg production (P > 0.05), higher birth rate, and lower dead sperm rate than the control group (P Selenium and biochemical analyses revealed a higher selenium concentration in the 1.5 mg of SS/kg group than in the control group (P  0.05); however, in plasma, MDA was lower in the control group (P  0.05), while in ovary, BMP15 was down-regulated in the 1.5 mg of SS/kg group (P selenium concentration, and 0.5 mg of SS/kg up-regulated GSH-Px activity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal complica......The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...... complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  1. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (pgoat were supplemented by selenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  2. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  3. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Carina; Goetzenich, Andreas; Kraemer, Sandra; Borosch, Sebastian; Manzanares, William; Hardy, Gil; Stoppe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25923656

  4. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Benstoem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  5. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry; Blot, Phillipe

    1994-01-01

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure

  6. Use of enriched 74Se and 77Se in combination with isotope pattern deconvolution to differentiate and determine endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Iglesias, H.; Fernandez Sanchez, M.L.; Garcia Alonso, J.I.; Sanz-Medel, A.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative methodology has been developed to differentiate between endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats using two enriched selenium isotopes. Lactating rats were fed for 2 weeks with formula milk containing one enriched Se isotope, 77 Se, as the metabolic tracer. The isotopic composition of selenium in serum and urine samples was then measured by collision cell ICP-MS after the addition of a solution containing another enriched isotope, 74 Se, as quantitation tracer, before analysis. Isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the transformation of measured Se isotopic abundances into concentrations of natural abundance (endogenous) selenium and enriched 77 Se (supplemented) present in the samples. The proposed methodology was validated using serum and urine reference materials spiked with both 77 Se and 74 Se. The obtained results are discussed in terms of selenium exchange and half-life in lactating rats (11-12 days) and selenium levels in serum in comparison with non-supplemented rats and control rats after maternal feeding. (orig.)

  7. Use of enriched {sup 74}Se and {sup 77}Se in combination with isotope pattern deconvolution to differentiate and determine endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Iglesias, H.; Fernandez Sanchez, M.L.; Garcia Alonso, J.I.; Sanz-Medel, A. [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A quantitative methodology has been developed to differentiate between endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats using two enriched selenium isotopes. Lactating rats were fed for 2 weeks with formula milk containing one enriched Se isotope, {sup 77}Se, as the metabolic tracer. The isotopic composition of selenium in serum and urine samples was then measured by collision cell ICP-MS after the addition of a solution containing another enriched isotope, {sup 74}Se, as quantitation tracer, before analysis. Isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the transformation of measured Se isotopic abundances into concentrations of natural abundance (endogenous) selenium and enriched {sup 77}Se (supplemented) present in the samples. The proposed methodology was validated using serum and urine reference materials spiked with both {sup 77}Se and {sup 74}Se. The obtained results are discussed in terms of selenium exchange and half-life in lactating rats (11-12 days) and selenium levels in serum in comparison with non-supplemented rats and control rats after maternal feeding. (orig.)

  8. Comparative effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status in camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency is widely described in livestock from the Arabian Peninsula, notably in the camel, and selenium supplementation is based on cattle or horse requirements, usually with sodium selenite product. In order to test the effect of organic Se supplementation vs inorganic Se, 24 pregnant camels were subjected to 3 treatment groups starting one month before delivery (control without Se, non-organic bolus, organic Se. Blood, milk and feces samples were collected from one month before delivery to 3 months of lactation. At delivery, the organic group had a significant higher Se concentration (P < 0.01 in serum (8.21 ± 1.38 μg/100 mL and in colostrum (7.27 ± 2.89 μg/100 mL than in inorganic group (3.90 ± 0.68 and 3.72 ± 0.71, respectively and than in control group (5.45 ± 2.38 and 2.70 ± 0.66, respectively. In calf serum, the Se concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the two supplemented groups (6.32 ± 2.81 and 5.99 ± 3.31 μg/100 mL in organic and inorganic groups, respectively than in control (3.42 ± 1.41 μg/100 mL. The Se in mother serum decreased after parturition but was highly correlated to Se serum in calf and to Se fecal excretion. Se in milk was lower than in colostrum in all groups (P < 0.01. Treatments had no significant effect on somatic cell count. This study revealed that organic supplementation in camel appeared more efficient.

  9. Effect of nano-sized, elemental selenium supplement on the proteome of chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, G; Csosz, E; Prokisch, J; Javor, A; Mezes, M; Erdelyi, M; Balogh, K; Janaky, T; Szabo, Z; Simon, A; Czegledi, L

    2017-06-01

    The nano-sized (100-500 nm) selenium has higher bioavailability and relatively lower toxicity compared to other selenium forms. The objective of the present study was to compare liver proteome profiles of broiler chicken fed with control diet without Se supplementation and diet supplemented with nano-Se with 4.25 mg/kg DM. Differential proteome analyses were performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by tryptic digestion and protein identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Seven hundred and eight spots were detected, and 18 protein spots showed significant difference in their intensity (p selenium supplementation induced a dietary stress. Selenium supplementation may influence the metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates and antioxidant system, and increase the quantity of cytoskeletal actin and the expression of actin regulatory protein as well. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Selenium supplementation for patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (the GRASS trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2013-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease causing hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The concentration of selenium is high in the thyroid gland and two important groups of enzymes within the thyroid are selenoproteins, that is, they depend on selenium. Selenium may have beneficial effects...

  11. Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Sosan, A.; Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)

  12. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Recurrent Hyperthyroidism Caused by Graves' Disease: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B; Chen, S R; Hou, X; Wang, X F; Zhao, S H; Song, J Q; Wang, Y G

    2016-09-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on recurrent hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is unclear. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of selenium supplementation therapy on recurrent Graves' disease. Forty-one patients with recurrent Graves' disease were enrolled in this study. All patients received the routine treatment using methimazole (MMI), while patients allocated to the selenium group received additional selenium therapy for 6 months. The influence of selenium supplementation on the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were assessed. The remission rate was also compared between 2 groups. There was no obvious difference in the demographic data and the levels of serum FT4, FT3, TSH, and TRAb between the 2 groups at baseline. Both FT4 and FT3 decreased more at 2 months in the selenium group than the controls, while the TSH level increased more in patients receiving selenium supplementation (pGraves' disease. Randomized trials with large number of participants are needed to validate the finding above. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy:an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Dharmasena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealedseveral possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1 inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2 profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab; 3 prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4 neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5 inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6 inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves’ disease (GD and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT achieved euthyroidism faster than

  14. Selenium supplementation in pediatric patients using parenteral nutrition: Is it time to do something?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Hessel, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the nutritional status of selenium and verify the effect of its supplementation in pediatric patients during 14 days of parenteral nutrition (PN). This is a series of cases with patients followed for two weeks while using PN. Data collection was performed at the beginning (T0), in the 7th (T1) and 14th days of PN (T2). The supplemented group received 2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid. Weight and height were measured for nutritional status assessment. Tests requested: plasma selenium, albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Fourteen (14) patients with inflammatory process and with low or very low weight for their ages were evaluated. In both groups (with and without supplementation), all patients had low selenium levels. Median plasma selenium concentrations were 17.4 µg/L (T0), 23.0 µg/L (T1) and 20.7 µg/L (T2). Increase and reduction of selenium occurred both in patients with high CRP and in those presenting normalization of this parameter. Lower plasma selenium levels have been detected since the start of the research and supplementation (2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid) was not to enough to approach the reference values.

  15. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  16. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  17. Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace mineral chemically related to sulfur and tellurium. In the body selenium combines with protein molecules to form selenoproteins and it is distributed in low concentrations and unequally in air, soil and water all over the world. Edible mushrooms are known to be selenium accumulators. Since mushrooms contain relatively high protein levels, and they can accumulate large amounts of selenium, it is reasonable to expect that selenium could be incorporated into proteins. The growth of mycelia and fruit body formation of different medicinal mushroom strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Hk-35 and P70 over the wide range of concentrations of inorganic form of selenium were examined. Mushrooms were cultivated on agar base media and on substrates based on sawdust. Vegetative growths of mycelium were measured as colony diameter in pure cultures supplemented with inorganic form of Se supplements, prepared as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 in concentrations of: 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/l. Inorganic form of Se supplements, showed stimulation effects (in concentration of 1-50 mg/l and toxic effects in higher concentration. On the standard industrial sawdust based substrate, supplemented with 100 mg/kg Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3, accumulation of Se in fruit bodies was determined by the method of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The readings were performed on Varian SpectrAA-10 spectrophotometer equipped with VGA-76. Se as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 was effectively taken up from substrates and accumulated in fruit bodies. Mushrooms accumulated selenium between 120 and 250 mg/kg dry weight. In mushrooms cultivated without Se supplement, Se contents were only about 1 mg/kg and in substrate about 0.1 mg/kg.

  18. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Selenium (Se) was discovered in 1817 in pyrite from copper mines in Sweden. It is a trace element in Earth’s crust, with an abundance of three to seven orders of magnitude less than the major rock-forming elements. Commercial use of selenium began in the United States in 1910, when it was used as a pigment for paints, ceramic glazes, and red glass. Since that time, it has had many other economic uses—notably, in the 1930s and 1940s, when it was used in rectifiers (which change alternating current to direct current), and in the 1960s, when it began to be used in the liner of photocopier drums. In the 21st century, other compounds have replaced selenium in these older products; modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.In Earth’s crust, selenium is found as selenide minerals, selenate and selenite salts, and as substitution for sulfur in sulfide minerals. It is the sulfide minerals, most commonly those in porphyry copper deposits, that provide the bulk of the selenium produced for the international commodity market. Selenium is obtained as a byproduct of copper refining and recovered from the anode slimes generated in electrolytic production of copper. Because of this, the countries that have the largest resources and (or) reserves of copper also have the largest resources and (or) reserves of selenium.Because selenium occurs naturally in Earth’s crust, its presence in air, water, and soil results from both geologic reactions and human activity. Selenium is found concentrated naturally in soils that overlie bedrock with high selenium concentrations. Selenium mining, processing, use in industrial and agricultural applications, and disposal may all contribute selenium to the environment. A well-known case of selenium contamination from agricultural practices was discovered in 1983 in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in California. There

  19. The Impact of Organic Selenium Supplementation on Rooster Semen Quality in Liquid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Ahangari Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to investigate the effects of various levels of dietary organic selenium supplementation (0, 0.1,  0.2 and  0.3 mg/Kg on reproductive traits of rooster. Semen was collected using abdominal massage and samples were mixed together. Sperm characteristics including percentage of motile, viable and abnormal sperms were assessed. This experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design. Results showed that the organic selenium supplementation had significant effects on perm motility and viability in liquid condition (P0.05. In conclusion, the use of  organic selenium supplementation (0.3 mg/Kg in  diet  of  rooster  could  be recommended to improve semen quality.

  20. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes grazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,09 pg Se/g DM, het bloedseleniumkonsentrasiesvaono ie verhoog, maar het min invloed op die lewer- en nierseleniumkonsentrasievsa n lammers kort na geboorte gehad. Keywords: Blood selenium, copper supplementiation, fertility, plasma ...

  1. Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Cardiovascular Mortality in Elderly with Low Selenium Status. A Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jan; Aaseth, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium is needed by all living cells in order to ensure the optimal function of several enzyme systems. However, the selenium content in the soil in Europe is generally low. Previous reports indicate that a dietary supplement of selenium could reduce cardiovascular disease but mainly in populations in low selenium areas. The objective of this secondary analysis of a previous randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial from our group was to determine whether the effects on cardiovascular mortality of supplementation with a fixed dose of selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined during a four-year intervention were dependent on the basal level of selenium. Methods In 668 healthy elderly individuals from a municipality in Sweden, serum selenium concentration was measured. Of these, 219 individuals received daily supplementation with selenium (200 μg Se as selenized yeast) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg) combined for four years. The remaining participants (n = 449) received either placebo (n = 222) or no treatment (n = 227). All cardiovascular mortality was registered. No participant was lost during a median follow-up of 5.2 years. Based on death certificates and autopsy results, all mortality was registered. Findings The mean serum selenium concentration among participants at baseline was low, 67.1 μg/L. Based on the distribution of selenium concentration at baseline, the supplemented group was divided into three groups; 85 μg/L (45 and 90 percentiles) and the remaining participants were distributed accordingly. Among the non-treated participants, lower cardiovascular mortality was found in the high selenium group as compared with the low selenium group (13.0% vs. 24.1%; P = 0.04). In the group with the lowest selenium basal concentration, those receiving placebo or no supplementation had a mortality of 24.1%, while mortality was 12.1% in the group receiving the active substance, which was an absolute risk reduction of 12%. In the middle selenium concentration

  2. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R"2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R"2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R"2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues. - Highlights: • We developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in the mother. • Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with those in the mother. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury in the mother increased. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species. • Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with those in the mother's liver. - We examined the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in

  3. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  4. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri� plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  5. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  6. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  7. Influence of selenium supplementation on patients with inflammation: A pilot double blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of selenium supplementation on patients with inflammation receiving PN. This double-blind randomized study included 20 hospitalized patients experiencing an inflammatory process while being fed by PN, who were monitored in three stages: first 72 h (0), day 7 (1), and day 14 (2) of PN. The supplemented patients group (G+S) received 60 μg/d (0.75 μmol) of selenium as selenious acid which was added to the PN bag. The nonsupplemented group (G-S) did not receive selenium. The concentration range of 84 to 100 μg/L (1.07-1.27 μmol/L) was used as a reference of plasma selenium. The study included 20 patients (8 G+S and 12 G-S) mainly diagnosed with cancer and/or sepsis. Most of them were hospitalized in the intensive care unit and were receiving PN for clinical reasons. Plasma selenium was greater in the G+S than in the G-S (P = 0.05) in two stages (0 and 1). Since the start of assessment, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated; however, there was no statistical difference in CRP values between groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant change of glutathione peroxidase over time or between groups (P > 0.05). The selenium concentration was greater in the G+S than in the G-S, acting independently from CRP behavior. However, supplementation was not enough to reach the reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis and the Expression of Genes Related to Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jablonska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we used archival samples of cDNA from 76 non-diabetic subjects supplemented with selenium in the previous study. The supplementation period was six weeks and the daily dose of selenium was 200 µg (as selenium yeast. Blood for mRNA isolation was collected at four time points: before supplementation, after two and four weeks of supplementation, and after four weeks of washout. The analysis included 15 genes encoding selected proteins involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. In addition, HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were measured at three and four time points, respectively. Selenium supplementation was associated with a significantly decreased level of HbA1c but not fasting plasma glucose (FPG and significant down-regulation of seven genes: INSR, ADIPOR1, LDHA, PDHA, PDHB, MYC, and HIF1AN. These results suggest that selenium may affect glycemic control at different levels of regulation, linked to insulin signaling, glycolysis, and pyruvate metabolism. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms of such transcriptional regulation and its potential implication in direct metabolic effects.

  9. Effects of Selenium Supplementation on the Diabetic Condition Depend on the Baseline Selenium Status in KKAy Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febiyanto, Novian; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Sari, Dian K; Puspitasari, Irma M; Sunjaya, Deni K; Herawati, Dewi M D; Nugraha, Gaga I; Fukuda, Toshio; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress in obesity leads to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Some selenoproteins possess antioxidant properties, suggesting that selenium (Se) may protect against type 2 diabetes; however, evidence from epidemiological studies is contradictory. We hypothesized that Se status before supplementation (baseline) contributes to the supplementation outcome. This study aimed to clarify the influence of baseline Se status on the effect of Se supplementation on the diabetic condition. Six-week-old KKAy mice were fed a diet without supplemental Se or with 0.1 ppm Se in the form of L-selenomethionine (SeM) for 2 weeks to create low-Se and sufficient-Se baseline statuses, respectively. For the next 4 weeks, low-Se mice were given a SeM (0.5 ppm Se)-supplemented diet, and sufficient-Se mice were given either a SeM (0.5 ppm Se)- or sodium selenite (0.5 ppm Se)-supplemented diet; control groups continued on baseline diets. Serum Se concentrations, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, adiponectin levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. All mice became diabetic during the 2-week baseline induction period. At the end of the supplementation period, Se-receiving groups demonstrated significantly higher Se concentrations and GPx activities than their respective controls. Sufficient-Se mice receiving SeM had lower blood glucose levels and better insulin sensitivity than control and sodium selenite-receiving mice, whereas low-Se mice receiving SeM showed no such improvements compared with their controls. Our results suggest that Se supplementation in the form of SeM may help prevent type 2 diabetes aggravation in people taking the 55 μg/day Se recommended dietary allowance.

  10. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  11. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on Semen Quality in Dogs with Lowered Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domosławska Anna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty clinically healthy dogs with poor semen quality were used in the study. Fifteen dogs were supplemented daily with selenium (0.6 mg/kg organic selenium from yeast and vitamin E (5 mg/kg per os for 60 d. The control group (15 dogs was not supplemented. Semen was collected from all dogs by manual manipulation on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated with a Hamilton Thorne sperm analyser, version IVOS 12.3. For the assessment of sperm morphology, Diff-Quik stain was used. The percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was estimated on dried smears stained with eosin-nigrosin. The concentration of spermatozoa, most motility parameters determined (PMOT, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF, RAPID, MEDIUM, SLOW, and STATIC, and the percentage of spermatozoa morphologically normal and live increased significantly (P < 0.05 after 60 d of supplementation. In the control group, there were no changes in motility parameters while the concentration and total sperm count decreased over the duration of the study. In conclusion, supplementation with selenium and vitamin E for 60 d can improve the quality of semen in dogs with lowered fertility.

  12. Selenium Supplementation does not Decrease Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Concentration in Children and Adolescents with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bonfig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, selenium supplementation decreases thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab concentrations in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT. Our aim in this study was to investigate if selenium supplementation decreased TPO Ab and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg Ab concentrations in children with AIT. Forty-nine patients (33 females with newly diagnosed AIT and hypothyroidism were randomized to daily oral therapy with levothyroxine alone (group A, n = 18, levothyroxine plus 100 µg sodium-selenite (group B, n = 13, or levothyroxine plus 200 µg sodium-selenite (group C, n = 18. Mean age at diagnosis was 12.2 ± 2.2 years. All 49 patients needed a mean levothyroxine dose of 1.6 ± 0.5 µg/kg body weight to lower TSH to the treatment goal of 1–2 µU/ml, with no significant difference between groups. At study entry and after 12 months, TPO Ab concentrations were comparable in all three groups. Tg Ab concentrations decreased significantly after 12 months in group A and group C (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, but not in group B (p = 0.06. It is our conclusion that selenium supplementation with sodium-selenite does not decrease TPO Ab concentrations in children and adolescents, neither given in the reduced dose of 100 µg daily nor given in the “adult” supplementation dose of 200 µg daily.

  13. Selenium content of tissues in Finnish infants and adults with various diseases, and studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westermarck, T.

    1977-01-01

    A low blood selenium level has previously been observed in healthy inhabitants of Finland. In this study even lower blood selenium values were observed in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica, dystrophia musculorum progressiva (Duchenne), infantile and juvenile type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), severe mental retardation caused by various factors, and myocardial infarction. The selenium content of the brain, heart, kidney and liver in patients of different ages was also determined. The highest selenium level was found in the kidney. The mean liver selenium concentrations in stillborn, premature and full-term neonates were 1.11 plus minus 0.23 (8), 1.21 plus minus 0.17 (12) and 0.93 plus minus 0.16 μg/g dry weight (12) respectively (the number of subjects in parentheses). The selenium values are considerably higher than those in infants of from one to nine months of age and adults, whose liver selenium values were 0.58 plus minus 0.21 (8) and 0.67 plus minus 0.08 μg/g dry weight (8) respectively. The vitamin E levels of serum in patients with NCL, as well as in subjects with severe mental retardation (controls), were low compared with values in healthy normal subjects. Sodium selenite supplementation in patients with NCL produced at least a transitory improvement without causing any toxic effects during one year of administration. (author)

  14. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  15. Efficacy of Selenium Supplement on Gene Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Selenium supplement has multiple important effects, including anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of selenium supplement on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor in gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: This randomized double blind placebo control trial was performed on 40 patients suffering from GDM aged 18–40 years old. Participants were randomly divided into interventional group receiving 200mg/day selenium supplements (n=20 and control group receiving placebo (n=20 for 6 weeks. Primary outcome was gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF which were assessed in lymphocyte of GDM patients by RT-PCR method. Results: After 6 weeks intervention, in comparison with the control group, interventional group showed down regulation of gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF–α (p=0.02 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF–β (p=0.01 and up-regulation of gene expression of vascular endothelial (VEGF (p = 0.03 in lymphocytes of GDM. There was not any significant change following intervention with selenium regarding gene expression of interleukin IL-1 β and IL-8 in lymphocytes of GDM patients. Conclusion: 6 weeks supplementation with selenium in patients with GDM can cause down regulated gene expression of TNF-α and TGF–β, and up regulated gene expression of VEGF. Selenium supplement had not any effect on gene expression of IL-1 β and IL-8.

  16. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality in Cairn Terriers with normospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.

    2017-01-01

    Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......). Although some effects could be identified for selected parameters, we failed to identify a clear trend about how a 3 months VitE and/or Se supplementation affects semen parameters in normospermic Cairn Terriers....

  17. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in vivo study was designed to investigate the potential of aluminium (Al), in the absence of added iron, to participate in either antioxidant or pro-oxidant events. Some markers of oxidative stress were determined in liver and brain of rats exposed to aluminium lactate, either alone or in the presence of dietary supplements ...

  18. Determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast by Zeeman-effect graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ekelund, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast is described. The samples were ashed in nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid was used to prevent precipitation of, in particular, iron salts. After appropriate dilutions, the selenium was determined by Zeeman......-effect background corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A furnace ashing step at 1100 °C was necessary in order to obtain a total recovery of selenium when present in the organic form. Palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate was used as a matrix modifier. Independent methods were used to determine...... the content of selenium in a selenised yeast check sample. Accuracy was assured using this sample and by recovery experiments. Between-day random error showed a coefficient of variation of 4.2%. Results from the analysis of eight different commercial supplements were in good agreement with declared contents....

  19. Effect of feed selenium supplementation on milk selenium distribution and mozzarella quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Zhu, W Z; Lu, B Y; Wei, Z H; Ren, D X

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of feed Se supplementation on the Se content of raw milk and mozzarella cheese as well as the effect on cheese quality and functionality were determined. The Se milk was produced by supplying dairy cow feed with Se yeast (0.3mg of Se/kg of dry matter), resulting in a Se concentration in milk of 35.81μg/L. The fat, casein, and whey protein of Se milk were separated by ultracentrifugation, and the Se content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Se distribution in different milk fractions of fat, casein, and whey protein were 9.82, 45.56, and 44.62%, respectively. The Se mozzarella cheese was made by Se milk, and the composition and texture of Se cheese did not significantly differ from that of the control. However, the functional properties (meltability, flowability, and stretchability) of the Se cheese were better after 8 wk of storage. Moreover, the pH and water activity were lower in Se cheese, which decreased the total plate count. The Se content in mozzarella cheese was 4 fold higher than that in milk, and Se was found in the whey, hot water, and brine collected during cheesemaking. Organic and inorganic Se was found in the Se cheese after 8 wk of storage, and most Se peptides detected after storage were Se-Met and Se-Cys. The results of this study show that feed Se supplementation can improve the Se content of milk and cheese without affecting mozzarella cheese quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast or sodium selenite on ruminal enzyme activities and blood chemistry in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Faixová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different forms of selenium on the rumen fluid, blood and serum enzyme activity and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in sheep. The experiment was carried out on 18 sheep of the Valashka breed at the age of 18 months, divided into 3 groups. The first group was given basal diet (BD with a Se content of 0.17 mg/kg of dry matter (DM. The second group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of sodium selenite. The third group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of Se-yeast extract. Duration of the trial was 12 weeks. Selenium concentration in blood and total rumen fluid were elevated in both supplemented groups with the highest values in Se-yeast-treated sheep. Blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly increased, regardless of the source of selenium. Osmotic resistance of red blood cells was not affected by selenium supplementation. The results indicate that feeding a diet supplemented with selenium from Se-yeast or selenite improved selenium status in blood and total rumen fluid. Selenium from sodium selenite was as effective as selenium from Se-yeast in the availability of selenium for the blood GPx activity. The effect of selenium supplementation on the ruminal enzyme activity depends on the selenium form; GGT and GDH were significantly higher in the Se-yeast supplement group, AST and ALP were significantly higher in the selenite supplement group.

  1. Low folate and selenium in the mouse maternal diet alters liver gene expression patterns in the offspring after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A; Hesketh, John E; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-05-08

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  2. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P.G. Barnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, selenium (Se and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate and DNA oxidation (Se. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H, or marginally deficient in (diet L, Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis, methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  3. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  4. Dietary supplementation with selenium yeast and tea polyphenols improve growth performance and nitrite tolerance of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Meng; Lin, Wang; Hou, Jie; Guo, Honghui; Li, Li; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Rong; Yang, Fan

    2017-09-01

    In order to explore the effects of dietary selenium yeast, tea polyphenols and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and its resistance to nitrite stress, 360 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of (55.90 ± 2.60) g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast, 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, and the combination of 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast and 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, respectively. After 60 d of feeding, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to nitrite stress of 15.0 mg/L. The serum stress hormones, liver histology and hepatic antioxidant responses were evaluated before nitrite exposure (0 h) and at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after exposure. The results showed that before nitrite exposure, compared with the control, the weight gain, specific growth rate, liver total antioxidant capacity, the activities and transcriptional levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the selenium yeast and combination groups were significantly increased, while feed conversion rate was decreased significantly, which suggested that the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols as well as the single selenium yeast supplementation improved growth performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity in fish. After nitrite exposure, compared with the control, liver total antioxidant capacity as well as the activities and transcription levels of catalase superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in three treatment groups were significantly increased in varying degrees whereas serum cortisol contents and liver malondialdehyde levels were decreased significantly. By contrast, the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols was more effective than the single supplementation with selenium yeast or tea polyphenols. In

  5. Determination of selenium mineral in health supplement products: Applications of nuclear methods in pharmaceuticals fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titiek Martati; Mellawati

    2010-01-01

    Recently, many health supplement products that are useful as an antioxidant available in the market, and one of them is selenium (Se) tablet. Issue on the falsification of drug due to control to health supplement product becomes very important. There is also some problem in Se analysis, especially in chemical reagent preparation. In this research, determination of Se in health supplement tablet using neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out. The advantages of methods are due to nondestructive materials, simple sample preparation, and no chemical reagent for analysis. The sample was irradiated using thermal neutron with 10"1"3 neutron cm"-"2 seconds"-"1 fluxes during 15 minutes, and based on n, γ reaction "7"5Se isotope would be formed that could identified using gamma spectrometer on 136, 264, and 279 keV energies. The result showed that NAA method can be used for Se analysis contained in health supplement tablets with accuracy ranged between 101.81 and 102.29 % and precision 99.02-99.37 %. The recovery test of Se mineral concentration to the labeled attached showed 105.79-116.66 %, and this value still in the range described in the United States Pharmacopoeias 28 (90-125 %). (author)

  6. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  7. The effects of selenium, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on performance of Broiler Breeder Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zezza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the literature and practical experiences suggests that nutritional factors are perhaps the most crucial for their direct effects on the reproductive phenomenon. Several studies and reviews (Barnes et al., 1996; Brake and Garlich, 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Donoghue et al., 1995; Donoghue et al., 1997; Froman et al., 1997; Hocking and Bernard, 1997; Holm, 1998 describe the effects of quantitative feed and energy on reproductive performance of farm animals but only recently there was an increasing attention for the effects of micronutrients intake. The aim of the present work was to verify and compare the effects of a supplementation of selenium, zinc and vitamin E on quality of poultry semen, with a particular attention to the selenium, because its beneficial effects on reproduction (Surai, 2002 needs further elucidation. These micronutrients were chosen because play a fundamental role in semen quality, in fact it was known that chicken semen contains the natural antioxidant vitamin E (Surai, 1997; Surai, 2000 together with antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD...

  8. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  9. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3499 ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  10. Metabolic response to selenium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Mehri; Razavi, Maryamalsadat; Fakhrie Kashan, Zohreh; Ghandi, Yasser; Bagherian, Tayebeh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2015-06-01

    We are aware of no study examining the effects of selenium supplementation on metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on glucose homeostasis parameters and lipid concentrations in women with PCOS. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 70 women diagnosed with PCOS and aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive 200 μg per day selenium supplements (N = 35) or placebo (N = 35) for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks intervention to quantify glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations. After 8 weeks of intervention, subjects who received selenium supplements had significantly decreased serum insulin levels (-29·83 ± 47·29 vs +9·07 ± 77·12 pmol/l, P = 0·013), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1·15 ± 1·81 vs +0·42 ± 3·09, P = 0·011), homeostatic model assessment-beta-cell function (HOMA-B) (-19·06 ± 30·95 vs +4·55 ± 47·99, P = 0·017) and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0·03 ± 0·04 vs +0·0009 ± 0·05, P = 0·032) compared with placebo. In addition, supplementation with selenium resulted in a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (-0·14 ± 0·55 vs +0·11 ± 0·30 mmol/l, P = 0·025) and VLDL-C concentrations (-0·03 ± 0·11 vs +0·02 ± 0·06 mmol/l, P = 0·025) compared with placebo. In conclusion, 200 microgram per day selenium supplementation for 8 weeks among PCOS women had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism parameters, triglycerides and VLDL-C levels; however, it did not affect FPG and other lipid profiles. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Selenium treatment in thyreopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak, Štefan

    Selenium (latin Selenium) is a micronutrient embedded in several proteins. In adults, the thyroid is the organ with the highest amount of selenium per gram of tissue. Selenium levels in the body depend on the characteristics of the population and its diet and geographic area. In the thyroid, selenium is required for the antioxidant function and for the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The literature suggests that selenium supplementation of patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis is associated with a reduction in antithyroperoxidase antibody levels. Selenium supplementation also in mild Graves orbitopathy is associated with delayed progression of ocular disorders. As a consequence of this observation The European Group on Graves Orbitopathy recommend six months selenium preparates supportive therapy for patients with mild form of Graves orbitopathy.Key words: Graves-Basedows disease - Hashimotos thyroiditis - selenium - supplementation.

