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Sample records for maternal resolution status

  1. First trimester prediction of maternal glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Doyle, Lauren E; Blitzer, Miriam; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2015-05-01

    To predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or normoglycemic status using first trimester maternal characteristics. We used data from a prospective cohort study. First trimester maternal characteristics were compared between women with and without GDM. Association of these variables with sugar values at glucose challenge test (GCT) and subsequent GDM was tested to identify key parameters. A predictive algorithm for GDM was developed and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to derive the optimal risk score. We defined normoglycemic state, when GCT and all four sugar values at oral glucose tolerance test, whenever obtained, were normal. Using same statistical approach, we developed an algorithm to predict the normoglycemic state. Maternal age, race, prior GDM, first trimester BMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were all significantly associated with GDM. Age, BMI, and SBP were also associated with GCT values. The logistic regression analysis constructed equation and the calculated risk score yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85%, 62%, 13.8%, and 98.3% for a cut-off value of 0.042, respectively (ROC-AUC - area under the curve 0.819, CI - confidence interval 0.769-0.868). The model constructed for normoglycemia prediction demonstrated lower performance (ROC-AUC 0.707, CI 0.668-0.746). GDM prediction can be achieved during the first trimester encounter by integration of maternal characteristics and basic measurements while normoglycemic status prediction is less effective.

  2. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  3. Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women. ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among ...

  4. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  5. A review on child and maternal health status of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.

  6. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  7. Maternal global methylation status and risk of congenital heart diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Lydi M. J. W.; de Jonge, Robert; Helbing, Willem A.; van Zelst, Bertrand D.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between the maternal methylation status as reflected by low S-adenosylmethionine and high S-adenosylhomocysteine, is detrimental for cardiogenesis and congenital heart disease (CHD) in the offspring. METHODS: As part of a case-control study in the

  8. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and glucose intolerance, and its impact on pregnant women and their newborns. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women were divided into three groups: women with gestational diabetes mellitus, ones with normal results both after the 50 gr and 100 ...

  9. Maternal folate status in early pregnancy and child emotional and behavioral problems: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral

  10. Maternal stress and distress and child nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondó, P H C; Rezende, G; Lemos, J O; Pereira, J A

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between maternal stress and distress in pregnancy and 5-8 years postpartum and child nutritional status. Longitudinal cohort study carried out in Jundiai city, Southeast Brazil, involving 409 women followed throughout pregnancy to 5-8 years postpartum, and respective children. Measures of stress and distress were obtained three times in pregnancy (at gestational ages lower than 16 weeks, from 20 to 26 weeks and from 30 to 36 weeks) and 5-8 years postpartum by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI). The nutritional status of the children was assessed by the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) z-score for age. The relationship between child BMI z-score for age and scores of the PSS, GHQ and STAI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression, controlling for confounding variables. BMI z-score for age of the children was negatively associated with maternal scores of the PSS 5-8 years postpartum and scores of the GHQ in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMI of the children was positively associated with maternal BMI and birthweight (R(2)=0.13). There was -0.04 (confidence interval -0.07 to -0.9 × 10(-2)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the PSS increase, and -0.09 (confidence interval -0.18 to -0.6 × 10(-3)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the GHQ increase. This study detected a relationship between maternal mental and nutritional status and child nutritional status, implying that if the mother is not physically or mentally well, her capacity for caring for her child may be impaired.

  11. Diversified microbiota of meconium is affected by maternal diabetes status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Hu

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the diversity of the meconium microbiome and determine if the bacterial community is affected by maternal diabetes status.The first intestinal discharge (meconium was collected from 23 newborns stratified by maternal diabetes status: 4 mothers had pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM including one mother with dizygotic twins, 5 developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and 13 had no diabetes. The meconium microbiome was profiled using multi-barcode 16S rRNA sequencing followed by taxonomic assignment and diversity analysis.All meconium samples were not sterile and contained diversified microbiota. Compared with adult feces, the meconium showed a lower species diversity, higher sample-to-sample variation, and enrichment of Proteobacteria and reduction of Bacteroidetes. Among the meconium samples, the taxonomy analyses suggested that the overall bacterial content significantly differed by maternal diabetes status, with the microbiome of the DM group showing higher alpha-diversity than that of no-diabetes or GDM groups. No global difference was found between babies delivered vaginally versus via Cesarean-section. Regression analysis showed that the most robust predictor for the meconium microbiota composition was the maternal diabetes status that preceded pregnancy. Specifically, Bacteroidetes (phyla and Parabacteriodes (genus were enriched in the meconium in the DM group compared to the no-diabetes group.Our study provides evidence that meconium contains diversified microbiota and is not affected by the mode of delivery. It also suggests that the meconium microbiome of infants born to mothers with DM is enriched for the same bacterial taxa as those reported in the fecal microbiome of adult DM patients.

  12. Postnatal paternal involvement and maternal emotional disturbances: The effect of maternal employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health.

  14. Maternal perceptions of their child's weight status: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Vasilopoulou, Emilia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to quantify mothers' misclassification of pre-school children's weight status and to determine factors associated with the maternal misperception. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Mothers' perceptions of their child's weight status and the children's and mothers' anthropometric and other characteristics (sociodemographic and lifestyle) were recorded. Almost 38 % of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. The frequency of underestimation was much higher among 'at risk of being overweight' and 'overweight' children (88.3 % and 54.5 %, respectively) compared with 'underweight/normal-weight' children (18.0 %, P engaging in physical activity for less than 3 h/week and in children whose mothers had low education status, compared with their counterparts. Moreover, the higher the BMI-for-age Z-score, the greater the odds that the mother would underestimate her child's weight status. The current study demonstrated that more than one-third of mothers misclassify their children's weight status as being lower than the actual. Given that mother's weight perception might be an important determinant of child's body weight development, clinicians and health professionals should help mothers correctly classify their children's weight status, which could potentially help in the early prevention of overweight and obesity.

  15. Anthropometry of fetal growth in rural Malawi in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn

  16. Latino Maternal Literacy Beliefs and Practices Mediating Socioeconomic Status and Maternal Education Effects in Predicting Child Receptive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Acosta, Sandra; Davis, Heather; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the association between Mexican American maternal education and socioeconomic status (SES) and child vocabulary as mediated by parental reading beliefs, home literacy environment (HLE), and parent-child shared reading frequency. As part of a larger study, maternal reports of education level, SES, HLE, and…

  17. U.S.-China Relations after Resolution of Taiwan's Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cliff, Roger; Shlapak, David A

    2007-01-01

    Although it appears unlikely that the question of Taiwan's status and ultimate relationship to China will be resolved any time soon, it is instructive to speculate about how its resolution might affect U.S.- China relations...

  18. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaan Negash

    Full Text Available Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status.A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers or recumbent length (children were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ, 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ. Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02 and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001 were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007 was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001 and WAZ score (P<0.001. Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04 and HAZ (P = 0.01 score of children.Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.

  19. Maternal circulating vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition in healthy lactating women—A systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jasmijn Y.; Pundir, Shikha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Keijer, Jaap; Kussmann, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Colostrum is the first ingested sole nutritional source for the newborn infant. The vitamin profile of colostrum depends on the maternal vitamin status, which in turn is influenced by diet and lifestyle. Yet, the relationship between maternal vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition has

  20. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  1. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

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    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  2. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  3. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  4. Maternal resolution of grief after preterm birth: implications for infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prachi E; Clements, Melissa; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-02-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' unresolved grief regarding their infant's preterm birth and infant-mother attachment security. We hypothesized that mothers with unresolved grief would be more likely to have insecurely attached infants at 16 months and that this association would be partially mediated by maternal interaction quality. This longitudinal study focused on 74 preterm infants (age of infants. The present analysis included assessment of neonatal and socioeconomic risks at NICU discharge; maternal depression, Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview findings, and quality of parenting at a postterm age of 9 months; and infant-mother attachment at postterm age of 16 months. Associations among findings of grief resolution with the Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview, quality of parenting interactions, and attachment security were explored by using relative risk ratios and logistic and multivariate regression models. The relative risk of developing insecure attachment when mothers had unresolved grief was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.44). Controlling for covariates (adjusted odds ratio: 2.94), maternal feelings of resolved grief regarding the preterm birth experience were associated with secure infant-mother attachment at 16 months. Maternal grief resolution and interaction quality were independent predictors of attachment security. Maternal grief resolution regarding the experience of preterm birth and the quality of maternal interactions have important implications for emerging attachment security for infants born prematurely.

  5. Maternal Strategies to Access Food Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S; McCurdy, Karen; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Household food insecurity is associated with health and behavior risk. Much less is known about how food insecurity is related to strategies that adults use in accessing food: how and where they shop, use of alternative food sources, and their ability to manage resources. To examine how maternal behaviors, including shopping, accessing alternative sources of food, and managing resources, are related to household food security status (HHFSS). Cross-sectional study collecting survey data on HHFSS, shopping behaviors, use of alternative food sources, and managing resources obtained from low-income mothers of preschool-aged children. One hundred sixty-four low-income mothers of young children (55% Hispanic) from two communities in Rhode Island. HHFSS was measured using 10 items from the 18-item Core Food Security Module to assess adult food security. Mothers were surveyed about where, when, and how often they shopped; the strategies they use when shopping; their use of alternative sources of food, including federal, state, and local assistance; and their ability to manage their resources. Analysis of variance and χ 2 analyses assessed the associations between demographic variables, shopping, accessing alternative food sources, and managing resources, and HHFSS. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the associations between HHFSS and maternal demographic variables, food shopping, strategies, alternative sources of food, and ability to manage resources. Maternal age and language spoken at home were significantly associated with HHFSS; food insecurity was 10% more likely among older mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and 2.5 times more likely among Spanish-speaking households (compared with non-Spanish speaking [aOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.18]). Food insecurity was more likely among mothers reporting more informal strategies (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.01; P<0.05) and perceiving greater inability to manage resources (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1

  6. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status. A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (Pchildren. Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.

  7. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  8. [Mothers' adherence to "maternal love" influences emotional expression toward children: relation to maternal occupational status and satisfaction in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Sonoko

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the impact of mothers' adherence to "maternal love" on maternal emotional expression toward their children. It was postulated that adherence to "maternal love" (defined as the tendency to accept and obey blindly the traditional maternal role and sociocultural belief in "desirable mothers") would have both positive and negative effects on maternal emotional expression, depending on the mothers' occupational status and satisfaction in workplace. The results showed an interaction between mothers' adherence to "maternal love" and the mothers' satisfaction in the workplace, which affected their expression of emotion. When satisfaction in the workplace was rated in the middle, it was positively associated with positive emotional expression. When satisfaction in the workplace was rated as high, it was both positively and negatively associated with positive emotional expression for full-time workers. Moreover, when satisfaction in the workplace was rated as in the middle, it was negatively associated with negative emotional expression, and when satisfaction in the workplace was rated as low or high, it was positively associated with negative emotional expression for all workers. These findings confirmed that mothers' adherence to "maternal love" is "the double-edged sword".

  9. Maternal Socioeconomic Status Influences the Range of Expectations during Language Comprehension in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Melissa; Borovsky, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When…

  10. Association of Maternal Vitamin C Status with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of antioxidants in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been given limited attention. Vitamin C is a nutrient with radical quenching property and has been claimed to influence glucose tolerance. Aim: To study the association between vitamin C status (dietary intake and plasma concentrations and GDM. Material and Methods: Using a case-control design with 1:3 ratio we examined 42 pregnant women with GDM and 158 normal glucose tolerant (NGT gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women at an average of 26 weeks of gestation. Maternal vitamin C intake was determined using detailed semi food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ and 24 hour diet recall. Plasma vitamin C was determined using a spectrophotometric method in non-fasting samples. GDM was diagnosed by 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥92mg%, 1hour ≥180mg%, 2 hour ≥153mg %. Results: GDM women had lower median intake of vitamin C (35.0 mg/day vs. 66.7; p<0.001 and lower median plasma vitamin C concentration (45.9 µmol/L vs. 95.2; p<0.001 compared to NGT women. Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely related to fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour post glucose plasma glucose concentrations (p<0.001. The associations remained significant after adjustment for age, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and stress. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low vitamin C intake as well as low plasma vitamin C concentration is associated with GDM. This association needs to be tested in a large prospective study and subsequently in a clinical trial

  11. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women. Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  12. Maternal mortality in India: current status and strategies for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A

    1991-12-01

    The causes (medical, reproductive factors, health care delivery system, and socioeconomic factors) of maternal mortality in India and strategies for reducing maternal mortality are presented. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) are very high in Asia and Africa compared with Northern Europe's 4/100,000 live births. An Indian hospital study found the MMR to be 4.21/1000 live births. 50-98% of maternal deaths are caused by direct obstetric causes (hemorrhage, infection, and hypertensive disorders, ruptured uterus, hepatitis, and anemia). 50% of maternal deaths due to sepsis are related to illegal induced abortion. MMR in India has not declined significantly in the past 15 years. Age, primi and grande multiparity, unplanned pregnancy, and related illegal abortion are the reproductive causes. In 1985 WHO reported that 63-80% of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could probably have been prevented with proper handling. In India, coordination between levels in the delivery system and fragmentation of care account for the poor quality of maternal health care. Mass illiteracy is another cause. Effective strategies for reducing the MMR are 1) to place a high priority on maternal and child health (MCH) services and integrate vertical programs (e.g., family planning) related to MCH; 2) to give attention to care during labor and delivery, which is the most critical period for complications; 3) to provide community-based delivery huts which can provide a clean and safe delivery place close to home, and maternity waiting rooms in hospitals for high risk mothers; 4) to improve the quality of MCH care at the rural community level (proper history taking, palpation, blood pressure and fetal heart screening, risk factor screening, and referral); 5) to improve quality of care at the primary health care level (emergency care and proper referral); 6) to include in the postpartum program MCH and family planning services; 7) to examine the

  13. Maternal nutritional knowledge and child nutritional status in the Volta region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.

  14. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C

    2006-08-01

    Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.

  15. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and infant immune response to routine childhood vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanewa, Olayinka; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition. Response to childhood vaccination may be associated with fetal and early life environment; evaluation of programs should take this into account.

  16. Women's status within the household as a determinant of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving maternal health in sub-saharan Africa, there is lack of empirical data on how women's socio-cultural characteristics may influence use of health services in Nigeria. Objective: To describe how women's position in the household affects receipt of ...

  17. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  18. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  19. Health and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia: do maternal characteristics matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2013-03-01

    In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.

  20. A maternal erythrocyte DHA content of approximately 6 g% is the DHA status at which intrauterine DHA biomagnifications turns into bioattenuation and postnatal infant DHA equilibrium isreached

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in infant compared with maternal lipids at delivery is named biomagnification. The decline of infant and maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status during lactation in Western countries suggests maternal depletion. We investigated whether

  1. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  2. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZobesity (BAZ>2). HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height wasmaternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WCmaternal height (maternal BMI and WC. We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  3. Maternal immigrant status and high birth weight: implications for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a growing epidemic, is associated with greater risk of several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children of immigrant mothers are at higher risk for obesity than children of non-immigrant mothers. High birth weight is the most important neonatal predictor of childhood obesity in the general population. To understand the etiology of obesity in children of immigrant mothers, we assessed the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for high birth weight. Data about all births in Michigan (N = 786,868) between 2000-2005 were collected. We used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for neonatal high birth weight. The prevalence of high birth weight among non-immigrant mothers was 10.6%; the prevalence among immigrant mothers was 8.0% (P maternal age, education, marital status, parity, and tobacco use, children of immigrant mothers had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.70) of high birth weight compared to those of non-immigrant mothers. Although maternal immigrant status has been shown to be associated with greater childhood obesity, surprisingly, children of immigrant mothers have lower risk of high birth weight than children of non-immigrant mothers. This suggests that factors in early childhood, potentially cultural or behavioral factors, may play a disproportionately important role in the etiology of childhood obesity in children of immigrant vs non-immigrant mothers.

  4. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories : The Rotterdam Predict Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Irene V; Groenenberg, Irene A L; Gotink, Anniek W; Willemsen, Sten P; Gijtenbeek, Manon; Dudink, Jeroen; Go, Attie T J I; Reiss, Irwin K M; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks

  5. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-07-14

    It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother’s socio-demographic (age and relationship status and socio-economic features (education and professional status differentiate the child’s nutritional status. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child’s nutritional status, body mass index (BMI z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR, the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC, fat (%ET and proteins (%EP. Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. Results: The results showed that mother’s education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child’s nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05. Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child’s social background (e.g., maternal factors. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:811–821

  7. Maternal vitamin D status in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: impact on neonatal vitamin D status and association with maternal glycaemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Bennett

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to assess 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD concentrations in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM during pregnancy, post-delivery and also foetal (cord blood 25OHD concentrations and to examine relationships between these. The second aim of the study was to investigate potential interactions between maternal body mass index (BMI and foetal vitamin D status. A further study aim was to examine potential relationships between maternal 25OHD and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c throughout pregnancy.This was an observational study of 52 pregnant controls without diabetes and 65 pregnant women with T1DM in a university teaching hospital. Maternal serum 25OHD was measured serially throughout the pregnancy and post-delivery. Cord blood 25OHD was measured at delivery. 25OHD was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS.Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD 30 kg/m(2 (nmol/L ± SD; 19.93 ± 11.15 vs. 13.73 ± 4.74, p=0.026]. In the T1DM group, HbA1c at booking was significantly negatively correlated with maternal 25OHD at all 3 trimesters (p=0.004; p=0.001; p=0.05.In T1DM pregnancy, low vitamin D levels persist throughout gestation and post-delivery. Cord blood vitamin D levels correlate with those of the mother, and are significantly lower in obese women than in their normal weight counterparts. Maternal vitamin D levels exhibit a significant negative relationship with HbA1c levels, supporting a potential role for this vitamin in maintaining glycaemic control.

  8. One mum too few: maternal status in host surrogate motherhood arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  10. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  11. Predictors of maternal depression in the first year postpartum: marital status and mediating role of relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akincigil, Ayse; Munch, Shari; Niemczyk, Kristen C

    2010-01-01

    Existing literature has documented the associations between marital status and maternal depression within the first year postpartum. Using data that is representative of urban non-marital births in the United States with a large over-sample of non-marital births, we investigate the association of maternal depression with not only marital status but also relationship quality with the father of the baby. Quality is independently associated with maternal depression after controlling for marital status and other variables that have been documented as risk factors for maternal depression. In addition, relationship quality explains away the associations between marital status and maternal depression. After controlling for relationship quality, single women were no more likely to be depressed compared to married or cohabiting women.

  12. Assessment of maternal smoking status during pregnancy and the associations with neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rachel; Kruithof, Claudia; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-12-01

    Single assessment of smoking during pregnancy may lead to misclassification due to underreporting or failure of smoking cessation. We examined the percentage of mothers who were misclassified in smoking status based on single assessment, as compared with repeated assessment, and whether this misclassification leads to altered effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal complications. This study was performed in 5,389 mothers participating in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Smoking status was assessed 3 times during pregnancy using questionnaires. Information on birth weight and neonatal complications was obtained from hospital records. For categorizing mothers per smoking status, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was .86 (p pregnancy, 1.7% (70 of 4,141) and 33.7% (217 of 643), respectively, were reclassified to continued smoking based on repeated assessment. Younger, shorter lower educated mothers who had non-European ethnicity experienced more stress, consumed more alcohol, and did not use folic acid supplements had higher risk of underreporting their smoking status or failure of smoking cessation. Marginal differences were found on the associations of maternal smoking with neonatal complications between single or repeated assessment. Our results suggest that single assessment of smoking during pregnancy leads to underestimation of the continued smoking prevalence, especially among mothers who reported quitting smoking in first trimester. However, this underestimation does not materially change the effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal outcomes.

  13. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  14. Maternal status regulates cortical responses to the body odor of newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan N Lundström

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in non-human mammals have identified olfactory signals as prime mediators of mother-infant bonding and they have been linked with maternal attitudes and behavior in our own species as well. However, although the neuronal network processing infant cues has been studied for visual and auditory signals; to date, no such information exists for chemosensory signals. We contrasted the cerebral activity underlying the processing of infant odor properties in 15 women newly given birth for the first time and 15 women not given birth while smelling the body odor of unfamiliar 2 day-old newborn infants. Maternal status-dependent activity was demonstrated in the thalamus when exposed to the body odor of a newly born infant. Subsequent regions of interest analyses indicated that dopaminergic neostriatal areas are active in maternal-dependent responses. Taken together, these data suggests that body odors from 2 day-old newborns elicit activation in reward-related cerebral areas in women, regardless of their maternal status. These tentative data suggests that certain body odors might act as a catalyst for bonding mechanisms and highlights the need for future research on odor-dependent mother-infant bonding using parametric designs controlling for biological saliency and general odor perception effects.

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Children from Rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice N. Toko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OHD status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63. Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OHD and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-one percent of the women had insufficient (<75 nmol/L and 21% had deficient (<50 nmol/L plasma 25(OHD concentration at enrollment. At birth, 74.4% of the infants had insufficient and 30% had deficient plasma 25(OHD concentrations, measured in cord blood. Multivariate analysis controlling for maternal age and body mass index (BMI at enrollment and gestational age at delivery found that deficient plasma 25(OHD levels were associated with a four-fold higher risk of stunting in neonates (p = 0.04. These findings add to the existing literature about vitamin D and its association with linear growth in resource-limited settings, though randomized clinical trials are needed to establish causation.

  16. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  17. ROLE OF MATERNAL EDUCATION & OCCUPATION IN THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER THREE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaili Vyas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: To determine the role of  Maternal  Education & Occupation in the nutritional status of  <3yrs children. Objectives: To assess the role of  maternal education & occupation in the nutritional status of  <3yrs children.  Study design: Cross sectional study. Settings:In the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dehradun. Participants:500 children between 0-3years. Statistical Analysis:Chi Square . Results:  Majority of mothers (41.20% were found to be illiterate & of these majority had undernourished children (73.30%. In our study, most (92.20% of the mothers were housewives or were unemployed ,whereas maximum undernutrition (88.46% was found in children whose mothers were unskilled labourer by occupation, whereas children of housewives were found to be only 59.22%  undernourished.

  18. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  19. Rapid resolution of fetal goiter associated with maternal Grave's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, D R; Rothschild, M A

    2000-08-11

    The incidence of abnormal fetal thyroid function with maternal Grave's disease is about 2-12%. The development of larger fetal goiters can complicate labor and precipitate life-threatening airway obstruction at delivery. A case is presented of a large stable goiter confirmed by sonography, which unexpectedly resolved by the time of parturition. A 3 x 6 cm fetal goiter was detected at 34 weeks gestation in a mother treated with propylthiouracil for Grave's disease. A repeat sonogram at 36 weeks showed no change in goiter size. Umbilical blood sampling showed the fetus to be markedly hyperthyroid. Planned Cesarean section took place 11 days after the final sonogram. A multi-disciplinary operative team was present including the Otolaryngology service with equipment for emergency intubation, bronchoscopy and tracheotomy. Upon delivery, the infant had no evidence of goiter and no airway compromise. Fetal goiter is a rare entity, and recent advances in the field of maternal-fetal medicine have enabled intra-uterine diagnosis and treatment of such conditions. A review of published case reports demonstrates two trends in treated fetuses: preterm progressive resolution of the goiter, or delivery with gross evidence of goiter. This reported case is unique, as a persistent goiter resolved completely in less than 2 weeks. Otolaryngologic response to and management of potential congenital airway compromise is discussed.

  20. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq

    2012-01-01

    Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are  intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...

  1. Status report on roadmap headquarters issue resolution activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Roadmap Project Office (RPO), under the Office of Planning (EM-14), continues to review headquarters (HQ) issues raised by the field in their roadmap documents. Currently, twenty-nine HQ issues are in the ''resolution'' process or are being defined for resolution. The resolution process involves an Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EM) HQ person, the Action Officer (AO), as the leader in the resolution process. The RPO is responsible to EM-14 for reporting on the progress of issue resolution activities and also to provide contractor support to each Action Officer: the contractor support person is identifies as the Issue Resolution Facilitator (IF). Field contacts also are identified for each issue. This document provides current information on HQ issues actively in the ''resolution'' process or being defined for resolution. The issues are primarily institutional rather than technical and mainly involve regulatory, coordination, prioritization, policy and management concerns

  2. Impact of Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy on Child Nutritional Status in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation. © 2015 APJPH.

  3. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  4. Maternal vitamin D status and childhood asthma, wheeze, and eczema: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Xiaodan

    2016-09-01

    Maternal vitamin D status has been reported to be associated with childhood allergic diseases. However, this association remains to be fully elucidated. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using prospective cohort studies that examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and childhood allergic diseases including wheeze, eczema and asthma. We searched electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, the Wanfang (Chinese) database, the VIP (Chinese) database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to August 2014. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from individual studies were synthesized using a fixed effects model. Four studies on the association between maternal vitamin D status and childhood asthma (3666 mother-child pairs), four studies on the association between maternal vitamin D status and childhood wheeze (2225 mother-child pairs) and three papers on the association between maternal vitamin D status and childhood eczema (2172 mother-child pairs) met our inclusion criteria. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with childhood eczema (pooled OR=0.904, 95% CI=0.831-0.983). However, the meta-analysis showed no statistical association between maternal vitamin D status and childhood asthma (pooled OR=0.981, 95% CI=0.944-1.019) or childhood wheeze (pooled OR=0.995, 95% CI=0.982-1.009). Our meta-analysis found that lower maternal vitamin D during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood eczema but was not associated with childhood asthma or wheeze. The role of maternal vitamin D as an important protective factor for the development of childhood eczema remains to be elucidated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Correlation among periodontal health status, maternal age and pre-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Francesca; Vozza, Iole; Capuccio, Veronica; Vestri, Anna Rita; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2016-08-01

    To assess correlations between periodontal status, maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-term and low birth weight in a sample of pregnant women. Study population was represented by outpatient pregnant women, gestational age > 26 weeks. Medical history questionnaires were administered to all participants who underwent clinical evaluation; clinical obstetric outcome records were collected after delivery. A questionnaire was administered regarding personal information, socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and oral health conditions. A clinical oral examination was performed to collect Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Pregnancy outcome records included: delivery week, kind and causes of delivery, any relevant complications, and birth weight. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the data from the questionnaire while the relationship between delivery week, birth weight, maternal age and periodontal status was evaluated through multivariate tests of significance. 88 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation (Pperiodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No statistical correlation was found among pre-term and low birth weight, smoking, ethnicity and educational level of mothers. The results highlight the importance of including a routine oral and periodontal health examination in pregnant women older than 40 years of age. The correlation between periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in older mothers indicates the need for routine oral health examination and periodontal status assessment and care in pregnant women older than 40 years of age.

  6. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth.Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women's empowerment (MDG 3.

  7. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O

    2010-06-23

    Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).

  8. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and ...

  9. The relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on birth outcomes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW pregnancy along with routine obstetric care on gestational weight gain is critical to improve birth outcomes. NCT01665378 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01665378). Copyright © 2015

  10. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women.This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women <14 weeks of gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks. Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester and newborn weight (measured at birth.Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49, thirty-eight percent (n = 67 were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58 showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG, leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b all increased significantly (p<0.05 during pregnancy. Pregestational maternal weight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (p<0.05. Early pregnancy leptin and TNFα were determinants of birthweight in women with normal weight, but not in overweight or obese women.Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein

  11. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Reyes-López, Angélica; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Ramírez-González, Ma Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women. This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013). Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks). Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported), body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester) and newborn weight (measured at birth). Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49), thirty-eight percent (n = 67) were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58) showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG), leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b) all increased significantly (pweight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (pweight, but not in overweight or obese women. Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein throughout pregnancy. The role of early leptin and TNFα in fetal growth need further study given the association was only observed in normal weight women. This

  12. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  13. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories: The Rotterdam Predict Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V Koning

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks gestational age (GA. Viable non-malformed singleton pregnancies were selected for cerebellar measurements; transcerebellar diameter, (TCD, left and right cerebellar diameters (LCD, RCD. Linear mixed models were performed to estimate associations between questionnaire data on the timing of maternal folic acid supplement initiation and longitudinal cerebellar measurements as a function of crown-rump length (CRL and GA. Maternal red blood cell folate concentrations were analysed before 8 weeks GA to validate the associations. A total of 263 serial high quality three-dimensional ultrasound scans of 135 pregnancies were studied. Preconceptional compared to postconceptional initiation of folic acid use was associated with slightly larger cerebellar diameters per millimetre increase of CRL (TCD: β = 0.260mm, 95%CI = 0.023-0.491, p<0.05; LCD: β = 0.171mm, 95%CI = 0.038-0.305, p<0.05; RCD: β = 0.156mm, 95%CI = 0.032-0.280, p<0.05 and with proportional cerebellar growth (TCD/CRL:β = 0.015mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.024, p<0.01; LCD/CRL:β = 0.012mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.018, p<0.01; RCD/CRL:β = 0.011mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.017, p<0.01. Cerebellar growth was significantly highest in the third quartile of maternal red blood cell folate levels (1538-1813 nmol/L. These first findings show that periconceptional maternal folate status is associated with human embryonic cerebellar development. Implications of these small but significant variations for fetal cerebellar growth trajectories and the child's neurodevelopmental outcome are yet unknown and warrant further investigation.

  14. Maternal Health Literacy Is Associated with Early Childhood Nutritional Status in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti

    2016-07-01

    The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for intervention. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Maternal perception of their child's nutritional status at less than three years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luciane Simões; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Toriyama, Áurea Tamami Minagawa; Palombo, Claudia Nery Teixeira; Miranda, Patrícia Pereira Lima; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-01-01

    Assessing maternal perception of their children's nutritional status and identifying associated factors. A cross-sectional study conducted in a small municipality with 342 children less than 3 years of age treated in Basic Health Units of São Paulo. Nutritional status was classified in percentiles of body mass index for age and maternal perception was assessed using the scale of verbal descriptors (very thin, thin, healthy weight, fat, very fat). Logistic regression was used to identify the associatedfactors. 44.7% of maternal perception was found to beinadequate. Mothers of overweight (OR = 11.8, 95% CI: 6.4-21.7) and underweight (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.9-16.2) children had a higher chance of having inadequate perception, similar to mothers of children over 24 months of age (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-6.0). For effective child care in primary care, healthcare professionals should consider maternal perception and helpmothers to identify the nutritional status of children in childcare consultations and growth monitoring. Avaliar a percepção materna do estado nutricional do filho e identificar os fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em município de pequeno porte com 342 crianças menores de 3anos atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. O estado nutricional foi classificado em percentis do Índice de Massa Corporalpara Idade e a percepção materna foi avaliada com escala de descritores verbais (muito magro, magro, peso adequado, gordo, muito gordo). Utilizou-se de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados. Constatou-se 44,7% de percepção materna inadequada. Mães de crianças com excesso de peso (OR=11,8; IC95%:6,4-21,7) e com baixo peso (OR=5,5; IC95%:1,9-16,2) apresentaram mais chance de percepção inadequada, da mesma forma que mães de crianças com mais de 24 meses de idade (OR=2,9; IC95%:1,4-6,0). Para uma efetiva assistência à criança na atenção básica, profissionais de saúde devem considerar a

  16. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition statu...