  12. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (197±4 g were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat, high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat, supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD, and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S. The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. Results: There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, fasting blood sugar (P=0.005, triglyceride (P<0.001, total cholesterol (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001, alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001 between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively. Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  13. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (197±4 g) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat), high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat), supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD), and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S). The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), fasting blood sugar (P=0.005), triglyceride (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001), and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  14. Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Filip; Holland, Olivia; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-12-15

    Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal Methyl Supplemented Diets and Effects on Offspring Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. O'Neill

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for ASD in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health.

  16. Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holló I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C, supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E, supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se. At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05 in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

  17. Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal selenium status during early gestation and risk for preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayman, M.P.; Wijnen, H.A.; Vader, H.; Kooistra, L.; Pop, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preterm birth occurs in 5%-13% of pregnancies. It is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity and has adverse long-term consequences for the health of the child. Because of the role selenium plays in attenuating inflammation, and because low concentrations of selenium have

  19. Maternal selenium status during early gestation and risk for preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayman, Margaret P.; Wijnen, Hennie; Vader, Huib; Kooistra, Libbe; Pop, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth occurs in 5%-13% of pregnancies. It is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity and has adverse long-term consequences for the health of the child. Because of the role selenium plays in attenuating inflammation, and because low concentrations of selenium have

  20. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  1. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  2. Selenium Dynamics in the Blood of Beef Cows and Calves Fed Diets Supplemented with Organic and Inorganic Selenium Sources and the Effect on their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Slavík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feed supplementation with sodium selenite or selenized yeast on serum Se levels and reproduction indicators in cattle. In three beef herds young heifers, cows in late pregnancy, and their calves were randomly grouped by 6. In Herd 1, the mean Se serum levels were 51.01 μg l-1 in heifers, 32.12 μg l-1 in cows in late pregnancy, and 29.07 μg l-1 in their calves. In Herd 2, 27.42 μg l-1 (heifers, Z22.9 μg l-1 (late pregnancy, and 23.46 μg l-1 (calves. In Herd 3, 27.07 μg l-1 (heifers, 22 μg l-1 (late pregnant cows, and 31.05 μg l-1 (calves. Over a 6-month period, the animals in Herd 1 were given selenium yeast supplement; in Herd 2 sodium selenite, whereas Herd 3 served as a negative control. Afterwards, a second blood sample was taken. The mean Se serum levels were as follows: Herd 1 (selenium yeast: 90.73 μg l-1 in late pregnant cows ( p -1 in calves (p -1 (late pregnant cows p -1 (calves p -1 (late pregnant cows, 32.85 μg l-1 (calves. A significant difference was also observed in the second blood sample taken in both the late pregnant cows and the calves between the Herds 1 and 2 (late pregnant cows p p < 0.01. No significant differences were demonstrated between the groups. Herds 1 and 2 showed an improvement in their health status, as compared with the previous period, neither in reproduction indicators nor in the weight gain of the calves.

  3. Umbilical cord blood and placental mercury, selenium and selenoprotein expression in relation to maternal fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Christy L.; Soon, Reni; Sauvage, Lynnae; Ralston, Nicholas V.C.; Berry, Marla J.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for fetal neurodevelopment. Most individuals are exposed to the toxic element mercury through seafood. Due to the neurotoxic effects of mercury, United States government agencies recommend no more than 340 g (12 oz) per week of seafood consumption during pregnancy. However, recent studies have shown that selenium, also abundant in seafood, can have protective effects against mercury toxicity. In this study, we analyzed mercury and selenium levels an...

  4. Selenium homeostasis and induction of thioredoxin reductase during long term selenite supplementation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkhembayar, Suvd; Mollbrink, Annelie; Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    -dependent increase in blood and liver selenium levels, with plateaus at 6 and 8weeks, respectively. These plateaus were reached at the same level of selenium regardless of dose, and no further accumulation was observed. A selenium-dependent increase in the activity of TrxR1 in parallel with the increase in liver...... selenium levels was also seen, and the induction of TrxR1 mRNA was seen only during the first three days of treatment, when the levels of selenium in the liver were increasing. Sodium selenite at 1 and 5μg/mL did not affect body weight or relative liver mass. We concluded that long-term treatment...... with selenite did not cause accumulation of selenium and that the activity of TrxR1 in the liver rose with the selenium levels. We therefore suggest that sodium selenite at doses up to 5μg/mL could be used for long-term tumour prevention....

  5. Influence of selenium and vitamin e supplementation during pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows at parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2017-01-01

    group. Parenteral supplementation of selenium and vitamin E during pregnancy had no impact on their transmission into the milk and on the presence of bacterial agents in raw milk obtained from dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis. 

  6. Clinical and Metabolic Response to Selenium Supplementation in Pregnant Women at Risk for Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Rahavi, Azam; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-07-01

    Data on the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic profiles in women at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce. This study was designed to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in pregnant women at risk for IUGR. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 women at risk for IUGR according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Participants were randomly assigned to intake either 100 μg selenium supplements as tablet (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 10 weeks between 17 and 27 weeks of gestation. After 10 weeks of selenium administration, a higher percentage of women in the selenium group had pulsatility index (PI) of women at risk for IUGR resulted in improved PI, TAC, GSH, hs-CRP, and markers of insulin metabolism and HDL-C levels, but it did not affect MDA, NO, FPG, and other lipid profiles.Clinical trial registration number http://www.irct.ir : IRCT201601045623N64.

  7. Randomised trial of glutamine and selenium supplemented parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients. Protocol Version 9, 19 February 2007 known as SIGNET (Scottish Intensive care Glutamine or seleNium Evaluative Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Luke D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates in the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent hospital mortality rates in the UK remain high. Infections in Intensive Care are associated with a 2–3 times increased risk of death. It is thought that under conditions of severe metabolic stress glutamine becomes "conditionally essential". Selenium is an essential trace element that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Approximately 23% of patients in Intensive Care require parenteral nutrition and glutamine and selenium are either absent or present in low amounts. Both glutamine and selenium have the potential to influence the immune system through independent biochemical pathways. Systematic reviews suggest that supplementing parenteral nutrition in critical illness with glutamine or selenium may reduce infections and mortality. Pilot data has shown that more than 50% of participants developed infections, typically resistant organisms. We are powered to show definitively whether supplementation of PN with either glutamine or selenium is effective at reducing new infections in critically ill patients. Methods/design 2 × 2 factorial, pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The trial has an enrolment target of 500 patients. Inclusion criteria include: expected to be in critical care for at least 48 hours, aged 16 years or over, patients who require parenteral nutrition and are expected to have at least half their daily nutritional requirements given by that route. Allocation is to one of four iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous groups: glutamine, selenium, both glutamine & selenium or no additional glutamine or selenium. Trial supplementation is given for up to seven days on the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent wards if practicable. The primary outcomes are episodes of infection in the 14 days after starting trial nutrition and mortality. Secondary outcomes include antibiotic usage, length of hospital stay, quality of life and

  8. Randomised trial of glutamine and selenium supplemented parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients. Protocol Version 9, 19 February 2007 known as SIGNET (Scottish Intensive care Glutamine or seleNium Evaluative Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter J D; Avenell, Alison; Noble, David W; Campbell, Marion K; Battison, Claire G; Croal, Bernard L; Simpson, William G; Norrie, John; Vale, Luke D; Cook, Jonathon; de Verteuil, Robyn; Milne, Anne C

    2007-09-20

    Mortality rates in the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent hospital mortality rates in the UK remain high. Infections in Intensive Care are associated with a 2-3 times increased risk of death. It is thought that under conditions of severe metabolic stress glutamine becomes "conditionally essential". Selenium is an essential trace element that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Approximately 23% of patients in Intensive Care require parenteral nutrition and glutamine and selenium are either absent or present in low amounts. Both glutamine and selenium have the potential to influence the immune system through independent biochemical pathways. Systematic reviews suggest that supplementing parenteral nutrition in critical illness with glutamine or selenium may reduce infections and mortality. Pilot data has shown that more than 50% of participants developed infections, typically resistant organisms. We are powered to show definitively whether supplementation of PN with either glutamine or selenium is effective at reducing new infections in critically ill patients. 2 x 2 factorial, pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The trial has an enrollment target of 500 patients. Inclusion criteria include: expected to be in critical care for at least 48 hours, aged 16 years or over, patients who require parenteral nutrition and are expected to have at least half their daily nutritional requirements given by that route. Allocation is to one of four iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous groups: glutamine, selenium, both glutamine & selenium or no additional glutamine or selenium. Trial supplementation is given for up to seven days on the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent wards if practicable. The primary outcomes are episodes of infection in the 14 days after starting trial nutrition and mortality. Secondary outcomes include antibiotic usage, length of hospital stay, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. To date more than 285 patients have been

  9. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR (2015), s. 139-143 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  10. Lipofuscin-like pigments in the rat heart during early postnatal development: effect of selenium supplementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Charvátová, Zuzana; Wilhelm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2010), s. 881-886 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : early postnatal development * heart * lipofuscin-like pigment * selenium * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  11. Enhanced antioxidant capacity following selenium supplemented antimalarial therapy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Olasehinde, Grace Iyabo; Egbeola, Oluwaseun Ayodimeji; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the co-administration of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium was studied in mice infected with Plasmodium bergheiparasite. The mice were divided into seven groups of six animals per group. All groups except A were parasitized. Group A (unparasitized/untreated) and B (parasitized/untreated) served as the positive and negative control respectively, these were administered with olive oil. Animals in groups C and D were treated with 8 and 48 mg/kg/bw of artemether and lumefantrine respectively while group E was treated with a combination of artemether and lumefantrine (8: 48 mg/kg/bw). Animals in group F were treated with 0.945 mg/kg/bw of selenium only and group G was treated with a combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium (8:48:0.945 mg/kg/bw). All the treatment was done for a three day period. These animals were subsequently anaesthetized and the organs were excised. Homogenates were prepared for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, reduced Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. The results showed a significant (pcells in group G when compared with group B. It may be concluded that the combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium showed a more potent effect against the parasite than the group treated with artemether and lumefantrine, thus, helps to combat post-infection oxidative stress in susceptible cells.

  12. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  13. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se, iodine (I, and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group. Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS, or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI, or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI. The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean cell volume (MCV, white blood cells (WBC, band neutrophils (B Neut, segmented neutrophils (S Neut, lymphocytes (Lymph, monocytes (Mono, eosinophils (Eosin and basophils (Baso were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  14. Effect of supplementation of concentrates or selenium on production and reproduction in cows grazing pastures of high protein degradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongiardino, M E; Humaran, M; Corbellini, C N; Baldan, A M; Cuneo, M; Balbiani, G [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Moron, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Patobiologia

    1996-05-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine whether the deleterious effects of high amounts of degradable protein on reproduction and production of dairy cows could be minimized by a supplemental source of undergradable protein, or grain supplementation while grazing; and to study the effect of selenium supplementation before calving on the incidence of stillbirths, mastitis, puerperal and metabolic disorders. In a first experiment, 24 Holstein cows fed on red and white clover pasture, paired by previous milk production, calving data and body condition, were supplemented with corn silage and one of two concentrates differing only in the proportion of degradable protein (Group H: 71.5% and Group L: 51.5%). The degradable protein intake from pasture supplied 93% of the requirements in both groups. The addition of undergradable protein in the concentrate of Group L did not improve reproductive performance nor milk, butterfat or solids non-fat production. In a second experiment, 132 Holstein cows and heifers were paired likewise. Both animals in each pair were fed similar forage resources, but each one was supplemented with 2 kg/cow corn grain four times a day (Herd 1) or 4 kg/cow tow times a day (Herd 2). One animal in each pair was randomly assigned to receive a barium selenate injection before calving. Rumen ammonia was higher in Herd 1 in both sampling dates (17 vs 4.2 mg/100 ml and 12 vs 9 mg/100 ml), as well as serum urea up to 50 days post-partum (26 vs 19 mg/100 ml, P<0.02). Body condition scores were similar at calving but significantly lower in Herd 1 during the lactation period (P<0.05). Total milk and butterfat production were higher in Herd 2 (6406.2 vs 6893.8 kg and 190.4 vs 203.5 kg, respectively). Selenium improved pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination in Herd 2 (71 vs 50%), and decreased the frequency of downer cows in both herds (5 vs 0%), but had not effect regarding the Wisconsin Mastitis Test results. (author). 36 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. The effect of dietary selenium supplementation on meat quality of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezeliene, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a focus on the development of functional poultry products capable of enrichment by selenium, vitamin E, iodine and fatty acids of the third order. Since there is a lack of data about various selenium sources and its synergistic effect on sensory and other properties of vitamin E enriched poultry, the objective of this research was to examine the effect of addition of selenium in broilers diet on meat quality. The amount of Se in the diet was increased from 0.15 mg.kg-1 feed (control group to 0.5 mg.kg-1 feed. Addition of Se had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cooking and thawing losses, as well as on the majority of sensory attributes, adhesiveness, cohesiveness of chicken breast samples. Aftertaste (p < 0.05, hardness (p < 0.001 and resilience (p < 0.001 of the texture of the samples increased along with the increased amount of Se in bird diet. Mean values of the sensory attributes of thigh muscles showed no significant differences among the samples in case of intensities of odor and taste attributes; however, firmness and chewiness of the tested samples increased by increasing the amount of Se in the feed (p > 0.05. In addition, Se did not have significant influence on meat cooking or thawing losses. The results of this study showed that 0.15 mg and 0.5 mg of selenium in complex with 40 mg of vitamin E could be added to broiler diet without having negative effect on technological or sensory properties of the broiler meat and acceptability.

  16. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle injury and oxidative stress following the use of selenium supplements and exhaustive aerobic exercise in young physically-active females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Dolati Amirdizaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of antioxidants before high-intensity training, which leads to the release of free radicals and muscle injuries, can result in reduced damage during exercise. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of selenium supplement intake on oxidative stress, following exhaustive aerobic exercise among young physically-active females. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 healthy girls (age: 23.6±1.5 years, height: 1.61±0.0126 m, and weight: 60.2±7.13 kg were randomly divided into exercise (n=10 and supplement + exercise (n=10 groups. The participants were asked to consume selenium supplements (200 µg/day for a period of 14 days. The Bruce protocol stress test was conducted 24 h after the final intake of supplements and primary blood collection (in a fasting state. Also, immediately after performing the Bruce test, the second blood samples were drawn from the subjects. Oxidative stress markers (i.e., creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels were measured at each stage of blood sampling and were compared between the groups using paired t-test. Data analysis was performed by SPSS (version 18. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results indicated that exhaustive aerobic exercise could cause a significant increase in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels. The comparison between the control and intervention groups suggested the significant effect of selenium supplementation on declining of lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that selenium supplements could reduce oxidative stress, induced by exhaustive physical exercise.

  18. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Romero, Miryam; Echeverri, Isabella; Ortega, José Guillermo; Mosquera, Mildrey; Salazar, Blanca; Girón, Sandra Lorena; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Aguilar de Plata, Ana Cecilia; Mateus, Julio Cesar

    2011-02-28

    Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. usual prenatal care (PC) and placebo (maltodextrine). 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg), selenium (70 μg), vitamin A (400 μg), alphatocopherol (30 mg), vitamin C (200 mg), and niacin (100 mg). 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. NCT00872365.

  19. Selenium supplementation restores the antioxidative capacity and prevents cell damage in bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Regina; Ulmer, Matthias; Zeck, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    signaling, cumulative cell damage, senescence, and tumor development. Selenium-dependent (glutathione peroxidases [GPxs] and thioredoxin reductases [TrxRs]) and selenium-independent (superoxide dismutases [SODs] and catalase [CAT]) enzyme systems regulate cellular ROS steady state levels. SODs process...

  20. Mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com selênio e vitamina E Clinical mastitis in dairy cows supplemented with selenium and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jorge Paschoal

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a prevalência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça Holandesa. Oitenta vacas foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: controle e suplementação com 2,5 mg selênio dia-1 , com 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 e com 2,5 mg selênio + 1.000 UI vitamina E dia-1 . A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de selênio. O teste de Tamis e a análise clínica do úbere foram realizados semanalmente, para detecção de mastite até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selenium and vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Eighty cows were allocated into four treatments: control, supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1, supplementation with 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 , and supplementation with 2.5 mg Se day-1 + 1,000 UI vitamin E day-1 . The supplementation started 30 days prior to probable parturition date until parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical and selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, right after parturition, 30 and 60 days after it to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test and udder analysis were weekly performed to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration compared with control group (P<0.05. Vitamin E and selenium did not decrease the prevalence of clinical mastitis up to 12th week and there was no interaction between those

  1. Effect of peroral supplementation with selenium and vitamin e during late pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study selenium and vitamin E sources in the diet of dairy cows in late phase of pregnancy and their effects on udder health and milk quality during the first two weeks after calving. The experiment included 48 cows of Holstein breed divided into four equal groups (n = 12. The first experimental group (D1 was fed with addition of vitamin E in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day. The second group (D2 was added the selenium at a dose of 0.3 mg.kg-1 of DM in form of sodium selenite. The third group (D3 was supplemented with addition of vitamin E in combination with sodium selenite in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day and of 5.0 mg Se/cow per day, respectively. The control group (C was without the addition of selenium and vitamin E. In group (D2 with addition of selenium at a dose of 0.3 mg.kg-1 of DM and vitamin E a dose of 50 mg dl-a-tocopherol acetate/kg of DM in diet, increased the plasmatic concentration of selenium and vitamin E and reduced the incidence of mastitis by 13.3% and number of somatic cells during peripartal period in comparison with other groups.

  2. [Appreciation of selenium concentration in blood and tissues of male rat as a result of diet ingredients changes and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Dolot, Anna; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen B group vitamins on concentration of selenium in blood serum and tissues and activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver of male rats was examined in the conducted experiment. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with granulated mixes. Group I with basic mix containing among other things full grains, Group II with modified mix in which full grains were exchanged for wheat flour and in part with saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. The experiment was conducted for six weeks during which the amount of consumed feeding stuff was calculated currently and once a week body mass of the animals was checked. When the experiment was finished the activity of GSH-Px was determined by spectrophotometric method in blood and liver whereas concentration of selenium in blood serum, muscles and in liver by fluorometric method. It was ascertained that the change of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins was in favour of lowering the amount of selenium in the examined tissues, and the decrease was not only the result of lower amount of the consumed element, but also of its increased usage, forced by the changes taking place under the influence of diet components and its supplementation.

  3. Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation Reduces Some Lipid Peroxidation and Angiogenesis Markers in a Rat Model of NAFLD-Fed High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Motaghinejad, Majid; Shiasi, Maryam; Imanparast, Fatemeh; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Shidfar, Farzad

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are more prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zinc and selenium deficiency are common in NAFLD. But the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on CVD markers are not clear in NAFLD patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on some of the CVD markers in an experimental model of NAFLD. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (197 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned into four dietary groups: control group (C; received 9% of calorie as fat), model group (M; received 82% of calorie as fat), and supplementation before (BS) or after (AS) disease progression. Animals were fed diets for 20 weeks in all groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as CVD indices. Serum ALT, AST, FPG, insulin, MDA, VEGF and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the M than C group. Co-supplementation reduced serum ALT and AST levels in the BS and AS groups compared with the M group. FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, VEGF, MDA, LDL/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratio were significantly reduced in the AS compared with the M group. TG/HDL-c ratio was significantly reduced in the BS and AS compared with the M group. Serum MDA, VEGF, Insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lowered in the AS than BS group (p < 0.05). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after NAFLD progression reduced CVD risk indices in an experimental model.

  4. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  5. Effects of dietary selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D B; Reed, J J; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared

  6. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  7. Fatty Acid Profiles of , and Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se, iodine (I and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS, longissimus lumborum (LL, and semitendinosus (ST muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, oleic (C18:1n9 and linoleic (C18:2n-6, while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6, linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6. No significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2 were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the goats of the control group (T1. The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2 than those of control ones (T1. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  8. Effect of crude protein levels and organic selenium supplementation in the diets fed during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, L. [UNESP; Santos, E. C.; Tavian, A. F.; Góes, P. A. A.; Moraes, V. M. B. [UNESP; Tonhati, Humberto [UNESP; Boleli, I. C. [UNESP; Malheiros, E. B. [UNESP; Barnabé, V. H.; Queiroz, S. A. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the nutrition of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) reared in captivity, and their nutritional requirements still need to be determined. This study aimed at determining dietary crude protein requirements and testing four organic selenium supplementation levels in the diet of red-winged tinamous during the breeding season. Birds were housed in a conventional broiler house divided in 16 boxes with one male and three females each. Iso-energy (2800kcal ME/kg...

  9. EDXS and XRD Analyses of Coleus with Different Concentration Selenium Supplements Under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Hui-yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the changes of the morphologies and element composition in Coleus hlumei Benth(Coleusroots and leaves under1.0 mmol·L-1 Pb2+ stress with selenium ( Setreatments, and to preliminarily investigate the relief mechanism of Se level on lead toxicity from the perspective of spectroscopy, Coleus was cultivated in nutrient solutions with different concentrations of Se. The results showed that the content of C, K and Ca elements in roots decreased, while 0, Mg, Al, Si, Fe and Pb elements increased under Pb stress with Se treatments. In addi-tion, the content of C, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe elements in leaves decreased, while 0 and Cl elements increased. The element species and its contents in roots were changed obviously under Pb stress with Se treatments, and crystalline solid and crystal phase in roots were correspond-ingly changed.

  10. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  11. Effects of supplementation of fertilizers on human selenium status in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A; Alfthan, G; Varo, P

    1995-03-01

    The Se concentration of foods can be increased by supplementing fertilizers with soluble Se compounds. In Finland the availability of soil Se for plants is poor owing to the relatively low Se concentration, low pH and high iron content of the soil. Since 1984 multimineral fertilizers have been supplemented with Se (16 mg kg-1 to fertilizers for grain production and 6 mg kg-1 to those for fodder production) in the form of sodium selenate. Within two years a three-fold increase of mean Se intake was observed. The supplementation affected the Se content of all major food groups with the exception of fish. The concomitant human serum Se concentration increased by 70%. In 1990 the amount of Se that was supplemented was reduced to 6 mg kg-1 for all fertilizers. This reduced the mean Se intake by 30% and the serum Se concentration decreased by 25% from the highest levels observed in 1989. Plants take up part of the supplemented selenate and transform it into organic Se compounds, mainly selenomethionine. This affects human nutrition by increasing the Se content of foods of both animal and vegetable origin. According to data obtained in Finland, supplementation of fertilizers with Se is a safe and effective means of increasing the Se intake of both animals and humans that is feasible in countries with relatively uniform geochemical conditions. This kind of intervention requires careful monitoring of the effects on both animal and human nutrition and the environment.

  12. Effects of organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation on gene expression profiles in oviduct tissue from broiler-breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Crowdus, C A; Cantor, A H; Pescatore, A J; Barger, J L; Horgan, K; Xiao, R; Power, R F; Dawson, K A

    2011-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of at least 25 selenoproteins involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including reproduction. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which Se exerts its physiological effects in reproductive tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of long-term inorganic Se (sodium selenite, SS) and organic yeast-derived Se (Sel-Plex(®), SP) supplementations on tissue Se content and gene expression patterns in the oviduct of broiler-breeder hens. Hens were randomly assigned at 6 weeks of age to one of the three treatments: basal semi-purified diet (control), basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SP or basal diet+0.3 ppm Se as SS. At 49 weeks, oviduct tissue from hens randomly selected from each treatment (n=7) was analyzed for Se content and gene expression profiles using the Affymetrix Chicken genome array. Gene expression data were evaluated using GeneSpring GX 10.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood, CA) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Oviduct Se concentration was greater with Se supplementation compared with the control (P≤0.05) but did not differ between SS- and SP-supplemented groups. Gene expression analysis revealed that the quantity of gene transcripts associated with energy production and protein translation were greater in the oviduct with SP but not SS supplementation. Targets up-regulated by SP, but not SS, included genes encoding several subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, ubiquinone production and ribosomal subunits. SS hens showed a decrease in transcripts of genes involved in respiratory complexes, ATP synthesis and protein translation and metabolism in oviduct relative to control hens. In this study, although tissue Se concentrations did not differ between hens fed SS- and SP-supplemented diets, expression patterns of genes involved in energy production and protein synthesis pathways differed between treatments. These

  13. Maternal supplementation with natural or synthetic vitamin E and its levels in human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.

  14. Trophic and maternal transfer of selenium in brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A; Staub, Brandon P; Baionno, Jennifer A; Jackson, Brian P; Roe, John H; Ford, Neil B

    2004-07-01

    Excessive concentrations of dietary Se are toxic to oviparous vertebrates (i.e., fish and birds) but little is known about its accumulation and effects in reptiles. We exposed female brown house snakes, Lamprophis fuliginosus, to 10 and 20 microg/g Se by injecting seleno-D,L-methionine into their prey items and compared the snakes to individuals receiving background levels of approximately 1 microg/g dietary Se. Snakes were fed meals equaling 25% of their body mass 2-3 times a month for 10 months. Snakes exposed to excessive Se accumulated significant concentrations of Se in kidney, liver, and ovarian tissue, but accumulation had no effect on female survival, food consumption, growth, or body condition. Fewer females exposed to excessive Se reproduced than females exposed to 1 microg/g Se (67% vs. 91%, respectively), but the reduction in reproductive activity was not statistically significant. Total reproductive output of females did not differ among the three dietary treatments. However, snakes exposed to 10 and 20 microg/g Se transferred significant concentrations of Se to their eggs. In the 20 microg/g treatment, maternal transfer resulted in Se concentrations in eggs that surpassed all suggested reproductive toxicity thresholds for birds and fish. Further studies are needed to more rigorously determine whether maternal transfer of Se in this snake species affects the viability of developing embryos or the health of offspring.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...

  16. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  17. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double-blind man......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...... period despite a significant increased loss of calcium during the first 24 h of inclusion. Low dose maternal magnesium treatment did not cause neonatal hypocalcemia....

  18. Increase in serum concentrations of IgG2 and IgG4 by selenium supplementation in children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Nordvall, S L

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study on children with Down's syndrome a reduced rate of infections was reported by their parents after the children had received six months' treatment with selenium supplements. In the present study the concentrations of the four IgG subclasses were measured in 29 of these children in samples of serum obtained before and immediately after the period of supplementation and one year after it had finished. Selenium had a significant augmentative effect on the serum concentrations of IgG2 and IgG4, but not of IgG1 and IgG3. This effect was not related to age, as among children over the age of 6 years the serum concentrations of IgG2 and IgG4 had decreased significantly one year after the treatment had been stopped. This study suggests that selenium has an immunoregulatory effect, which might be of importance in both basic research and clinical practice. PMID:2148668

  19. Maternal Obesity and Pre-Pregnancy Folic Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Farah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this nested cohort study was to compare the rate of pre-pregnancy supplementation in obese women with that of women with a normal BMI. Methods: Pregnant women were enrolled at their convenience in a large university hospital. Weight and height were measured in the first trimester and BMI categorised. Results: Of the 288 women, 35.1% were in the normal, 29.5% in the overweight and 35.4% in the obese BMI categories. Only 45.1% (n = 46 of the obese women took pre-pregnancy folic acid compared with 60.4% (n = 61 of women with a normal BMI (p Conclusions: Obese women should take folate supplements whether they are planning to conceive or not.

  20. Effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; Ramalho, Héryka Myrna Maia; Dimenstein, Roberto

    To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5mL of blood and 2mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0h milk), the supplemented group received 400IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24h after supplementation (24h milk). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4mg/day). The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3±793.7μg/dL in the control group and 1452.9±808.6μg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6±968.7μg/dL in the control group (p>0.05) and 2346.9±1203.2μg/dL in the supplemented group (pvitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  2. Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Patric Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nanoparticles can bypass conventional physiological ways of nutrient distribution and transport across tissue and cell membranes, as well as protect compounds against destruction prior to reaching their targets. In ovo administration of nanoparticles, may be seen as a new method of nano-nutrition, providing embryos with an additional quantity of nutrients. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium on the hatchability and post hatch performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: Nano form of zinc at 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/egg, nano form of copper at 4, 8, 12 and 16 μg/egg and nano form of selenium at 0.075, 0.15, 0.225 and 0.3 μg/egg were in ovo supplemented (18th day incubation, amniotic route in fertile broiler eggs. Control group in ovo fed with normal saline alone was also maintained. Each treatment had thirty replicates. Parameters such as hatchability, hatch weight and post hatch performance were studied. Results: In ovo feeding of nano minerals were not harmful to the developing embryo and did not influence the hatchability. Significantly (p<0.05 best feed efficiency for nano forms of zinc (2.16, copper (2.46 and selenium (2.51 were observed, when 40, 4 and 0.225 μg/egg respectively were in ovo supplemented. Except in nano form of copper at 12 μg per egg which had significantly (p<0.05 highest breast muscle percentage there was no distinct trend to indicate that dressing percentage or breast muscle yield was influenced in other treatments. Conclusion: Nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium can be prepared at laboratory conditions. In ovo feeding of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium at 18th day of incubation through amniotic route does not harm the developing embryo, does not affect hatchability.

  3. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girón Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 μg, vitamin A (400 μg, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

  4. Selenium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  5. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2017-08-01

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Marek Fikrle; Jan Kucera; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha -1 ) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordao, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. (author)

  7. Effect of crude protein levels and organic selenium supplementation in the diets fed during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Felipe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the nutrition of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens reared in captivity, and their nutritional requirements still need to be determined. This study aimed at determining dietary crude protein requirements and testing four organic selenium supplementation levels in the diet of red-winged tinamous during the breeding season. Birds were housed in a conventional broiler house divided in 16 boxes with one male and three females each. Iso-energy (2800kcal ME/kg pelleted feeds, based on corn and soybean meal, were supplied in tube feeders. In the first experiment, treatments consisted of four different diets containing different crude protein (CP contents (15, 18, 21, or 24% and in the second experiment, the four diets contained equal protein level (22.5% and four different organic selenium levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8ppm. Data were analyzed by the least square method. The best egg weight and eggshell thickness were obtained with 22.5% dietary CP. Organic selenium did not influence the studied reproductive traits of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens males or females.

  8. Maternal creatine supplementation affects the morpho-functional development of hippocampal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, S; Lattanzi, D; Ambrogini, P; Di Palma, M; Galati, C; Savelli, D; Polidori, E; Calcabrini, C; Rocchi, M B L; Sestili, P; Cuppini, R

    2016-01-15

    Creatine supplementation has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage due to its antioxidant and ergogenic functions. These features have led to the hypothesis of creatine supplementation use during pregnancy as prophylactic treatment to prevent CNS damage, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Unfortunately, very little is known on the effects of creatine supplementation during neuron differentiation, while in vitro studies revealed an influence on neuron excitability, leaving the possibility of creatine supplementation during the CNS development an open question. Using a multiple approach, we studied the hippocampal neuron morphological and functional development in neonatal rats born by dams supplemented with 1% creatine in drinking water during pregnancy. CA1 pyramidal neurons of supplemented newborn rats showed enhanced dendritic tree development, increased LTP maintenance, larger evoked-synaptic responses, and higher intrinsic excitability in comparison to controls. Moreover, a faster repolarizing phase of action potential with the appearance of a hyperpolarization were recorded in neurons of the creatine-treated group. Consistently, CA1 neurons of creatine exposed pups exhibited a higher maximum firing frequency than controls. In summary, we found that creatine supplementation during pregnancy positively affects morphological and electrophysiological development of CA1 neurons in offspring rats, increasing neuronal excitability. Altogether, these findings emphasize the need to evaluate the benefits and the safety of maternal intake of creatine in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  10. [Effect of docosahexenoic acid supplementation on infant's growth and body mass index during maternal pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Shang, Y; Liu, Y J; Chang, X L; Yao, H Y; Liang, A M; Qi, K M

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on infant's growth and BMI during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 1 516 healthy pregnant women delivered their babies in two maternal and child health care hospitals in Beijing and were chosen as the subjects in this cohort study from May to October 2015. Self-developed questionnaires were used to gather general information of the subjects, including age, height, weight, weight gain during pregnancy, delivery mode, DHA supplementation etc ., before giving birth. Information on body length, weight, head circumference and BMI at birth and 6 months postnatal, of the infants were recorded. Breast milk was collected to test the fatty acid profiles by using the gas chromatography (GC) method at one to three months postnatally. Results: The overall rate of DHA supplementation was 47.76% among the pregnant women, in which introduction of DHA from the early and second stage of the pregnancy accounted for 49.31% and 39.64% respectively. When DHA supplementation began from the early pregnant stage, the DHA concentration showed an increase in the milk ( P 0.05). Higher height and lower BMI were seen in the infants at birth and 6 months in the supplementation group when comparing to the non-supplementary group ( P pregnancy, there were positive correlations between DHA supplementation and height ( r =0.324, r =0.216), head circumference ( r =0.221, r =0.302) as well as the increment of head circumference ( r =0.276) at birth and 6 months ( P pregnancy. Conclusions: When DHA supplementation program was carried out during maternal pregnancy, it could increase the height and head circumference and inhibit the rapid increase of BMI in the infants BMI. Our findings seemed helpful in promoting brain development and preventing the childhood obesity.

  11. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  12. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  13. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  14. The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bayril

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323 were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1, Treatment 2 (T2, and Control (C. Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05. Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis.

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL USE OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTS AND RISK OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surén, Pål; Roth, Christine; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Haugen, Margaretha; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Smith, George Davey; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Susser, Ezra; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Context Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and the subsequent risk of autistic disorder in children. Design, Setting, and Patients The study sample of 85,176 was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002–08. By the end of follow-up on March 31st, 2012, the age range was 3.3–10.2 years and the mean age 6.4 years. The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy. The start of pregnancy was defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASD were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity. Main Outcome Measure Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autistic disorder. Results To date, 114 children in the study sample have been diagnosed with autistic disorder. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41–0.90). Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use. Conclusion Prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception were associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. PMID:23403681

  16. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  17. Vitamin A supplementation in Cambodia: program coverage and association with greater maternal formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Davinder S; Pee, Saskia de; Sun, Kai; Raju, V K; Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity, mortality, and blindness among children in developing countries. The objective of this study is to characterize the coverage of the Cambodian national vitamin A program among preschool children and to identify risk factors for not receiving vitamin A supplementation. The study subjects were preschool children and their families who participated in the 2005 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative survey. Of 1,547 preschool children, aged 12-59 months, 42.8% received a vitamin A capsule within the last six months. There were no significant differences in paternal education, child age, fever within the last 2 weeks, stunting, underweight, or wasting between children who did or did not receive a vitamin A capsule. Maternal education of > or =10 years (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02-4.29), 7-9 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.15), 4-6 years (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.26-2.32), and 1-3 years (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10-2.06) was associated with the child receiving a vitamin A capsule compared to no formal education in multivariate analyses adjusting for other potential confounders. The national vitamin A supplementation program in Cambodia did not reach over one-half of preschool children in 2005. Greater maternal formal education appears to be an important determinant for receipt of a vitamin A capsule by preschool children.

  18. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Doria K; Senti, Jeanine L; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-05-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal vitamin D status that promotes sufficient vitamin D transfer from mother to infant exclusively from breast milk. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms lactation or breastfeeding or milk, human and vitamin D. The resulting articles were further limited to those written in English, published within the last 10 years, and involving clinical or randomized controlled trials of humans. The search yielded 13 studies, 3 of which provide evidence for maternal intake of vitamin D and the correlation with exclusively breastfed infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. A strong positive correlation exists between maternal vitamin D intake during exclusive breastfeeding and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There is support to conclude that when maternal vitamin D intake is sufficient, vitamin D transfer via breast milk is adequate to meet infant needs. In the reviewed studies, doses up to 10 times the current recommended daily intake of vitamin D were needed to produce sufficient transfer from mother to breastfed infant. Further research is needed to refine the dose and gestational timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation. Due to the high rates of vitamin D deficiency during lactation and the correlations between vitamin D deficiency and multiple diseases, providers should consider monitoring lactating mothers' vitamin D status.

  19. Dietary and supplemental maternal methyl-group donor intake and cord blood DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; A S Langie, Sabine; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-02

    Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. LC-MS/MS and pyrosequencing were used to measure global and gene specific methylation, respectively. Dietary intake of methyl-groups before and during pregnancy was associated with changes in LEP, DNMT1, and RXRA cord blood methylation. Statistically significant higher cord blood LEP methylation was observed when mothers started folic acid supplementation more than 6 months before conception compared with 3-6 months before conception (34.6 ± 6.3% vs. 30.1 ± 3.6%, P = 0.011, LEP CpG1) or no folic acid used before conception (16.2 ± 4.4% vs. 13.9 ± 3%, P = 0.036 for LEP CpG3 and 24.5 ± 3.5% vs. 22.2 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045 for LEP mean CpG). Taking folic acid supplements during the entire pregnancy resulted in statistically significantly higher cord blood RXRA methylation as compared with stopping supplementation in the second trimester (12.3 ± 1.9% vs. 11.1 ± 2%, P = 0.008 for RXRA mean CpG). To conclude, long-term folic acid use before and during pregnancy was associated with higher LEP and RXRA cord blood methylation, respectively. To date, pregnant women are advised to take a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/day from 4 weeks before until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Our results suggest significant epigenetic modifications when taking a folic acid supplement beyond the current advice.

  20. Radioiodine-induced oxidative stress in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium (antioxidants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Batista, Kelly Cristina Siqueira; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study, in addition to confirming that therapy with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress, was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium on this phenomenon by measuring plasma 8-epi-PGF2α, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Subjects and methods: Forty patients with thyroid cancer submitted to thyroidectomy, who received 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I after levothyroxine withdrawal, were selected; 20 patients did not receive (control group) and 20 patients received (intervention group) daily supplementation consisting of 2000 mg vitamin C, 1000 mg vitamin E and 400 μg selenium for 21 days before {sup 131}I. Plasma 8-epi-PGF2α was measured immediately before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. Results: A significant increase in plasma 8-epi-PGF2α after {sup 131}I was observed in the two groups. The concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2α were significantly higher in the control group before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. The percentage of patients with elevated 8-epi-PGF2α was also significantly higher in the control group before and after {sup 131}I. Furthermore, the increase (percent) in 8-epi-PGF2α was significantly greater in the control group (average of 112.3% versus 56.3%). Only two patients (10%) reported side effects during supplementation. Conclusions: Ablation with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress which can be minimized by the use of antioxidants. (author)

  1. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect...... (P iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine...... of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...

  2. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Pprobiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  4. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Perspectives on Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Molly R; Kair, Laura R; Sipsma, Heather L; Phillipi, Carrie A; Larson, Ilse A

    2018-04-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization. Mothers were asked whether they had chosen or would choose to supplement with HDM versus infant formula, if medically indicated, and why. Data were gathered to saturation and analyzed inductively by consensus. Emerging semantic themes were compared between mothers who chose or would choose HDM and those who chose or would choose infant formula. Most mothers had concerns about HDM, including uncertainty regarding screening and substances passed through HDM. Experiences with prior children influenced decision-making. Mothers who chose or would choose HDM (56%, n = 14) praised it as "natural," and some felt suspicious of infant formula as "synthetic." Mothers who chose or would choose infant formula (44%, n = 10) did not know enough about HDM to choose it, and many viewed infant formula as a short-term solution to supply concerns. Mothers unanimously mistrusted online milk purchasing sources, although the majority felt positively about using a friend or family member's milk. Counseling regarding term newborn supplementation should focus on HDM education, specifically on areas of greatest concern and uncertainty such as donor selection, screening, transmission of substances, and mother's milk supply. Research is needed to assess the long-term impact of attitudes and choices on breastfeeding.

  6. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  7. Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on blood lipid peroxidation and cortisol concentration in dairy cows undergoing omentopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudron, P; Rehage, J

    2018-04-11

    Twenty dairy cows with left abomasal displacement were used to investigate the effects of vitamin E and selenium treatment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and blood cortisol in dairy cows stressed by omentopexy. The cows were randomly divided into two groups. Ten hours before surgery 6 g of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (6 mg/kg) and 67 mg of natrium selenite (0.1 mg/kg) in volume of 40 ml (Vitaselen ® ) were administered subcutaneously to 10 cows; the control animals (n = 10) received an equivalent volume of injectable water (40 ml). The injection of vitamin E and selenium produced a rapid rise (p E increased several times 10 hr after vitamin E and Se injection and raised continuously to the highest average concentration 21.6 mg/L at hr 24 after the surgery. The highest selenium concentration was seen 10 hr after selenium administration with holding the increased concentrations in comparison with initial ones during the whole study. Two-way ANOVA did not show significant treatment effect on plasma concentrations TBARS in the study. The plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances reached the maximum value of 0.18 μmol/L in the control group 5 hr after the surgery. Twenty-four hours after the surgery, the TBARS values returned to the initial ones. Serum cortisol increased in both groups after surgery. The highest cortisol concentrations were reached at 1 hr after surgery in the experimental and control group (56.7 ± 28.8 and 65.3 ± 26.1 μg/L respectively). A return to the levels similar to the initial ones was recognized 24 hr after the surgery. The ANOVA revealed a significant effect of vitamin E and selenium injection on plasma cortisol (p E/Se injection on blood lipid peroxidation. In addition, a weaker cortisol response to the abdominal surgery was recognized in animals treated with vitamin E and selenium. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  9. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  10. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  11. Maternal PUFA omega-3 supplementation prevents hyperoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Catheline, Daniel; Houeijeh, Ali; Sharma, Dyuti; Du, Li-Zhong; Besengez, Capucine; Deruelle, Philippe; Legrand, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2018-03-29

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) affect 16-25% of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), contributing significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) can improve vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation under pathophysiological conditions. However, the effects of PUFA ω-3 supplementation in BPD-associated PH are unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PUFA ω-3 on pulmonary vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response in a hyperoxia-induced rat model of PH. From embryonic day 15, pregnant Spague-Dawley rats were supplemented daily with PUFA ω-3, PUFA ω-6, or normal saline (0.2 ml/day). After birth, pups were pooled, assigned as 12 per litter, and randomly to either in air or continuous oxygen exposure (FiO2 = 85%) for 20 days, then sacrificed for pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric analysis. We found that PUFA ω-3 supplementation improved survival, decreased right ventricular systolic pressure and RVH caused by hyperoxia, and significantly improved alveolarization, vascular remodeling, and vascular density. PUFA ω-3 supplementation produced a higher level of total ω-3 in lung tissue and breast milk, and was found reversing the reduced levels of VEGFA, VEGFR-2, ANGPT-1, TIE-2, eNOS, and NO concentrations in lung tissue, and the increased ANGPT-2 levels in hyperoxia-exposed rats. The beneficial effects of PUFA ω-3 in improving lung injuries were also associated with an inhibition of leukocyte infiltration, and reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. These data indicated that maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation strategies could effectively protect against infant PH induced by hyperoxia.

  12. Early-Life Selenium Status and Cognitive Function at 5 and 10 Years of Age in Bangladeshi Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder, Helena; Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Vahter, Marie

    2017-11-07

    In older adults, selenium status has been positively associated with cognitive function. We recently reported a positive association between maternal selenium status in pregnancy and children's cognitive function at 1.5 y. We followed up the children to assess if prenatal and childhood selenium status was associated with cognitive abilities at 5 and 10 y. This longitudinal cohort study was nested in Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat), a population-based, randomized supplementation trial in pregnancy in rural Bangladesh. Selenium in maternal blood [erythrocyte fraction (Ery-Se) at baseline] and in child hair and urine was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Children's cognition at 5 and 10 y was assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ® , respectively. In total, 1,408 children were included. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses showed that prenatal selenium status was positively associated with children's cognitive function at 5 and 10 y. An increase in maternal Ery-Se from the fifth to the 95th percentile [median: 0.44μg/g hemoglobin (Hb)] was associated with an increase in full developmental score of 3.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 7.0], corresponding to 0.16 standard deviation (SD) at 5 y, and 8.1 (95% CI: 3.8, 13), corresponding to 0.24 SD at 10 y. In addition, urine and hair selenium concentrations at 5 and 10 y of age were positively associated with cognitive function at 10 y, although associations were inverse for concentrations ≥98th percentile. Some associations were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Measures of prenatal and childhood (below the 98th percentile) selenium status were associated with higher cognitive function scores at 5 and 10 y of age. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1691.

  13. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  14. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  15. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  16. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  18. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may

  19. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pacitti

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins, which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism.In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5-8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques.The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1 and longer times of exposure (10 weeks, regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1 for 10 weeks.Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a dietary supplementation of Sel

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with an organic source of selenium on characteristics of semen quality and in vitro fertility in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, S M; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F; Crawford, R J; Knight, J W; Whitaker, B D

    2012-03-01

    Semen characteristics in boars fed organic or inorganic sources of Se were assessed in 3 experiments. Crossbred boars were randomly assigned at weaning to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: I) basal diets with no supplemental Se (control), II) basal diets with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from an organic source (Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), and III) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite (Premium Selenium 270, North American Nutrition Co. Inc., Lewisburg, OH). For Exp. 1, semen was collected from boars (n = 10/dietary treatment) on 5 consecutive days at 15 mo of age. Effects of treatment × day were detected for the proportions of progressively motile (P = 0.02) and rapidly moving (P = 0.03) spermatozoa, and measures of sperm velocity, including path velocity of the smoothed cell path (P = 0.05) and average velocity measured in a straight line from the beginning to the end of the track (P = 0.05). Negative effects of day of semen collection on sperm motility were least pronounced in boars fed Sel-Plex. Experiment 2 was conducted when boars were 17 mo of age, and semen was collected (n = 10 boars/dietary treatment), diluted in commercially available extenders, and stored at 18°C for 9 d. Effects of treatment × day were detected for percentages of motile (P = 0.01) and static (P = 0.01) spermatozoa, amplitude of lateral head displacement (P = 0.02), frequency with which the sperm track crossed the sperm path (P = 0.04), straightness (P = 0.01), and average size of all sperm heads (P = 0.03). In general, sperm cells from boars fed Sel-Plex were better able to maintain motility during liquid storage compared with boars fed sodium selenite. For Exp. 3, semen was collected from boars (n = 6/dietary treatment) at 23 mo of age, and spermatozoa were evaluated at d 1 and 8 after semen collection using in vitro fertilization procedures. There was a tendency for an effect (P = 0.11) of dietary treatment on fertilization rate

  1. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  2. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  3. Effect of maternal nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation from mid to late gestation on vascular reactivity of maternal and fetal placental arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P; Lemley, C O; Dubey, N; Meyer, A M; O'Rourke, S T; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction and decreased scotophase concentrations of melatonin have been associated with severely compromised pregnancies. We hypothesized that melatonin supplementation in a compromised pregnancy enhances the bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxations of placental arteries thereby ensuring sufficient umbilical blood flow to the developing fetus. Pregnant ewes (n = 31) were fed an adequate (ADQ) or nutrient restricted (RES) diet supplemented with 5 mg of melatonin (MEL) or without melatonin (CON) from day 50 to 130 of gestation. On day 130 of gestation, the maternal (caruncular; CAR) and fetal (cotyledonary; COT) placental arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. There were no treatment or dietary effects on CAR arteries for any vasoactive agent. However, in COT arteries, MEL ewes were more sensitive (P melatonin by nutritional level interaction (P melatonin by nutritional interaction (P = 0.04) for responsiveness to norepinephrine. The sensitivity of the COT arteries to norepinephrine in CON-RES ewes was decreased compared to CON-ADQ. Melatonin supplementation, regardless of maternal dietary intake, resulted in COT arteries having similar responsiveness to CON-RES ewes. An increase in placental vessel sensitivity to bradykinin-induced relaxation may contribute to melatonin-induced increases in umbilical artery blood flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Prado

    Full Text Available Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT, a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9 of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010, and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031. Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039 and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007 mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  5. Oral supplements of inulin during gestation offsets rotenone-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and prenatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2018-05-25

    Environmental insults including pesticide exposure and their entry into the immature brain are of increased concern due to their developmental neurotoxicity. Several lines of evidence suggest that maternal gut microbiota influences in utero fetal development via modulation of host's microbial composition with prebiotics. Hence we examined the hypothesis if inulin (IN) supplements during pregnancy in rats possess the potential to alleviate brain oxidative response and mitochondrial deficits employing a developmental model of rotenone (ROT) neurotoxicity. Initially, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged during gestational days (GDs) 6-19 with 0 (control), 10 (low), 30 (mid) or 50 (high) mg/kg bw/day of ROT to recapitulate developmental effects on general fetotoxicity (assessed by the number of fetuses, fetal body and placental weights), markers of oxidative stress and cholinergic activities in maternal brain regions and whole fetal-brain. Secondly, dams orally supplemented with inulin (2×/day, 2 g/kg/bw) on GD 0-21 were administered ROT (50 mg/kg, GD 6-19). IN supplements increased maternal cecal bacterial numbers that significantly corresponded with improved exploratory-related behavior among ROT administered rats. In addition, IN supplements improved fetal and placental weight on GD 19. IN diminished gestational ROT-induced increased reactive oxygen species levels, protein and lipid peroxidation biomarkers, and cholinesterase activity in maternal brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, and striatum) and fetal brain. Moreover, in the maternal cortex, mitochondrial assessment revealed IN protected against ROT-induced reduction in NADH cytochrome c oxidoreductase and ATPase activities. These data suggest a potential role for indigestible oligosaccharides in reducing oxidative stress-mediated developmental origins of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1 a single intramuscular (im injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2 daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3 injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.

  7. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  8. Effect of Supplementing Organic Selenium on Performance, Carcass Traits, Oxidative Parameters and Immune Responses in Commercial Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaram Venkata Rama Rao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing various concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 μg/kg diet of organic Se on growth performance, carcass traits, oxidative stress, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens reared in open-sided poultry house under tropical climatic conditions. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates consisting of six birds in each pen from 1 to 42 d of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency, and relative weight of liver, abdominal fat and ready to cook yields were not affected (p>0.05 by organic Se supplementation to broiler diets. Lipid peroxidation in plasma decreased, while activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma increased (p0.05 by Se supplementation to broiler diets. However, the cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation ratio increased (p<0.01 linearly with dietary Se concentration. The results of the present study indicate that the supplementation of Se did not influence body weight and feed efficiency. However, supplementation of Se increased antioxidant status and lymphocyte proliferation in broiler chickens.

  9. Selenium balance in the adult cat in relation to intake of dietary sodium selenite and organically bound selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The response of cats to dietary sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and organically bound selenium was studied in two separate studies with four cats per treatment and three levels of selenium supplementation (targets 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/g DM) for each Se source. Whole blood and plasma selenium concentrations

  10. Selenium essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sams, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to migrate from Selenium RC or any other automation tool to Selenium WebDriver, then this book is for you. Knowledge of automation tools is necessary to follow the examples in this book.

  11. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  12. Contrastive response of Brassica napus L. to exogenous salicylic acid, selenium and silicon supplementation under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Ghader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was designed to determine the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA, selenium (Se and silicon (Si on the resistance of canola (Brassica napus L. cv Okapi seedlings to salt stress. Foliar application of SA (0.1 mM in canola plants under drought stress for 25 days exhibited a significantly positive effect on shoot dry mass and raised the levels of total chlorophyll as well as boosting the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. In addition, soil application of silicon (0.35 g Na2SiO3/kg soil had ameliorative effects on canola root growth under drought. It is concluded that SA and Si enhanced the salt tolerance of canola by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. However, the foliar application of Se (10 mg/l had no ameliorative effects on canola growth and antioxidant capacity under drought stress, as could be judged by accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA.

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  15. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  16. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy prevents vitamin D deficiency in the newborn: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, C P; Benson, J E; Vincent, A J; Whitehead, C L; Polykov, A; Vollenhoven, B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin D supplementation, in the vitamin D deficient mother, prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Open-label randomized controlled trial. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, tertiary hospital routine antenatal outpatient clinic. Seventy-eight women with singleton pregnancies with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (serum 25-OH Vit D l) at their first antenatal appointment at 12-16-week gestation were recruited. Participants were randomized to vitamin D supplementation (2000-4000 IU cholecalciferol) orally daily until delivery or no supplementation. The primary outcome was neonatal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. The secondary outcome was maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentration at delivery. Baseline mean maternal serum 25-OH vit D concentrations were similar (P = 0·9) between treatment (32 nmol/l, 95% confidence interval 26-39 nmol/l) and control groups (33 nmol/l, 95% CI 26-39 nmol/l). Umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery were higher (P l, 95% CI; 70-91 nmol/l) compared with neonates of control group mothers (42 nmol/l, 95% CI; 34-50 nmol/l) with a strongly positive correlation between maternal serum 25-OH Vit D and umbilical cord serum 25-OH vit D concentrations at delivery (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0·88; P l, 95% CI; 62-81 nmol/l) compared with the control group (36 nmol/l, 95% CI; 29-42 nmol/l). Vitamin D supplementation of vitamin D deficient pregnant women prevents neonatal vitamin D deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  18. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Haider, Batool A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-03-28

    During pregnancy, fetal growth causes an increase in the total number of rapidly dividing cells, which leads to increased requirements for folate. Inadequate folate intake leads to a decrease in serum folate concentration, resulting in a decrease in erythrocyte folate concentration, a rise in homocysteine concentration, and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow and other tissues with rapidly dividing cells To assess the effectiveness of oral folic acid supplementation alone or with other micronutrients versus no folic acid (placebo or same micronutrients but no folic acid) during pregnancy on haematological and biochemical parameters during pregnancy and on pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2012) and we contacted major organisations working in micronutrient supplementation, including UNICEF Nutrition Section, World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal and Reproductive Health, WHO Nutrition Division, and National Center on Birth defects and Developmnetal Disabilities, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All randomised, cluster-randomised and cross-over controlled trials evaluating supplementation of folic acid alone or with other micronutrients versus no folic acid (placebo or same micronutrients but no folic acid) in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Thirty-one trials involving 17,771 women are included in this review. This review found that folic acid supplementation has no impact on pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.38; three studies, 2959 participants), and stillbirths/neonatal deaths (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.85; three studies, 3110 participants). However, improvements were seen in the mean birthweight (mean difference (MD) 135.75, 95% CI 47.85 to 223.68). On the other hand, the review

  20. Suggested use of sensitive measures of memory to detect functional effects of maternal iodine supplementation on hippocampal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Dugan, Jessica A

    2016-09-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia secondary to iodine deficiency may have neurodevelopmental effects on the specific neurocognitive domain of memory. Associated disruption of thyroid hormone-dependent protein synthesis in the hippocampus has the potential to result in compromised development of the structure with consequential impairments in memory function. Despite links between maternal iodine deficiency during gestation and lactation and abnormal hippocampal development in rat fetuses and pups, there has been little research on the specific function of memory in human infants and young children born to iodine-deficient mothers. Several candidate measures have proven to be sensitive to the effects of gestational iron deficiency on memory function in infants and young children, including habituation and dishabituation, imitation-based tasks, and event-related potentials. Such measures could be used to test the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the specific neurocognitive domain of memory in infants and young children. Furthermore, progress in understanding the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurocognitive development could be accelerated by the development of a nonhuman primate model to complement the rodent model. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status.

  2. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  3. The effect of universal maternal antenatal iron supplementation on neurodevelopment in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, C; Polson, R; van Woerden, H C; Wilson, P

    2018-05-04

    Although antenatal iron supplementation is beneficial to mothers, its impact on the neurodevelopment of offspring is controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess whether routine maternal antenatal iron supplementation confers later neurodevelopmental benefit to offspring. Electronic databases were searched using MESH terms or key words and identified papers were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The review was registered in the PROSPERO CRD data base. Seven publications were identified, based on four randomised trials published between 2006 and 2016. Three of the trials were in the Asian sub-continent. A range of tools were used to evaluate neurodevelopment. Meta-analysis of outcomes from the three RCTs meeting our inclusion criteria showed minimal effect of antenatal iron supplementation on the neurodevelopment of offspring, which was not statistically significant: weighted mean difference of 0.54 (95% CI: -0.67 to 1.75); test for overall effect Z = 0.87; p = 0.38; and heterogeneity 48%. Meta-analysis of outcomes of these RCTs at later stages of development produced similar results. The benefit of routine antenatal iron supplementation on neurodevelopment in offspring was not statistically significant in this relatively limited set of trials, and some benefit cannot be excluded in areas with a high prevalence of maternal anaemia. A large randomized controlled trial showing significant benefit would be required to modify our conclusions.

  4. The influence of iodine and selenium supplementation on trace elemental contents in erythrocyte of the cretinism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nianqing; Liu Pingsheng

    2001-01-01

    The contents of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb in the erythrocyte of 5 groups of rats, were measured by PIXE and XRF. Four groups of the cretinism rats were continuously fed the feed from epidemic cretinism area. zone sandstone-type uranium deposit mineral haloes of intesupplementation. Control group was normal rats fed normal feed. Five weeks later the blood samples were collected. The erythrocyte was separated for the determination of elemental concentrations, the serum for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones T3, T4, FT3, FT4 and rT3 status. The comparison among five groups and the correlation between elements and thyroid hormones were performed by using SPSS/PC statistical package. The results showed that comparing with non-supplementation or control groups the concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, or Rb in the groups of I and/or Se supplementation were significantly fluctuating, while thyroid hormones T4, FT4 and rT3 significantly increased

  5. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and maternal depressive symptoms: Moderation by program perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Berger, Lawrence M; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have observed an association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and depression, which is contrary to SNAP's potential to alleviate food insecurity and financial strain. This study investigated the impact of change in SNAP participation status on maternal depression, and whether perceptions of government assistance moderate this association. Data were from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Logistic regression models with individual-specific fixed-effects, were fit to SNAP-eligible mothers who changed SNAP participation and depression status (N = 256) during waves 2 to 4. Perceptions of government assistance were defined as feelings of humiliation or loss of freedom and tested for interactions with SNAP participation. Perceptions of government assistance moderated the association between SNAP participation and depression (p-interaction = 0.0208). Those with positive perceptions of welfare had 0.27 (95% CI = 0.08 to 0.89) times lower odds of depression when enrolled vs. not enrolled in SNAP. Among those with negative perceptions of welfare, SNAP enrollment was not associated with depression (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.51). Evidence suggests that SNAP mental health benefits may be context specific. SNAP's capacity to improve mental health may depend on individual perceptions of government assistance. More research is needed to determine whether interventions aimed at mitigating negative perceptions of programs like SNAP could ameliorate poor mental health among program participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  8. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  9. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  10. The persistence of maternal vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation irrespective of season and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and lactation comprise a critical window spanning all seasons during which maternal vitamin D status potentially may influence the long-term health of the newborn. Women typically receive calcium/vitamin D supplementation through antenatal vitamins, but there has been limited serial evaluation of maternal vitamin D status across this critical window. In this prospective observational cohort study, 467 women in Toronto, Canada, underwent measurement of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) at mean 29·7 ± 2·9 weeks' gestation, 3 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum, enabling serial assessment across 3 seasons. At each assessment, vitamin D status was classified as deficiency (25-OH-Dl), insufficiency (25-OH-D≥50 nmol/l and l) or sufficiency (25-OH-D≥75 nmol/l). The prevalence rates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 31·5% and 35·1% in pregnancy, 33·4% and 35·3% at 3 months, and 35·6% and 33·8% at 12 months postpartum, respectively. These high rates remained stable over time (P = 0·49) despite declining usage of antenatal calcium/vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy to 3 months to 12 months postpartum (P vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnancy were independently associated with decrements in average 25-OH-D over time of 49·6 nmol/l and 26·4 nmol/l, respectively (both P vitamin D supplements were independently associated with changes in 25-OH-D in the range of 3-5 nmol/l (both P vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation, irrespective of season and supplementation, supports the emerging concept that current vitamin D supplementation in antenatal care is likely inadequate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P ... in the +I group (P caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood...