  17. Associations of Maternal Weight Status Before, During, and After Pregnancy with Inflammatory Markers in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Marino, Regina C; Haapala, Jacob L; Foster, Laurie; Smith, Katy D; Teague, April M; Jacobs, David R; Fontaine, Patricia L; McGovern, Patricia M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Harnack, Lisa; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with breast milk C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two bioactive markers of inflammation, measured at 1 and 3 months post partum. Participants were 134 exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant dyads taking part in the Mothers and Infants Linked for Health (MILK) study, who provided breast milk samples. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) were assessed by chart abstraction; postpartum weight loss was measured at the 1- and 3-month study visits. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of maternal weight status with repeated measures of breast milk CRP and IL-6 at 1 and 3 months, after adjustment for potential confounders. Pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, but not total GWG or postpartum weight loss, were independently associated with breast milk CRP after adjustment (β = 0.49, P milk CRP. The consequences of infants receiving varying concentrations of breast milk inflammatory markers are unknown; however, it is speculated that there are implications for the intergenerational transmission of disease risk. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert

    2012-09-01

    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.

  19. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi-Russo Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy. Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%. The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32. There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03: the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the

  20. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Masotti, Sabrina; Toselli, Stefania; Albertini, Augusta; Celenza, Francesca; Zaccagni, Luciana

    2012-10-15

    Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls) aged 8-9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins' body image silhouettes. The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m²; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m²). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%). The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID) scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants) (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32). There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs -0.03): the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the nutritional status of children and in the perceived and ideal body

  1. The impact of maternal obesity on iron status, placental transferrin receptor expression and hepcidin expression in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdes, L; Campoy, C; Hayes, H; Florido, J; Rusanova, I; Miranda, M T; McArdle, H J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased iron status, possibly due to a rise in hepcidin, an inflammatory protein known to reduce iron absorption. In animals, we have shown that maternal iron deficiency is minimised in the foetus by increased expression of placental transferrin receptor (pTFR1), resulting in increased iron transfer at the expense of maternal iron stores. This study examines the effect of obesity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal iron status in human cohorts and whether the placenta can compensate for decreased maternal iron stores by increasing pTFR1 expression. A total of 240 women were included in this study. One hundred and fifty-eight placentas (Normal: 90; Overweight: 37; Obese: 31) were collected at delivery. Maternal iron status was measured by determining serum transferrin receptor (sTFR) and ferritin levels at 24 and 34 weeks and at delivery. Hepcidin in maternal and cord blood was measured by ELISA and pTFR1 in placentas by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Low iron stores were more common in obese women. Hepcidin levels (ng ml(-1)) at the end of the pregnancy were higher in obese than normal women (26.03±12.95 vs 18.00±10.77, PMaternal hepcidin levels were correlated with maternal iron status (sTFR r=0.2 P=0.025), but not with neonatal values. mRNA and protein levels of pTFR1 were both inversely related to maternal iron status. For mRNA and all women, sTFR r=0.2 P=0.044. Ferritin mRNA levels correlated only in overweight women r=-0.5 P=0.039 with hepcidin (r=0.1 P=0.349), irrespective of maternal body mass index (BMI). The data support the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have a greater risk of iron deficiency and that hepcidin may be a regulatory factor. Further, we show that the placenta responds to decreased maternal iron status by increasing pTFR1 expression.

  2. Maternal malaria status and metabolic profiles in pregnancy and in cord blood: relationships with birth size in Nigerian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Omolola O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant Nigerian women, and is associated with small birth size and the attendant short- and long-term health risks. The influence of malaria on maternal metabolic status in pregnancy and in cord blood and how this relates to birth size has not been studied. The study objective was to define relationships between maternal and cord serum metabolic markers, maternal malaria status and birth size. Methods During pregnancy, anthropometric measurements, blood film for malaria parasites and assays for lipids, glucose, insulin and TNF were obtained from 467 mothers and these analytes and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were obtained from cord blood of 187 babies. Results Overall prevalence of maternal malaria was 52%, associated with younger age, anaemia and smaller infant birth size. Mothers with malaria had significantly lower cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL and higher TNF, but no difference in triglyceride. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal malaria on cord blood lipids, but the median (range cord IGF-I was significantly lower in babies whose mothers had malaria: 60.4 (24,145μg/L, versus no malaria: 76.5 (24, 150μg/L, p = 0.03. On regression analysis, the key determinants of birth weight included maternal total cholesterol, malarial status and cord insulin and IGF-I. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy was common and associated with reduced birth size, lower maternal lipids and higher TNF. In the setting of endemic malaria, maternal total cholesterol during pregnancy and cord blood insulin and IGF-I levels are potential biomarkers of foetal growth and birth size.

  3. National female literacy, individual socio-economic status, and maternal health care use in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Sarah; Moore, Spencer; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals have identified improving women's access to maternal health care as a key target in reducing maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Although individual factors such as income and urban residence can affect maternal health care use, little is known about national-level factors associated with use. Yet, such knowledge may highlight the importance of global and national policies in improving use. This study examines the importance of national female literacy on women's maternal health care use in continental sSA. Data that come from the 2002-2003 World Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between national female literacy and individual's non-use of maternal health care, while adjusting for individual-level factors and national economic development. Analyses also assessed effect modification of the association between income and non-use by female literacy. Effect modification was evaluated with the likelihood ratio test (G(2)). We found that within countries, individual age, education, urban residence and household income were associated with lack of maternal health care. National female literacy modified the association of household income with lack of maternal health care use. The strength of the association between income and lack of maternal health care was weaker in countries with higher female literacy. We conclude therefore that higher national levels of female literacy may reduce income-related inequalities in use through a range of possible mechanisms, including women's increased labour participation and higher status in society. National policies that are able to address female literacy and women's status in sub-Saharan Africa may help reduce income-related inequalities in maternal health care use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2016-03-21

    To clarify the problems related to maternal deaths in Japan, including the diseases themselves, causes, treatments and the hospital or regional systems. Descriptive study. Maternal death registration system established by the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG). Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery, from 2010 to 2014, throughout Japan (N=213). The preventability and problems in each maternal death. Maternal deaths were frequently caused by obstetric haemorrhage (23%), brain disease (16%), amniotic fluid embolism (12%), cardiovascular disease (8%) and pulmonary disease (8%). The Committee considered that it was impossible to prevent death in 51% of the cases, whereas they considered prevention in 26%, 15% and 7% of the cases to be slightly, moderately and highly possible, respectively. It was difficult to prevent maternal deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism and brain disease. In contrast, half of the deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage were considered preventable, because the peak duration between the initial symptoms and initial cardiopulmonary arrest was 1-3 h. A range of measures, including individual education and the construction of good relationships among regional hospitals, should be established in the near future, to improve primary care for patients with maternal haemorrhage and to save the lives of mothers in Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Maternal diet, LCPUFA status and prematurity in Indian mothers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi S. Ranade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA have been shown to exert functional benefits with regards to gestational length. The present study examined the association of maternal LCPUFA intake, specifically Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA and Arachidonic acid (ARA, and plasma status at delivery with duration of gestation and risk of premature delivery in Indian mothers.Methods: In a cross-sectional nested case-control study, 191 mother-baby pairs [164 Full term(FT and 27 Preterm (PT] were examined for differences in maternal habitual diet pattern and plasma fatty acid composition in relation to the length of gestation.Results: The frequency of intake of n-3 fatty acid rich varieties of fish was higher (p<0.05 in FT mothers compared to PT mothers. Maternal plasma fatty acid concentration of n-3 Alpha Linolenic acid (ALA, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acids at delivery was significantly associated with intake of vegetarian ALA sources such as millets, dark whole pulses, dry fruits like walnuts, and green leafy vegetables. Among age, parity, and neonatal sex matched case-control pairs, PT mothers had significantly (p<0.01 higher levels of n-6 ARA, but lower (p<0.01 levels of n-3 DHA and total n-3 fatty acids compared to FT mothers irrespective of socioeconomic group. In fact, mothers with plasma DHA levels below median (<3.0% had ten times higher risk (OR-10.47; 95% CI: 3.03-36.48 of delivering prematurely compared to those who had plasma DHA levels above median.Conclusion: Results underscore the importance of consuming varied sources of ALA and DHAfor their role as functional lipids in determining gestational length.

  6. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and risk of childhood asthma: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huihui; Yang, Lei; Jia, Chongqi

    2017-05-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may be associated with development of childhood asthma, but the results are still inconsistent. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize evidence on the association of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with the risk of childhood asthma. A systematic search was conducted to identify all studies assessing the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during pregnancy with risk of childhood asthma. The fixed or random-effect model was selected based on the heterogeneity test among studies. Nonlinear dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model. Fifteen prospective studies with 12 758 participants and 1795 cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of childhood asthma comparing the highest versus lowest category of maternal 25(OH)D levels was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.75-1.02). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a U-shaped relationship was found between maternal 25(OH)D levels and risk of childhood asthma (P nonlinearity = 0.02), with the lowest risk at approximately 70 nmol/L of 25(OH)D. This dose-response meta-analysis suggested a U-shaped relationship between maternal blood 25(OH)D levels and risk of childhood asthma. Further studies are needed to confirm the association. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-24

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n -3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC) was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  8. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Cecilie Braarud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3 is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  9. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Maternal and Neonatal Vitamin D Status are not Associated With Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Mårild, Karl; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2018-01-01

    Studies on vitamin D status during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) lack consistency, and are limited by small sample sizes or single measures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We investigated whether average maternal 25(OH)D plasma concentrations during pregnancy are associated...... with risk of childhood T1D. In a case-cohort design, we identified 459 children with T1D and a random sample (n = 1,561) from the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 97,127) and Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 113,053). Participants were born between 1996 and 2009. The primary exposure...... 25(OH)D concentration was 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.10). Results were consistent in both cohorts, in multiple sensitivity analyses, and when we analyzed mid-pregnancy or cord blood separately. In conclusion, our large study demonstrated that normal variation in maternal or neonatal 25(OH...

  11. Effects of socioeconomic status on maternal and child positive behaviors in daily life among youth with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imami, Ledina; Tobin, Erin T; Kane, Heidi S; Saleh, Daniel J; Lupro, Toni H; Slatcher, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent-child interactions. 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10-17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive behaviors and affect in daily life. Maternal education, but not income, was positively associated with child positive behaviors, displays of mother and child positive affect, and increased maternal responsiveness. Maternal positive affect and maternal responsiveness mediated the effect of maternal education on child positive affect. Our findings suggest that maternal education has an important influence on the socioemotional adjustment of youth with asthma and point to the importance of investigating the independent influence of socioeconomic status components on everyday parent-child interactions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status is associated with the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Peer, P.G.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Franke, B.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the maternal and children's myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status in association with spina bifida risk. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-three mothers and 70 children with spina bifida and 102 control mothers and 85 control children were investigated. The

  14. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  15. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  16. Perinatal and lifestyle factors mediate the association between maternal education and preschool children's weight status: the ToyBox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, Odysseas; Moschonis, George; Ierodiakonou, Despo; Karatzi, Kalliopi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Zych, Kamila; Moreno, Luis A; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among perinatal, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors and preschool overweight/obesity. Data were collected from 7541 European preschoolers in May/June 2012. Children's anthropometrics were measured, and parents self-reported all other data via questionnaires. Level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Certain perinatal factors (i.e., maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, maternal excess gestational weight gain, excess birth weight, and "rapid growth velocity"), children's energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, increased screen time, reduced active-play time), family sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., Eastern or Southern Europe, low maternal and paternal education), and parental overweight/obesity were identified as correlates of preschoolers' overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time mediated by 21.2%, 12.5%, and 5.7%, respectively, the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. This study highlighted positive associations of preschooler's overweight/obesity with excess maternal prepregnancy and gestational weight gain, excess birth weight and "rapid growth velocity," Southern or Eastern European region, and parental overweight/obesity. Moreover, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time partially mediated the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. The findings of the present study may support childhood obesity prevention initiatives, because vulnerable population groups and most specifically low-educated families should be prioritized. Among other fields, these intervention initiatives should also focus on the importance of normal prepregnancy maternal weight status, normal growth velocity during infancy, and retaining

  17. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Flores-Peña

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BFP]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status.METHOD: participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test.RESULTS: the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72 and the lowest for control (50.07. Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001 and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits.

  18. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal nutritional biomarker status during pregnancy: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomedi, Laura E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Newby, P K; Evans, Rhobert W; Luther, James F; Wisner, Katherine L; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Poor essential fatty acid (EFA) and micronutrient status during pregnancy may contribute to these associations. We assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and nutritional patterns of maternal micronutrient and EFA status during mid-pregnancy. A cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Women provided non-fasting blood samples at ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation that were assayed for red cell EFA; plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; and serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a-tocopherol, soluble transferrin receptors and carotenoids. These nutritional biomarkers were employed in a factor analysis and three patterns were derived: EFA, Micronutrients and Carotenoids. The Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Study, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pregnant women (n 129). After adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity and age, obese pregnant women were 3.0 (95% CI 1.1, 7.7) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the EFA pattern and 4.5 (95% CI 1.7, 12.3) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the Carotenoid pattern compared with their lean counterparts. We found no association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the Micronutrient pattern after confounder adjustment. Our results suggest that obese pregnant women have diminished EFA and carotenoid concentrations.

  19. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  20. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and offspring bone development: the unmet needs of vitamin D era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, S N; Anagnostis, P; Bili, E; Naughton, D; Petroczi, A; Papadopoulou, F; Goulis, D G

    2014-03-01

    Data from animal and human studies implicate maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy as a significant risk factor for several adverse outcomes affecting maternal, fetal, and child health. The possible associations of maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone development comprise a significant public health issue. Evidence from randomized trials regarding maternal vitamin D supplementation for optimization of offspring bone mass is lacking. In the same field, data from observational studies suggest that vitamin D supplementation is not indicated. Conversely, supplementation studies provided evidence that vitamin D has beneficial effects on neonatal calcium homeostasis. Nevertheless, a series of issues, such as technical difficulties of current vitamin D assays and functional interplay among vitamin D analytes, prohibit arrival at safe conclusions. Future studies would benefit from adoption of a gold standard assay, which would unravel the functions of vitamin D analytes. This narrative review summarizes and discusses data from both observational and supplementation studies regarding maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring bone development.

  1. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, P.V.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Marino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  2. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concepcion, P V; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Marino, A [Centro de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  3. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND UTILIZATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES IN AFRICA: A MULTI-COUNTRY AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie; Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Amugsi, Dickson; Mumah, Joyce; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Beguy, Donatien

    2017-11-06

    There is an abundant literature on the relationship between women's education and maternal and child outcomes, including antenatal and postnatal care, onset of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance. However, few studies have adopted the 'equity' lens, despite increasing evidence that inequities between rich and poor are increasing although maternal and child mortality is declining. This study examined the differential effects of women's education within different socioeconomic strata in Africa. The most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ghana, Nigeria and Zimbabwe were used. In each country, the original sample was stratified into three socioeconomic groups: poor, middle and rich. For each maternal health service utilization variable, the gross and net effects of women's education, controlling for age, parity, religion, marital status, health insurance, access to health facilities, partner's education and current place of residence, were estimated using logistic regression, taking into account the complex sampling design of the DHS. The findings revealed country-specific variations in maternal health service utilization, and for most indicators there was a clear gradient among socioeconomic strata: women living in better-off households exhibited greater access to, and utilization of, maternal health services. Multivariate analyses revealed that women's education had a positive association with type of antenatal care provider, timing and frequency of antenatal care visits, place of delivery and presence of a skilled birth attendant at delivery. Many other factors were found to be significantly associated with maternal health service utilization. For instance, parity had a negative and significant association with timing of first antenatal care visit. Likewise, partner's education was positively and statistically associated with timing of first antenatal care visit. It is argued that an over

  5. Low birthweight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: the effect of maternal foreign-born status and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2007-12-01

    We investigated whether maternal foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birthweight (LBW) across US Hispanic/Latino subgroups (i.e., Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central/South Americans) in the USA, and whether the association between maternal education and LBW varies by Hispanic/Latino subgroup and by foreign-born status. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the 2002 US Natality Detail Data (n=634,797). Overall, foreign-born Latino women are less likely to have LBW infants than US-born Latino women. The protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among Latino women with less than high school education. The maternal education gradient is significantly flatter among foreign-born Latino women than among their US-born counterparts (peducation (i.e., 0-11 and 12 years) than among women with more education (i.e., 13-15 and 16+ years). The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born Mexicans and Central/South Americans than among their US-born counterparts. As such, maternal foreign-born status and education are associated with LBW, though the direction and strength of these associations vary across Latino subgroups. A "health paradox" is apparent for foreign-born Mexican and Central/South American women among whom there is a weak maternal educational gradient in LBW. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW among Latino subgroups, i.e., different gradients in sending countries, health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, and social support.