  12. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  13. The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T.; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D.; Thuy, Tran T.; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia affects over 500 million women, and in pregnancy is associated with impaired maternal and infant outcomes. Intermittent antenatal iron supplementation is an attractive alternative to daily dosing; however, the impact of this strategy on infant outcomes remains unclear. We compared the effect of intermittent antenatal iron supplementation with daily iron supplementation on maternal and infant outcomes in rural Viet Nam. Methods and Findings This cluster randomised trial was conducted in Ha Nam province, Viet Nam. 1,258 pregnant women (<16 wk gestation) in 104 communes were assigned to daily iron–folic acid (IFA), twice weekly IFA, or twice weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation. Primary outcome was birth weight. Mean birth weight was 3,148 g (standard deviation 416). There was no difference in the birth weights of infants of women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (mean difference [MD] 28 g; 95% CI −22 to 78), or twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (MD −36.8 g; 95% CI −82 to 8.2). At 32 wk gestation, maternal ferritin was lower in women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80), and in women receiving twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.62; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.68), but there was no difference in hemoglobin levels. Infants of mothers who received twice weekly IFA had higher cognitive scores at 6 mo of age compared to those who received daily IFA (MD 1.89; 95% CI 0.23 to 3.56). Conclusions Twice weekly antenatal IFA or MMN did not produce a clinically important difference in birth weight, when compared to daily IFA supplementation. The significant improvement in infant cognitive outcomes at 6 mo of age following twice weekly antenatal IFA requires further exploration, and provides additional support for the use of intermittent, rather than daily, antenatal IFA in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. Trial registration

  14. Selenium biofortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant foods are the major dietary sources of selenium (Se) in most countries around the world, followed by meats and seafood. For this reason, it is vital to increase Se uptake by plants and to produce crops with higher Se concentrations and bioavailability in their edible tissues. One of the most p...

  15. Effect of peroral supplementation with selenium and vitamin e during late pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Vasiľ; František Zigo; Juraj Elečko; Martina Zigová; Zuzana Farkašová

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study selenium and vitamin E sources in the diet of dairy cows in late phase of pregnancy and their effects on udder health and milk quality during the first two weeks after calving. The experiment included 48 cows of Holstein breed divided into four equal groups (n = 12). The first experimental group (D1) was fed with addition of vitamin E in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day. The second group (D2) was added the selenium at a dose of 0...

  16. Polyphenols and IUGR pregnancies: Maternal hydroxytyrosol supplementation improves prenatal and early-postnatal growth and metabolism of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vazquez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls. Number and weight of offspring were assessed at birth, on post-natal Day 15 and at weaning (25 days-old. At weaning, body composition and plasma indexes of glucose and lipids were measured. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol was associated with higher mean birth weight, lower incidence of piglets with low birth weight. Afterwards, during the lactation period, piglets in the treated group showed a higher body-weight than control piglets; such effects were even stronger in the most prolific litters. These results suggest that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol may improve pre- and early post-natal development of offspring in pregnancies at risk of IUGR.

  17. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation

  18. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezk, R G [Health Rad. Res., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, M F [Rad. Biology Dept., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation.

  19. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  20. ‘‘Omics’’ of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan,Chagas, and Kashin–Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associate...

  1. Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Emily R; Shankar, Anuraj H; Wu, Lee S-F

    2017-01-01

    -analysis of individual patient included data from 17 randomised controlled trials done in 14 low-income and middle-income countries, which compared multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron-folic acid versus iron-folic acid alone in 112 953 pregnant women. We generated study-specific estimates and pooled...... subgroup estimates using fixed-effects models and assessed heterogeneity between subgroups with the χ(2) test for heterogeneity. We did sensitivity analyses using random-effects models, stratifying by iron-folic acid dose, and exploring individual study effect. FINDINGS: Multiple micronutrient supplements...... containing iron-folic acid provided significantly greater reductions in neonatal mortality for female neonates compared with male neonates than did iron-folic acid supplementation alone (RR 0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·96 vs 1·06, 0·95-1·17; p value for interaction 0·007). Multiple micronutrient supplements resulted...

  2. Selenium Homeostasis and Clustering of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Salehi, Mansour; Nezafati, Pouya; Gharpour, Amin

    2017-10-23

      Selenium is a trace element required for a range of cellular functions. It is widely used for the biosynthesis of the unique amino acid selenocysteine [Sec], which is a structural element of selenoproteins. This systematic review focused on the possible relation between selenium and metabolic risk factors. The literature was searched via PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Searches were not restricted by time or language. Relevant studies were selected in three phases. After an initial quality assessment, two reviewers extracted all the relevant data, whereas the third reviewer checked their extracted data. All evidence came from experimental and laboratory studies. Selenoprotein P is the best indicator for selenium nutritional levels. In addition, high levels of selenium may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome while the lack of sufficient selenium may also promote metabolic syndrome. selenium supplementation in subjects with sufficient serum selenium levels has a contrary effect on blood pressure, LDL, and total cholesterol. According to the bioavailability of different types of selenium supplementation such as selenomethionine, selenite and selenium-yeast, it seems that the best nutritional type of selenium is selenium-yeast. Regarding obtained results of longitudinal studies and randomized controlled trials, selenium supplementation should not be recommended for primary or secondary cardio-metabolic risk prevention in populations with adequate selenium status.

  3. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and immunity to malaria in pregnancy in Ghanaian primigravids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Sharon E; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria. The patholo......BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria...... in vitro (anti-VSACSA IgG or anti-VSA IgG). Placental malarial infection was determined by placental blood smear and histology. RESULTS: Vitamin A supplementation was non-significantly associated with a decreased risk of active or chronic-active placental malarial infection compared to past, resolved...

  4. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  5. Association of Maternal Use of Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplements in the Periods Before and During Pregnancy With the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Kodesh, Arad; Viktorin, Alexander; Smith, Lauren; Uher, Rudolf; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven

    2018-02-01

    The association of maternal use of folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy with the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring is unclear. To examine the associations between the use of maternal folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy and the risk of ASD in offspring. A case-control cohort study of 45 300 Israeli children born between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were followed up from birth to January 26, 2015, for the risk of ASD. The cases were all children diagnosed with ASD and the controls were a random sample of 33% of all live-born children. Maternal vitamin supplements were classified for folic acid (vitamin B9), multivitamin supplements (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical A11 codes vitamins A, B, C, and D), and any combination thereof exposed in the intervals before and during pregnancy. The association between maternal vitamin supplementation and the risk of ASD in offspring was quantified with relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Of the 45 300 children in the study (22 090 girls and 23 210 boys; mean [SD] age, 10.0 [1.4] years at the end of follow-up), 572 (1.3%) received a diagnosis of ASD. Maternal exposure to folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in the offspring compared with no exposure before pregnancy (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.30-0.50; P supplements during pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in offspring compared with no exposure during pregnancy (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33; P supplements before pregnancy (RR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P supplements during pregnancy (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.28-0.44; P supplements before and during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of

  6. Associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and folate concentrations during pregnancy with foetal and child head growth: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); A.N. Walstra (Alette N.); H. El Marroun (Hanan); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with a reduced risk of common neurodevelopmental delays in the offspring. However, it is unclear whether low folate status has effects on the developing brain. We evaluated the associations of maternal folic acid

  7. Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Masojídek, Jiří; Kozák, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, Article ID 408270 (2014) ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk LO1205; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0024 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 087/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : selenite * selenium * antioxidant response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Maternal sodium butyrate supplement elevates the lipolysis in adipose tissue and leads to lipid accumulation in offspring liver of weaning-age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-07-22

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is reported to regulate lipid metabolism in mammals, and the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring growth has drawn much attention in the last several years. To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary SB supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in weaning rats, we fed 16 primiparous purebred female SD rats either a chow-diet or a 1 % sodium butyrate diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning age, samples of the maternal subcutaneous adipose tissue and offspring liver were taken. The serum indexes and expressions of proteins related to lipid metabolism were detected in the mother and offspring, respectively. The results showed that the maternal SB supplement increased the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in the maternal and offspring serum (P pregnancy and lactation increased the hepatic total cholesterol (Tch) content (P pregnancy and the lactation period promotes maternal fat mobilization, which may result in fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation in the liver of the offspring.

  9. Increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10. A prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Aaseth, Jan; Alexander, Jan; Brismar, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) has a multitude of effects besides cell growth and metabolism. Reports also indicate anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The concentrations of IGF-1 decrease with age and during inflammation. As selenium and coenzyme Q10 are involved in both the antioxidative defense and the inflammatory response, the present study aimed to examine the effects of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 on concentrations of IGF-1 and its binding protein IGFBP-1 in a population showing reduced cardiovascular mortality following such supplementation. Methods 215 elderly individuals were included and given the intervention for four years. A clinical examination was performed and blood samples were taken at the start and after 48 months. Evaluations of IGF-1, the age adjusted IGF-1 SD score and IGFBP-1 were performed using group mean values, and repeated measures of variance. Findings After supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10, applying group mean evaluations, significantly higher IGF-1 and IGF-1 SD scores could be seen in the active treatment group, whereas a decrease in concentration could be seen of the same biomarkers in the placebo group. Applying the repeated measures of variance evaluations, the same significant increase in concentrations of IGF-1 (F = 68; P>0.0001), IGF-1 SD score (F = 29; PIGF-1 as one of the mechanistic effects of the intervention. Conclusion Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 over four years resulted in increased levels of IGF-1 and the postprandial IGFBP-1, and an increase in the age-corrected IGF-1 SD score, compared with placebo. The effects could be part of the mechanistic explanation behind the surprisingly positive clinical effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality reported earlier. However, as the effects of IGF-1 are complex, more research on the result of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 is needed. PMID:28609475

  10. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determinants of selenium in the toenail biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Ngwenyama, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of human nails as a measure of selenium intake and to assess selenium status in critical tissues is now being used routinely to investigate hypotheses relating selenium status to chronic disease, especially cancer. In this study we report on our observations of the major determinants of toenail selenium concentrations. Toenail specimens (3575) were, under a protocol we provided, self-collected by adult females (1940, 54.3%) and males (1635, 45.7%) living in 111 of Missouri's 114 counties. The health-conscious participants ranged in age from 18 to 94 years with means of 53.7±14.1 and 56.4±14.2 years for females and males, respectively. Selenium supplement use was over represented, 39.1% and 42.7%, and smoking was under represented, 7.5% and 7.8%, for females and males, respectively. The major determinants of toenail selenium concentration were supplement use, sex and cigarette smoking. We found no overall correlations with age, body mass index or diet selection. (author)

  12. THE LEVELS OF SELENIUM IN CERRADOS PASTURES AND THE EFFECTS OF ITS SUPPLEMENTATION IN PERFORMANCE OF LAMBS NÍVEIS DE SELÊNIO EM PASTAGENS DE CERRADO E EFEITOS DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO SOBRE O DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This experiment was carried out in the Água Limpa Farm, of the University of Brasília, aiming to estimate the level of selenium and its variation during the year in some cultivated pastures of the cerrados region (Andropogon gayanus var. bisquamulatus, Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis. On the other hand, it was determined the effects of the supplementation, through intramuscular applications, in 24 Bergamacia weaned lambs. Pastures samples were collected trying to simulate the animal grazing, at intervals of 84 days, and different chemical methods of determination of selenium were evaluated. The fluorometric method has the best response and the levels of the samples varied from 0.025 to 0.075 ppm. In relation to the lambs, difference in weight gains were not statistically significant (P>0.05.

    KEY-WORDS: Brazilian savannas (“cerrados”; sheep; selenium supplementation.

    O presente experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Água Limpa, da Universidade de Brasília, e teve como objetivos verificar os níveis estacionais de selênio encontrados nas pastagens de Andropogon gayanus var. bisquamulatus, Brachiaria decunbens e Brachiaria ruziziensis e avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de selênio por via intramuscular em 24 ovinos desmamados da raça Bergamácia. Foram efetuadas quatro coletas de forragem procurando imitar o pastejo dos animais e testados os métodos químicos para análise de selênio. O método fluorométrico foi o mais adequado e determinaram-se os níveis que variaram entre 0,025 e 0,075 ppm para as pastagens estudadas. Com relação aos cordeiros, não se observou efeito significativo para o ganho de peso dos cordeiros (P>0

  13. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    mortality, as compared with iron-folic acid supplementation among 2,100 pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau. Women receiving a 1xRDA MMS preparation (consisting of 14 vitamins and minerals) had a marginally reduced risk of fetal loss (Relative risk (RR) 0.65, 95% CI 0.40; 1.05), and women receiving a 2xRDA MMS...

  14. Response of selenium changes in blood using cyclic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.B.; Damyanova, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the response of selenium uptake and washout in whole blood and its components in healthy subjects, aged 20 to 30 yr, who were given selenium as a supplement to their usual diet, in the form of a yeast tablet (200 mg) containing 100 μg of the element together with vitamins A, C, and E (natural). Selenium has gained worldwide interest not only as an essential trace element but as a potent modifier of environmental hazards and as a naturally occurring toxicant. It is important therefore to investigate the character and the degree of the changes in healthy people on selenium supplementation. Cyclic activation analysis was used for the determination of selenium concentration through the detection of /sup 77m/Se (17.5 s), because of the increased sensitivity of the method and the large number of samples involved

  15. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplement during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of maternal P falciparum parasitaemia and reproductive tract infections: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Minyanga; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Dewey, Kathryn G; Gondwe, Austrida; Mbotwa, John; Rogerson, Stephen; Taylor, Steve M; Maleta, Kenneth

    2017-01-17

    Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from UTI using urine dipstick analysis. The prevalence of each infection by intervention group was estimated at the prescribed time points and the global null hypothesis was tested using logistic regression. Adjusted analyses were performed using preselected covariates. The prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia was 10.7% at 32 gw, 9% at 36 gw, and 8.3% by RDT and 20.2% by PCR at delivery. After delivery the prevalence of trichomoniasis was 10.5%, vaginal candidiasis was 0.5%, and UTI was 3.1%. There were no differences between intervention groups in the prevalence of any of the infections. In this population, SQ-LNS did not influence the occurrence of maternal P. falciparum parasitaemia, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis or UTI. Identifier: NCT01239693 (10 November 2010).

  16. Maternal and Child Supplementation with Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, but Not Child Supplementation Alone, Decreases Self-Reported Household Food Insecurity in Some Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine P; Ayifah, Emmanuel; Phiri, Thokozani E; Mridha, Malay K; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Arnold, Charles D; Cummins, Joseph; Hussain, Sohrab; Kumwenda, Chiza; Matias, Susana L; Ashorn, Ulla; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-12-01

    Background: It is unknown whether self-reported measures of household food insecurity change in response to food-based nutrient supplementation. Objective: We assessed the impacts of providing lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) to women during pregnancy and postpartum and/or to their children on self-reported household food insecurity in Malawi [DOSE and DYAD trial in Malawi (DYAD-M)], Ghana [DYAD trial in Ghana (DYAD-G)], and Bangladesh [Rang-Din Nutrition Study (RDNS) trial]. Methods: Longitudinal household food-insecurity data were collected during 3 individually randomized trials and 1 cluster-randomized trial testing the efficacy or effectiveness of LNSs (generally 118 kcal/d). Seasonally adjusted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) scores were constructed for 1127 DOSE households, 732 DYAD-M households, 1109 DYAD-G households, and 3671 RDNS households. The impact of providing LNSs to women during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and/or to their children from 6 to 18-24 mo on seasonally adjusted HFIAS scores was assessed by using negative binomial models (DOSE, DYAD-M, and DYAD-G trials) and mixed-effect negative binomial models (RDNS trial). Results: In the DOSE and DYAD-G trials, seasonally adjusted HFIAS scores were not different between the LNS and non-LNS groups. In the DYAD-M trial, the average household food-insecurity scores were 14% lower ( P = 0.01) in LNS households than in non-LNS households. In the RDNS trial, compared with non-LNS households, food-insecurity scores were 17% lower ( P = 0.02) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and 15% lower ( P = 0.02) at 6-24 mo postpartum in LNS households. Conclusions: The daily provision of LNSs to mothers and their children throughout much of the "first 1000 d" may improve household food security in some settings, which could be viewed as an additional benefit that may accrue in households should policy makers choose to invest in LNSs to promote child growth and development

  17. Early participation in a prenatal food supplementation program ameliorates the negative association of food insecurity with quality of maternal-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-06-01

    Food insecurity is detrimental to child development, yet little is known about the combined influence of food insecurity and nutritional interventions on child development in low-income countries. We proposed that women assigned to an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program could reduce the negative influence of food insecurity on maternal-infant interaction. A cohort of 180 mother-infant dyads were studied (born between May and October 2003) from among 3267 in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation time to start receiving food supplements (2.5 MJ/d; 6 d/wk) either early (~9 wk gestation; early-invitation group) or at the usual start time (~20 wk gestation; usual-invitation group) for the government program. Maternal-infant interaction was observed in homes with the use of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale, and food-insecurity status was obtained from questionnaires completed when infants were 3.4-4.0 mo old. By using a general linear model for maternal-infant interaction, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.012) between invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program and food insecurity. Those in the usual-invitation group with higher food insecurity scores (i.e., more food insecure) had a lower quality of maternal-infant interaction, but this relationship was ameliorated among those in the early-invitation group. Food insecurity limits the ability of mothers and infants to interact well, but an early invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation program can support mother-infant interaction among those who are food insecure.

  18. Influence of dietary sodium selenite on tissue selenium levels of growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moksnes, K.; Tollersrud, S.; Larsen, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty Norwegian Landrace pigs were divided into 5 groups and fed a basal diet consisting of a mixture of dried skim milk and whey powder together with ground barley. The diet was supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 μg/g selenium as sodium selenite and was fed for 12 weeks. The muscle selenium level was increased by a factor of about 4 and the liver selenium by a factor of about 12 when the dietary selenium supplement was increased from zero to 2.2μg/g. There was a significant linear correlation between dietary selenium and selenium concentrations in tissues. Possible benefit for humans consuming meat from animals having received the selenium doses used in this experiment are discussed. (author)

  19. Development of speciation analysis for selenium in nutritional supplements by the determination of the seleno-methionine; Developpement de l'analyse de speciation du selenium dans des complements alimentaires par la determination de la selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannac, S.; Labarraque, G.; Fisicaro, P. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essai (LNE), 75 - Paris (France); Sannac, S.; Pannier, F.; Potin-Gautier, M. [Pau Univ. et des Pays de l' Adour, CNRS/UMR 5254, Lab. de Chimie Analytique, Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (IPREM), 64 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The development of a reference method in analytical chemistry is presented. Liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed to perform in speciation analysis. Applications are developed for the determination of seleno-methionine in nutritional supplements. The use of isotope dilution, a primary method, is required to enable measurement traceability. Method validation is ensured by the study of a certified reference material. (authors)

  20. The role of selenium in predicting preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghaemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a common disorder that is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality; however its specific etiology has still remained obscure.The first step in preventing preeclampsia is early detection of women at risk. Since there is no valid and reliable screening test, appropriate diagnostic and screening tests are necessary, which are inexpensive, non-invasive and beneficial for pregnant women. Therefore, regarding the role of selenium as an antioxidant in the prevention preeclampsia, this study was designed which aimed to determine the prognostic value of plasma selenium levels in the diagnosis of preeclampsia in primigravida women Methods: In a nested case control design, a sample of 650 normal primigravida women of 24-28 weeks participated in the study. Subjects who involved the case group were followed up for 3 months and 38 were affected by preeclampsia. Blood samples were obtained from these 38patients as well as from 38 subjects as their matched controls. Moreover, the amount of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean level of selenium in blood plasma of the cases was significantly lower than in their matched controls. The present study findings revealed that pregnant women with serum Se < 66.1 μg/L had a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Lower plasma selenium level in women destines to suffering from preeclampsia which confirms the destructive effect of selenium deficiency as an antioxidant in etiopathology of preeclampsia. Measurement of plasma selenium can improve the prediction of preeclampsia; thus, it seems that plasma selenium level test owns an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for predicting preeclampsia.

  1. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...

  2. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 yr of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation inpregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Furuhjelm, Catrin; Warstedt, Kristina; Fagerås Böttcher, Malin; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Larsson, Johanna; Fredriksson, Mats; Duchén, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (x-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life. Here we investigate whether the effects of the LCPUFA supplementation on IgE-associated diseases last up to 2 yr of age and assess the relationship between plasma proportions of x-3 PUFAs and the frequency and severity of infant allergic disease. ...

  3. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  4. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  5. Dietary supplementation of chelated selenium and broiler chicken meat qualitySuplementação de selênio quelatado na ração e qualidade da carne de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massami Shimokomaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is selenium-containing enzyme, which catalyses the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and lipid hydroperoxides preventing the oxidative damages in animal tissues. The selenium (Se deficiency increases the need for vitamin E. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of chelated Se on the poultry meat quality. Fourteen Cobb chicks with 1 day of age were divided into two groups: C-Control group (without supplementation and S-Supplemented group (with 0.03mg of chelated Se.kg-1 of feed. Birds at 42 days of age were slaughtered and boneless skinless chicken thighs were collected and stored at –18ºC for 30 days. Thighs were analyzed for the cooking loss, lipid oxidation by Thiobarbituric-Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and GSH-Px activity by coupled assay procedure recording the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidation. Samples of Supplemented group presented 33.8% less water after cooking (p ? 0.05 and were 23.6% (p ? 0.10 less oxidized when compared with samples of group Control. The GSH-Px activity of thighs did not differ significantly (p> 0.05 between groups Supplemented and Control. The supplementation with 0.03mg of Se in the kg of feed improved the meat quality by reducing the lipid oxidation and cooking loss, however did not increase the GSH-Px activity.O selênio (Se é componente da enzima glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px que catalisa a redução de peróxido de hidrogênio e peróxido lipídico, prevenindo danos oxidativos nos tecidos animais. A deficiência de Se aumenta a necessidade de vitamina E pelos animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação de selênio quelatado sobre a qualidade da carne de frango. Os 14 pintinhos de corte da linhagem Cobb de 1 dia de idade foram divididos em 2 grupos: C-Controle (sem suplementação e S-Suplementado com 0,03mg Se quelatado. kg-1 de ração. Os frangos com 42 dias de

  6. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  7. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention. PMID:23552052

  8. Selenium's importance in regulatory issues regarding mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Laura J.; Ralston, Nicholas V.C. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current seafood safety and health risk assessment criteria use mercury concentrations as their sole basis. This unfortunate limitation omits consideration of selenium, an essential trace element that appears to be the primary molecular target of mercury toxicity. Although selenium has been recognized for decades as a means of counteracting mercury toxicity, its effects have often been overlooked or misunderstood. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that increasing concentrations of selenium throughout the normal dietary range increasingly counteracts methylmercury toxicity. Dietary concentrations of selenium that are slightly less than the average amount present in ocean fish have been shown to completely prevent the onset of toxic symptoms of mercury toxicity, while animals fed lesser amounts of selenium rapidly sickened and died. Dietary selenium from a variety of sources including ocean fish such as tuna, swordfish, menhaden, and rockfish has been shown to counteract mercury toxicity. Since ocean fish are among the richest sources of dietary selenium, it is important to include selenium concentration measurements in future mercury risk assessments and seafood safety criteria. Mercury:selenium molar ratios in blood provide far more consistent and physiologically meaningful risk assessments. Comprehensive seafood safety criteria such as the Selenium Health Benefit Value enable clear differentiation between seafoods that are safe and those that are hazardous for human consumption. Use of parameters that integrate mercury-selenium relationships also make it easy to understand the differences between the findings of maternal mercury exposure studies that have been performed in New Zealand, the Faroes, the Seychelles, and the United Kingdom. Development of criteria for evaluating mercury-selenium interactions will enhance environmental protection and improve public safety. (author)

  9. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  10. Influence of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation of pregnant ewes on maternal and fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes and insulin-containing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Yunusova, R; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Meyer, A M; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-03-01

    Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses

  11. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  12. Current Knowledge on the Importance of Selenium in Food for Living Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2016-05-10

    Selenium is one of the elements classified within the group of micronutrients which are necessary in trace amounts for the proper functioning of organisms. Selenium participates in the protection of cells against excess H₂O₂, in heavy metal detoxification, and regulation of the immune and reproductive systems as well. It also ensures the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Selenium induces the occurrence of the selenoprotein synthesis process involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism of the organism. Recent years have brought much success in the studies on selenium. Anticarcinogenic properties of selenium against some cancers have been reported. Supplementation is increasingly becoming a solution to this problem. A large number of different supplementation methods are promoting studies in this area. Slight differences in the selenium content can result in excess or deficiency, therefore supplementation has to be done carefully and cautiously.

  13. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  14. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium status and cancer mortality in subjects residing in four Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Horsman, T.L.; Spate, V.L.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Rohan, T.; Soskolne, C.L.; Jain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Selenium status in male and female Canadian subjects was measured relative to cancer mortality in their respective provinces. Toenail specimens from 755 subjects, 377 males and 378 females, living in Vancouver (186), Edmonton (188), Toronto (197) and Montreal (184) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis giving means of 0.968 ± 0.177, 0.950 ± 0.148, 0.932 ± 0.135 and 0.896 ± 0.127 ppm Se, respectively. The effect of selenium determinants such as gender, selenium supplementation and smoking on selenium status is presented. Details of the observed inverse relationship of selenium status and cancer mortality are discussed. (author)

  16. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  17. Efeito da suplementação de selênio e vitamina E sobre a incidência de mastite clínica em vacas da raça holandesa Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Paschoal

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro vacas da raça holandesa foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos (grupos: o grupo A recebeu 5mg Se/dia, o B recebeu 1000 UI vit. E/dia, o C 5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E/dia e o D foi usado como controle. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas quinzenalmente para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de Se e de vit. E. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, ao parto, aos 30 e aos 60 dias após o parto para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O teste de Tamis foi realizado semanalmente para detecção dos casos clínicos de mastite e iniciado logo após o parto, prolongando-se até a 12ª semana da lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos de Se superiores (PEighty four Holstein cows were randomly allotted to four groups: group A was supplemented with 5mg Se/day, group B with 1000 IU vitamin E/day, group C with 5mg Se/day+1000 IU vitamin E/day and D was used as a control. The supplementation period started 30 days prior to probable parturition date and ended at parturition. Forage and concentrate samples were taken every 15 days for chemical, selenium and vitamin E analyses. Blood samples were taken before starting supplementation, at parturition, and at 30 and 60 days after parturition to determine the selenium serum levels. Tamis test was weekly done to detect clinical mastitis. Selenium supplemented cows had higher serum selenium concentration in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The vitamin E (P<0.05 as well as selenium supplementation (P<0.08 decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 12 weeks of the lactation period.

  18. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  19. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize ( Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L -1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  20. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium (Se supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity and water stress (60% field capacity conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing and was repeated after one week, whereas water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41% and enhanced relative water contents (30%, total chlorophyll (53%, carotenoid contents (60%, accumulation of total free amino acids (40% and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%, catalase (30%, peroxidase (27% and ascorbate peroxidase (27% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15% and increased crude protein (47%, fibre (10%, nitrogen free extract (10% and Se content (36% but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose

  1. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture

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    Marek Kieliszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine. Selenium introduced (20–30 mg Se4+∙L−1 to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV selenite (Na2SeO3 salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.−1 was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se4+∙L−1. The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.−1 was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se4+∙L−1. Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L−1. The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans

  2. Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, Céline; Julliand, Véronique; Danel, Justine; Philippeau, Christelle

    2013-09-28

    The present study aimed at (1) describing age-related changes in faecal bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate degradation and in their activities in foals (n 10) from birth (day (d) 0) to 6 months (d180) and (2) investigating the effect of maternal supplementation (five mares per treatment) from d - 45 to d60 with fermented feed products on response trends over time of the foal bacterial carbohydratedegrading capacity. Maternal supplementation with fermented feed products stimulated foal growth from d0 to d60 and had an impact on the establishment of some digestive bacterial groups and their activities in foals from d0 to d5 but not in the longer term. Irrespective of the maternal treatment, total bacteria, total anaerobic, lactate-utilising and amylolytic bacteria were established immediately after birth (Panaerobes and lactate utilisers were established rapidly between d0 and d2 (P=0·021 and 0·066, respectively) and the increase in the percentage of propionate occurred earlier (P=0·013). Maternal supplementation had no effect on the establishment of fibrolytic bacteria and their activity. Cellulolytic bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes first appeared at d2 and d5, and increased progressively, reaching stable values at d30 and d60, respectively. From the second week of life, the increase in the molar percentage of acetate and the ratio (acetate + butyrate):propionate (P<0·05) suggested that fibrolytic activity had begun. From d60, only minor changes in bacterial composition and activities occurred, showing that the bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity was established at 2 months of age.

  3. Maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements during pregnancy and lactation does not reduce depressive symptoms at 6 months postpartum in Ghanaian women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okronipa, Harriet; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Ashorn, Per; Vosti, Stephen A; Young, Rebecca R; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-01

    We examined the impact on depression at 6 months postpartum of maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) compared to supplementation with iron and folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN). In this partially double-blinded randomized controlled trial, pregnant women ≤20 weeks gestation (n = 1320) were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomly assigned to receive either (1) SQ-LNS during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum, or (2) IFA during pregnancy only, or (3) MMN during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured at 6 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Women who scored 12 or more on the EPDS were considered to show symptoms of depression. One thousand one hundred fifty-one women were included in this analysis (LNS = 382, IFA = 387 and MMN = 382). Characteristics of the three groups were similar at baseline, and there were no significant differences between women who were included in the analysis (n = 1151) and those who were not (n = 169). At 6 months postpartum, 13% of the women overall showed symptoms of depression, and this did not differ by group (LNS = 13.1%, IFA = 11.2% and MMN = 14.7%. P = 0.36). The median (25, 75 percentile) EPDS score did not differ by group (LNS 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), IFA 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), MMN 5.0 (2.0, 9.0), P transformed  = 0.13). Adjustment for covariates did not alter these findings. Maternal supplementation with SQ-LNS compared to MMN or IFA did not affect postnatal depressive symptoms in this sample of Ghanaian women.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of maternal omega-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood development of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Makrides, Maria; Colombo, John; Smithers, Lisa G

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the hippocampus and frontal lobes of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. These areas of the brain contribute to attention and working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC). We evaluated the effect of maternal omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on child attention and WMIC. A total of 185 term-born children of mothers who were randomly allocated to consume 800 mg DHA/d (treatment) or a placebo (control) from ∼20 wk of gestation until birth were assessed with multiple measures of attention and WMIC at a mean (± SD) of 27 ± 2 mo. Primary outcomes were the average time it took to be distracted when playing with a toy (distractibility) and the accuracy of remembering a new hiding location while inhibiting a learned response to search in the previous location (WMIC). Assessments were completed by 81 children in the treatment group (mean ± SD age: 835 ± 50.4 d) and 77 children in the control group (839 ± 65.6 d). There was no effect of supplementation on primary outcomes [distractibility mean difference: -0.2 s (95% CI: -0.7, 0.4 s); WMIC mean difference: 8.9 mm (95% CI: -10.6, 28.3 mm)]. There was no difference between DHA-supplemented and control groups except that treatment-group children looked away from the toys fewer times than controls when presented with multiple toys competing for attention but less accurately remembered a repeated hiding location. These secondary effects were not consistent with any other outcomes and may have been a result of chance. Cord plasma DHA was not consistently associated with attention and WMIC. Maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not enhance attention or WMIC in term-born preschoolers. The DHA for Maternal and Infant Outcomes trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN1260500056906.

  5. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  6. Maternal reproductive health: Expression patterns of antioxidant enzyme selenoproteins of post-implantation embryos conceived by ethanol-treated murine mothers supplemented with α-tocopherol

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    Gliceria B Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate if the protective effect of α-tocopherol against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis involved the activity of the selenoproteins phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx; GPx4 and selenoprotein P (SelPP that have roles against oxidative stress.Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into natural control (CON, positive control (ETOH, low-, medium-, and high-α-tocopherol-supplemented-ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC, respectively. CON received drinking water without ethanol while ETOH, LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages of α-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819, and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at day 14 before mating onwards to the day 9 of gestation. At 10.5 ED of gestation (1 100 h, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the embryos were harvested. Total RNA were extracted, cDNA synthesis and qRT-PCR analyses were carried out.Results: The level of expression of PHGPx in the positive control was significantly lower than that of the natural control. Among the three α-tocopherol-supplemented groups, only the medium dose-group was significantly higher than the positive control. The level of expression of SelPP in the positive control was significantly lower than those of the natural control, the low- and medium-dose-tocopherol supplemented groups. In the high dose-α-tocopherol supplemented group, the level of expression was not significantly different from the positive control but significantly lower than the natural control.Conclusions: The activity of the selenoproteins PHGPx and SelPP are involved in the internetwork of antioxidative enzymes with vitamin E when given up to a medium dose only and is one of the possible pathways of shielding embryonic development against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis. This study strengthens the impact of dietary α-tocopherol and Selenium

  7. Toenail selenium level among healthy residents of two Polish Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowska, J.; Biziuk, M.; Bode, P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the selenium mass fraction in toenail clippings taken from random inhabitants living in various areas of the Pomeranian (Northern Poland) and Lubuskie (Western Poland) Districts. Toenail clippings were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving means of 0.57±0.10 and 0.60±0.16 mg x kg -1 for the two areas, respectively, but the difference was statistically not significant. In additional, it was found that gender, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and selenium supplementation are factors with apparent effects to the selenium levels in toenail clippings. (author)

  8. New scientific challenges - the possibilities of using selenium in poultry nutrition and impact on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.

  9. SUPPLEMENTATION WITH VITAMINS C AND E DURING PREGNANCY FOR THE PREVENTION OF PREECLAMPSIA AND OTHER ADVERSE MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND METAANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; HASSAN, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy reduces the risk of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Nine trials involving a total of 19,810 women were included. Overall, there were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of preeclampsia (9.6% versus 9.6%; relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.92–1.09). Similar results were obtained when subgroup analyses were restricted to women at high risk or low/moderate risk for preeclampsia. Women supplemented with vitamins C and E were at increased risk of developing gestational hypertension and premature rupture of membranes, and a decreased risk of abruptio placentae. There were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of other adverse maternal or fetal/perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy does not prevent preeclampsia. PMID:21529757

  10. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  11. Effect of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation on maternal health, birth outcomes, and infant growth among HIV-infected Tanzanian pregnant women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher P; Aboud, Said; Muhihi, Alfa; Sando, David M; Al-Beity, Fadhlun M Alwy; Wang, Molin; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2017-09-04

    Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D 3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children. The Trial of Vitamins-5 (ToV5) is an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maternal vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation conducted among 2300 HIV-infected pregnant women receiving triple-drug ART under Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. HIV-infected pregnant women of 12-27 weeks gestation are randomized to either: 1) 3000 IU vitamin D 3 taken daily from randomization in pregnancy until trial discharge at 12 months postpartum; or 2) a matching placebo regimen. Maternal participants are followed-up at monthly clinic visits during pregnancy, at delivery, and then with their children at monthly postpartum clinic visits. The primary efficacy outcomes of the trial are: 1) maternal HIV disease progression or death; 2) risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) births; and 3) risk of infant stunting at 1 year of age. The primary safety outcome of the trial is incident maternal hypercalcemia. Secondary outcomes include a range of clinical and biological maternal and child health outcomes. The ToV5 will provide causal evidence on the effect of vitamin D 3 supplementation on HIV progression and death, SGA births, and infant stunting at 1 year of age. The results of the trial are likely generalizable to HIV-infected pregnant women and their children in similar resource-limited settings utilizing the Option B+ approach. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02305927

  12. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  13. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Lutz

    2011-10-18

    The trace element selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Most of the known selenoproteins are expressed in the thyroid gland, including some with still unknown functions. Among the well-characterized selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism, regulation of redox state and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium content in selenium-sensitive tissues such as the liver, kidney or muscle and expression of nonessential selenoproteins, such as the glutathione peroxidases GPx1 and GPx3, is controlled by nutritional supply. The thyroid gland is, however, largely independent from dietary selenium intake and thyroid selenoproteins are preferentially expressed. As a consequence, no explicit effects on thyroid hormone profiles are observed in healthy individuals undergoing selenium supplementation. However, low selenium status correlates with risk of goiter and multiple nodules in European women. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that selenium-deficient patients with autoimmune thyroid disease benefit from selenium supplementation, although the data are conflicting and many parameters must still be defined. The baseline selenium status of an individual could constitute the most important parameter modifying the outcome of selenium supplementation, which might primarily disrupt self-amplifying cycles of the endocrine-immune system interface rectifying the interaction of lymphocytes with thyroid autoantigens. Selenium deficiency is likely to constitute a risk factor for a feedforward derangement of the immune system-thyroid interaction, while selenium supplementation appears to dampen the self-amplifying nature of this derailed interaction.

  14. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  15. Maternal reproductive health: Expression patterns of antioxidant enzyme selenoproteins of post-implantation embryos conceived by ethanol-treated murine mothers supplemented with α-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliceria B Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Selenium supplement during the critical period of pregnancy.

  16. An investigation into the effects of maternal supplementation with excess iodine on the mechanisms and impacts of reduced IgG absorption in the lamb postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, F M; Sweeney, T; Ryan, M T; Lott, S; Campion, F P; Boland, T M

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs' response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition. Progeny of I ewes had lower (Plamb at 24 h postpartum; however, thyroid hormone receptor-β (THRB) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) expression declined (Plamb postpartum. These effects were followed by an enhancement of average daily gain and lower N. battus FEC in the pre-weaning period of I-supplemented lambs.

  17. Late Maternal Folate Supplementation Rescues from Methyl Donor Deficiency-Associated Brain Defects by Restoring Let-7 and miR-34 Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Andréa; Kerek, Racha; Pourié, Grégory; Helle, Déborah; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Daval, Jean-Luc; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine

    2017-09-01

    The micronutrients folate and vitamin B12 are essential for the proper development of the central nervous system, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders. They act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism which critically influences epigenetic mechanisms. In order to depict further underlying mechanisms, we investigated the role of let-7 and miR-34, two microRNAs regulated by methylation, on a rat model of maternal deficiency. In several countries, public health policies recommend periconceptional supplementation with folic acid. However, the question about the duration and periodicity of supplementation remains. We therefore tested maternal supply (3 mg/kg/day) during the last third of gestation from embryonic days (E) 13 to 20. Methyl donor deficiency-related developmental disorders at E20, including cerebellar and interhemispheric suture defects and atrophy of selective cerebral layers, were associated with increased brain expression (by 2.5-fold) of let-7a and miR-34a, with subsequent downregulation of their regulatory targets such as Trim71 and Notch signaling partners, respectively. These processes could be reversed by siRNA strategy in differentiating neuroprogenitors lacking folate, with improvement of their morphological characteristics. While folic acid supplementation helped restoring the levels of let-7a and miR-34a and their downstream targets, it led to a reduction of structural and functional defects taking place during the perinatal period. Our data outline the potential role of let-7 and miR-34 and their related signaling pathways in the developmental defects following gestational methyl donor deficiency and support the likely usefulness of late folate supplementation in at risk women.

  18. Auditory- and visual-evoked potentials in Mexican infants are not affected by maternal supplementation with 400 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid in the second half of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Rivera, Juan A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-08-01

    The evidence relating prenatal supplementation with DHA to offspring neurological development is limited. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant brainstem auditory-evoked responses and visual- evoked potentials in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from gestation wk 18-22 through delivery. DHA and placebo groups did not differ in maternal characteristics at randomization or infant characteristics at birth. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were measured at 1 and 3 mo in 749 and 664 infants, respectively, and visual-evoked potentials were measured at 3 and 6 mo in 679 and 817 infants, respectively. Left-right brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were moderately correlated (range, 0.26-0.43; all P right visual-evoked potentials were strongly correlated (range, 0.79-0.94; all P 0.10). We conclude that DHA supplementation during pregnancy did not influence brainstem auditory-evoked responses at 1 and 3 mo or visual-evoked potentials at 3 and 6 mo.

  19. Maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L.M.; Tolley, E.A.; Thodosoff, J.M.; Kerling, E.H.; Sullivan, D.K.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n=54) compared to control formula (n=15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS® that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  20. The necessity of selenium substitution in total parenteral nutrition and artificial alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramm, H J; Kopf, A; Brätter, P

    1995-03-01

    For the trace element selenium, in contrast to zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and iodine, there is still no clear official recommendation with regard to routine substitution in artificial nutrition. An overview of the manifestations of selenium deficiency in humans during the period 1979-1995 shows that nutritive deficiencies are exclusively TPN-induced or the result of severe malnutrition. The pathology of TPN-induced selenium deficiency and the analytic assessment of selenium status are described. Patients undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition or suffering from an increased loss of intestinal secretions have to be characterized as being especially at risk for clinical selenium deficiency. The relationship of the serum selenium kinetics in pediatric and adult patients to the depletion of body compartments during the course of short-term and prolonged TPN is discussed. Because of the importance of the selenoproteins, the regularly occurring depletion during selenium-free TPN and the borderline supply of selenium in Germany the routine substitution of selenium in TPN is strongly recommended. The pharmaceutical industry should be encouraged to develop a trace element solution that includes selenium, so that the nutritive requirement of patients on TPN can be satisfied. Adequate intravenous dosage recommendations are based on maintenance of glutathione peroxidase homeostasis. The routine supplementation dosage may not meet the selenium requirements of intensive care patients under conditions of increased metabolic demands on their anti-oxidative system.

  1. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  2. Hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein B expression: Regulation by selenium status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Mohinder P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.

  3. Effects of commercial selenium products on glutathione peroxidase activity and semen quality in stud boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium affects selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and sperm of sexually mature stud boars. Twenty-four boars of the Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc breeds of opt...

  4. Selenium prevents tumor development in a rat model for chemical carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkhem-Bergman, L.; Torndal, U. B.; Eken, S.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that selenium compounds can prevent cancer development. In this work we studied the tumor preventive effect of selenium supplementation, administrated as selenite, in the initiation, promotion and progression phases in a synchronized rat model for...

  5. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how much of the mineral was in the soil where the plants grew. Brazil nuts are a very good source of selenium. Fish, shellfish , red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, and garlic ... soil have higher levels of selenium. Brewer's yeast, wheat ...

  6. Selenium deficiency and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Kehinde S; Olowoselu, Olusola F; Osanyin, Gbemisola E; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akanmu, Sulaimon A; Anorlu, Rose I

    2018-04-16

    To investigate the prevalence of maternal selenium deficiency and its effects on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria. The present descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled women aged 15-49 years with HIV who were at 14-26 weeks of a singleton pregnancy and were attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, between August 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017. Participants were selected by consecutive sampling and baseline data were collected through interviews. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure selenium concentrations, and associations between low maternal selenium concentrations (defined as <0.89 μmol/L) and pregnancy outcomes were examined using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The final analysis included 113 patients; selenium deficiency was recorded in 23 (20.4%) patients. Women with selenium deficiency had an approximately eight-fold higher risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio 7.61, 95% confidence interval 4.37-18.89; P=0.031) and of delivering a term neonate with a low delivery weight (adjusted odds ratio 8.11, 95% confidence interval 3.27-17.22; P=0.012), compared with women with a normal selenium concentration. The prevalence of selenium deficiency among pregnant women with HIV in Lagos was relatively high. The significant associations observed between maternal selenium deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes could have implications for the future management of HIV in pregnancy. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  7. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  8. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  9. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  10. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation trial in Bangladesh: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Massie, Allan; Schulze, Kerry; Hackman, Andre; West, Keith P

    2011-04-21

    We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE)), beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE) or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity

  11. Nuclear-based methods for the study of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Dhani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The essentiality of selenium to the human being and in particular its deficiency state, associated with prolonged inadequate dietary intake, have received considerable attention. In addition, the possible relationship between selenium and cancer and the claim that selenium may possess cancer-prevention properties have focused research effort. It has been observed in a number of studies on laboratory animals that selenium supplementation protects the animals against carcinogen-induced neoplastic growth in various organ sites, reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors, and suppresses the growth of transplanted tumor cells. In these research programs on the relationship between trace element levels and senile dementia and depression and the elemental changes in blood associated with selenium supplementation in a normal group of volunteers, it became obvious that in addition to establishing normal levels of elements in the population of interest, there was a more fundamental requirement for methods to be developed that would allow the study of the distribution of selenium in the body and its binding sites. The authors propose emission tomography and perturbed angular correlation as techniques worth exploring

  12. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    on selenium supplementation. PMID:24886623

  13. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  14. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Nakatsu, S; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1995-07-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that selenium can inhibit tumorigenesis in some tissues of animal. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect on malignant tumor cells of brain. The purpose of our study was to determine the biological effect of selenium on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma cell lines. Cell lines C6 and A172 were obtained from Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan (JCRB). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of air and 5% CO2. Antiproliferative effects of selenium were evaluated using growth rate assay quantifying cell number by MTT assay. An antiproliferative effect of selenium was found in two cell lines, which was more effective on human A172 glioblastoma and less effective on rat C6 glioma.

  15. Why Nature Chose Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans J; Hondal, Robert J

    2016-04-15

    The authors were asked by the Editors of ACS Chemical Biology to write an article titled "Why Nature Chose Selenium" for the occasion of the upcoming bicentennial of the discovery of selenium by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1817 and styled after the famous work of Frank Westheimer on the biological chemistry of phosphate [Westheimer, F. H. (1987) Why Nature Chose Phosphates, Science 235, 1173-1178]. This work gives a history of the important discoveries of the biological processes that selenium participates in, and a point-by-point comparison of the chemistry of selenium with the atom it replaces in biology, sulfur. This analysis shows that redox chemistry is the largest chemical difference between the two chalcogens. This difference is very large for both one-electron and two-electron redox reactions. Much of this difference is due to the inability of selenium to form π bonds of all types. The outer valence electrons of selenium are also more loosely held than those of sulfur. As a result, selenium is a better nucleophile and will react with reactive oxygen species faster than sulfur, but the resulting lack of π-bond character in the Se-O bond means that the Se-oxide can be much more readily reduced in comparison to S-oxides. The combination of these properties means that replacement of sulfur with selenium in nature results in a selenium-containing biomolecule that resists permanent oxidation. Multiple examples of this gain of function behavior from the literature are discussed.

  16. Dietary Selenium in Adjuvant Therapy of Viral and Bacterial Infections12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Wunderlich, Frank; Sies, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Viral and bacterial infections are often associated with deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients, including the essential trace element selenium. In selenium deficiency, benign strains of Coxsackie and influenza viruses can mutate to highly pathogenic strains. Dietary supplementation to provide adequate or supranutritional selenium supply has been proposed to confer health benefits for patients suffering from some viral diseases, most notably with respect to HIV and influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In addition, selenium-containing multimicronutrient supplements improved several clinical and lifestyle variables in patients coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Selenium status may affect the function of cells of both adaptive and innate immunity. Supranutritional selenium promotes proliferation and favors differentiation of naive CD4-positive T lymphocytes toward T helper 1 cells, thus supporting the acute cellular immune response, whereas excessive activation of the immune system and ensuing host tissue damage are counteracted through directing macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. This review provides an up-to-date overview on selenium in infectious diseases caused by viruses (e.g., HIV, IAV, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, West Nile virus) and bacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori). Data from epidemiologic studies and intervention trials, with selenium alone or in combination with other micronutrients, and animal experiments are discussed against the background of dietary selenium requirements to alter immune functions. PMID:25593145

  17. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its' levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  18. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Robiin Ferguson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimising the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  19. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  20. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  1. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  2. Determination of selenium status using the nail biologic monitor in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Morris, J.; Spate, V.L.; Ruth Ann Ngwenyama; Waters, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Toenails and fingernails are routinely used to estimate selenium status in epidemiological studies; however, literature validating nail selenium concentration as a surrogate for critical organs is limited. In this study diets of intact male dogs were selenium supplemented at two physiological levels (3 and 6 μg/kg/day) in two different forms, selenomethionine and selenium-enriched bioformed yeast. The selenium-adequate basal diet consumed by the treatment and control groups during the 4-week run-in period and throughout the trial contained 0.3 ppm selenium. After 7 months the dogs in the two treatment groups and the control group were euthanized. Representative tissue samples from prostate, brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle were collected, rinsed and frozen. Toenail clippings from multiple toes were also collected. Selenium was determined by neutron activation analysis using Se77m (half life = 17.4 s) at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. NIST SRM 1577, Bovine Liver was analyzed as a quality control. The analysts were blinded to control and treatment group assignments. As expected, tissue selenium levels increased proportionally with supplementation. A slightly greater increase in tissue selenium was observed for the purified selenomethionine compared to the bioformed yeast; however this trend was significant only for brain tissue. Toenail selenium concentrations and tissue selenium were highly correlated (p < 0.003) with Pearson coefficients of 0.759 (skeletal muscle), 0.745 (heart), 0.729 (brain), 0.723 (prostate), and 0.632 (liver). The toenail biologic monitor accurately assesses selenium status in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, prostate, and liver in the canine model. (author)

  3. Maternal and child nutrition in rural Bangladesh: special reference to the effect of dietary fat supplementation on vitamin A status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age suffer chronic energy deficiency (BMI<18.5), nearly half of infants are born with a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and about

  4. Selenium in Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kryczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves’ disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body’s defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves’ disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy.

  5. Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight. Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana. Methods: Women (n = 1320; gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines. Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women (n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of −1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and −2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups (P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m2: 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively (P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group. Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation is

  6. Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Zeilani, Mamane; Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-04-01

    Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight. Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana. Methods: Women ( n = 1320; gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines. Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women ( n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of -1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and -2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups ( P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m 2 : 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively ( P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group. Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation

  7. Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan Ty; Wu, Tung-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2017-10-01

    Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes. Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased ( P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 ( Dio2 ) and selenoprotein N ( Selenon ) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Selenium and Selenoprotein Deficiencies Induce Widespread Pyogranuloma Formation in Mice, while High Levels of Dietary Selenium Decrease Liver Tumor Size Driven by TGFα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianxin; Ward, Jerrold M.; Perella, Christine M.; Hoffmann, Victoria J.; Rogers, Keith; Combs, Gerald F.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Merlino, Glenn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying levels of dietary selenium and altered selenoprotein status using mice carrying a mutant (A37G) selenocysteine tRNA transgene (TrsptG37) and/or a cancer driver TGFα transgene. The use of TrsptG37 altered selenoprotein expression in a selenoprotein and tissue specific manner and, at sufficient dietary selenium levels, separate the effect of diet and selenoprotein status. Mice were maintained on diets deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm selenium) or supplemented with 0.1, 0.4 or 2.25 ppm selenium or 30 ppm triphenylselenonium chloride (TPSC), a non-metabolized selenium compound. TrsptG37 transgenic and TGFα/TrsptG37 bi-transgenic mice subjected to selenium-deficient or TPSC diets developed a neurological phenotype associated with early morbidity and mortality prior to hepatocarcinoma development. Pathology analyses revealed widespread disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation. Pyogranulomas occurred in liver, lungs, heart, spleen, small and large intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes in these transgenic and bi-transgenic mice. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly increased in mice carrying the TGFα transgene, while dietary selenium and selenoprotein status did not affect tumor number and multiplicity. However, adenoma and carcinoma size and area were smaller in TGFα transgenic mice that were fed 0.4 and 2.25 versus 0.1 ppm of selenium. Thus, selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies led to widespread pyogranuloma formation, while high selenium levels inhibited the size of TGFα–induced liver tumors. PMID:23460847

  9. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-20

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).

  10. Selenium and selenium species in feeds and muscle tissue of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Ørnsrud, Robin; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals, including fish. Due to changes in feed composition for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it may be necessary to supplement feeds with Se. In the present work, the transfer of Se and Se species from feed to muscle of Atlantic salmon fed Se supplemented...... diets was studied. Salmon were fed basal fish feed (0.35 mg Se/kg and 0.89 mg Se/kg feed), or feed supplemented either with selenised yeast or sodium selenite, at low (1–2 mg Se/kg feed) and high (15 mg Se/kg feed) levels, for 12 weeks. For the extraction of Se species from fish muscle, enzymatic...... cleavage with protease type XIV was applied. The extraction methods for Se species from fish feed were optimised, and two separate extraction procedures were applied, 1) enzymatic cleavage for organic Se supplemented feeds and 2) weak alkaline solvent for inorganic Se supplemented feeds, respectively...

  11. 78 FR 63216 - Announcing the Award of Four Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants Under the Tribal Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...,000 Indians. The program expansion supplement awards will support expanded services to identify and... plans to improve outcomes, continue the implementation of and expand the development of concrete...)(2)(A) of Title V of the Social Security Act, as added by Section 2951 of the Patient Protection and...

  12. Evaluation of the inorganic selenium biotransformation in selenium-enriched yogurt by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Adriana; Cañas, Benito; Pérez-Munguía, Sandra; Hernández-Mendoza, Hector; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Gutiérrez, Ana Maria; Cámara, Carmen

    2007-11-28

    Selenium is an essential element in the human diet. Interestingly, there has been an increased consumption of dietary supplements containing this element in the form of either inorganic or organic compounds. The effect of using selenium as a dietary supplement in yogurt has been evaluated. For this purpose, different concentrations of inorganic Se (ranging from 0.2 to 5000 microg g(-1)) have been added to milk before the fermentation process. Biotransformation of inorganic Se into organic species has been carefully evaluated by ion-exchange, reversed-phase, or size-exclusion chromatography, coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Yogurt fermentation in the presence of up to 2 microg g(-1) of Se(IV) produces a complete incorporation of this element into proteins as has been demonstrated applying a dialysis procedure. Analysis by SEC-ICP-MS showed that most of them have a molecular mass in the range of 30-70 kDa. Species determination after enzymatic hydrolysis has allowed the identification of Se-cystine using two different chromatographic systems. The biotransformation process that takes place during yogurt fermentation is very attractive because yogurt can act as a source of selenium supplementation.

  13. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    methylmercury or mercury exposures, mercury-selenium ratios appear to be far more accurate and effective in identifying risk and protecting human and environmental health. This study also finds that methylmercury toxicity can be effectively treated by dietary selenium, preventing the death and progressive disabilities that otherwise occur in methylmercury-treated subjects. Remarkably, the positive response to selenium therapy was essentially equivalent regardless of whether or not toxic amounts of methylmercury were still administered. The findings of the Physiologically Oriented Integration of Nutrients and Toxins (POINT) models of the effects of mercury and selenium developed in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that mercury toxicity arises because of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium availability in brain and endocrine tissues. This appears to occur through synergistic effects of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium transport to these tissues and selective sequestration of the selenium present in the tissues. Compromised transport of selenium to the brain and endocrine tissues would be particularly hazardous to the developing fetus because the rapidly growing tissues of the child have no selenium reserves. Therefore, maternal consumption of foods with high mercury-selenium ratios is hazardous. In summation, methylmercury exposure is unlikely to cause harm in populations that eat selenium-rich diets but may cause harm among populations that consume certain foods that have methylmercury present in excess of selenium.

  14. Biological effects of selenium and relationships with carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diplock, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    Selenium is an element that is both essential, at low levels of dietary intake, and toxic, at high levels, to man and a wide range of animals. The purpose of the communication is to review the evidence for the involvement of hyper- and hypo-selenosis in the etiology of cancer. High levels of selenium intake have been blamed for an increase in cancer, dental caries and an array of other conditions. Critical evaluation of the evidence, however, leads to the conclusion that such claims have little substance. On the other hand, low levels of selenium intake may be associated with an increased incidence of certain forms of cancer and there appears to be an inverse relationship between blood selenium levels and cancer death rate in the US. Keshan Disease, in the People's Republic of China has only been shown to occur in populations severely depleted of selenium. In well nourished populations there is no evidence to indicate that selenium supplements have any prophylactic or therapeutic benefit against human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease or cystic fibrosis. 33 references.

  15. Biological selenium removal from wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, microbial conversion of water-soluble, highly toxic forms of selenium (selenate, selenite) to less bioavailable elemental selenium was investigated. By the exploitation of different groups of microorganisms (selenium-respiring, nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria,

  16. Selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim; Grøn, P.; Langhoff, Otto

    1991-01-01

    /l and TNM stage II 76 +/- 13 micrograms selenium/l), indicating disease-mediated changes. The evaluation of selenium as a risk indicator in human breast cancer was therefore restricted to TNM stage I patients (n = 36). Multiple logistic regression analyses including variables associated with selenium levels...

  17. Interplay between Selenium Levels and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ghania; Legrain, Yona; Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Duhieu, Stéphane; Cornu, David; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Chavatte, Laurent

    2018-01-20

    Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. We previously reported that the long-term growth of young WI-38 cells with high (supplemented), moderate (control), or low (depleted) concentrations of selenium in the culture medium impacts their replicative lifespan, due to rapid changes in replicative senescence-associated markers and signaling pathways. In order to gain insight into the molecular link between selenium levels and replicative senescence, in the present work, we have applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on 2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to the study of young and presenescent cells grown in selenium-supplemented, control, or depleted media. Applying a restrictive cut-off (spot intensity ±50% and a p value iii) spots varying in response to selenium concentration in presenescent cells. Interestingly, a 72% overlap between the impact of senescence and selenium was observed in our proteomic results, demonstrating a strong interplay between selenium, selenoproteins, and replicative senescence.