  6. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be

  7. Effect of maternal status and breastfeeding practices on infant nutritional status - a cross sectional study in the south-west region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohidul; Rahman, Shahinur; Kamruzzaman; Islam, Mominul; Samad, Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to address the current scenario of LBW and infant nutritional and to analyze the effect of maternal status and pattern of their breast feeding practices on perinatal and postnatal infant development. Methods Cross-sectional study design with structured questionnaires was used among 510 mother-infant pair to collect data. Maternal anthropometric, socio-economic and demographic characteristics and breast feeding practice were used as independent variable and birth weight and infant growth status as dependent variable. Descriptive and crosstab analysis were used to analyze the effect. Results The study revealed that about 29.4% infants were born with low birth weight (LBW). Mother with no education and from low income family were more likely (OR: 3.484, 95%CI: 1.993-6.089 and OR: 2.078, 95% CI: 1.274-3.387) to have LBW infant compared with mother with higher education and from higher income family. Similarly, lower maternal height, weight and MUAC (breastfeeding was found among 45% mother. Postnatal growth and development of infant was not found significantly different (P > 0.05) among those who breast feed exclusively and non-exclusively. Conclusion The study confirms that lower level of maternal education; family income and anthropometric measurement significantly increase the risk of LBW. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was not found satisfactory. PMID:24847401

  8. [Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², ppregnancy (27.7 kg/m², ppregnancy (25.3%, ppregnancy (34.3 kg/m², ppregnancy (53.8%, ppregnancy (OR=0.9; CI95% 0.8-0.9, ppregnancy (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.1-11.7, p=0.04). The maternal nutritional status at the end of pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is independently associated with fetal growth, the body mass index during late pregnancy is a protective factor against small for gestational age neonates, and maternal obesity is a risk factor for large for gestational age neonates.

  9. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  10. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  11. Angular resolution in underground detectors and a status report of the Soudan II nucleon decay detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.; Barrett, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is a status report of the Soudan II honeycomb drift chamber project. It reports on the physics goals, present progress and future schedule of our experiment. It also includes a discussion of the angular resolution of cosmic ray muons which can be achieved in underground detectors, and in particular how to calibrate the resolution using the moon's shadow in cosmic rays. This last point has relevance in trying to understand the angular distributions in the reported observations of underground muons from Cygnus X-3. 12 refs., 9 figs

  12. Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs

  13. Preconception Maternal Iodine Status Is Positively Associated with IQ but Not with Measures of Executive Function in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sian M; Crozier, Sarah R; Miles, Elizabeth A; Gale, Catharine R; Calder, Philip C; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M

    2018-05-15

    Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3.3 y (2.2-4.7 y)]. Childhood cognitive function was assessed at age 6-7 y. Full-scale IQ was assessed via the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and executive function through the use of tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Analyses (n = 654 mother-child dyads) were adjusted for potential confounders including maternal intelligence, education, and breastfeeding duration. The median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration was 108.4 µg/L (62.2-167.8 µg/L) and the I/Cr ratio 114 µg/g (76-164 µg/g). The preconception I/Cr ratio was positively associated with child IQ, before and after adjustment for potential confounding influences [β = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21)/SD, P = 0.003]. 8.9% of women had a preconception urinary I/Cr ratio function outcomes assessed via CANTAB, before or after adjustment for confounders. The positive association between iodine status before conception and child IQ provides some support for demonstrated links between low maternal iodine status in pregnancy and poorer cognitive function reported in other studies. However, given the negative effects on school performance previously observed in children born to iodine-deficient mothers, the lack of associations with measures of executive function in the present study was unexpected. Further data are needed to establish the public health importance of low preconception

  14. Status report on resolution of Waste Tank Safety Issues at the Hanford Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelow, G.T.; Hanson, G.A.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide and update the status of activities supporting the resolution of waste tank safety issues and system deficiencies at the Hanford Site. This report provides: (1) background information on safety issues and system deficiencies; (2) a description of the Tank Waste Remediation System and the process for managing safety issues and system deficiencies; (3) changes in safety issue description, prioritization, and schedules; and (4) a summary of the status, plans, order of magnitude, cost, and schedule for resolving safety issues and system deficiencies

  15. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  16. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, and asthma in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Romieu, Isabelle; Guerra, Stefano; Ballester, Ferrán; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Tardón, Adonina; Rodriguez Delhi, Cristina; Arranz, Leonor; Torrent, Maties; Espada, Mercedes; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Adequate vitamin D status in mothers during pregnancy may influence the health status of the child later in life. We assessed whether maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in pregnancy are associated with risk of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, and asthma in the offspring. Data were obtained from 1724 children of the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, a population-based birth cohort study. Maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in pregnancy (mean gestational age = 12.6 [SD = 2.5] weeks). When the child was age 1 year, parents were asked if their child had a physician-confirmed history of lower respiratory tract infections or a history of wheezing. The questions about wheezing were repeated annually thereafter. Asthma was defined as parental report of doctor diagnosis of asthma or receiving treatment at the age of 4-6 years or wheezing since the age of 4 years. The median maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy was 29.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 22.5-37.1 ng/mL). After multivariable adjustment, there was a trend for an independent association between higher levels of maternal circulating 25(OH)D levels in pregnancy and decreased odds of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring (for cohort- and season-specific quartile Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.90]; test for trend, P = 0.016). We found no association between 25(OH)D levels in pregnancy and risk of wheezing at age 1 year or 4 years, or asthma at age 4-6 years. Higher maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in pregnancy were independently associated with lower risk of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring in the first year of life but not with wheezing or asthma in childhood.

  18. MATERNAL HEIGHT AND PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL GROWTH PATTERNS AND NEWBORN SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzlberger, Eva; Hartmann, Beda; Hafner, Erich; Stümpflein, Ingrid; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. The vast majority of newborns were of normal weight, i.e. between 2500 and 4000 g. Maternal height showed a just-significant but weak positive association (r=0.03: p=0.039) with crown-rump length at the first trimester and with the majority of fetal parameters at the second trimester (r>0.06; p0.09; p0.08; p0.17; p0.13; p0.13; pnewborn size. Some of these associations were quite weak and the statistical significance was mainly due to the large sample size. The association patterns between maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight status with fetal growth patterns (pnewborn size (p<0.001), were independent of maternal age, nicotine consumption and fetal sex. In general, taller and heavier women gave birth to larger infants. This association between maternal size and fetal growth patterns was detectable from the first trimester onwards.

  19. Analysis of the maternal and child health care status in Suizhou City, Hubei Province, China, from 2005 to 2011.

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    Cui-Ling Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improving the health and well-being of women and children has long been a common goal throughout the world. From 2005 to 2011, Suizhou City had an annual average of 22,405 pregnant and parturient women (1.04% of the population and 98,811 children under 5 years old (4.57% of the population. Understanding the status of maternal and child health care in Suizhou City during such period can provide the local health administrative department valid scientific bases upon which to construct effective policies. METHODS: Various types of annual reports on maternal and child health care were collected and analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Mortality rates for infants and children under 5 years showed a declining trend, while the rates of newborn home visiting, maternal health service coverage, and children health systematic management increased annually in Suizhou City from 2005 to 2011. The incidence of birth defect increased from 2.42 ‰ in 2005 to 3.89 ‰ in 2011. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR fluctuated from 8.39/100,000 to 28.77/100,000, which was much lower than the national MMR (30.0/100,000 in 2010. The rates of hospitalized delivery and births attended by trained health personnel for pregnant women increased to more than 90% in the past five years. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements in maternal and child health care work in Suizhou City are worthy of recognition. Thus, the government should continue to increase funding in these areas to promote the complete enhancement of the maternal and child health care system.

  20. The effect of maternal chromium status on lipid metabolism in female elderly mice offspring and involved molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-04-30

    Maternal malnutrition leads to the incidence of metabolic diseases in offspring. The purpose of this project was to examine whether maternal low chromium could disturb normal lipid metabolism in offspring, altering adipose cell differentiation and leading to the incidence of lipid metabolism diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Female C57BL mice were given a control diet (CD) or a low chromium diet (LCD) during the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, offspring was fed with CD or LCD. The female offspring were assessed at 32 weeks of age. Fresh adipose samples from CD-CD group and LCD-CD group were collected. Genome mRNA were analysed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Whole Transcript-based array. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analysed based on gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis database. Maternal low chromium irreversibly increased offspring body weight, fat-pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and TNF-α. Eighty five genes increased and 109 genes reduced in the offspring adipose of the maternal low chromium group. According to KEGG pathway and String analyses, the PPAR signalling pathway may be the key controlled pathway related to the effect of maternal low chromium on female offspring. Maternal chromium status have long-term effects of lipid metabolism in female mice offspring. Normalizing offspring diet can not reverse these effects. The potential underlying mechanisms are the disturbance of the PPAR signalling pathway in adipose tissue. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Wojcicki, J M; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Castellón-Zaragoza, A; García-Gallardo, J L; Schwartz, N; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2-19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1-29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity.

  2. Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured.

  3. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Socio-Economic Status on Neonatal Brain Development are Modulated by Genetic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Shen, Mojun; Buss, Claudia; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Styner, Martin; Karnani, Neerja; Heim, Christine M; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Holbrook, Joanna D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume. The Asian cohort also showed such interaction on the right hippocampal volume and shape, thickness of the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a significant interaction between SES and infant GPRSMDD was on the right amygdala and hippocampal volumes and shapes. After controlling for each other, the interaction effect of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right amygdala, while the interaction effect of SES and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right hippocampus. Bioinformatic analyses suggested neurotransmitter/neurotrophic signaling, SNAp REceptor complex, and glutamate receptor activity as common biological processes underlying the influence of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on fetal cortico-limbic development. These findings suggest gene-environment interdependence in the fetal development of brain regions implicated in cognitive-emotional function. Candidate biological mechanisms involve a range of brain region-specific signaling pathways that converge on common processes of synaptic development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Maternal Vitamin D Status in the Late Second Trimester and the Risk of Severe Preeclampsia in Southeastern China

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    Xin Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of severe preeclampsia is still debated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women and investigate its correlation with the odds of developing severe preeclampsia. A cohort study was performed on 13,806 pregnant women who routinely visited the antenatal care clinics and subsequently delivered at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital. All the subjects in the cohort had their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations measured during pregnancy. A high prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L was found. Pregnant women who had different BMIs before pregnancy had significantly different serum concentrations of 25(OHD. There was also a significant difference in the serum 25(OHD concentration among pregnant women of different ages. The serum 25(OHD concentration was significantly lower in pregnant women who subsequently developed severe preeclampsia compared with those who did not. Maternal vitamin D deficiency at 23–28 weeks of gestation was strongly associated with increased odds for severe preeclampsia after adjusting for relevant confounders (adjusted OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.77–5.65. Further studies are required to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation would reduce the risk of severe preeclampsia and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Impact of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on neonatal body composition: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacce, Sol; Saure, Carola; Mazza, Carmen S; Garcia, Silvia; Tomzig, Rita G; Lopez, Ana P; Ribarola, Lucio; Krochick, Gabriela A

    2016-01-01

    The existence of early factors which, acting during critical periods of intrauterine or immediate postnatal development, determine long-term health has become increasingly recognized. Both high and low birth weight have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. Therefore, body composition at birth rather than birth weight may be a marker to predict future diseases. Maternal weight previous to and gained during pregnancy is associated with intrauterine fetal growth. To evaluate the correlation between maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy and neonatal body composition. We studied consecutive mother-child pairs at delivery at an Argentinean public hospital during 5 months period, evaluating maternal and neonatal anthropometry before 24h of life as well as the history of the mother before and during pregnancy. Neonatal body composition was calculated according to a mathematical formula based on skinfold thickness measurement validated in newborns. Mothers of newborns with high body fat mass were more frequently obese (72.7% versus 35.1%, p 0.005), and more frequently showed weight gain above 18kg during pregnancy (76.4% versus 31%, p 0.03). Our findings confirm the hypothesis that maternal obesity before pregnancy is highly correlated with neonatal fat mass in the first hours of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Maternal work conditions, socioeconomic and educational status, and vaccination of children: a community-based household survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how maternal work-related factors, including the availability of paid maternal leave, affect childhood vaccination status. Relatively little is known about the association between the employment status of mothers and the vaccination status of their children. We examined data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), an ongoing epidemiologic household panel study in Japan. We used surveys taken in 2010-2011 in this study. We found that mothers who returned to work after giving birth were much less likely to follow recommended vaccine schedules for their children compared with mothers who stayed at home and those who had left the workforce by the time of childbirth. However, taking parental leave significantly reduced the risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination schedule at 36 months of age. We also found that children whose mother was younger and less educated, and those from an economically deprived family were at a high risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination status at 36 months of age. Because vaccination is free and widely available in Japan, our findings indicate that provision of free vaccinations is not sufficient to achieve high vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

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    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  8. Maternal iodine status and the thyroid function of pregnant mothers and their neonates in Jaffna District of Sri Lanka

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    Thirunavukkarasu Yoganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine status of pregnant women and their newborns have not been studied in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. This study was planned to assess the maternal iodine status and thyroid function at the third trimester of gestation and the thyrotrophin level of their neonate. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women and their newborns were randomly selected among six Medical Officers of Health Divisions out of 12 in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, thyroglobulin (Tg, urinary iodine levels, and the neonatal thyrotrophin (nTSH level were assessed. Results: In this study, mean age, weight, height, and gestational age of the mothers were 28.95 (±5.46 years, 63.02 (±11.56 kg, 154.39 (±6.00 cm, and 39.33 (±1.37 weeks, respectively. Maternal median urinary iodine concentration (UIC was 140.0 μg/L (inter-quartile range 126.0–268.0 μg/L. Median values of the maternal serum TSH, fT4,and Tg were 1.9 mIU/L, 12.6 pmol/L, and 21.4 IU/L, respectively. Among the 477 newborns, 50.5% (n = 239 were males. Mean birth weight of newborn was 3.03 (±0.43 kg, while the mean length was 51.1 (±2.1 cm. Among the newborns, 18% (n = 86 had nTSH level > mIU/L and 37.7% (n = 180 within TSH level > mIU/L. nTSH level had positive but very weak correlations with maternal thyroid parameters, that is, UIC (r = 0.06, P = 0.13, fT4 (r = 0.01, P = 0.05, TSH (r = 0.09, P = 0.05, and Tg (r = 0.12, P = 0.03. Conclusion: On the basis of the World Health Organization criteria, the iodine status of pregnant women was inadequate in this region and also nTSH levels indicate moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Therefore, the continuous education on adequate iodine intake during pregnancy and monitoring of iodine status are useful.