  18. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  19. Maternal Phytosterol Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates Lipid and Lipoprotein Response in Offspring of apoE-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Todd C; Movsesian, Cheryl; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Iqbal, Aadil; Raslawsky, Amy; Patel, Mulchand S

    2015-08-01

    In utero exposure to excessive cholesterol has been shown to increase fetal plasma cholesterol concentration and predispose adult offspring to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Because lipid-lowering drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy, natural cholesterol-lowering compounds may be a safe and effective alternative to reduce CVD risk in offspring born to hypercholesterolemic mothers. This study used the hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mouse model to test the hypothesis that mothers supplemented with phytosterols during gestation and lactation would produce offspring with a more favorable lipid profile than offspring from unsupplemented mothers, despite having a genetic predisposition toward hypercholesterolemia. Sixteen female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to 2 diets fed throughout the gestation and lactation periods: a cholesterol-enriched diet (CH) (0.15%) or the cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with phytosterols (CH/PS) (2%). Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured by enzyme assay and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively, and liver cholesterol was analyzed by GC. Compared with the CH-fed dams at the end of lactation, phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Pups from phytosterol-fed dams demonstrated lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol compared with pups from CH-fed dams. Furthermore, compared with pups from CH-fed dams, pups from phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed a lower (P phytosterols during gestation and lactation exhibit favorable liver and serum lipid responses compared with pups from unsupplemented mothers. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Maternal DHA supplementation protects rat offspring against impairment of learning and memory following prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingquan; Wu, Hongmei; Cao, Yonggang; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ji; Sun, Hongli; Wu, Lijie

    2016-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) is known to play a critical role in postnatal brain development. However, there have been no studies investigating the preventive effect of DHA on prenatal valproic acid (VPA)-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. The present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects in offspring using maternal feeding of DHA to rats exposed to VPA in pregnancy. In the present study, rats were exposed to VPA on day 12.5 of pregnancy; DHA was administered at the dosages of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks from day 1 to 21 of pregnancy. The results showed that maternal feeding of DHA to the prenatal exposed to VPA (1) prevented VPA-induced learning and memory impairment but did not change social-related behavior, (2) increased total DHA content in offspring plasma and hippocampus, (3) rescued VPA-induced neuronal loss and apoptosis of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1, (4) influenced the content of malondialdehyde and glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the hippocampus, (5) altered levels of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) and inhibited the activity of caspase-3 in offspring hippocampus and (6) enhanced relative levels of p-CaMKII and p-CREB proteins in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that maternal feeding with DHA may prevent prenatal VPA-induced impairment of learning and memory, normalize several different molecules associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of offspring, and exert preventive effects on prenatal VPA-induced brain dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism

  2. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Meldrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.

  3. Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Alehagen

    Full Text Available Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluate if mortality differed in subgroups differentiated by gender, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and functional class.Four-hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included from a rural municipality in Sweden. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results mortality was registered.Significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality could be seen in those on selenium and coenzyme Q10 intervention. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced cardiovascular mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.36-0.74; P = 0.0003. The reduced mortality could be seen to persist during the 10-year period. Subgroup analysis showed positive effects in both genders. An equally positive risk reduction could be seen in those with ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.27-0.97; P = 0.04, but also in the different functional classes.In a 10-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants given four years of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10, significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality was observed. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanism explaining the persistency remains to be elucidated. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.

  4. Developmental selenium exposure and health risk in daily foodstuffs: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Habib; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Abbas, Qumber; Munir, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba; Mian, Md Manik

    2018-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient of vital importance to human health in trace amounts. It acts as an antioxidant in both humans and animals, immunomodulator and also involved in the control of specific endocrine pathways. The aim of this work is to provide a brief knowledge on selenium content in daily used various foodstuffs, nutritional requirement and its various health consequences. In general, fruits and vegetables contain low content of selenium, with some exceptions. Selenium level in meat, eggs, poultry and seafood is usually high. For most countries, cereals, legumes, and derivatives are the major donors to the dietary selenium intake. Low level of selenium has been related with higher mortality risk, dysfunction of an immune system, and mental failure. Selenium supplementation or higher selenium content has antiviral outcomes and is necessary for effective reproduction of male and female, also decreases the threat of chronic disease (autoimmune thyroid). Generally, some advantages of higher content of selenium have been shown in various potential studies regarding lung, colorectal, prostate and bladder cancers risk, nevertheless results depicted from different trials have been diverse, which perhaps indicates the evidence that supplementation will merely grant advantage if the intakes of a nutrient is deficient. In conclusion, the over-all people should be advised against the usage of Se supplements for prevention of cardiovascular, hepatopathies, or cancer diseases, as advantages of Se supplements are still ambiguous, and their haphazard usage could result in an increased Se toxicity risk. The associations among Se intake/status and health, or disease risk, are complicated and need exposition to notify medical practice, to improve dietary recommendations, and to develop adequate communal health guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  6. Elucidating the selenium and arsenic metabolic pathways following exposure to the non-hyperaccumulating Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afton, Scott E.; Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the metabolism of selenium and arsenic in hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation purposes, few have explored non-hyperaccumulating plants as a model for general contaminant exposure to plants. In addition, the result of simultaneous supplementation with selenium and arsenic has not been investigated in plants. In this study, Chlorophytum comosum, commonly known as the spider plant, was used to investigate the metabolism of selenium and arsenic after single and simultaneous supplementation. Size exclusion and ion-pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography were coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain putative metabolic information of the selenium and arsenic species in C. comosum after a mild aqueous extraction. The chromatographic results depict that selenium and arsenic species were sequestered in the roots and generally conserved upon translocation to the leaves. The data suggest that selenium was directly absorbed by C. comosum roots when supplemented with SeVI, but a combination of passive and direct absorption occurred when supplemented with SeIV due to the partial oxidation of SeIV to SeVI in the rhizosphere. Higher molecular weight selenium species were more prevalent in the roots of plants supplemented with SeIV, but in the leaves of plants supplemented with SeVI due to an increased translocation rate. When supplemented as AsIII, arsenic is proposed to be passively absorbed as AsIII and partially oxidized to AsV in the plant root. Although total elemental analysis demonstrates a selenium and arsenic antagonism, a compound containing selenium and arsenic was not present in the general aqueous extract of the plant. PMID:19273464

  7. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L

    2008-01-01

    in gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Methods  Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal......Aims/hypothesis  Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation...

  8. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  9. Saturated or unsaturated fat supplemented maternal diets influence omental adipose tissue proteome of suckling goat-kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restelli, Laura; Marques, Andreia T; Savoini, Giovanni; Invernizzi, Guido; Carisetti, Michela; Lecchi, Cristina; Bendixen, Emoke; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-11-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal diet can influence the adipose tissue of goat kids. Omental adipose tissue proteomes of goat-kids from mothers fed with diet enriched with stearic acid (ST-kids), fish oil (FO-kids) and standard diets (CTRL) were determined by quantitative iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Twenty proteins were found to be differentially expressed in suckling kids' omental adipose tissue. Stearic acid induces changes in a higher number of proteins when compared to fish oil. Eleven proteins, namely AARS, ECl1, PMSC2, CP, HSPA8, GPD1, RPL7, OGDH, RPL24, FGA and RPL5 were decreased in ST-kids only. Four proteins, namely DLST, EEF1G, BCAP31 and RALA were decreased in FO-kids only, and one, NUCKS1, was increased. Four proteins, namely PMSC1, PPIB, TUB5×2 and EIF5A1, were be less abundant in both ST- and FO- kids. Most of the protein whose abundance was decreased in ST kids (10 out of 15) are involved in protein metabolism and catabolism pathways. Qualitative gene expression analysis confirmed that all the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, with the exception of FGA, were produced by adipose tissue. Quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated that two proteins, namely CP, a minor acute phase protein, and ECl1, involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, were downregulated at mRNA level as well. ECl1 gene expression was downregulated in ST-kids AT as compared to Ctrl-kids and CP was downregulated in both ST- and FO-kids. The present results demonstrate that it is possible to influence adipose goat-kid proteome by modifying the maternal diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00......). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA...... content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples...

  11. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Raakel; Laitinen, Kirsi; Nermes, Merja; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-06-01

    The breast milk bioactive substances such as adiponectin, have a presumably long-term impact upon the health and well-being of a child. To determine the impact of probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration. Altogether 256 pregnant women were randomized into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotics) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). The intervention group received dietary counseling provided by a nutritionist, the main focus being the amount and the type of dietary fat. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) for adiponectin concentration analysis (n=181). The dietary intervention increased the colostrum adiponectin concentration (ng/mL, geometric mean [95% CI]), the difference being significant when comparing to the control group; 12.7 [10.6-29.7] vs. 10.2 [9.9-13.2], P=0.024. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy (kg) correlated inversely with colostrum adiponectin concentration; β (SE)=-1.7 (0.1), P=0.020, and gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with the likelihood of adiponectin concentration falling into the lowest quartile; OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, P=0.028. In showing that the colostrum adiponectin concentration is markedly dependent on maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy, and considering that colostrum adiponectin has potential effects on metabolism, nutrition, and immune function in the neonates, the results of this study underscore the importance of the metabolic homeostasis of the mother for the child's initial nutritional environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selenium and sulindac are synergistic to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc/p21 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both selenium and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac are effective in cancer prevention, but their effects are affected by several factors including epigenetic alterations and gene expression. The current study was designed to determine the effects of the combination of selenium and sulindac on tumor inhibition and the underlying mechanisms. Results We fed the intestinal tumor model Apc/p21 mice with selenium- and sulindac-supplemented diet for 24 weeks, and found that the combination of selenium and sulindac significantly inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis, in terms of reducing tumor incidence by 52% and tumor multiplicities by 80% (p Conclusions The selenium is synergistic with sulindac to exert maximal effects on tumor inhibition. This finding provides an important chemopreventive strategy using combination of anti-cancer agents, which has a great impact on cancer prevention and has a promising translational potential.

  14. Copper and selenium levels in women with second-trimester induced abortion in Mazandaran, 2009: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoleikha Atarod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Missed abortion is the most common dangerous condition in pregnancy. An abortion can occur due to maternal complications, chronic disease, endocrine disorders, abortificient drugs, radiation, heavy metals and toxins. The study population consisted of 43 aborted patients and 43 normal pregnant females, referred to Imam Khomeini hospital. 10 mL blood was taken and centrifuged to isolate the patients’ serum. Then, the samples were analyzed to determine the copper and selenium levels, using atomic absorption spectrometry. All data were statistically analyzed by T-test and Mann-Whitney methods. As a result, we found a significant decrease in serum copper level in cases compared with controls. Also the results showed an insignificant decrease in serum selenium levels in the patients compared to the healthy women. According to the results, deficiency of the essential heavy metals may be a probable reason for missed abortion occurrence. These deficiencies can be related to malnutrition, decreased consumption of essential metals and supplementary compounds in pregnancy, lack of regular laboratory monitoring. Thus, consuming supplements in Iranian pregnant women can be helpful in completing a successful pregnancy.

  15. Biomarkers of selenium status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potentia...

  16. Selenium Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is a metalloid that is a dietary requirement in small quantities, but toxic at higher quantities. It also is known to bioaccumulate. In oxic environments, it exists as selenate (+6) and selenite (+4), both of which are soluble. Selenite will sorb more strongly to...

  17. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A. Tsuji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  19. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    supplementation during pregnancy did not show increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage or early childhood infections. Overall, there is limited evidence to support maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation for reducing allergic disease in children. Few differences in childhood allergic disease were seen between women who were supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA and those who were not.

  20. Selenium and the thyroid: A close-knit connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Bhuyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In areas with severe selenium deficiency higher incidence of thyroiditis has been reported due to a decreased activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase enzyme within thyroid cells. Aims and Objective: To study the effect of selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and Methods: This is a blinded placebo-controlled prospective study done in 60 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (as defined by an anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb level more than 150 IU/ml irrespective of the baseline thyroid status. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism who are on antithyroid drugs, patients on any other medication, which may alter the immunity status of the patients, and pregnant patients were excluded from the study. Patients were randomized into two age and TPOAb-matched groups; 30 patients received 200 μg of sodium selenite/day, orally, for 3 months, and 30 patients received placebo. All hypothyroid patients were given l-thyroxine replacement. Results: Of 30 patients in the selenium treated group, 6 patients were overtly hypothyroid, 15 were subclinical hypothyroid, 6 were euthyroid, and 3 were subclinical hyperthyroid. The mean TPOAb concentration decreased significantly by 49.5% (P < 0.013 in the selenium treated group versus 10.1% (P < 0.95 in the placebo-treated group. Conclusion: Selenium substitution has a significant impact on inflammatory activity in thyroid-specific autoimmune disease. It would be of interest to determine whether early treatment with selenium in patients with newly developed autoimmune thyroiditis may delay or even prevent the natural course of these diseases.

  1. Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2014-08-01

    Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p DHA were also significantly (p DHA was, however, significantly (p DHA.

  2. Selenium in the upper Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho, 2001-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn; Williams, Marshall L.; Hardy, Mark A.; Garbarino, John R.

    2014-11-05

    The upper Blackfoot River in southeastern Idaho receives runoff from 12 large phosphate mines. Waste shales that are removed to access the phosphate ore are highly enriched with selenium, resulting in elevated selenium in runoff from the mine waste dumps. In 2001, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring streamflow, selenium, and other water-quality parameters at a single location near the outlet of the upper Blackfoot River to the Blackfoot Reservoir. Water samples primarily were collected by a flow triggered, automated pump sampler, supplemented by manual point and equal-width integrated manual samples.

  3. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet alters insulin sensitivity and expression of insulin signalling and lipid metabolism genes and proteins in male rat offspring: effect of folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Candace E; Foster, Jerome E; Ramdath, D Dan

    2017-10-01

    A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet alters offspring glucose and lipid homoeostasis through unknown mechanisms and may be modulated by folic acid. We investigated the effect of a maternal HFS diet on glucose homoeostasis, expression of genes and proteins associated with insulin signalling and lipid metabolism and the effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation (HFS/F) in male rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly fed control (CON), HFS or HFS/F diets. Offspring were weaned on CON; at postnatal day 70, fasting plasma insulin and glucose and liver and skeletal muscle gene and protein expression were measured. Treatment effects were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Maternal HFS diet induced higher fasting glucose in offspring v. HFS/F (P=0·027) and down-regulation (Pinsulin resistance v. CON (P=0·030) and HFS/F was associated with higher insulin (P=0·016) and lower glucose (P=0·025). Maternal HFS diet alters offspring insulin sensitivity and de novo hepatic lipogenesis via altered gene and protein expression, which appears to be potentiated by folate supplementation.

  4. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  5. Selenium in food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Conor

    2006-01-01

    ...) to be a carcinogen and banned as an additive in food. Selenium is considered by some to be a serious hazard to the environment and to animal health. Selenium-contaminated water has brought deformity and death to wildlife in nature reserves in western USA. There is even concern that because of selenium contamination of soil, crops supplied to the great cities of California could become unfit for human consumption. In large areas of China, endemic selenium toxicity is a hazard for locals who depend on cr...

  6. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model.

  7. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-08-01

    Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) iron (BI) anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin 118 μmol/mol). A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P iron supplementation reduced anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se le...

  9. Microbial selenium sulfide reduction for selenium recovery from wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Stams, A.J.M.; Cappellen, van P.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial reduction of selenium sulfide (SeS2) is a key step in a new treatment process to recover selenium from selenate and selenite streams. In this process, selenate is first reduced to selenite, and subsequently selenite is reduced by sulfide and precipitates from the solution as SeS2. The

  10. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  11. Interplay between Selenium Levels and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. We previously reported that the long-term growth of young WI-38 cells with high (supplemented, moderate (control, or low (depleted concentrations of selenium in the culture medium impacts their replicative lifespan, due to rapid changes in replicative senescence-associated markers and signaling pathways. In order to gain insight into the molecular link between selenium levels and replicative senescence, in the present work, we have applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on 2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE to the study of young and presenescent cells grown in selenium-supplemented, control, or depleted media. Applying a restrictive cut-off (spot intensity ±50% and a p value < 0.05 to the 2D-DIGE analyses revealed 81 differentially expressed protein spots, from which 123 proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry. We compared the changes in protein abundance for three different conditions: (i spots varying between young and presenescent cells, (ii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in young cells, and (iii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in presenescent cells. Interestingly, a 72% overlap between the impact of senescence and selenium was observed in our proteomic results, demonstrating a strong interplay between

  12. Reduced selenium-binding protein 1 in breast cancer correlates with poor survival and resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of selenium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Supplemental dietary selenium is associated with reduced incidence of many cancers. The antitumor function of selenium is thought to be mediated through selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1. However, the significance of SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer is still largely unknown. A total of 95 normal and tumor tissues assay and 12 breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. We found that SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer tissues is reduced compared to normal control. Low SELENBP1 expression in ER(+ breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor survival (p<0.01, and SELENBP1 levels progressively decreased with advancing clinical stages of breast cancer. 17-β estradiol (E2 treatment of high SELENBP1-expressing ER(+ cell lines led to a down-regulation of SELENBP1, a result that did not occur in ER(- cell lines. However, after ectopic expression of ER in an originally ER(- cell line, down-regulation of SELENBP1 upon E2 treatment was observed. In addition, selenium treatment resulted in reduced cell proliferation in endogenous SELENBP1 high cells; however, after knocking-down SELENBP1, we observed no significant reduction in cell proliferation. Similarly, selenium has no effect on inhibition of cell proliferation in low endogenous SELENBP1 cells, but the inhibitory effect is regained following ectopic SELENBP1 expression. Furthermore, E2 treatment of an ER silenced high endogenous SELENBP1 expressing cell line showed no abolishment of cell proliferation inhibition upon selenium treatment. These data indicate that SELENBP1 expression is regulated via estrogen and that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of selenium treatment is dependent on the high level of SELENBP1 expression. Therefore, the expression level of SELENBP1 could be an important marker for predicting survival and effectiveness of selenium supplementation in breast cancer. This is the first study to reveal the importance of monitoring SELENBP1 expression

  13. Effects of organic selenium in broiler feed on the content of selenium and fatty acid profile in lipids of thigh muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of selenium supplementation to broiler feed on the content of selenium, total fatty acids in lipids and on the oxidative stability of broiler thigh muscle tissue. The experiment involved 40 broilers fattened for 42 days. During the first three weeks, all broilers consumed starter diet containing 22% crude protein. After three weeks, broilers were divided into two groups and fed finisher diets containing 18% crude protein and supplemented with 3% sunflower oil and 3% linseed oil. Group 1 was not administered artificial selenium; Group 2 was supplemented with organic selenium at the amount of 0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Significantly higher (P P P > 0.05 and increase of linolenic acid and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05 in thigh muscle tissue of broilers. Since selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are nutricines, our results show that the produced broiler meat may be considered as functional food.

  14. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  15. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  16. Investigation of stillbirths, perinatal mortality and weakness in beef calves with low-selenium whole blood concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Davis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium. The potential contributions of other minerals to the symptoms seen are a subject of ongoing investigation, but selenium deficiency was marked in this herd and required urgent correction. Methods to correct the deficiency included the use of injectable products, and an oral selenium supplement chelated to methionine. Selenium availability to plants is primarily determined by the selenium content of the parent bedrock, the presence of other minerals and the pH of the soil. The apparent sudden onset of this problem implicates a soil factor as being responsible for reducing selenium’s bioavailability in this area. Selenium deficiency can have a significant impact on human health. HIV and/or AIDS, various forms of cancer and several specific clinical syndromes are associated with selenium deficiency in humans, and the impact on human health in this area also requires further investigation. Keywords: vitamin E; selenium deficiency; cattle; one-health; Mpumalanga Province; soil pH; acid rain; stillbirths; white muscle disease; HIV

  17. Effect of intraperitoneal selenium administration on liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel; Kilic, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    There are a few of studies examining how selenium, which is known to reduce oxidative damage in exercise, influences glucose metabolism and exhaustion in physical activity. The present study aims to examine how selenium administration affects liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study included 32 Sprague-Dawley type male rats, which were equally allocated to four groups: Group 1, general control; Group 2; selenium-supplemented control (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite); Group 3, swimming control; Group 4, selenium-supplemented swimming (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite). Liver tissue samples collected from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. From the tissue samples buried into paraffin, 5-µm cross-sections were obtained using a microtome, put on a microscope slide, and stained with PAS. Stained preparations were assessed using a Nikon Eclipse E400 light microscope. All images obtained with the light microscope were transferred to a PC and evaluated using Clemex PE 3.5 image analysis software. The highest liver glycogen levels were found in groups 1 and 2 (p swimming exercise can be restored by selenium administration. It can be argued that physiological doses of selenium administration can contribute to performance.

  18. Preparation and characterization of a laboratory scale selenomethionine-enriched bread. Selenium bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Caímara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    This study focuses on the preparation at lab scale of selenomethionine-enriched white and wholemeal bread. Selenium was supplemented either by adding selenite directly to the dough or by using lab-made selenium-enriched yeast. The best results were obtained when using fresh selenium-enriched yeast. The optimum incubation time for selenomethionine-enriched yeast preparation, while keeping formation of selenium byproducts to a minimum, was 96 h. Selenium content measured by isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-MS in Se-white and Se-wholemeal bread was 1.28 ± 0.02 μg g–1 and 1.16 ± 0.02 μg g–1 (expressed as mean ± SE, 3 replicates), respectively. HPLC postcolumn IDA-ICP-MS measurements revealed that selenomethionine was the main Se species found in Se-enriched bread, which accounted for ca. 80% of total selenium. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion assay provided selenium bioaccessibility values of 100 ± 3% and 40 ± 1% for white and wholemeal Se-enriched bread, respectively, being selenomethionine the main bioaccessible Se species in white bread, while in wholemeal bread this compound was undetectable.

  19. Serum selenium levels and the risk of progression of laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, Jan; Marciniak, Wojciech; Muszynska, Magdalena; Jaworowska, Ewa; Sulikowski, Mieczyslaw; Jakubowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Falco, Michal; Baszuk, Piotr; Mojsiewicz, Magdalena; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have reported an inverse relationship between selenium status (blood or toenail) and the risk of laryngeal cancer; however, the impact of low serum selenium level on survival has not been evaluated. We conducted a prospective study of 296 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Serum selenium was measured at diagnosis and prior to treatment. Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis to death at five years. Vital status was obtained by linkage to the Polish National Death Registry. The five-year survival after diagnosis was 82.0% (95% CI: 68% to 91%) for individuals in the highest quartile of serum selenium (> 66.8 μg/L) and was 28.6% (95% CI 19% to 42%) for individuals in the lowest quartile (selenium, compared to those in the highest quartile. The corresponding multivariate HR was 3.07 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.94). This study suggests that a selenium level in excess of 70 μg/L is associated with improved outcome among patients undergoing treatment for laryngeal cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate if selenium supplementation to achieve this level might improve overall prognosis.

  20. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTION – EFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  1. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  2. Comprehensive maternal characteristics associated with birth weight: Bayesian modeling in a prospective cohort study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mansourian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aimed to determine comprehensive maternal characteristics associated with birth weight using Bayesian modeling. Materials and Methods: A total of 526 participants were included in this prospective study. Nutritional status, supplement consumption during the pregnancy, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and pregnancy outcomes were considered as effective variables on the birth weight. Bayesian approach of complex statistical models using Markov chain Monte Carlo approach was used for modeling the data considering the real distribution of the response variable. Results: There was strong positive correlation between infant birth weight and the maternal intake of Vitamin C, folic acid, Vitamin B3, Vitamin A, selenium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium as micronutrients, and fiber and protein as macronutrients based on the 95% high posterior density regions for parameters in the Bayesian model. None of the maternal characteristics had statistical association with birth weight. Conclusion: Higher maternal macro- and micro-nutrient intake during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of delivering low birth weight infants. These findings support recommendations to expand intake of nutrients during pregnancy to high level.

  3. Current mass spectrometry strategies for selenium speciation in dietary sources of high-selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Hearn, Ruth; Catterick, Tim [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the most relevant mass spectrometry approaches to selenium (Se) speciation in high-Se food supplements in terms of qualitative and quantitative Se speciation and Se-containing species identification, with special reference to high-Se yeast, garlic, onions and Brazil nuts. Important topics such as complexity of Se speciation in these materials and the importance of combining Se-specific detection and molecule-specific determination of the particular species of this element in parallel with chromatography, to understand their nutritional role and cancer preventive properties are critically discussed throughout. The versatility and potential of mass spectrometric detection in this field are clearly demonstrated. Although great advances have been achieved, further developments are required, especially if ''speciated''certified reference materials (CRMs) are to be produced for validation of measurements of target Se-containing species in Se-food supplements. (orig.)

  4. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  5. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Pamela B.; Fain, Heidi D.; Cassidy, James P.; Tran, Sally M.; Moos, Philip J.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gerads, Russell; Florell, Scott R.; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence. PMID:23470450

  6. Maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the setting of diet-induced obesity normalises the inflammatory phenotype in mothers and reverses metabolic dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-12-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet significantly impacts the fetal environment and predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic dysfunction during adulthood. We examined the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and whether maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could have beneficial effects on mothers and offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA) diet ad libitum 10days prior to and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were culled at either late gestation (fetal day 20, F20) or early postweaning (postnatal day 24, P24). CLA, HF and HFCLA dams were heavier than CD throughout gestation. Plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were elevated in HF dams, with restoration in HFCLA dams. Male and female fetuses from HF dams were smaller at F20 but displayed catch-up growth and impaired insulin sensitivity at P24, which was reversed in HFCLA offspring. HFCLA dams at P24 were protected from impaired insulin sensitivity as compared to HF dams. Maternal CLA supplementation normalised inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat diet and reversed associated programming of metabolic dysfunction in offspring. This demonstrates that there are critical windows of developmental plasticity in which the effects of an adverse early-life environment can be reversed by maternal dietary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  8. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  9. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-06-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  10. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-03-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  11. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P creatine treatment prevented all asphyxia-induced changes in the gastrocnemius, improved motor performance. This study demonstrates that creatine loading before birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  12. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans. The Se concentrations of the soybeans, the protein isolate and tofu were 5.2±0.2, 11.4±0.1 and 7.4±0.1mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet containing 14, 24 or 30 μg Se/kg from the protein isolate or 13, 23 or 31 μg Se/kg from tofu, respectively. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for the protein isolate and tofu to those for SeMet by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Furthermore, supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in the Se concentrations of plasma, liver, muscle and kidneys. These results indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 101% for Se from the protein isolate and 94% from tofu, relative to SeMet. We conclude that Se from naturally produced high-Se soybeans is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans may be a good dietary source of Se. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Selenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Raymond F; Hill, Kristina E

    2005-01-01

    Selenoprotein P is an abundant extracellular glycoprotein that is rich in selenocysteine. It has two domains with respect to selenium content. The N-terminal domain of the rat protein contains one selenocysteine residue in a UxxC redox motif. This domain also has a pH-sensitive heparin-binding site and two histidine-rich amino acid stretches. The smaller C-terminal domain contains nine selenocysteine and ten cysteine residues. Four isoforms of selenoprotein P are present in rat plasma. They share the same N terminus and amino acid sequence. One isoform is full length and the three others terminate at the positions of the second, third, and seventh selenocysteine residues. Selenoprotein P turns over rapidly in rat plasma with the consequence that approximately 25% of the amount of whole-body selenium passes through it each day. Evidence supports functions of the protein in selenium homeostasis and oxidant defense. Selenoprotein P knockout mice have very low selenium concentrations in the brain, the testis, and the fetus, with severe pathophysiological consequences in each tissue. In addition, those mice waste moderate amounts of selenium in the urine. Selenoprotein P binds to endothelial cells in the rat, and plasma levels of the protein correlate with prevention of diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic endothelial cell injury. The mechanisms of these apparent functions remain speculative and much work on the mechanism of selenoprotein P function lies ahead. Measurement of selenoprotein P in human plasma has shown that it is depressed by selenium deficiency and by cirrhosis. Selenium supplementation of selenium-deficient human subjects showed that glutathione peroxidase activity was optimized before selenoprotein P concentration was optimized, indicating that plasma selenoprotein P is the better index of human selenium nutritional status.

  14. Multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of maternal anaemia and adverse birth outcomes in a high-altitude area: a prospective cohort study in rural Tibet of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jianpeng; Ouzhu, Luobu; Yan, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy, characterised by Hb anaemia among pregnant women and their infants' health in a high-altitude area. A prospective cohort study was carried out in two rural counties in Tibet from 2007 to 2012. A total of 1149 eligible pregnant women were allocated daily supplementation with FA in one county and MMN containing a recommended allowance of twenty-three vitamins and minerals in another county starting ≤24 weeks of gestation and continuing until delivery. Compared with the FA group, prenatal supplementation with MMN was significantly associated with reduced odds of anaemia in the third trimester. This was demonstrated in the primary outcome, with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 0·63; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88 and P=0·007 and also reduced odds of preterm delivery (AOR: 0·31; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·61; P=0·001). There was no difference between MMN and FA groups in mean birth weight (adjusted mean difference: 36·78; 95 % CI -19·42, 92·98 g; P=0·200), whereas MMN supplementation significantly reduced the odds of low-birth weight (LBW) babies (AOR: 0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·91; P=0·019). In conclusion, the antenatal MMN supplementation in rural Tibet is associated with a reduction of maternal anaemia in the third trimester, and may potentially decrease the risk of preterm delivery and LBW babies.

  15. Acute selenium poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortridge, E H; O' Hara, P J; Marshall, P M

    1971-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six (67%) of 557 calves of approximately 150-200 kg live-weight died following subcutaneous injection of a solution containing 100 mg selenium as sodium selenite. Eight per cent of the 254 heifer calves and 56% of the 303 steers died. The calves had endured the stress of being weaned twice and held in stockyards twice as well as encountering wet weather during the 4 days before receiving the selenium. The heifer calves were also vaccinated with Br. abortus strain 19 vaccine at the same time as receiving the selenium. The clinical signs and pathological findings of circulatory failure and myocardial damage were similar to those previously reported in acute selenium poisoning.

  16. Enrichment of meat products with selenium by its introduction to mixed feed compounds for birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sobolev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a biologically active microelement, contained in a number of hormones and enzymes. In a bird or animal organism selenium performs the following functions: strengthens the immune system, stimulates formation of antibodies, macrophages and interferons. Also, it is a powerful antioxidant agent. It stimulates processes of metabolism in the organism, protects the organism against toxic manifestations of cadmium, lead, thalium and silver; stimulates reproductive function, decreases acute development of inflammatory processes; stabilizes functioning of the nervous system; normalizes functioning of the endocrine system. Furthermore, it stimulates synthesis of hemoglobin, takes part in secretion of erythrocutes, neutralizes toxins, prevents and stops development of malignant tumors. It also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system of an animal organism: prevents myocardosis and decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of selenium in the organism causes (depending upon the extent of deficiency either physiological changes within the regulatory norm, significant disorders of the metabolism, or specific diseases. Around 75 different diseases and symptoms of pain are related to selenium deficiency. In most countries, the level of selenium consumption remains low (20–40 µg/day. There are several ways of improving of the selenium consumption of a population: consumption of selenium as a medication or dietary supplement, producing selenium-enriched bread, growing greens and vegetables rich in selenium, producing selenium-enriched beverages, products of animal origin, which would be rich in selenium. In the scientific-agricultural sphere studies have been made on the influence of adding different doses (0.2–0.6 mg/kg of selenium in mixed feeds and peculiarities of its depositing and distribution in the muscle tissues of young growth of different species of poultry. It has been found that feeding broiler

  17. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  18. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  19. Targeted sulphur and selenium speciation in yeast by parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillestrøm, Peter René; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    Selenium supplement, often selenized yeast, are currently the subject of intense study owing to their potential preventive effects against cancer. However, fundamental knowledge of the yeast’s metabolism is required for metabolic engineering biosynthetic production of potent Se-species. A method ...... determination of metabolites present. Selenium metabolites were detected by simultaneous ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS while targeted sulphur species were determined by ESI-MS/MS.......Selenium supplement, often selenized yeast, are currently the subject of intense study owing to their potential preventive effects against cancer. However, fundamental knowledge of the yeast’s metabolism is required for metabolic engineering biosynthetic production of potent Se-species. A method...

  20. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  1. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  2. Does a role for selenium in DNA damage repair explain apparent controversies in its use in chemoprevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    The trace element selenium is an essential micronutrient that has received considerable attention for its potential use in the prevention of cancer. In spite of this interest, the mechanism(s) by which selenium might function as a chemopreventive remain to be determined. Considerable experimental evidence indicates that one possible mechanism by which selenium supplementation may exert its benefits is by enhancing the DNA damage repair response, and this includes data obtained using cultured cells, animal models as well as in human clinical studies. In these studies, selenium supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of DNA adducts and chromosome breaks, consequentially reducing the likelihood of detrimental mutations that ultimately contribute to carcinogenesis. The benefits of selenium can be envisioned as being due, at least in part, to it being a critical constituent of selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, proteins that play important roles in antioxidant defence and maintaining the cellular reducing environment. Selenium, therefore, may be protective by preventing DNA damage from occurring as well as by increasing the activity of repair enzymes such as DNA glycosylases and DNA damage repair pathways that involve p53, BRCA1 and Gadd45. An improved understanding of the mechanism of selenium’s impact on DNA repair processes may help to resolve the apparently contradicting data obtained from decades of animal work, human epidemiology and more recently, clinical supplementation studies. PMID:23204505

  3. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  4. Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on selenium status and antibody titers in their newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L G; Bobe, G; Vorachek, W R; Dolan, B P; Estill, C T; Pirelli, G J; Hall, J A

    2017-06-01

    In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa () hay during the last 8 to 12 wk of gestation on passive transfer of antibodies to calves. At 10 wk ± 16 d before calving, 45 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 3 pens (5 cows/pen) per treatment: Control cows were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay plus a mineral supplement containing 120 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite, Med-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 45.0 g Se/ha as sodium selenate, and High-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 89.9 g Se/ha as sodium selenate; both the Med-Se and the High-Se groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Colostrum and whole blood (WB) were collected from cows at calving, and WB was collected from calves within 2 h of calving and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of age. Concentrations of IgG1 and J-5 antibody in cow colostrum and calf serum were quantified using ELISA procedures. Selenium concentrations linearly increased in WB ( cows and in WB of newborn calves ( cows fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay, but J-5 antibody ( = 0.43) concentrations were not. Calf serum IgG1 ( = 0.43) and J-5 antibody ( = 0.44) concentrations during the first 48 h of age were not affected by prior Se treatment of cows. These data suggest that feeding Se-biofortified alfalfa hay promotes the accumulation of Se and antibodies in colostrum but does not

  5. Selenium Content, Influential Factors Within the Plant and the Transformation of Different Selenium Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yuan-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper collected relevant literatures on selenium and explored the function to plant, selenium content, influential factors and selenium specification and transformation. We believed that there should be more deep researches on function of selenium to plant. Approaches of molecular, genetic engineering and isotope could be employed to breed selenium rich crops and possibilities in practice. More efforts should be spent on the technologies research for improving selenium level in crops under natural soil conditions to sustainably utilize the selenium resources.

  6. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  7. A Study of Selenium in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Partogi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Selenium serum levels of patients with PB leprosy are higher than patients with MB leprosy, and high bacteriological index in patients with leprosy were correlated with low selenium serum levels.

  8. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  9. The Evolving Role of Selenium in the Treatment of Graves' Disease and Ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas H. Duntas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease (GD and ophthalmopathy (GO are organ-specific autoimmune-inflammatory disorders characterized by a complex pathogenesis. The inflammatory process is dominated by an imbalance of the antioxidant-oxidant mechanism, increased production of radical oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines which sustain the autoimmune process and perpetuate the disease. Recently, selenium, which is a powerful antioxidant, has been successfully applied in patients with mild GO, slowing the progression of disease, decreasing the clinical activity score, and appreciably improving the quality of life. The mechanisms of selenium action are variable. The aim of this review is to summarize the actions of selenium in GD and GO. Selenium as selenocysteine is incorporated in selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase which catalyzes the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide that are increasingly produced in hyperthyroidism. Moreover, selenium decreases the formation of proinflammatory cytokines, while it contributes, in synergy with antithyroid drugs, to stabilization of the autoimmune process in GD and alleviation of GO. It is now to be clarified whether enforced nutritional supplementation has the same results and whether prolonging selenium administration may have an impact on the prevention of disease.

  10. 21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, or as selenium yeast, as provided in paragraph (h) of this section. (c) It is added to feed as... months.” (h) Selenium yeast is a dried, non-viable yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation which provides incremental amounts of cane molasses and selenium salts in a manner...

  11. The effects of a lipid‐based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab‐Ferdows, Setareh; Gertz, Erik; Flax, Valerie L.; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S.; Kamwendo, Debbie; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid‐based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post‐partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant‐pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post‐partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80–90% of copper and zinc and negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = −.18, p milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11–.47, p milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α‐1‐acid glycoprotein and C‐reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation. PMID:28851037

  12. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  13. Joint refinery selenium treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.L.; Folwarkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board recently established mass limits on discharges of selenium to the San Francisco Bay from several petroleum refineries. The refineries had been working independently to develop control strategies, including both source control and treatment options, for removal of selenium from their discharges. By January 1992, over fifty different combinations of treatment technologies, wastewater streams, and pretreatment steps had been investigated to determine their effectiveness and feasibility as selenium removal processes. No treatment process studied could achieve the required mass limits without serious negative environmental consequences, such as generation of large amounts of hazardous sludge. To better facilitate the development of a feasible selenium treatment process, the six Bay Area refineries shared results of their studies and identified several technologies that, with further work, could be developed further. This additional work is currently being carried out as part of a joint selenium treatability study sponsored by the Western States Petroleum Association. A review of the previous source control and treatment studies, along with a description of the current treatability studies will be discussed

  14. Assessing arsenic and selenium in a single nail clipping using portable X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, David E.B.; Nader, Michel N.; Foran, Kelly A.; Groskopf, Craig; Reno, Michael C.; Ware, Chris S.; Tehrani, Mina; Guimarães, Diana; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium contents in a single nail clipping was investigated using a small-focus portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument with monochromatic excitation beams. Nail clipping phantoms supplemented with arsenic and selenium to produce materials with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/g were used for calibration purposes. In total, 10 different clippings were analyzed at two different measurement positions. Energy spectra were fit with detection peaks for arsenic K_α, selenium K_α, arsenic K_β, selenium K_β, and bromine K_α characteristic X-rays. Data analysis was performed under two distinct conditions of fitting constraint. Calibration lines were established from the amplitude of each of the arsenic and selenium peaks as a function of the elemental contents in the clippings. The slopes of the four calibration lines were consistent between the two conditions of analysis. The calculated minimum detection limit (MDL) of the method, when considering the K_α peak only, ranged from 0.210±0.002 µg/g selenium under one condition of analysis to 0.777±0.009 µg/g selenium under another. Compared with previous portable XRF nail clipping studies, MDLs were substantially improved for both arsenic and selenium. The new measurement technique had the additional benefits of being short in duration (~3 min) and requiring only a single nail clipping. The mass of the individual clipping used did not appear to play a major role in signal strength, but positioning of the clipping is important. - Highlights: • Portable X-ray fluorescence was used to assess As and Se in nail clipping phantoms. • Calibration lines were consistent between two different conditions of data analysis. • This new XRF approach was sensitive and required only a single nail clipping.

  15. Selenium and tellurium nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, the rapid and exponential growth of nanotechnology led to the development of various synthesis methodologies to generate nanomaterials different in size, shape and composition to be applied in various fields. In particular, nanostructures composed of Selenium (Se) or Tellurium (Te) have attracted increasing interest, due to their intermediate nature between metallic and non-metallic elements, being defined as metalloids. Indeed, this key shared feature of Se and Te allows us the use of their compounds in a variety of applications fields, such as for manufacturing photocells, photographic exposure meters, piezoelectric devices, and thermoelectric materials, to name a few. Considering also that the chemical-physical properties of elements result to be much more emphasized when they are assembled at the nanoscale range, huge efforts have been made to develop highly effective synthesis methods to generate Se- or Te-nanomaterials. In this context, the present book chapter will explore the most used chemical and/or physical methods exploited to generate different morphologies of metalloid-nanostructures, focusing also the attention on the major advantages, drawbacks as well as the safety related to these synthetic procedures.

  16. The relationship between selenium and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Kuixiong; Ma Guansheng; Zhang Tingyu; Cheng Wufeng; Mao Dajuan; Pan Bixia; Xu Xiuxian

    1993-01-01

    Both sodium selenite and selenium yeast were chosen to block the MNNG mutagenesis. The inhibition rates were 66.5% and 37.9% respectively. The selenium levels in hair, serum and gastric juice, and the contents of nitrosamine in gastric juice were also determined. The results showed that the selenium levels were SG > CAG and Dys > GC (p CAG, Dyas and GC (p < 0.05). 19 cases of CAG patients treated with selenium yeast and 16 cases of the control were observed. After 10 weeks, the selenium levels in serum for the treated group were significantly increased. The symptoms of CAG patients seemed to be alleviated

  17. Separation of selenium compounds by CE-ICP-MS in dynamically coated capillaries applied to selenized yeast samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2004-01-01

    The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication and subs......The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication...

  18. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  19. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    , including selenoprotein P, K, and T. Impairment of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems allows for proliferation intracellular reactive oxygen species which leads to glutamate excitosis, calcium dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial injury/loss, lipid peroxidation, impairment of protein repair, and apoptosis. Methylmercury is a more potent inhibitor of the thioredoxin system, partially explaining its increased neurotoxicity. A second important mechanism is due to the high affinity of mercury for selenium and the subsequent depletion of selenium stores needed for insertion into de novo generation of replacement selenoproteins. This mercury-induced selenium deficiency state inhibits regeneration of the selenoproteins to restore the cellular redox environment. The effects of selenium on mercury and the role this plays in biological response to mercury: Early research suggested selenium may provide a protective role in mercury poisoning, and with limitations this is true. The roles selenium plays in this reduction of mercury toxicity partially depends on the form of mercury and may be multifaceted including: 1) facilitating demethylation of organic mercury to inorganic mercury; 2) redistribution of mercury to less sensitive target organs; 3) binding to inorganic mercury and forming an insoluble, stable and inert Hg:Se complex; 4) reduction of mercury absorption from the GI tract; 5) repletion of selenium stores (reverse selenium deficiency); and 6) restoration of target selenoprotein activity and restoring the intracellular redox environment. There is conflicting evidence as to whether selenium increases or hinders mercury elimination, but increased mercury elimination does not appear to be a major role of selenium. Selenium supplementation has been shown to restore selenoprotein function and reduce the toxicity of mercury, with several significant limitations including: the form of mercury (methylmercury toxicity is less responsive to amelioration) and mercury dose. The

  20. The effects of selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and radioprotection in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, A.M.; Murray, J.L.; Dale, P.; Tritz, R.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The media of representative mammalian cell lines were supplemented with low levels of selenium in the form of sodium selenite in order to investigate the effects of selenium on mammalian cells. Following incubation in 30 nM sodium selenite, these cells were assayed for changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The cells examined included NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, PC12 rat sympathetic precursor cells, SupT-1 human lymphocytes, MCF-7 adr human breast carcinoma cells and AA8 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Selenium supplementation resulted in a marginal increase in GPx activity for the NIH 3T3, MCF-7 adr and Supt-1 cells but stimulated GPx activity approximately 5-fold in PC12 and AA8 cells. AA8 cells were selected to evaluate whether selenium supplementation was radioprotective against 60 cobalt gamma irradiation. Protection against radiation-induced mutation was measured by evaluating mutation frequency at the hprt locus. In this assay, preincubation of AA8 CHO cells significantly protected these cells from exposure to 8 Gy

  1. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during  Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease  Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L; Prescott, Susan L; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J

    2017-02-09

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the  consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to  epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an  allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population  studies  have  also  described  associations  between  folate  status  in  pregnancy  and  the  risk  of  subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing  maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in  early life allergic diseases.

  2. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during  Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease  Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina L. McStay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the  consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to  epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an  allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population  studies  have  also  described  associations  between  folate  status  in  pregnancy  and  the  risk  of  subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing  maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in  early life allergic diseases.

  3. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Watt, Torquil; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells......-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise(R). The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody...

  4. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  5. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na2SeO3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant ( K m) values and maximal reaction velocity ( V max) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  6. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  7. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  8. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  9. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  10. Oxidative stress profile in goats supplemented or not with selenium and vitamin E and submitted to scrotal insulationPerfil de marcadores do estresse oxidativo em caprinos suplementados ou não com selênio e vitamina E e submetidos à insulação escrotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Pessoa Guerra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E in the diet of goats induced to scrotal insulation (SI on the profile of biochemical markers of systemic oxidative metabolism 12 animals were randomly divided into two groups: G1 - no supplementation G2 - supplemented with selenium (0.1 mg / kg body weight of sodium selenite and vitamin E (0.3 IU / kg body weight. At the end of the adjustment period of 30 days, the scrotal insulation (SI was performed with the placement of plastic bags in the testes for 18 days. Supplementation with Se + vitamin E began 60 days before induction of SI and maintained for 42 days after the end of SI, corresponding to post-insulation (PSI. Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture to obtain total blood for analysis of reduced glutathione (GSH and plasma for analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and determination of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. No effect of dietary supplementation with Se + vitamin E on the profile of all the variables studied, but there was systemic oxidative action understood by a significant decrease of GSH during the SI, with a gradual increase in the PSI period, as well as lower average of FRAP observed during the SI and the highest average in the period from PSI. It was concluded that analysis of the activity of reduced glutathione (GSH and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP are recommended laboratory methods to evaluate the systemic response to oxidative damage caused by thermal stress testis in goats.Para avaliar o efeito da suplementação com selênio e vitamina E na dieta de caprinos induzidos à insulação escrotal (IE sobre o perfil de indicadores bioquímicos do metabolismo oxidativo sistêmico foram utilizados 12 animais, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G1 - sem suplementação; G2 - suplementados com selênio (0,1 mg/Kg de

  11. Selenium modulates MMP2 expression through the TGFβ1/Smad signalling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rabbits following lipid disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenggui; Lu, Guihua; Li, Qinglang; Zhang, Juhong; Huang, Zhibin; Gao, Xiuren

    2017-07-01

    A high-fat diet is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression is changed in many cardiovascular diseases. Selenium, which is an important trace element in animals, has a close relationship with cardiovascular diseases. The TGFβ1/Smad signalling pathway is ubiquitous in diverse tissues and cells, and it is also associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine selenium's effect on lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and MMP2 expression, as well as the underlying functional mechanism. In vivo tests: 24 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: regular diet, high-fat diet, high-fat diet+selenium and regular diet+selenium groups. The high-fat diet induced the lipid disturbances of rabbits at week 12. Selenium supplementation lowered total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels (pSelenium supplementation also suppressed MMP2 over-expression in thoracic aortas. In vitro tests: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with different concentrations of selenium or ox-LDL. Ox-LDL promoted MMP2 expression by increasing TGFβ1, pSmad2, pSmad3 and Smad3 expression (pSelenium attenuated MMP2 over-expression by regulating the TGFβ1/Smad signalling pathway. Selenium suppressed high-fat diet-induced MMP2 over-expression in vivo by improving lipid metabolism. In vitro, selenium attenuated MMP2 over-expression through the TGFβ1/Smad signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of mercury and selenium in biological materials by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Cipriano, Roseli; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    Mercury presents a great number of applications, however, many mercury compounds are highly toxic and may cause diseases or even death. Other element of interest is selenium, as some studies have shown that it may reduce the toxic effects of mercury and other toxic elements, due to its ability to bind to these elements. In this work the mercury concentration in the 'Spiked Human Hair' IAEA-085 and 'Unspiked Human Hair' IAEA-086 certified reference materials, in hair samples of children under dental treatment and in hair samples of an Amazon Region population, subject to mercurial contamination was determined. Selenium determination was done using 77m Se and 75 Se radioisotopes. The selenium concentration was determined also in the (IAEA-085, IAEA-086, 'Dogfish Liver' DOLT-1 and 'Dogfish Muscle' DORM-1) certified reference materials, vitamin supplement and nail clipping samples. (author)

  13. Selenium deficiency occurs in some patients with moderate-to-severe cirrhosis and can be corrected by administration of selenate but not selenomethionine: a randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Raymond F; Hill, Kristina E; Motley, Amy K; Byrne, Daniel W; Norsworthy, Brooke K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selenomethionine, which is the principal dietary form of selenium, is metabolized by the liver to selenide, which is the form of the element required for the synthesis of selenoproteins. The liver synthesizes selenium-rich selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and secretes it into the plasma to supply extrahepatic tissues with selenium. Objectives: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether cirrhosis is associated with functional selenium deficiency (the lack of selenium for the process of selenoprotein synthesis even though selenium intake is not limited) and, if it is, whether the deficiency is associated with impairment of selenomethionine metabolism. Design: Patients with Child-Pugh (C-P) classes A, B, and C (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively) cirrhosis were supplemented with a placebo or supranutritional amounts of selenium as selenate (200 or 400 μg/d) or as selenomethionine (200 μg/d) for 4 wk. Plasma SEPP1 concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the latter due largely to the selenoprotein GPX3 secreted by the kidneys, were measured before and after supplementation. Results: GPX activity was increased more by both doses of selenate than by the placebo in C-P class B patients. The activity was not increased more by selenomethionine supplementation than by the placebo in C-P class B patients. Plasma selenium was increased more by 400 μg Se as selenate than by the placebo in C-P class C patients. Within the groups who responded to selenate, there was a considerable variation in responses. Conclusion: These results indicate that severe cirrhosis causes mild functional selenium deficiency in some patients that is associated with impaired metabolism of selenomethionine. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00271245. PMID:26468123

  14. SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY BASIL PLANTS (OCINUM BASILICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium accumulation level in basil plants is investigated. A direct correlation between selenium concentration and essential oil content is demonstrated for basil and other aroma plants. No correlation is found between selenium and flavonoids.

  15. Chemical Form of Selenium in Naturally Selenium-Rich Lentils (Lens Culinaris L.) From Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thavarajah, D.; Vandenberg, A.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86--95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5--14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  16. Selenopeptides and elemental selenium in Thunbergia alata after exposure to selenite: quantification method for elemental selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborode, Fatai Adigun; Raab, Andrea; Foster, Simon; Lombi, Enzo; Maher, William; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    Three month old Thunbergia alata were exposed for 13 days to 10 μM selenite to determine the biotransformation of selenite in their roots. Selenium in formic acid extracts (80 ± 3%) was present as selenopeptides with Se-S bonds and selenium-PC complexes (selenocysteinyl-2-3-dihydroxypropionyl-glutathione, seleno-phytochelatin2, seleno-di-glutathione). An analytical method using HPLC-ICPMS to detect and quantify elemental selenium in roots of T. alata plants using sodium sulfite to quantitatively transform elemental selenium to selenosulfate was also developed. Elemental selenium was determined as 18 ± 4% of the total selenium in the roots which was equivalent to the selenium not extracted using formic acid extraction. The results are in an agreement with the XAS measurements of the exposed roots which showed no occurrence of selenite or selenate but a mixture of selenocysteine and elemental selenium.

  17. An Assessment of the Selenium Status of Iodine-Deficient and Non-Iodine Deficient Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sofia Amarra

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare blood selenium levels in iodine-deficient and non-iodine deficient children. Two groups of children were examined: one group with iodine deficiency (n=31 and the other group with normal iodine status (n=32. Blood was extracted by venipuncture from children aged 6-10 years attending first grade in Commonwealth Elementary School in Quezon City. Whole blood selenium was examined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Iodine status was determined by goiter palpation and urinary iodine excretion. Mean selenium levels of deficient and non-deficient children were compared using T-test. Using a cut-off value of 60 mg Se/L whole blood, the proportion of children with normal and deficient iodine status who fell below this cut-off was compared using chi-square test. Whole blood selenium values ranged from 17.6 to 133.6 mg/L. There were no significant differences in mean selenium levels between children with normal and deficient iodine status. Children with normal iodine status had a mean blood selenium level of 55.87 ± 26.3 mg/L while children with deficient iodine status had a mean level of 58.76 ± 26.4 mg/L. Sixty percent of children had blood selenium levels below the arbitrary cut-off of 60 mg/L with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.165, indicating that selenium deficiency is prevalent in this group of children regardless of iodine status. Since selenium deficiency limits the response to iodine supplementation, further investigation is needed to determine whether the same situation exists in children from other areas.

  18. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to prevent acute respiratory infections in infancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDARI trial): protocol for a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Shaun K; Pell, Lisa G; Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Dimitris, Michelle C; Mahmud, Abdullah; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Kashem, Tahmid; Shanta, Shaila S; Gubbay, Jonathan; Papp, Eszter; Science, Michelle; Zlotkin, Stanley; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-10-13

    Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations. In the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth (MDIG) study in Dhaka, Bangladesh (NCT01924013), 1300 pregnant women are randomized to one of five groups: placebo, 4200 IU/week, 16,800 IU/week, or 28,000 IU/week from 2 nd trimester to delivery plus placebo from 0-6 months postpartum; or, 28,000 IU/week prenatal and until 6-months postpartum. In the Maternal Vitamin D for ARI in Infancy (MDARI) sub-study nested within the MDIG trial, trained personnel conduct weekly postnatal home visits to inquire about ARI symptoms and conduct a standardized clinical assessment. Supplementary home visits between surveillance visits are conducted when caregivers make phone notifications of new infant symptoms. Mid-turbinate nasal swab samples are obtained from infants who meet standardized clinical ARI criteria. Specimens are tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 8 viruses (influenza A/B, parainfluenza 1/2/3, RSV, adenovirus, and human metapneumovirus), and nasal carriage density of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The primary outcome is the incidence rate of microbiologically-positive viral ARI, using incidence rate ratios to estimate between-group differences. We hypothesize that among infants 0-6 months of age, the incidence of microbiologically-confirmed viral ARI will be significantly lower in infants whose mothers received high-dose prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplements versus placebo. Secondary outcomes include

  19. Combined effect of selenium and ascorbic acid on alcohol induced hyperlipidemia in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, G S; Indira, M

    2004-02-01

    Alcoholics usually suffer from malnutrition and are especially deficient in micronutrients like vitamin C, selenium and Zn. In the present study, combined effects of selenium and ascorbic acid on alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia were studied in guinea pigs. Four groups of male guinea pigs were maintained for 45 days as follows: control (1 mg ascorbate (AA)/100 g body mass/day), ethanol (900 mg ethanol/100 g body mass + 1 mg AA/100 g body mass/day), selenium+ascorbic acid [(25 mg AA + 0.05 mg Se)/100 g body mass/day], ethanol+selenium+ascorbic acid [(25 mg AA + 0.05 mg Se + 900 mg ethanol)/100 g body mass/day]. Co-administration of selenium and ascorbic acid along with alcohol reduced the concentration of all lipids, as also evidenced from the decreased activities of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and enhanced activities of plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and lipoprotein lipase. Concentrations of bile acids were increased. We conclude that the supplementation of Se and ascorbic acid reduced alcohol induced hyperlipidemia, by decreased synthesis and increased catabolism.

  20. Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zheng, Shijie; Mo, Junluan; Liang, Xiongshun; Xu, Yuanfei; Zhang, Huimin; Gong, Chunmei; Liu, Xiao-Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2017-10-01

    Background: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 4 and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) are abundant, and several variants are expressed in the testis. Objective: We determined the effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on sperm quality and expressions of GPX4 and SELENOP variants in rat testis and liver. Methods: After weaning, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Se-deficient basal diet (BD) for 5 wk until they were 9 wk old [mean ± SEM body weight (BW) = 256 ± 5 g]. They were then fed the BD diet alone (deficient) or with 0.25 (adequate), 3 (excess), or 5 (excess) mg Se/kg for 4 wk. Testis, liver, blood, and semen were collected to assay for selenoprotein mRNA and protein abundances, selenium concentration, GPX activity, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine concentration, and sperm quality. Results: Dietary selenium supplementations elevated ( P selenium concentrations and GPX activities. Compared with those fed BD + 0.25 mg Se/kg, rats fed BD showed lower ( P selenium-adequate group. Compared with the selenium-adequate group, dietary selenium deficiency (BD) or excess (BD + 3 or 5 mg Se/kg) resulted in 45-77% lower ( P selenium concentrations in similar ways to sperm parameters and may be used as a sensitive marker to assess appropriate Se status for male function. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Maternal Phytosterol Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates Lipid and Lipoprotein Response in Offspring of apoE-Deficient Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Todd C; Movsesian, Cheryl; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Iqbal, Aadil; Raslawsky, Amy; Patel, Mulchand S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to excessive cholesterol has been shown to increase fetal plasma cholesterol concentration and predispose adult offspring to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Because lipid-lowering drugs are contraindicated during pregnancy, natural cholesterol-lowering compounds may be a safe and effective alternative to reduce CVD risk in offspring born to hypercholesterolemic mothers. Objective: This study used the hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE−/−) mouse model to test the hypothesis that mothers supplemented with phytosterols during gestation and lactation would produce offspring with a more favorable lipid profile than offspring from unsupplemented mothers, despite having a genetic predisposition toward hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Sixteen female apoE−/− mice were randomly assigned to 2 diets fed throughout the gestation and lactation periods: a cholesterol-enriched diet (CH) (0.15%) or the cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with phytosterols (CH/PS) (2%). Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured by enzyme assay and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively, and liver cholesterol was analyzed by GC. Results: Compared with the CH-fed dams at the end of lactation, phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Pups from phytosterol-fed dams demonstrated lower (P 0.05) in HDL cholesterol compared with pups from CH-fed dams. Furthermore, compared with pups from CH-fed dams, pups from phytosterol-supplemented dams displayed a lower (P phytosterols during gestation and lactation exhibit favorable liver and serum lipid responses compared with pups from unsupplemented mothers. PMID:26084365

  2. Review on Nano SeleniumProduced by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ji-xiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a kind of essential trace element for people and animal, while ionic state of selenium is toxic with high concentrations and will cause the selenium pollution. Nano-selenium is stable, nontoxic with higher biological activity. Application of bacteria reducing selenite or selenate to biological nano-selenium has great potential in selenium pollution control and nano-selenium production. This review summarizes the research progress of the red elemental nano-selenium reduced by bacteria including characteristics and application of nano-selenium, effects of carbon and nitrogen source, oxygen, temperature and pH in bacteria nano-selenium production, and molecular mechanisms of nano-selenium reduced by bacteria.