  9. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  10. Is drug insurance status an effect modifier in epidemiologic database studies? The case of maternal asthma and major congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Lucie; Kettani, Fatima-Zohra; Forget, Amélie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Lemière, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Our previous work on the association between maternal asthma and congenital malformations was based on cohorts formed by women with public drug insurance, i.e., over-represented by women with lower socioeconomic status, questioning the generalizability of our findings. This study aimed to evaluate whether or not drug insurance status, as a proxy of socioeconomic status, is an effect modifier for the association between maternal asthma and major congenital malformations. A cohort of 36,587 pregnancies from asthmatic women and 198,935 pregnancies from nonasthmatic women selected independently of their drug insurance status was reconstructed with Québec administrative databases (1998-2009). Asthmatic women were identified using a validated case definition of asthma. Cases of major congenital malformations were identified using diagnostic codes recorded in the hospitalization database. Drug insurance status at the beginning of pregnancy was classified into three groups: publicly insured with social welfare, publicly insured without social welfare, and privately insured. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated with generalized estimation equations, including an interaction term between maternal asthma and drug insurance status. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 6.8% among asthmatic women and 5.8% among nonasthmatics. The impact of asthma on the prevalence of congenital malformations was significantly greater in women publicly insured with social welfare (odds ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.61) than in the other two groups ([odds ratio = 1.10; 1.00-1.21] in the publicly insured without social welfare and [odds ratio = 1.13; 1.07-1.20] in the privately insured group). The increased risk of major congenital malformation associated with asthma was significantly higher among pregnant women publicly insured with social welfare than among those privately insured. As a result of this effect modification by drug insurance status, findings

  11. Maternal Nutritional Status Predicts Adverse Birth Outcomes among HIV-Infected Rural Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera; Murray, Katherine; Mwesigwa, Julia; Natureeba, Paul; Osterbauer, Beth; Achan, Jane; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Clark, Tamara; Ades, Veronica; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda. Design Prospective cohort. Methods HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Results Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW) (19.6%), preterm delivery (17.7%), fetal death (3.9%), stunting (21.1%), small-for-gestational age (15.1%), and head-sparing growth restriction (26%). No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031 PMID:22879899

  12. [Impact of maternal HIV status on family constructions and the infant's relational environment during the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, N; Courcoux, M-F; Tabone, M-D; Leverger, G; Dollfus, C

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether maternal HIV-positive status negatively affects family construction and the child's psychological environment. Could this be responsible for behavioral problems observed in children infected with or affected by HIV? Interviews were conducted with 60 HIV+ mothers and their infants during the perinatal period, within 3 months of delivery, collected at the time of a pediatric outpatient visit within a PMTCT program. Half of the 60 mothers did not live with the infant's father, 56% of multiparous mothers were separated from their previous children. Sixty-five percent of the fathers were informed of the mother's HIV-positive status, although 90% of fathers who lived with the mothers were informed. During pregnancy, 80% of mothers reported psychological stress; after delivery, 72% of mothers suffered from not being allowed to breastfeed their infants, 43.5% expressed a fear of transmitting the infection to the child, and 40% avoided contacts with the infant. The impact of the mother's psychological stress and anxiety related to the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding and casual contacts were already noticeable in the first mother-child interrelations. Although the risk of MTC transmission in now very small, psychological troubles related to maternal HIV status may negatively affect the children's well-being and behavior, psychological support should be provided for mothers and children as part of comprehensive services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  14. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Young

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG, and hemoglobin concentration (Hb among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda.Prospective cohort.HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis.Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW (19.6%, preterm delivery (17.7%, fetal death (3.9%, stunting (21.1%, small-for-gestational age (15.1%, and head-sparing growth restriction (26%. No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining <0.1 kg/week was associated with LBW, preterm delivery, and a composite adverse obstetric/fetal outcome. Maternal weight at 7 months gestation predicted LBW. For each g/dL higher mean Hb, the odds of small-for-gestational age decreased by 52%.In our cohort of HIV-infected women initiating cART during pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031.

  15. Resolution on the status of helping spouses in the professions, 26 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In 1989, the European Parliament (EP) recognized that spouses (usually women) who help their husbands in a profession have no legal, fiscal, or social status as a result of their work, and, thus, lack access to social security or taxation schemes. The "helping spouse" performs work which is not comparable to that of the actual professional and has a special status which cannot be compared to the joint operation of a family business. Because there is no specific contract for the work of a helping spouse, there is a risk that the spouse will lose her widow's pension rights if she acquires rights of her own or may be prohibited from simultaneously holding pension rights of her own and secondary pension rights. Helping spouses find themselves in a difficult position when their spouse stops working or when the marriage ends. In addition, they have no maternity rights in European Economic Council (EEC) member states and, if they do choose to get paid, they often receive far less than market value for their work. The EP, therefore, hopes that all EEC member states will recognize the status of helping spouses in an "unpaid helping spouse's professional contract." Laws which penalize the professions exclusively and obstruct recognition of the work of a spouse and payment of a fair wage should be abolished. The EP hopes that all EEC states will pay maternity leave benefits and allowances to helping spouses, that they will be able to acquire their own pension rights, that the helping spouses will be allowed to share in the capital appreciation on the operating capital, and that the actual costs of a helping spouse's activities will be set off against the income tax liability of a professional. Further, when a spouse helps in a professional activity on a regular basis, a statement of involvement may be lodged with a professional association. That spouse will be eligible for benefits under social security schemes covering the various professions in cases where they contribute

  16. Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, S; Kristine Moller, U; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    /l), with increasing levels (P3.08 (2.67-3.92  pmol/l) at the last visit. Vitamin D levels were not associated with anthropometric indices of the newborn infant or their growth during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50  nmol......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status and possible consequences of low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in a population of healthy mothers and their infants.Subjects/methods:A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants....... They were followed up three times during 9 months. RESULTS: Cord blood 25OHD level (43.3 ± 20.4  nmol/l) on average was 62 ± 16% of maternal levels (73.3 ± 30.7  nmol/l), measured 1-2 weeks postpartum. Cord blood 25OHD correlated positively with maternal 25OHD levels (r=0.83, P

  17. Association Between Maternal Serum Total Oxidant Status Total Antioxidant Status and Preterm Labor: A Prospective - Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Kalaycı; Mete Gürol Uğur; Ebru Öztürk; Özcan Balat; Özcan Erel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the levels of individual antioxidant components of pregnants with preterm labor to evaluate their total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively-controlled 31 pregnants with a diagnosis of preterm labor (group Ι) and 32 controls (group ΙΙ) were evaluated for demographic data, general and obstetrical physical examination, obstetrical sonography, and routine laboratory tests. TAS, TOS and OSI leve...

  18. Breast cancer risk associations with birth order and maternal age according to breast-feeding status in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and/or genetic hypotheses. Recently, studies of potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk have been considered. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of female Wisconsin residents. Cases (N=2,016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002−2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (N=1,960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. Results In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breastfed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72−0.96). In analyses restricted to breastfed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (p-value=0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breastfed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82−1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breastfed women (OR=0.58; 95% CI 0.39−0.86 for women with ≥3 older siblings compared to first-born women) but not among non-breastfed women (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.81−1.57). Conclusion These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breastfeeding status in infancy. PMID:18379425

  19. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester.

  20. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  1. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother′s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child′s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.

  2. Maternal Race–Ethnicity, Immigrant Status, Country of Birth, and the Odds of a Child With Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of autism spectrum disorder varies by maternal race–ethnicity, immigration status, and birth region. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Australian state registries and a study population of 134 204 mothers enabled us to examine the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in children born from 1994 to 2005 by the aforementioned characteristics. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, and birth year. Indigenous women were 50% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than Caucasian, nonimmigrant women. Overall, immigrant women were 40% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than nonimmigrant women. However, Black women from East Africa had more than 3.5 times the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in their children than Caucasian nonimmigrant women. Research is implicated on risk and protective factors for autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in the children of immigrant women.

  3. Pathways of the association between maternal employment and weight status among women and children: Qualitative findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Surkan, Pamela J; Hurley, Kristen M; Lowery, Caitlin; de Ponce, Silvia; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2018-01-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined by the coexistence of undernutrition and overweight, is well documented in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms by which employment may be related to maternal and child weight status in low- and middle-income countries are not well understood. We conducted in-depth interviews among 20 mothers who participated in Project MIEL, a contemporary trial which evaluated the effects of an integrated micronutrient supplement and parenting intervention in rural Guatemala. We utilized semi-structured interviews to explore the pathways by which maternal employment might influence bodyweight. Interviews were structured to explore the factors that mothers considered when deciding whether or not to participate in the labor force and how mothers perceived the influence of employment on determinants of their own bodyweight and that of their children. Themes were used to develop a conceptual framework. Mothers described four pathways through which employment could lead to changes in weight status: changes in food purchasing; improved household well-being; changes in time allocation; and psychological effects. Mothers described purchasing increased quantities and more varied types of food, as well as the purchase of energy-dense foods. Less time to devote to food preparation resulted in mothers preparing quicker meals and relying on substitute childcare. Mothers also expressed feelings of worry and neglect in relation to being employed, and perceived that these feelings would affect weight. A better understanding of these mechanisms is important for developing policies and programs to support women in the workplace and also reducing maternal and child overweight in Guatemala. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The influence of information status on pronoun resolution in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pronoun resolution processes by the information status of the antecedent. Information status was manipulated by using a structurally-based constraint (e.g., order of mention as well as a pragmatically-based constraint (i.e., topichood. We found that the pronouns referring to topic entities (the initial NP in SOV structure in Experiment 1 and OSV structure in Experiment 2 elicited attenuated P600 responses compared to the pronouns referring to non-topic entities (the initial NP in SVO structure or the second NP in OSV structure in both experiments when potential interference from structural constraints was controlled. The linear structural constraint, namely the order of mention, had no clear influence on the P600 effect when the syntactic structural constraint was held constant (i.e., when both entities were syntactic subjects, regardless of whether one (Experiment 1 or two (Experiment 2 animate antecedents were present. These findings suggest that pragmatically encoded features such as topichood and givenness can be processed separately from structural constraints such as order of mention to promote the salient status of a referent and thereby facilitate pronoun interpretation.

  5. Influences of maternal nutritional status on vascular function in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Lucilla

    2007-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction leading to low birthweight is associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and hypertension in later life. Increasingly, it is recognised that cardiovascular risk may also be initiated in early life when the fetus and neonate are exposed to maternal nutritional excess. This review summarises the studies in man and animals that have investigated the potential role of vascular disorders in the aetiology of atherosclerosis and hypertension arising from early life nutritional deprivation or excess. Malfunction of the arterial endothelial cell layer in the offspring has been frequently described in association with both maternal under and overnutritional states and may play a permissive role in the origin of these disorders. Also prevalent is evidence for increased stiffness of the large arteries which may contribute to systolic hypertension. Further investigation is required into the intriguing suggestion that early life nutritional imbalance may adversely influence vascular angiogenesis leading to rarefaction and increased peripheral vascular resistance.

  6. Effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on amniotic fluid cells oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we researched the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the amniotic fluid cells oxidative metabolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative stress and damage biomarkers were assayed in the amniotic fluid cells of healthy and pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Obtained results show that amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have significantly higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxide and micronuclei frequency), but lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione in comparison to healthy pregnant women. We also showed that oxidative stress biomarkers were positively correlated with micronuclei frequency and lipid peroxide concentration in amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. The present study provides the first evidence for prooxidative effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the fetus obtained by the estimating oxidative metabolism in the amniotic fluid cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternity Leave and Women’s Labor Market Status in Kosovo : Five Key Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Davalos, Maria E.; Elezaj, Ereblina; Flanagan Thurau, Julianna; Rodriguez-Chamussy, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Labor market engagement of women is very low in Kosovo - only 12.5 percent of women of working age are employed compared to 41.3 percent of men - suggesting that women face obstacles to work and or being hired. These barriers can be related to a multiplicity of factors, including labor regulations - such as maternity provisions - but also others such as disincentives to work from taxes and ...

  8. Improvement of maternal vitamin D status with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol positively impacts porcine fetal skeletal muscle development and myoblast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E A; Coffey, J D; Starkey, C W; Chung, T K; Starkey, J D

    2013-09-01

    There is little information available regarding the influence of maternal vitamin D status on fetal skeletal muscle development. Therefore, we investigated the effect of improved vitamin D status resulting from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation of dams on fetal skeletal muscle developmental characteristics and myoblast activity using Camborough 22 gilts (n = 40) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) contained 2,500 IU cholecalciferol (D3)/kg diet, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 IU D3/kg diet plus 50 µg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding through d 90 of gestation. On gestational d 90 (± 1), fetal LM and semitendinosus muscle samples were collected for analysis of developmental characteristics and myoblast activity, respectively. No treatment difference was observed in fetal LM cross-sectional area (P = 0.25). Fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts had more LM fibers (P = 0.04) that tended to be smaller in cross-sectional area compared with CTL fetuses (P = 0.11). A numerical increase in the total number of Pax7+ myoblasts was also observed in fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts (P = 0.12). Myoblasts derived from the muscles of fetuses from 25OHD3-fed dams displayed an extended proliferative phase in culture compared with those from fetuses of dams fed only D3 (P importance of maternal vitamin D status on the development of fetal skeletal muscle.

  9. National health insurance subscription and maternal healthcare utilisation across mothers' wealth status in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena; Kofinti, Raymond Elikplim; Appiah, Francis

    2017-12-01

    This study is against the backdrop that despite the forty-nine percent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate in Ghana, the situation still remains high averaging 319 per 100,000 live births between 2011 and 2015. To examine the relationship between National Health Insurance and maternal healthcare utilisation across three main wealth quintiles (Poor, Middle and Rich). The study employed data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Descriptively, rich women had high antenatal attendance and health facility deliveries represented by 96.5% and 95.6% respectively. However, the binary logistic regression results revealed that poor women owning NHIS are 7% (CI = 1.76-2.87) more likely to make at least four antenatal care visits compared to women in the middle wealth quintile (5%, CI = 2.12-4.76) and rich women (2%, CI = 1.14-4.14). Similarly, poor women who owned the NHIS are 14% (CI = 1.42-2.13) likely to deliver in health facility than women in the middle and rich wealth quintile. The study has vindicated the claim that NHIS Scheme is pro-poor in Ghana. The Ministry of Health should target women in the rural area to be enrolled on the NHIS to improve maternal healthcare utilisation since poverty is principally a rural phenomenon in Ghana.

  10. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  11. Hermeneutics versus science in psychoanalysis: a resolution to the controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusella, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The controversy over the scientific status of psychoanalysis is investigated and a resolution is proposed. The positions held by the hermeneuticists, conveyed through the hermeneutic interpretation of psychoanalysis put forth by Jurgen Habermas and Paul Ricoeur, are reviewed. The views of psychoanalysis as a science held by the philosopher of science Adolf Grünbaum and by American psychoanalyst Robert S. Wallerstein are also considered. Psychoanalysis remains relevant today because it has situated itself among the other disciplines as a hybrid science, not quite a pure hermeneutic on the one hand, and not quite a pure science on the other, while at the same time having proven to be both these things-and in doing so has revolutionized the way we think about human nature.

  12. High resolution melt curve analysis based on methylation status for human semen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachet, Caitlyn; Quarino, Lawrence; Karnas, K Joy

    2017-03-01

    A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex ® 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status. When primers designed to amplify the promoter region of the DACT1 gene were used, DNA from semen samples was distinguishable from other fluids by a having a statistically significant lower melting temperature. The assay was found to be sperm-significant since semen from a vasectomized man produced a melting temperature similar to the non-semen body fluids. Blood and semen stains stored up to 5 months and tested at various intervals showed little variation in melt temperature indicating the methylation status was stable during the course of the study. The assay is a more viable method for forensic science practice than most molecular-based methods for body fluid stain identification since it is time efficient and utilizes instrumentation common to forensic biology laboratories. In addition, the assay is advantageous over traditional presumptive chemical methods for body fluid identification since results are confirmatory and the assay offers the possibility of multiplexing which may test for multiple body fluids simultaneously.

  13. The joint contribution of maternal history of early adversity and adulthood depression to socioeconomic status and potential relevance for offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Unternaehrer, Eva; Gaudreau, Hélène; Lydon, John E; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    We examined the interactive effects of maternal childhood adversity and later adulthood depression on subsequent socioeconomic status (SES). Our community sample ranged from 230 to 243 mothers (across measures) drawn from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Maternal childhood adversity scores were derived using an integrated measure derived from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Parental Bonding Index (PBI). Maternal depression was measured in the prenatal period with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). SES measures included maternal highest level of education and family income as obtained prenatally. The analyses yielded significant interaction effects between maternal childhood adversity and prenatal depression that predicted income, prenatally. Women who reported higher levels of childhood adversity combined with higher levels of self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to live in low SES environments. Results also showed that level of education was predicted by childhood adversity independent of maternal symptoms of depression. The results suggest that SES is influenced by a life course pathway that begins in childhood and includes adversity-related mental health outcomes. Since child health and development is influenced by both maternal mental health and SES, this pathway may also contribute to the intergenerational transmission of the risk for psychopathology in the offspring. The results also emphasize the importance of studying potential precursors of low SES, a well-documented environmental risk factor for poor developmental outcomes in the offspring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Infant mortality in India: use of maternal and child health services in relation to literacy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Medha K; Rao, Shobha S; Garole, Varsha R

    2002-06-01

    Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through increased use of maternal and child health (MCH) services. Illiteracy of females was strongly associated with all variables relating to maternal care and also with infant mortality rate. States were grouped into best, medium, and worst on the basis of female illiteracy (about 11%, 48.5%, and 75% respectively). Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 livebirths) was significantly (pIlliteracy of females had a more detrimental impact on rural than on urban areas. In the event of high female illiteracy, male literacy was beneficial for improving the use of services for reducing infant mortality rate. The micro-level study supported all major findings obtained for the national-level aggregate data. Programmes, like providing free education to girls, will yield long-term health benefits.

  15. Breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations, by maternal allergic status, in the first 2 years of life (KOALA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Bianca F. P.; Thijs, Carel; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Stelma, Foekje F.; Mommers, Monique; Kummeling, Ischa; Penders, John; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential effect of modification by maternal allergic status on the relationship between breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life. Study design Data from 2705 infants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands) were

  16. Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffelaar, Evelien R.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon

    2010-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may account for reduced fetal growth and for altered neonatal development. The present study explored the association between maternal vitamin D status measured early in pregnancy and birth weight, prevalence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and

  17. Predicting Ethnic Minority Children's Vocabulary from Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Language and Home Reading Input: Different Pathways for Host and Ethnic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…

  18. Influence of iron status on risk of maternal or neonatal infection and on neonatal mortality with an emphasis on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, Loretta; Brabin, Bernard J.; Gies, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of neonatal death in developing countries. This review investigates whether host iron status affects the risk of maternal and/or neonatal infection, potentially contributing to neonatal death, and summarizes the iron acquisition mechanisms described for pathogens causing

  19. Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.

  20. Maternal Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Neonatal Anthropometric and Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Results from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Eamon; Thurston, Sally W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Watson, Gene E; McSorley, Emeir M; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J

    2017-11-11

    Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OH)D concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S). This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples ( n = 202) taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OH)D and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children's average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34-218 nmol/L) and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L). Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health) that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure.

  1. Maternal Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Neonatal Anthropometric and Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Results from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon Laird

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OHD concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S. This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples (n = 202 taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OHD and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children’s average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34–218 nmol/L and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure.

  2. Socioeconomic status and depression during and after pregnancy in the Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies (FRAMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Dammer, Ulf; Voigt, Franziska; Fasching, Peter A; Faschingbauer, Florian; Burger, Pascal; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Goecke, Tamme W

    2014-04-01

    Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative impact on women's quality of life and on the development of the newborn child. Interventions have been shown to have a positive influence on both mothers and children. Predictive factors for depressive symptoms might possibly be able to identify groups that are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of socioeconomic factors in predicting depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Depressiveness was measured using the German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at three time-points, in a prospective cohort study (n = 1,100). Visit 1 (Q1) was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 (Q2) was shortly after birth, and visit 3 (Q3) was 6-8 months after birth. Depression scores were associated with socioeconomic factors and time in linear mixed models. Parity status, education status, monthly income, residential property status, and partnership status, as well as interactions between them, were found to be predictive factors for EPDS scores. The strongest factor influencing depressive symptoms was partnership status. Women who did not have an intact partnership had EPDS scores that were on average four points higher than in women with a partner at all three study visits (P define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.

  3. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanieh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam.A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age.60% (582/960 of women had 25-OHD levels <75 nmol/L at 32 weeks gestation. Infants born to women with 25-OHD deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L had reduced developmental language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L (Mean Difference (MD -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI -5.67 to -1.28. For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02.Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  4. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam. A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age. 60% (582/960) of women had 25-OHD levels language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L) (Mean Difference (MD) -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -5.67 to -1.28). For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02). Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  5. Maternal health status correlates with nest success of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea from Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Perrault

    Full Text Available Of the seven sea turtle species, the critically endangered leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea exhibits the lowest and most variable nest success (i.e., hatching success and emergence success for reasons that remain largely unknown. In an attempt to identify or rule out causes of low reproductive success in this species, we established the largest sample size (n = 60-70 for most values of baseline blood parameters (protein electrophoresis, hematology, plasma biochemistry for this species to date. Hematologic, protein electrophoretic and biochemical values are important tools that can provide information regarding the physiological condition of an individual and population health as a whole. It has been proposed that the health of nesting individuals affects their reproductive output. In order to establish correlations with low reproductive success in leatherback sea turtles from Florida, we compared maternal health indices to hatching success and emergence success of their nests. As expected, hatching success (median = 57.4% and emergence success (median = 49.1% in Floridian leatherbacks were low during the study period (2007-2008 nesting seasons, a trend common in most nesting leatherback populations (average global hatching success = ∼50%. One protein electrophoretic value (gamma globulin protein and one hematologic value (red blood cell count significantly correlated with hatching success and emergence success. Several maternal biochemical parameters correlated with hatching success and/or emergence success including alkaline phosphatase activity, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, calcium:phosphorus ratio, carbon dioxide, cholesterol, creatinine, and phosphorus. Our results suggest that in leatherbacks, physiological parameters correlate with hatching success and emergence success of their nests. We conclude that long-term and comparative studies are needed to determine if certain individuals produce nests with lower

  6. The SQUG program for resolution of USI A-46 - status and implementation plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.R.; Kassawara, R.P.; Yanev, P.

    1990-01-01

    In response to U.S. (NRC), Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46, 'Seismic Qualification of Equipment and Operating Nuclear Power Plants', the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG), with the support of EPRI, developed a comprehensive program to verify the seismic adequacy of equipment in operating nuclear power plants. The primary thrust of the program has been the development of procedures, criteria, and data to apply actual experience on the performance of equipment during earthquakes to the verification of seismic ruggedness of similar equipment in nuclear plants. While the use of such experience data continues to play a primary part in the SQUG program for resolution of USI A-46, the overall SQUG program includes a number of other significant elements which, taken together, provide a comprehensive approach for verification of the seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear plants. These elements of the SQUG program include the assimilation and use of seismic shake table data in a generic way; the development of simplified analytical tools and criteria for evaluation of equipment anchorage, tanks, heat exchangers and cable trays; and the development of procedures for identifying and evaluating electrical relays, which are essential to plant shutdown in response to an earthquake. Procedures and data bases for performing and documenting the various seismic evaluations and plant walkdowns, and a program for training the large number of engineers who will be required to implement the SQUG methodology, have also been developed. This paper describes the main elements of the SQUG program for resolution of USI A-46 and provides a status report on the plans for their implementation in SQUG member plants. (orig./HP)

  7. United we stand divided we fall : maternal social participation and children's nutritional status in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Favara,Marta

    2012-01-01

    In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...

  8. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik Var, Esra; Kiliç, Sükran; Kumandas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and…

  9. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    OpenAIRE

    VAR, Esra ÇALIK; Kılıç, Şükran; Kumandaş, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parenting style affects the capacity of children to interact with others, psychological wellbeing, and life skills; therefore, ...

  10. The Effect of Sociocultural Factors on Maternal Short Psychiatric Status and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baki Şentürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the associations between Hyperemesis Gravidarum and both sociocultural factors and psychiatric status. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective non-randomized cohort design was employed. A total of 79 patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum and 71 healthy pregnant women were enrolled. The study and control groups were compared according to results on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and sociocultural factors specific to the region. RESULTS: Anxiety, somatic concern, tension, depressive mood, hostility, motor retardation, uncooperativeness and blunted effect were found to be statistically significantly higher in patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum(p<0.01 and p<0.05. Furthermore, pregnant women living in extended families had statistically higher anxiety scores than those residing in nuclear families (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric status as well as sociocultural factors specific to the society in which the individuals live should be taken into account in assessments of patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

  11. Child, maternal and household-level correlates of nutritional status: a cross-sectional study among young Samoan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Courtney C; Desai, Mayur M; Park, Jennifer J; Frame, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Avery A; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Duckham, Rachel L; Deziel, Nicole C; Hawley, Nicola L

    2017-05-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, Pobesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group. The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.

  12. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  13. Maternal control and early child dysregulation: Moderating roles of ethnicity and child delay status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, B; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Maternal controlling behaviour has been found to influence child development, particularly in behavioural and emotional regulation. Given the higher rates of interfering parent control found in mothers of children with developmental delays (DD) and Latina mothers, their children could be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional dysregulation. While studies generally support this increased risk for children with DD, findings for Latino children are mixed and often attributed to cultural models of child rearing. The present study sought to determine the moderating roles of child DD and mother ethnicity in determining the relationships between two types of parent control (supportive directiveness and interference) and child dysregulation over time. The present study, involving 178 3-year old children with DD (n = 80) or typical development (n = 98), examined observed parent control (directive versus interfering) of Latina and Anglo mothers as it relates to change in preschool child dysregulation over 2 years. Interfering parent control was greater for children with DD and also for Latino mothers. Supportive directive parenting generally related to relatively greater decline in child behaviour and emotion dysregulation over time, while interfering parenting generally related to less decline in child behaviour dysregulation over time. In Anglo but not Latino families, these relationships tended to vary as a function of child disability. Parent directives that support, rather than deter, ongoing child activity may promote positive regulatory development. These results particularly hold for children with DD and Latino families, and have implications for parenting practices and intervention. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dietary counseling to improve fat quality during pregnancy alters maternal fat intake and infant essential fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinivirta, Katri; Isolauri, Erika; Laakso, Päivi; Linderborg, Kaisa; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2011-07-01

    To explore the effect of maternal dietary intervention on infant essential fatty acid (FA) status, we conducted a prospective, single-blind, randomized nutrition intervention study. At the first trimester of pregnancy, 90 women from families with a history of allergy were randomized either to receive intensive dietary counseling to modify dietary intake according to current recommendations or as controls. Infants' cord and 1-mo isolated serum phospholipid FA were identified and quantified by GC. Detectable levels of eicosatrienoic acid [ETA, 20:3(n-9)] were taken as a biochemical marker for essential FA deficiency, and the DHA sufficiency index [22:6(n-3):22:5(n-6)] and the DHA deficiency index [22:5(n-6):22:4(n-6)] were taken as markers for DHA [22:6(n-3)] status. The concentration of ETA was lower in cord blood in the intervention (I) group [median 0.64 (IQR 0.40-0.78) mg/L; 2.09 (1.31-2.54) μmol/L] than in the control (C) group [0.92 (0.54-1.20) mg/L; 3.00 (1.76-3.92) μmol/L] (P = 0.048). The proportion of ETA in total FA in the I group [0.73% (0.48-0.85%)] was lower than in the C group [0.93% (0.78-1.22%)] (P = 0.003). A higher DHA sufficiency index and lower DHA deficiency index were detected in cord blood in the I group than in the C group, although the groups did not differ in the DHA concentration or proportion of the total FA. There were no differences among groups at 1 mo for any of the variables measured. Our findings suggest a better supply of essential FA, particularly important during the period of rapid development, in infants whose mothers received dietary counseling. The results thus highlight the importance of maternal diet for child health, calling for dietary counseling for pregnant women in primary health care.

  15. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  16. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  17. Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring’s blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan NA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nisreen A Alwan,1 Debbie A Lawlor,2 Harry J McArdle,3 Darren C Greenwood,4 Janet E Cade11Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Research, University of Bristol, Bristol; 3Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen; 4Biostatistics Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.Methods: We undertook an instrumental variable (IV analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years. Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.Results: Maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002. Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009. Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There

  18. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  19. Immunophenotyping and activation status of maternal peripheral blood leukocytes during pregnancy and labour, both term and preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Shynlova, Oksana; Sabra, Sally; Bang, Annie; Briollais, Laurent; Lye, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    The onset of labour in rodents and in humans is associated with physiological inflammation which is manifested by infiltration of activated maternal peripheral leukocytes (mPLs) into uterine tissues. Here, we used flow cytometry to immunophenotype mPLs throughout gestation and labour, both term and preterm. Peripheral blood was collected from non-pregnant women and pregnant women in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Samples were also collected from women in active labour at term (TL) or preterm (PTL) and compared with women term not-in-labour (TNIL) and preterm not-in-labour (PTNIL). Different leukocyte populations were identified by surface markers such as CD45, CD14, CD15, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56. Their activation status was measured by the expression levels of CD11b, CD44, CD55, CD181 and CD192 proteins. Of all circulating CD45+ leukocytes, we detected significant increases in CD15+ granulocytes (i) in pregnant women versus non-pregnant; (ii) in TL women versus TNIL and versus pregnant women in the 1st/2nd/3rd trimester; (iii) in PTL women versus PTNIL. TL was characterized by (iv) increased expressions of CD11b, CD55 and CD192 on granulocytes; (v) increased mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD55 and CD192 on monocytes; (vi) increased CD44 MFI on CD3+ lymphocytes as compared to late gestation. In summary, we have identified sub-populations of mPLs that are specifically activated in association with gestation (granulocytes) or with the onset of labour (granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes). Additionally, beta regression analysis created a set of reference values to rank this association between immune markers of pregnancy and to identify activation status with potential prognostic and diagnostic capability. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Socioeconomic status and chronic child malnutrition: Wealth and maternal education matter more in the Peruvian Andes than nationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the association of parents' socioeconomic status (SES) with child stunting in the Peruvian Andes and in Peru nationally. It was hypothesized that the relationship of SES to child stunting would be weaker in the Andean compared with the national sample. This is consistent with earlier research indicating that the relationship of SES to health may be weak in poor regions. The data were from the Demographic and Health Survey 2004 to 2006. Two samples of children 3 to 60 months old were compared: a national sample (n = 1426) and an Andean sample (n = 543). Malnutrition was measured using the indicator "stunting," which is small stature for age. Socioeconomic status was measured using parental education, occupation, and household wealth index (WI). In both samples, SES was significantly related to stunting. The odds of stunting in the poorest WI quintile were significantly higher than in the richest quintile. The same pattern was observed in children of mothers having incomplete primary education compared with children of mothers having complete secondary or higher education. The odds of stunting were significantly lower in children of mothers working at home compared with mothers in professional occupations. The associations of WI and maternal education with stunting were significantly stronger in the Andean compared with the national sample; the study did not find support for the hypothesis. Even in very poor regions such as the Andes, SES may be associated with child health, suggesting the importance of public health measures to overcome the health disadvantages experienced by children living in low SES households. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal education, empowerment, economic status and child polio vaccination uptake in Pakistan: a population based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-03-10

    To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012-2013 data was performed. Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard 'Measure DHS' questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; pchild for any polio vaccination (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.12; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.41; p=0.04). Illiteracy, socioeconomic status and empowerment of women remained significant factors linked to poorer uptake of routine polio vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. The impact of maternal HBsAg carrier status on pregnancy outcomes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ka Yu; Ho, Lai Fong; Lao, Terence

    2005-11-01

    To examine the impact of maternal HBsAg carrier status on pregnancy outcomes. Two hundred and fifty-three carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with singleton pregnancy, were retrospectively compared with 253 controls matched for age and parity and year of delivery. On univariable analysis, HBsAg carriers had higher incidences of threatened preterm labour at <37 weeks (11.9% vs. 6.3%, P=0.030), preterm birth at <34 weeks (4.7% vs. 1.2%, P=0.033), gestational diabetes mellitus (19.0% vs. 11.1%, P=0.012) and antepartum haemorrhage (11.5% vs. 5.5%, P=0.026). Their infants had lower Apgar scores at the 1st (8.47+/-1.67 vs. 8.87+/-1.07, P=0.001) and 5th minute (9.56+/-1.29 vs. 9.80+/-0.54, P=0.007), and increased incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage (4.7% vs. 0.8%, P=0.007). On multivariable analysis, the association between HBsAg carrier state with antepartum haemorrhage, gestational diabetes mellitus and threatened preterm labour were confirmed. HBsAg carriers have increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, antepartum haemorrhage, and threatened preterm labour. This may be related to the chronic inflammatory state in these subjects. The role of chronic HBV infection in pregnancy complications has to be further elucidated.