  3. Shape coexistence in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Cao Zhongbin; Xu Furong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear shape change and shape coexistence in the Selenium isotopes have been investigated by Total-Routhian-Surface (TRS) calculations. It is found that nuclear shapes vary significantly with increasing neutron number. The TRS calculations for the ground states of 66,72,92,94 Se isotopes show that both neutron-deficient and neutron-dripline Selenium isotopes have oblate and prolate shape coexistence. The cranking shell-model calculations for 72,94 Se give that prolate and oblate shape coexistence in low rotational frequency. However, oblate rotational bands disappear and prolate rotational bands become yrast bands with increasing rotational frequency, which is due to the intrusion of the g 9/2 orbitals. (authors)

  4. Effects of gestational stage and injection route on the corporeal distribution and placental transfer of selenium in pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Corporeal distribution and placental transfer of selenium after a single injection of sodium selenite (SS) were investigated over a period of 24 h with regard to the gestational stages of mice and the injection routes of SS. On day 16 of gestation, feto-placental accumulation of selenium was remarkably increased compared with that on day 12 following subcutaneous (sc) injection of SS. Selenium concentrations in the maternal liver, kidneys and lungs were higher on day 16 than on day 12. These results explain the occurrence of the enhanced abortion or maternal death due to SS injection (sc) on day 16 compared with that on day 12, in the previous study. Intravenous (iv) injection of SS caused increased selenium concentrations in most of the maternal organs and tissues but not in the placenta or the fetus compared with sc injection. This may explain the disappearance of the abortion-inducing effect of SS when iv injection is used. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  5. Selenium determination by fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorenti, A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75 Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  7. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  8. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  9. Re: Supplement to Request for Correction - IRIS Assessment of Trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letter from Faye Graul providing supplemental information to her Request for Correction for Threshold of Trichloroethylene Contamination of Maternal Drinking Waters submitted under the Information Quality Act.

  10. A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, Martin D. de [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Punshon, Tracy; Jackson, Brian P.; Guerinot, Mary Lou [Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach. (orig.)

  11. Altered selenium status in Huntington's disease: neuroprotection by selenite in the N171-82Q mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhen; Marks, Eileen; Chen, Jianfang; Moline, Jenna; Barrows, Lorraine; Raisbeck, Merl; Volitakis, Irene; Cherny, Robert A; Chopra, Vanita; Bush, Ashley I; Hersch, Steven; Fox, Jonathan H

    2014-11-01

    Disruption of redox homeostasis is a prominent feature in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Selenium an essential element nutrient that modulates redox pathways and has been reported to provide protection against both acute neurotoxicity (e.g. methamphetamine) and chronic neurodegeneration (e.g. tauopathy) in mice. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of sodium selenite, an inorganic form of selenium, on behavioral, brain degeneration and biochemical outcomes in the N171-82Q Huntington's disease mouse model. HD mice, which were supplemented with sodium selenite from 6 to 14 weeks of age, demonstrated increased motor endurance, decreased loss of brain weight, decreased mutant huntingtin aggregate burden and decreased brain oxidized glutathione levels. Biochemical studies revealed that selenite treatment reverted HD-associated changes in liver selenium and plasma glutathione in N171-82Q mice and had effects on brain selenoprotein transcript expression. Further, we found decreased brain selenium content in human autopsy brain. Taken together, we demonstrate a decreased selenium phenotype in human and mouse HD and additionally show some protective effects of selenite in N171-82Q HD mice. Modification of selenium metabolism results in beneficial effects in mouse HD and thus may represent a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D.; Punshon, Tracy; Jackson, Brian P.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach. PMID:22159463

  13. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and other biomedical and socioenvironmental influences on children's cognition at age 9-12 years in Indonesia: follow-up of the SUMMIT randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Sebayang, Susy K; Apriatni, Mandri; Adawiyah, Siti R; Hidayati, Nina; Islamiyah, Ayuniarti; Siddiq, Sudirman; Harefa, Benyamin; Lum, Jarrad; Alcock, Katherine J; Ullman, Michael T; Muadz, Husni; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2017-02-01

    Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia. Of 27 356 live infants from birth to 3 months of age in 2001-04, we re-enrolled 19 274 (70%) children at age 9-12 years, and randomly selected 2879 from the 18 230 who were attending school at a known location. Of these, 574 children were oversampled from mothers who were anaemic or malnourished at SUMMIT enrolment. We assessed the effects of MMN and associations of biomedical (ie, maternal and child anthropometry and haemoglobin and preterm birth) and socioenvironmental determinants (ie, parental education, socioeconomic status, home environment, and maternal depression) on general intellectual ability, declarative memory, procedural memory, executive function, academic achievement, fine motor dexterity, and socioemotional health. The SUMMIT trial was registered, number ISRCTN34151616. Children of mothers given MMN had a mean score of 0·11 SD (95% CI 0·01-0·20, p=0·0319) higher in procedural memory than those given IFA, equivalent to the increase in scores with half a year of schooling. Children of anaemic mothers in the MMN group scored 0·18 SD (0·06-0·31, p=0·0047) higher in general intellectual ability, similar to the increase with 1 year of schooling. Overall, 18 of 21 tests showed a positive coefficient of MMN versus IFA (p=0·0431) with effect sizes from 0·00-0·18 SD. In multiple regression models, socioenvironmental determinants had coefficients

  14. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Understanding selenium biogeochemistry in engineered ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Rohan; Hullebusch, Van Eric D.; Lenz, Markus; Farges, François

    2017-01-01

    Selenium is used extensively in many industries, and it is necessary for human nutrition. On the other hand, it is also toxic at slightly elevated concentrations. With the advent of industrialisation, selenium concentrations in the environment due to anthropogenic activities have increased.

  16. Learning selenium testing tools with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Gundecha, Unmesh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a quality testing professional, or a software or web application developer looking to create automation test scripts for your web applications, with an interest in Python, then this is the perfect guide for you. Python developers who need to do Selenium testing need not learn Java, as they can directly use Selenium for testing with this book.

  17. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  18. Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Serum Selenium Concentrations Predict WHO Stages 3, 4 or Death but not Virologic Failure Post-Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Shivakoti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS, was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression after ART initiation. Cases were HIV-1 infected adults with either clinical failure (incident World Health Organization (WHO stage 3, 4 or death by 96 weeks or virologic failure by 24 months. Risk factors for serum selenium deficiency (<85 μg/L pre-ART and its association with outcomes were examined. Median serum selenium concentration was 82.04 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR: 57.28–99.89 and serum selenium deficiency was 53%, varying widely by country from 0% to 100%. In multivariable models, risk factors for serum selenium deficiency were country, previous tuberculosis, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein. Serum selenium deficiency was not associated with either clinical failure or virologic failure in multivariable models. However, relative to people in the third quartile (74.86–95.10 μg/L of serum selenium, we observed increased hazards (adjusted hazards ratio (HR: 3.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.30–9.42 of clinical failure but not virologic failure for people in the highest quartile. If future studies confirm this relationship of high serum selenium with increased clinical failure, a cautious approach to selenium supplementation might be needed, especially in HIV-infected populations with sufficient or unknown levels of selenium.

  19. Advanced prostate cancer risk in relation to toenail selenium levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from

  20. Comparison of Serum Selenium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People at a Cancer Institute in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast Cancer is one of the most important fatal cancers in women. The mean age of breast cancer in Iran is 48.8 years which is very lower than other countries. Selenium can play an important role in reduction of cancer in several ways, for example selenium increases immunity response and protects cells from oxidation of free radicals and also decreases carcinogenic metabolites. Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers in our country because its incidence is very high and the mean age of patients is very low. Different studies have shown the benefits of selenium in prevention of cancer and since many years selenium has been used as a dietary supplement in advanced countries. Several studies regarding relationship between selenium levels and breast cancer have been done in different countries. We therefore planned a study to evaluate serum selenium levels in breast cancer patients and compare them with a healthy control group. Methods: We selected 45 patients younger than 48 years old and 33 patients older than 48 years old who had not yet received any therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, etc for their cancer as a case group and 46 healthy people who were matched with the patients as a control group and included 23 persons younger and 23 persons older than 48 years old. From each participant, 5cc blood was derived and in several stages, serum selenium levels were evaluated using atomic absorption technology. Data about type of cancer, stage, grade, IHC and cigarette smoking were also collected. Results: The mean Se level was 161.20 μg/l (SD=46.27 μg/l in the patients and 189.13 μg/l (SD=48.75 μg/l in the control group that was statistically significant (P48 years old was 155.39 μg/l (SD=46.68 μg/l that was lower than the control groups. Difference in serum selenium levels between patients and controls in the older group was significant (P=0.007, but in the younger group, it was not statistically significant (P=0

  1. Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

  2. The association between Selenium and Prostate Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Azami, Milad; Mohammadi, Younes; Soleymani, Ali; Tardeh, Zainab

    2018-06-25

    Background: Evidence of relationship between selenium and prostate cancer has been inconsistent. The present metaanalysis was conducted to determine relationship between selenium and prostate cancer. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EBSCO and Google scholar search engines and the reference lists of the retrieved papers for relevant data, without any limitation regarding language or time until 2016. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q test and I2 Index. Finally, a random effects model was used for combining results using STATA software version 11.1. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Thirty-eight studies including 36,419 cases and 105,293 controls were included in the final analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) of relation between selenium and prostate cancer was 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]:0.78-0.94). Sub-group analyses based on case-control, cohort, and RCT studies gave values of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-1.00), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.52-1.14) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74-1.09), respectively. RRs based on serum, plasma and nail samples were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51-0.95), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.61-1.17), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.41-1.05), respectively. According to 10 studies, investigated the relation between advanced prostate cancer and selenium in which the RR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52-0.87). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that selenium most probably has a protective role against development of prostate cancer and its progression to advanced stages. Therefore, selenium supplementation can be proposed for prevention of prostate cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16-20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90-208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  4. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  5. Effect of salinity on Brassica rapa var. toria (BRSRT under selenium defence: A trial to assess the protective role of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha SAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the role of selenium, an antioxidant in salt-stressed plants. A hydroponic trial of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4 on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system of Brassica rapa var. toria (BRSRT plant was studied. 40 µmol and 100 µmol of Na2SeO4 were hydroponically applied to BRSRT roots with 50 mmol and 100 mmol sodium chloride (NaCl for 12 days. Plant growth, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments at 100 mmol salt stress was inhibited while oxidative stress indicators, for example, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were stimulated. Supplementation of 40 µmol Na2SeO4 with 50 mmol and 100 mmol NaCl improved growth, photosynthetic pigments and acted as an antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities. The in-gel assays also showed enhanced activities of these enzymes. At 100 µmol concentration, selenium under salt stress, repressed growth and expression of antioxidant enzymes and stimulated oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity. Under consolidated stress treatment, an addition of 40 µmol Na2SeO4 was the most effective for both NaCl concentrations. The finding reveals that the optimal selenium supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl stress for BRSRT seedlings.

  6. Null activity of selenium and vitamin e as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Rao, K V N; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of selenium and vitamin E as inhibitors of prostate carcinogenesis, four chemoprevention studies using a common protocol were done in a rat model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. After stimulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate followed by testosterone propionate, male Wistar-Unilever rats received a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) followed by chronic androgen stimulation via subcutaneous implantation of testosterone pellets. At 1 week post-MNU, groups of carcinogen-treated rats (39-44/group) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with l-selenomethionine (3 or 1.5 mg/kg diet; study 1), dl-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 4,000 or 2,000 mg/kg diet; study 2), l-selenomethionine + vitamin E (3 + 2,000 mg/kg diet or 3 + 500 mg/kg diet; study 3), or selenized yeast (target selenium levels of 9 or 3 mg/kg diet; study 4). Each chemoprevention study was terminated at 13 months post-MNU, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathologic evaluation. No statistically significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence were identified in any group receiving dietary supplementation with selenium and/or vitamin E. These data do not support the hypotheses that selenium and vitamin E are potent cancer chemopreventive agents in the prostate, and when considered with the recent clinical data reported in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), show the predictive nature of this animal model for human prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, A.C.; Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn

  8. Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, A.C., E-mail: a.callan@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn.

  9. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, LN; Gajewski, BJ; Colombo, J; Gibson, RA; Makrides, M; Carlson, SE

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600 mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach and an arbitrary sample of 120,000 pregnancies to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. From these proportions we estimated the number of ePTB that could be prevented. PMID:27637340

  10. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient vs iron-folic acid supplementation on infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keith P; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Klemm, Rolf D W; Wu, Lee S-F; Mitra, Maithilee; Haque, Rezwanul; Hanif, Abu A M; Massie, Allan B; Merrill, Rebecca Day; Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul

    Maternal micronutrient deficiencies may adversely affect fetal and infant health, yet there is insufficient evidence of effects on these outcomes to guide antenatal micronutrient supplementation in South Asia. To assess effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient vs iron-folic acid supplementation on 6-month infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes. Cluster randomized, double-masked trial in Bangladesh, with pregnancy surveillance starting December 4, 2007, and recruitment on January 11, 2008. Six-month infant follow-up ended August 30, 2012. Surveillance included 127,282 women; 44,567 became pregnant and were included in the analysis and delivered 28,516 live-born infants. Median gestation at enrollment was 9 weeks (interquartile range, 7-12). Women were provided supplements containing 15 micronutrients or iron-folic acid alone, taken daily from early pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was all-cause infant mortality through 6 months (180 days). Prespecified secondary outcomes in this analysis included stillbirth, preterm birth (<37 weeks), and low birth weight (<2500 g). To maintain overall significance of α = .05, a Bonferroni-corrected α = .01 was calculated to evaluate statistical significance of primary and 4 secondary risk outcomes (.05/5). Among the 22,405 pregnancies in the multiple micronutrient group and the 22,162 pregnancies in the iron-folic acid group, there were 14,374 and 14,142 live-born infants, respectively, included in the analysis. At 6 months, multiple micronutrients did not significantly reduce infant mortality; there were 764 deaths (54.0 per 1000 live births) in the iron-folic acid group and 741 deaths (51.6 per 1000 live births) in the multiple micronutrient group (relative risk [RR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06). Multiple micronutrient supplementation resulted in a non-statistically significant reduction in stillbirths (43.1 vs 48.2 per 1000 births; RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P = .02) and significant

  11. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  12. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and selenite (SeO 3 2− ) or selenate (SeO 4 2− ). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO 3 2− or SeO 4 2− ) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg 2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH) 2 and Hg(Met) 2 . Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH) 2 , together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se

  13. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu2004@126.com [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) values and maximal reaction velocity (V{sub max}) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  14. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na 2 SeO 3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K m ) values and maximal reaction velocity (V max ) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  15. Evidências do impacto da suplementação de vitamina A no grupo materno-infantil Evidence of the impact of vitamin A supplementation on maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julicristie Machado de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é reunir os resultados de revisões sistemáticas e metanálises sobre o efeito da suplementação de vitamina A no crescimento, morbi-mortalidade infantil, materna e fetal. Foi realizada uma busca criteriosa nas bases de dados bibliográficos PubMed, Embase, LILACS, PAHO, Biblioteca Cochrane, Banco de Teses da CAPES, Biblioteca Digital de Teses da USP e acervo da Biblioteca Central da UNIFESP, localizando-se 14 trabalhos publicados entre 1993 e 2006. Há evidências de que a suplementação de vitamina A em crianças esteja associada à redução de 23% a 30% no risco de morte e atenuação da gravidade do quadro de sarampo e diarréia. Não há evidências de que a intervenção em crianças reduza a incidência de pneumonia não associada ao sarampo e mortalidade por essa causa. Em crianças e gestantes com HIV/AIDS, a suplementação apresenta impacto positivo na morbi-mortalidade infantil e no peso ao nascer. Não há evidências de que a suplementação em gestantes e lactantes esteja associada à redução da morbi-mortalidade infantil, mas há indicação de que essa intervenção seja protetora em relação à morbidade materna.The aim of this article was to collect the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated the effect of vitamin A supplementation on child growth and maternal, fetal, and child morbidity and mortality. A detailed search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, PAHO, CAPES, USP Digital Thesis Library, and UNIFESP Collection Database. A total of 14 studies published from 1993 to 2006 were included in the review. There is evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children is associated with a reduction of 23% to 30% in mortality risk and attenuation in the severity of measles and diarrhea. There is no evidence of the intervention's impact on pneumonia incidence or mortality in children without measles. Vitamin A also appears to be protective in children and

  16. [Micronutrients in oncology. Current data about vitamin D, selenium, L-carnitine and vitamin C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Mücke, Ralph; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Many patients receiving cancer treatment use micronutrient supplements, with the intention to complement their cancer treatment, or help them cope with the therapy- and disease-associated side-effects. Up to 90% of the cancer patients are adding antioxidants without the knowledge of the treating physician. There are many concerns that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy, but increasing evidence suggests a benefit when antioxidants and other micronutrients, such as selenium, L-carnitine and vitamin D are added to conventional cytotoxic therapies. It is imperative that physicians discuss the use ofantioxidant and other micronutrient supplements with their cancer patients and educate them about potentially negative, but also potentially beneficial effects.

  17. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  19. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  20. Selenium: its potential role in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Esterhuyse, J.S.; Truter, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, biomedical research is showing interest in the anti-oxidant activity of selenium. This could be due to compelling evidence that reported that oxidative damage to cells and cell membranes is one of the causative agents in the pathogenesis of many disease states including male infertility. Selenium is a trace element which may be found in soil, water and some foods and is considered to be an essential element which plays an active role in several metabolic pathways and is believed to perform several important roles in the human body. These roles include anti-oxidative activities at cellular level and participating in different enzyme systems. Selenium also serves as a vital component in the maintenance of muscle cell and red blood cell integrity, playing a role in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It has also been reported that selenium is essential in the detoxification of toxic metals in the human system, foetal respiration and energy transfer reactions as well as in the production of sperm cells. It is thought that male infertility can be the result of a selenium deficiency as the absence of selenium in the testicular tissues induces degeneration which results in the active impairment of sperm motility as the first indication of impending infertility. This review paper investigates the role of selenium in male infertility. (author)

  1. Distribution and mode of occurrence of selenium in US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L.; Bragg, L.J.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium excess and deficiency have been established as the cause of various health problems in man and animals. Combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal, may be a major source of the anthropogenic introduction of selenium in the environment. Coal is enriched in selenium relative to selenium's concentration in most other rocks and relative to selenium in the Earth's crust. Data from almost 9,000 coal samples have been used to determine the concentration and distribution of selenium in US coals. The geometric mean concentration of selenium in US coal is 1.7 ppm. The highest mean selenium value (geometric mean 4.7 ppm) is in the Texas Region. Atlantic Coast (Virginia and North Carolina) and Alaska coals have the lowest geometric means (0.2 and 0.42 ppm, respectively). All western coal regions have mean selenium concentrations of less than 2.0 ppm. In contrast, all coal basins east of the Rocky Mountains (except for several small basins in Rhode Island, Virginia, and North Carolina) have mean selenium values of 1.9 or greater. Generally, variations in selenium concentration do not correlate with variations in ash yield, pyritic sulphur, or organic sulphur concentrations. This may be the result of multiple sources of selenium; however, in some non-marine basins with restricted sources of selenium, selenium has positive correlations with other coal quality parameters. Selenium occurs in several forms in coal but appears to be chiefly associated with the organic fraction, probably substituting for organic sulphur. Other important forms of selenium in coal are selenium-bearing pyrite, selenium-bearing galena, and lead selenide (clausthalite). Water-soluble and ion-exchangeable selenium also have been reported. ?? 1993 Copyright Science and Technology Letters.

  2. Quantitative selenium speciation in human urine by using liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Rumpler, Alice; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometric method for the identification of Se species in human urine. ► A selenosugar was detected as the major human urinary metabolite of selenium in the samples analysed. ► The trimethylselenonium ion was detected in the urine of one volunteer before and after receiving a selenium supplement. ► Strict quality control measures were applied to validate identification. ► Quantitation was conducted using an isotopically labelled internal standard and the standard additions methodology. - Abstract: A liquid chromatography–electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS/MS) method was developed for the speciation analysis of four organic selenium species of relevance to human urinary metabolism, namely trimethylselenomium ion (TMSe + ), selenomethionine (SeMet) and the two selenosugars, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactos/-glucos-amine (SeGalNAc and SeGluNAc, respectively). Their chromatographic separation was achieved by using a cation exchange pre-column coupled in-series with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography column, along with an isocratic mobile phase. Online detection was performed using ES-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring mode. SeGalNAc was detected as the major human urinary metabolite of selenium in the samples analysed, whereas TMSe + was detected in the urine of one volunteer before and after receiving a selenium supplement. SeMet was not detected as a urine excretory metabolite in this study. Spiking experiments performed with the urine samples revealed significant signal suppression caused by coeluting matrix constituents. To overcome such interferences, isotopically labelled 13 CD 3 82 SeGalNAc was used as an internal standard, whereas in the absence of an isotopically labelled internal standard for TMSe + , the standard addition method was applied. Quality control for the accurate quantitation of TMSe + and SeGalNAc was carried out by

  3. Recent trends in selenium regulation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium is a contaminant encountered at uranium mines. When discharged into water, it can build up in the food chain and become toxic to egg-laying fish and shorebirds. This presentation reviews recent developments in its regulation, management and treatment. Selenium will soon be regulated on the basis of its concentration in fish or bird eggs, not its dissolved concentrations, which challenges managers trying to establish acceptable discharge limits. Information supporting this change will be discussed. Recent developments to manage and treat selenium will also be reviewed, emphasizing new chemical and biological treatment processes applicable at uranium mines and mill sites. (author)

  4. Nuclear transformations studies in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation is made with regard to the chemical effects produced by nuclear transformations, such as the chemical effects of the beta decay and the chemical effects of the reaction (n,γ) in selenium radioisotopes. As a particular case the chemical effect of the isomeric transition of sup(81m)Se(VI) in potassium selenate crystals marked with radioactive selenium is studied experimentally and the method of adsorption in activated carbon is applied for the analytical separation of the traces of the nuclear isomer tetravalent sup(81b)Se(IV) of one fraction which contains the mixture of the selenium radioisotopes. (author)

  5. BLOOD SELENIUM CONCENTRATION AFFECT MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is usually defined in terms of mastitis. Milk with somatic cell count low then 400.000/ml and visibly normal (no clots is considered high quality. Thirty Holstein cows were used in the study to determine affect blood serum selenium concentration on mastitis and milk quality. Cows received ad libitum access to potable water and daily 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium supplementation in food. Blood and milk samples were taken at first and sixth lactating month. Mean selenium blood serum concentrations were found to be lower within first lactating month, and then increased in the sixth lactating month. Average somatic cell count at first lactating month was 450.000/ml of milk and at sixth lactating month was 355.000/ml. On the basis of these results it can be conclude that selenium have importance in proper functioning of the mammary glands of cows, and in reducing mastitis and in improving milk quality.

  6. Protective effect of selenium on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ali; Omidvar, Bita; Parsi, Abazar

    2013-04-01

    Renal injury is common following cisplatin infusion. Some agents have been used to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity. However, except hydration, none of them has been proved to be effective. In this study selenium as an antioxidant supplement was tested on cisplatin induced renal injury. 122 cancerous patients (85 male and 37 female; age range of 14 to 82 years old) were enrolled to receive chemotherapy regimens consisting cisplatin. They were allocated into two groups using a random number list . Investigators, patients and analyzers all, were blinded in allocation by using sealed opaque envelopes. Intervention group received a single 400 mcg selenium tablet and patients in control group took a placebo tablet which was similar with selenium preparation in color, weight, shape and taste. Primary end points were an increase in plasma creatinine above 1.5 mg/dl in men and 1.4mg/dl in women, or increase of plasma creatinine more than 50% from baseline or urine flow rate less than 0.5 ml/kg/h. Creatinine level was measured initially and on the 5th day after cisplatin therapy. There was no difference in cumulative dose of cisplatin between the groups (p=0.54). There were not evidences of acute renal failure (ARF) in cases. While, among placebo group, 7 patients had criteria of acute kidney injury. Conclusions :selenium could probably prevent cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, when it is added to hydration therapy in cancerous patients.

  7. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  8. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Selenium content of foods purchased or produced in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, J T; Kinsey, D; Palmquist, D L; DeLany, J P; Vivian, V M; Moxon, A L

    1987-06-01

    Approximately 450 samples of about 100 types of foods consumed by rural and urban Ohioans were analyzed for selenium. Meat, dairy products, eggs, and grain products produced in Ohio have considerably lower selenium content than corresponding products produced in high selenium areas, such as South Dakota. Retail Ohio foods with interregional distribution tended to be higher in selenium content than corresponding foods produced in Ohio. Best sources of selenium in Ohio foods commonly consumed were meat and pasta products. Poor sources of selenium were fruits, most vegetables, candies, sweeteners, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Establishment of an accurate data base for selenium depends on knowledge of the interregional distribution of foods, the selenium content of foods at their production site, and the selenium content of foods with wide local distribution.

  10. EFFECT OF A VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, MUSCULAR INJURIES MARKERS ENZYMES AND PEROXIDATION INDICES OF BIOMOLECULES IN SHOW JUMPING HORSES EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO COM VITAMINA E E SELÊNIO SOBRE O QUADRO HEMATOLÓGICO, ENZIMAS MARCADORAS DE LESÃO MUSCULAR E ÍNDICE DE PEROXIDAÇÃO DE BIOMOLÉCULAS EM EQUINOS SUBMETIDOS À ATIVIDADE DE SALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Cachineiro Rodrigues Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the main physiopathological mechanisms in the appearance of injuries related to the physical exercise, the involvement of free radicals is very important, mainly oxygen reactive species. They can lead to hematologicaland biochemical alterations related to injuries mediated by the physical effort. For the prevention and treatment of such conditions, the use of antioxidant supplementation, like ?-tocopherol (vitamin E and selenium has been considered for training animals and competitions of high impact. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of vitamin E and selenium oral supplementation on hematological parameters, the seric activity of muscular enzymes and the level of substances derived from oxidative stress on erythrocyte membranes of horses normally trained and submitted to a show jumping test. For this purpose, 20 horses with these characteristics were divided in two groups. One of them (GT received oral supplementation of vitamin E (2500 mg/day and selenium (3 mg/day for 45 days and another one was kept as control (GC. Both groups were submitted to a standardized test of show jumping and samples of blood were collected in rest, immediately after, and 6, 12 and 24 hours after the end of the activity. The constituents of the hemogram, the seric activity of enzymes CK, AST, and LDH, and the level of an oxidative stress marker (TBARS in erythrocyte membranes were evaluated. The number of erythrocytes and leukocytes returned to basal levels in GT after 6 hours. In GC, such values returned to rest levels between 12 and 24 hours. Despite the observed differences in some hematological parameters dynamics between the two groups, it was not possible to determine antioxidant activity in GT. These observations demonstrate the need for more studies to understanding oxidative stress effects on athletics horses and the use of antioxidants for these animal’s diets.

    KEY WORDS: Exercise, horse, oxidative stress, selenium

  11. [Trend of the selenium supply of cattle in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. Retrospective analysis of serum samples of the years 2006-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Freude, B

    2016-01-01

    An optimal selenium supply of cattle is essential, because an insufficiency can lead to health disorders and reduced performance. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the selenium supply of cattle in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. Serum samples from 45  068 cattle with unknown clinical status originating from countries all across Europe, which had been sent by veterinarians to the IDEXX Laboratory Ludwigsburg, Germany, between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2015, were routinely analyzed for the selenium concentration by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. A total of 40  949 samples (30  462 from Germany, 4004 from Austria, 3232 from Switzerland, 3251 from Denmark) were included in the evaluation. Results were categorized as follows: 50-150 µg/l: sufficient supply,  150 µg/l: supply too high. During the observation period, a generalized trend towards a decreasing selenium supply was clear. Denmark showed the best selenium supply (77.4% of samples indicating a sufficient supply); however, even in this country a tendency towards a deterioration was seen. A very poor situation with a strongly decreasing selenium supply was observed in Austria, followed by Germany (38% and 30% of samples, respectively, indicating an undersupply). For Switzerland, a constantly poor selenium supply was found (49% of samples indicating an undersupply). Due to the ongoing trend of a selenium undersupply in cattle herds, it is recommended to control the serum selenium concentration annually and supplement this trace element via mineral food when necessary.

  12. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  13. Biofortification and phytoremediation of selenium in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification is an agricultural process that increases the uptake and accumulation of specific nutrients, e.g. selenium (Se), in agricultural food products through plant breeding, genetic engineering, and manipulation of agronomic practices. The development and uses of biofortified agricultural ...

  14. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. L Barkat, A Boumendjel, C Abdennour, MS Boulakoud, A El Feki, M Messarah ...

  15. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  16. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  17. Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-12-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short. 2 figures.

  18. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  19. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  20. Maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F.A. Simões

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3] in children, adolescents and adults, but it remains unclear whether maternal adiposity influences maternal and foetal concentrations of this vitamin. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. It involved 101 mother–newborn pairs from a public maternity in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data, as well as anthropometry, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, were investigated. Maternal adiposity was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two multiple linear regression models that included maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations as outcomes and maternal adiposity as independent variable were used. No association was observed between maternal adiposity and maternal or cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. Maternal vitamin D concentration was associated with race, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation (adj. R2 = 0.74. Cord blood vitamin D concentration was associated with maternal vitamin D concentration (adj. R2 = 0.24. Although fat mass quantification is important to understand vitamin D status during all stages of life, this may not be true in pregnancy as race, vitamin D supplementation and physical activity appeared to be more relevant to vitamin D status. Understanding vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy may elucidate how or if adiposity influences maternal vitamin D status and how it impacts vitamin D transport to the foetus.

  1. Dietary Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Schomburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next year (2017, the micronutrient Selenium (Se is celebrating its birthday—i.e., 200 years after first being identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Despite its impressive age, research into the functions of this essential trace element is very alive and reaching out for new horizons. This special issue presents some recent fascinating, exciting, and promising developments in Se research in the form of eight original contributions and seven review articles. Collectively, aspects of Se supply, biochemical, physiological, and chemotherapeutic effects, and geobiological interactions are covered by leading scientists in the areas of nutritional, basic, and clinical research. It is obvious from the contributions that the bicentennial anniversary will celebrate a micronutrient still in its infancy with respect to being understood in terms of its biomedical importance.

  2. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In