  3. Breaking cycles of risk: The mitigating role of maternal working memory in associations among socioeconomic status, early caregiving, and children's working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Skibo, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic-related disparities in children's working memory; however, the putative proximal caregiving mechanisms that underlie these effects are less known. The present study sought to examine whether the effects of early family socioeconomic status on children's working memory were mediated through experiences of caregiving, specifically maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness. Utilizing a psychobiological framework of parenting, the present study also tested whether maternal working memory moderated the initial paths between the family socioeconomic context and maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness in the mediation model. The sample included 185 socioeconomically diverse mother-child dyads assessed when children were 3.5 and 5 years old. Results demonstrated that maternal harsh discipline was a unique mediator of the relation between early experiences of family socioeconomic adversity and lower working memory outcomes in children. Individual differences in maternal working memory emerged as a potent individual difference factor that specifically moderated the mediating influence of harsh discipline within low socioeconomic contexts. The findings have implications for early risk processes underlying deficits in child working memory outcomes and potential targets for parent-child interventions.

  4. A Prospective Cohort Study to Assess and Correlate the Maternal Periodontal Status with Their Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohana, M H; Suragimath, G; Patange, R P; Varma, S; Zope, S A

    2017-02-01

    There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight of babies. A total of 300 pregnant women, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation i.e., second trimester, were considered for the study. The periodontal status was recorded using the following parameters: probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, oral hygiene index and plaque index. After initial examination in the second trimester, the pregnant women were followed till delivery of the baby. Postpartum data i.e., weight of baby, gestational age of pregnancy and type of delivery, were recorded. Out of 300 pregnant women, 248 women had full-term delivery (12 low birth weight and 236 normal birth weight) while 52 had preterm delivery (6 normal birth weight and 46 low birth weight). There was significant association between body mass index and level of periodontal disease severity of pregnant women with birth weight of babies, gestational age of pregnant women and mode of delivery, respectively. As the level of periodontal disease severity increased, the proportion of delivering preterm and low birth weight babies also increased. The conclusions obtained revealed that Periodontal disease is a potential risk factor for preterm low birth weight babies of pregnant women.

  5. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  6. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez Valery, M C; Eden Yepez, C; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Pontiles Colina, M; Llovera, D; Teran, D [Unidad de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)

    1999-09-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author) 21 refs, 1 tab

  7. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jiménez-Cruz; J. M. Wojcicki; M. Bacardí-Gascón; A. Castellón-Zaragoza; J. L. García-Gallardo; N. Schwartz; M. B. Heyman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weigh...

  8. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  9. Maternal factors influencing late entry into prenatal care: a stratified analysis by race or ethnicity and insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rebecca J; Altman, Molly R; Oltman, Scott P; Ryckman, Kelli K; Chambers, Christina D; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2018-04-09

    Examine factors influencing late (> sixth month of gestation) entry into prenatal care by race/ethnicity and insurance payer. The study population was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007-2012 in the birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes linked birth certificate and mother and infant hospital discharge records. The sample was restricted to infants delivered between 20 and 44 weeks gestation. Logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for factors influencing late entry into prenatal care. Maternal age, education, smoking, drug or alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness, participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program and rural residence were evaluated for women entering prenatal care > sixth month of gestation compared with women entering prenatal care entry for each race or ethnicity and insurance payer. The sample included 2 963 888 women. The percent of women with late entry into prenatal care was consistently higher among women with public versus private insurance. Less than 1% of white non-Hispanic and Asian women with private insurance entered prenatal care late versus more than 4% of white non-Hispanic and black women with public insurance. After stratifying by race or ethnicity and insurance status, women less than 18 years of age were more likely to enter prenatal care late, with young Asian women with private insurance at the highest risk (15.6%; adjusted RR 7.4, 95% CI 5.3-10.5). Among all women with private insurance, > 12-year education or age > 34 years at term reduced the likelihood of late prenatal care entry (adjusted RRs 0.5-0.7). Drugs and alcohol abuse/dependence and residing in a rural county were associated with increased risk of late prenatal care across all subgroups (adjusted RRs 1.3-3.8). Participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program was associated with decreased

  10. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  11. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. HIV-infected (-0.2 kg CI: -1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (-0.5 kg; 95% CI: -2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: -2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: -3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Maternal plasma levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vitamins C, E and A, 8-isoprostane and oxidative status in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nevin; Celik, Ebru; Kumbak, Banu

    2015-02-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with significant maternal and perinatal morbidity. This study examined maternal oxidative stress in PPROM. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital. A total of 72 pregnant women were recruited into two groups, those with PPROM (38 cases) and those without PPROM (34 controls) matched for gestational age. Plasma interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vitamins C, E and A, 8-isoprostane, total oxidant status (TOS) and antioxidant status (TAS) were determined for all study participants and the data were compared between the PPROM and control groups. Both case and control groups were comparably matched in age, parity, gestational age and smoking status. There was a significant association between low 8-isoprostane, low vitamin C and high total oxidant status and the occurrence of PPROM (p vitamin C and 8-isoprostane levels were lower and TOS higher in women with PPROM. Further research is needed to identify robust biological markers for the prevention and also prognosis of PPROM.

  13. Changes in breastfeeding and nutritional status of Nigerian children between 1990 and 2008, and variations by region, area of residence and maternal education and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubogu, Chinyere U; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Okolo, Selina N; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Nwaru, Bright I

    2016-11-01

    Inadequate breastfeeding practices contribute to malnutrition in young children. This study examined changes in breastfeeding practices and the nutritional status of children (0-35 months, n = 37154) using data from the nationally-representative Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys for 1990-2008. The study estimated the relative changes in the proportion of children meeting recommended breastfeeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children during the study period, by region, place of residence, maternal education and maternal occupation. In each study year, over 97% of the children were ever breastfed. The proportion of infants breastfed within 1 hour and 1 day of birth increased from 34% to 45.8%, and from 63.8% to 82.3%, respectively. Overall, breastfeeding for ≥ 12 months changed from 88.9% to 95.2%, an increase of 7%; however, an increase of 14% was observed in the northern region (from 86.1% to 97.8%) while a decline of 7% was observed in the southern region (from 97.1% to 89.9%). Over the study period, the prevalence of all the assessed indicators of malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) increased in the northern region while the southern region experienced a decline in all except severe wasting. In both urban and rural areas, stunting and wasting increased, while underweight declined. Children of non-formally educated and unemployed mothers were more malnourished in all the study years. Improvement in some breastfeeding practices did not result in improvement in the nutritional status of Nigerian children during 1990-2008, particularly in northern Nigeria and among socially disadvantaged mothers. Improving maternal education and employment, and integrating messages on techniques and benefits of optimal infant feeding with other maternal and child healthcare services could be beneficial.

  14. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  15. [Current status and problems of regional maternal and child health education in the curriculum of midwifery education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I

    1989-01-01

    According to the evaluations made by medical Technical Junior Colleges in Japan, general objectives in midwifery education are met, but their curriculum does not cater to each region's health care needs sufficiently. Japanese midwifery students can either attend a 6 month training program offered at 80 different locations, or enroll in a 1 year special-major program at one of the 10 Medical Technical Junior Colleges affiliated with National Universities. According to the curriculum revised in 1971, midwifery students are required to take the following courses and hours in 6 months. Intro. to Maternal and Child Health (15 hours), Maternal and Child Health Medicine (60 hours), Lecture on Midwifery (105 hrs), Practice in Midwifery (135 hrs), Midwifery Business Administration (60 hrs), Maternal and Child Health Administration including internship (225 hrs), Regional Maternal and Child Health including internship (105 hrs) and Family Sociology (15 hours). Regional Maternal and Child Health course (RMCH) is effectively taught only if all the maternal and child health courses and lecture on midwifery are taken beforehand. Objectives for RMCH course are becoming able to assess the state of maternal and child health care in the region and give constructive criticism and suggestions for improvement including legal aspects, acquiring positive attitudes and necessary skills for advancing and having understanding of regional health care and that of midwives' role of it. While the curriculum prepares the students for meeting the patients' physical needs, the students are not ready to cope with their psychological and socio-physiological problems surrounding individuals, families and communities. Changes and diversification of regional communities should be taken into consideration also in the curriculum. Increase in nuclear families, increase in working wives, isolation and/or over-crowding of high rise apartment living are some of the examples. Midwifery activity is also

  16. Nutritional Status and Effect of Maternal Employment among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Hiwot; Abebe, Yewelsew; Loha, Eskindir; Gebru, Teklemichael; Tesheme, Tesfalem

    2017-03-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in many parts of the world; the magnitude of worldwide stunting, underweight and wasting in children under five years of age were 24.7 %, 15.1 % and 7.8 %, respectively. More than 150 million children under the age of five years in the developing world are malnourished. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, 44.4% and 9.7% of children under-five years old were stunted and wasted, respectively. This study was aimed to assess nutritional status and effect of maternal employment among children aged 6-59 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding and healthcare seeking practice of mothers, and child's anthropometric status were assessed. Probability proportional to size sampling approach was used to select a sample of 316 mothers having children aged 6-59 months. The study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Health Science College, Hawasa University. The overall result revealed that the prevalence of stunting was 22.2%, of which 21.8% and 22.6% were in children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. Low-weight-for age was 10.8% for children of employed mothers and 13.4% for children of unemployed mothers. Wasting was 8.8% and 10.8% for children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between maternal employment and nutritional status of their children. However, chronic malnutrition (stunting) was influenced by being educated mother (OR: 0.37) child age group of 24-59 months (OR: 0.36) and households' fifth wealth quintile (OR: 0.28). Low prevalence of stunting was observed. Stunting is a public health concern in the study area. Furthermore, stunting is significantly influenced by mothers' education, household wealth and child age. However, maternal employment was not statistically

  17. Food insecurity and maternal-child nutritional status in Mexico: cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Morales-Ruan, Carmen; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-07-31

    To examine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and risk of childhood stunting and to determine whether this association is modified by maternal-child overweight/obesity. Observational cross-sectional study. Data come from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey ( ENSANUT 2012 by its initials in Spanish), representative of rural and urban areas. Our study sample included 5087 mother-preschool child pairs and 7181 mother-schoolchild pairs. Differences in the prevalence (95% CI) of each HFI category by socioeconomic characteristics and maternal-child nutritional status were estimated. A logistic regression model was conducted for stunting and overweight among preschool children and for stunting and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, adjusting for pertinent covariates. HFI was measured according to the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA by its initials in Spanish). Weight and recumbent lenght or height measures were obtained from children. Overweight and obesity in women were determined according to the WHO Growth Reference Charts. The following covariates were included: sex of the child. urbanicity (urban/rural), region of residence and maternal education. Benefiting from food assistance programmes and socioeconomic status index were also included. Results were expressed as adjusted ORs. Stunting proved more prevalent in preschool children with moderate or severe HFI (16.2% and 16.8%, respectively) (p=0.036 and p=0.007, respectively) than in their counterparts with mild or no HFI (13.2% and 10.7%, respectively). Furthermore, the interaction between HFI and maternal obesity had a significant impact on stunting in preschool children (p<0.05). Severe HFI increased risk of stunting in children with non-obese mothers but not in those with obese mothers. We have discovered a new relationship between HFI and maternal obesity on the one hand and risk of childhood stunting on the other hand. This may reflect a shared

  18. High-resolution mass spectrometry in toxicology: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) approaches using time-of-flight or Orbitrap techniques for research and application in various toxicology fields, particularly in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology published since 2013 and referenced in PubMed. In the introduction, an overview on applications of HRMS in various toxicology fields is given with reference to current review articles. Papers concerning HRMS in metabolism, screening, and quantification of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxins in human body samples are critically reviewed. Finally, a discussion on advantages as well as limitations and future perspectives of these methods is included.

  19. Maternal Literacy, Facility Birth, and Education Are Positively Associated with Better Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and Nutritional Status among Ugandan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Scott B; Hurst, Taylor E; Flax, Valerie L

    2015-11-01

    Understanding maternal factors that influence child feeding is necessary to inform intervention planning in settings in which mothers experience substantial social vulnerabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess maternal sociodemographic factors that may constrain women's caring capabilities and subsequent child nutrition in Uganda. We analyzed data from the 2006 and 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys to model the associations between maternal sociodemographic factors, child feeding practices, and anthropometry with multivariate logistic regression models. The proportion of children fed according to recommended guidelines declined in Uganda from 2006 to 2011. Mothers who lacked literacy skills were less likely to achieve recommended complementary feeding indicators; however, literacy was not associated with breastfeeding practices. Mothers in the upper 60% wealth percentile were more likely to meet minimum meal frequency, diversity, and adequacy indicators. Mothers who gave birth at health facilities (2006 OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.91; P education, and infant and young child feeding practices. Women with a formal education had children with lower stunting and underweight probabilities in both time periods (OR range: 0.43-0.74). Women who delivered in childbirth facilities were less likely to have a child with low weight-for-age, length-for-age, or weight-for-length z scores (OR range: 0.59-0.82). Marital status, the age at first child birth, not accepting domestic violence, freedom to travel away from home, and involvement in household and reproductive decisions were not associated with child anthropometry in either time period. Mothers with low literacy skills, who deliver their children at home, and who lack formal education are particularly at risk of poor child feeding and represent a group that may benefit from enhanced interventions that address their particular vulnerabilities. Factors that contribute to improved maternal feeding

  20. The Relations among Maternal Health Status, Parenting Stress, and Child Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556

  1. Maternal and child nutrition in rural Bangladesh: special reference to the effect of dietary fat supplementation on vitamin A status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age suffer chronic energy deficiency (BMI<18.5), nearly half of infants are born with a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and about

  2. Maternal lifestyle and nutritional status in relation to pregnancy and infant health outcomes in Western China: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Chun-Xia; Sun, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study started in 2015 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. A sample of 1901 pregnant women at 15-20 weeks of gestation were recruited from four maternal and child health hospitals and are followed prospectively to 12 months post partum. Detailed information on maternal lifestyle and nutritional status, obstetric complications, pregnancy outcomes, infant feeding practices, illnesses of the mother and infant and growth trajectory is collected through personal interviews, anthropometric measures and medical records and local health management system records retrieval. Multilevel mixed regression models, adjusted for clustering, will be applied to investigate the association between various exposure variables of interest and the longitudinal outcomes, taking into account the correlated data structure and the nesting of observations. Kaplan-Meier test and Cox regression analysis will be used to analyse the time-to-event data. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committee of West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Curtin University. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Maternity leave duration and full-time/part-time work status are associated with US mothers’ ability to meet breastfeeding intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R.; Perrine, Cria G.; Scanlon, Kelley S.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers; however, many infants are not breastfed as long as recommended or desired by mothers. Maternal employment is frequently cited as a barrier to breastfeeding. Objectives To assess whether maternity leave duration and return-status (full-time [FT], part-time [PT]) were associated with not meeting a mother’s intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Methods We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort study. Analyses were limited to women employed prenatally who intended to breastfeed 3 months or longer (n=1172). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternity leave duration and return to work-status (<6 weeks/FT, <6 weeks/PT, 6 weeks – 3 months/FT, 6 weeks – 3 months/PT, not working by 3 months) and meeting a mother’s intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Results Overall, 28.8% of mothers did not meet their intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Odds of not meeting intention to breastfeed at least 3 months were higher among mothers who returned to work FT before 3 months (<6 weeks/FT: aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.23 – 4.12; 6 weeks – 3 months/FT: aOR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.30 – 2.56), compared with mothers not working at 3 months. Conclusions Returning to work full-time before 3 months may reduce a mother’s ability to meet her intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Employer support for flexible work scheduling may help more women achieve their breastfeeding goals. PMID:25034868

  4. Maternity leave duration and full-time/part-time work status are associated with US mothers' ability to meet breastfeeding intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-11-01

    Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers; however, many infants are not breastfed as long as recommended or desired by mothers. Maternal employment is frequently cited as a barrier to breastfeeding. This study aimed to assess whether maternity leave duration and return status (full-time [FT], part-time [PT]) were associated with not meeting a mother's intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort study. Analyses were limited to women employed prenatally who intended to breastfeed 3 months or longer (n = 1172). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternity leave duration and return-to-work status (< 6 weeks/FT, < 6 weeks/PT, 6 weeks-3 months/FT, 6 weeks-3 months/PT, not working by 3 months) and meeting a mother's intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Overall, 28.8% of mothers did not meet their intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Odds of not meeting intention to breastfeed at least 3 months were higher among mothers who returned to work FT before 3 months (< 6 weeks/FT: adjusted odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval, 1.23-4.12; 6 weeks-3 months/FT: adjusted odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.56), compared with mothers not working at 3 months. Returning to work full-time before 3 months may reduce a mother's ability to meet her intention to breastfeed at least 3 months. Employer support for flexible work scheduling may help more women achieve their breastfeeding goals. © International Lactation Consultant Association 2014.

  5. The effect of educational package on functional status and maternal self-confidence of primiparous women in postpartum period: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinia, Marzieh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a training package on functional status and self-confidence of primiparous women in the postpartum period. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 136 primiparous women who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for their second postpartum care (10-15 days after delivery). These women were randomly assigned to education (n= 68) and control (n = 68) groups. The education group was provided with a face-to-face training session, three phone sessions, and a booklet. The control group received the routine postpartum care on days 1-3, 10-15 and 42-60. Participants completed the functional status and maternal self-confidence questionnaires before the interventio n and eight weeks postpartum. Independent t, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, except for infant's gender (p > .05). At six weeks after the intervention and by adjusting for baseline scores and infant's sex, mean scores of functional status (adjusted mean difference: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.03, p education group than in the control group. This study showed that training women has a positive effect in increasing their self-confidence and improving their functional status.

  6. Interventions in maternal and infant nutrition in the first 1000 days with a focus on socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Sarki, Mahesh; Lobstein, Tim

    -conceptual nutrition of parents-to-be will have follow-on benefits for the child, and for their children in turn. Such policies can help EU Member States to decrease the risk of childhood obesity, improve maternal health, and reduce health disparities in the most disadvantaged groups. This life-course approach...... in pregnancy and continuing after birth and those starting after birth but before age 2 years. The first review3 included: prevention of childhood overweight or obesity as an outcome, identifies gaps in current research, and discusses conceptual frameworks and opportunities for future interventions. The review...... that reducing maternal pre-conceptual overweight, gestational weight gain, and healthy infant weight gain by implementing nutrition recommendations shows promise for childhood obesity prevention. Policy interventions on marketing of breast-milk substitutes appear to influence socio-economic differences...

  7. Socio-Economic Status or Caste? Inequities in Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gautham, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Many inequities in the coverage of essential interventions in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn and child health, especially those that require contact with the health system, persist within countries. \\ud \\ud Although economic inequities may be the most visible and profound, there can be other sources of social disadvantage. \\ud \\ud Poverty and caste are important determinants of health, including maternal healthcare. \\ud \\ud IDEAS conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-economic and caste...

  8. Birth mode-dependent association between pre-pregnancy maternal weight status and the neonatal intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Noel T; Shin, Hakdong; Pizoni, Aline; Werlang, Isabel C; Matte, Ursula; Goldani, Marcelo Z; Goldani, Helena A S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria

    2016-04-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a unique ecosystem that influences metabolism in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota can transfer an obese phenotype from humans to mice. Since mothers transmit intestinal microbiota to their offspring during labor, we hypothesized that among vaginal deliveries, maternal body mass index is associated with neonatal gut microbiota composition. We report the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index on stool microbiota from 74 neonates, 18 born vaginally (5 to overweight or obese mothers) and 56 by elective C-section (26 to overweight or obese mothers). Compared to neonates delivered vaginally to normal weight mothers, neonates born to overweight or obese mothers had a distinct gut microbiota community structure (weighted UniFrac distance PERMANOVA, p PERMANOVA, p = 0.628). Our findings indicate that excess maternal pre-pregnancy weight is associated with differences in neonatal acquisition of microbiota during vaginal delivery, but not Cesarean delivery. These differences may translate to altered maintenance of metabolic health in the offspring.

  9. Glycemic Status During Pregnancy in Gestational Diabetic & Non-Gestational Diabetic Women & its Effect on Maternal & Fetal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Sawant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: 1.To study the time course of plasma glucose, in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. 2.To compare maternal outcome and fetal outcome in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Five hundred pregnant individuals visiting the Antenatal Clinic of Rural Medical College, Loni in either half of the gestation were screened and gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. Results: The scope of diabetes and pregnancy encompasses not only diabetics marching through pregnancy but also, any form of abnormal glucose tolerance developing during gestation, termed as gestational diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance of any etiology recognized or unrecognized starting before pregnancy or revealed during pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of a poor maternal and fetal outcomes. In our study we found a significantly higher incidence of caesarean section in-patients with GDM when compared with the normal group (67% versus 25%, P <0.001. In GDM cases, we observed fetal macrosomia, high birth weight etc. Naturally these are the factors, which add to the pre-existing unfavourable maternal factors affecting the process of labour adversely. We observed a significant difference in the incidence of preterm labour in between the GDM and non-GDM groups (22% Vs 13%, p<0.05. These individuals underwent a process of preterm labour at a gestational age of 32+3 weeks. Hyperglycemia and polyhydramnios are held responsible for preterm labour. The incidence rate of PIH was more in subjects with GDM as compared to the other group. However this difference failed to prove statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Though we did not get a significant difference in occurrence of PIH in between the GDM and non-GDM groups, we do agree with the comment that hyperglycemia earlier in the pregnancy is associated with greater incidence of PIH as three of the four cases who were diagnosed

  10. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  11. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  12. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  13. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy

  14. Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status with Glucose Tolerance and Caesarean Section in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, See Ling; Lek, Ngee; Yap, Fabian; Soh, Shu E; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Tan, Kok Hian; Biswas, Arijit; Yeo, George Seow Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang Mei; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies relating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and mode of delivery have shown controversial results. We examined if maternal 25OHD status was associated with plasma glucose concentrations, risks of GDM and caesarean section in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. Plasma 25OHD concentrations, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured in 940 women from a Singapore mother-offspring cohort study at 26-28 weeks' gestation. 25OHD inadequacy and adequacy were defined based on concentrations of 25OHD ≤75nmol/l and >75nmol/l respectively. Mode of delivery was obtained from hospital records. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association between 25OHD status and glucose concentrations, while multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of 25OHD status with risks of GDM and caesarean section. In total, 388 (41.3%) women had 25OHD inadequacy. Of these, 131 (33.8%), 155 (39.9%) and 102 (26.3%) were Chinese, Malay and Indian respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal 25OHD inadequacy was associated with higher FG concentrations (β = 0.08mmol/l, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.14), but not 2HPPG concentrations and risk of GDM. A trend between 25OHD inadequacy and higher likelihood of emergency caesarean section (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.95, 2.05) was observed. On stratification by ethnicity, the association with higher FG concentrations was significant in Malay women (β = 0.19mmol/l, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.33), while risk of emergency caesarean section was greater in Chinese (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.43) and Indian women (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.73). 25OHD inadequacy is prevalent in pregnant Singaporean women, particularly among the Malay and Indian women. This is associated with higher FG concentrations in Malay women, and increased risk of emergency

  15. Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status with Glucose Tolerance and Caesarean Section in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Ling Loy

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies relating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and mode of delivery have shown controversial results. We examined if maternal 25OHD status was associated with plasma glucose concentrations, risks of GDM and caesarean section in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO study.Plasma 25OHD concentrations, fasting glucose (FG and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG concentrations were measured in 940 women from a Singapore mother-offspring cohort study at 26-28 weeks' gestation. 25OHD inadequacy and adequacy were defined based on concentrations of 25OHD ≤75nmol/l and >75nmol/l respectively. Mode of delivery was obtained from hospital records. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association between 25OHD status and glucose concentrations, while multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of 25OHD status with risks of GDM and caesarean section.In total, 388 (41.3% women had 25OHD inadequacy. Of these, 131 (33.8%, 155 (39.9% and 102 (26.3% were Chinese, Malay and Indian respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal 25OHD inadequacy was associated with higher FG concentrations (β = 0.08mmol/l, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.01, 0.14, but not 2HPPG concentrations and risk of GDM. A trend between 25OHD inadequacy and higher likelihood of emergency caesarean section (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.95, 2.05 was observed. On stratification by ethnicity, the association with higher FG concentrations was significant in Malay women (β = 0.19mmol/l, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.33, while risk of emergency caesarean section was greater in Chinese (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.43 and Indian women (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.73.25OHD inadequacy is prevalent in pregnant Singaporean women, particularly among the Malay and Indian women. This is associated with higher FG concentrations in Malay women, and increased risk of emergency

  16. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life.

  17. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal A; Ahluwalia S; Singh J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38�...

  18. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. Lack of Association Between Maternal or Neonatal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes: A Scandinavian Case-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Mårild, Karl; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Holst, Klaus K; Tapia, German; Granström, Charlotta; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Cohen, Arieh S; Haugen, Margaretha; Lundqvist, Marika; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Njølstad, Pål R; Joner, Geir; Magnus, Per; Størdal, Ketil; Svensson, Jannet; Stene, Lars C

    2018-06-01

    Studies on vitamin D status during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) lack consistency and are limited by small sample sizes or single measures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We investigated whether average maternal 25(OH)D plasma concentrations during pregnancy are associated with risk of childhood T1D. In a case-cohort design, we identified 459 children with T1D and a random sample (n = 1,561) from the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 97,127) and Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 113,053). Participants were born between 1996 and 2009. The primary exposure was the estimated average 25(OH)D concentration, based on serial samples from the first trimester until delivery and on umbilical cord plasma. We estimated hazard ratios using weighted Cox regression adjusting for multiple confounders. The adjusted hazard ratio for T1D per 10-nmol/L increase in the estimated average 25(OH)D concentration was 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.10). Results were consistent in both cohorts, in multiple sensitivity analyses, and when we analyzed mid-pregnancy or cord blood separately. In conclusion, our large study demonstrated that normal variation in maternal or neonatal 25(OH)D is unlikely to have a clinically important effect on risk of childhood T1D.

  20. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  1. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  2. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  3. Low maternal education and socio-economic status were associated with household food insecurity in children under five with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Khan, M M H; Rafiqul Islam, Md; Perera, Nirmala K P; Shumack, Matthew K; Kader, Manzur

    2016-05-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is insufficient access to nutritionally safe and adequate foods to meet the dietary needs for an active and healthy life. We examined the prevalence and determinants of HFI in Bangladeshi children under five with diarrhoea. This study included 365 children (55% boys) who had diarrhoea in the two weeks before the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS-2011). The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was used to assess HFI and Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the association between HFI and multilevel factors. The prevalence of HFI among children under five with diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the BDHS-2011 survey was 48%. HFI was significantly higher among the children of uneducated mothers, who were two times more likely to experience HFI, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.14 and children who were from the lowest socio-economic status families, who were more than seven times more likely to experience HFI, with an adjusted OR of 7.55. Low maternal education and low socio-economic status were significantly associated with HFI in Bangladeshi children under five with diarrhoea and public health campaigns should take this into account. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association of maternal food choices with caries status and sugar consumption among preschool children in Vikarabad town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakeel Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children′s sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children′s caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child′s preferences (51%, availability and accessibility of food products (19% and affordability (15% when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.

  5. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  6. Maternal Glucose during Pregnancy and after Delivery in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Overweight Status of Their Children

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    Shuang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of maternal glycemia during pregnancy and after delivery with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. A total of 1,263 GDM mothers and their children finished the health survey at 1–5 years after delivery. Results. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy had higher prevalence of overweight, higher mean weight for height Z scores, and higher mean BMI for age Z scores at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during pregnancy. Offspring of GDM mothers who developed diabetes 1–5 years after delivery had higher mean values of Z scores for weight for height and BMI for age at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who had normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery. Conclusions. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy or after delivery had an increased risk of childhood overweight or weight gain at 1–5 years old compared with children of GDM mothers with IGT during pregnancy or with normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery.

  7. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

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    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  8. Maternal Folate Status and the BHMT c.716G>A Polymorphism Affect the Betaine Dimethylglycine Pathway during Pregnancy

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    Jose M. Colomina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the betaine: homocysteine methyltransferase BHMT c.716G>A (G: guanosine; A: adenosine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on the BHMT pathway is unknown during pregnancy. We hypothesised that it impairs betaine to dimethylglycine conversion and that folate status modifies its effect. We studied 612 women from the Reus Tarragona Birth Cohort from ≤12 gestational weeks (GW throughout pregnancy. The frequency of the variant BHMT c.716A allele was 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI: 28.3, 33.5. In participants with normal-high plasma folate status (>13.4 nmol/L, least square geometric mean [95% CI] plasma dimethylglycine (pDMG, µmol/L was lower in the GA (2.35 [2.23, 2.47] versus GG (2.58 [2.46, 2.70] genotype at ≤12 GW (p < 0.05 and in the GA (2.08 [1.97, 2.19] and AA (1.94 [1.75, 2.16] versus GG (2.29 [2.18, 2.40] genotypes at 15 GW (p < 0.05. No differences in pDMG between genotypes were observed in participants with possible folate deficiency (≤13.4 nmol/L (p for interactions at ≤12 GW: 0.023 and 15 GW: 0.038. PDMG was lower in participants with the AA versus GG genotype at 34 GW (2.01 [1.79, 2.25] versus 2.44 [2.16, 2.76] and at labour, 2.51 [2.39, 2.64] versus 3.00 [2.84, 3.18], (p < 0.01. Possible deficiency compared to normal-high folate status was associated with higher pDMG in multiple linear regression analysis (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from 0.07 [0.04], p < 0.05 to 0.20 [0.04], p < 0.001 in models from early and mid-late pregnancy and the AA compared to GG genotype was associated with lower pDMG (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from −0.11 [0.06], p = 0.055 to −0.23 [0.06], p < 0.001. Conclusion: During pregnancy, the BHMT pathway is affected by folate status and by the variant BHMT c.716A allele.

  9. Impact of the National Food Supplementary Program for Children on Household Food Security and Maternal Weight Status in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households' food security. The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6-72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively ( P security in the baseline and at the end of the study ( P > 0.05). Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs.

  10. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  11. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (gestation) and gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  12. Good Child is a Calm Child: Mothers' Social Status, Maternal Conceptions of Proper Demeanor, and Stranger Anxiety in One-Year Old Cameroonian Nso Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltrud Otto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our article questions the assumption that stranger anxiety develops universally in children; thereby our study is rooted in a long tradition in psychological anthropology of testing the universality of theories formulated in Western society. We argue that the infant's behavior towards strangers is the product of socialization processes that represent adaptations to cultural contexts. Our study investigates the ethnotheory of childrearing and the development of stranger anxiety in a Cameroonian community of traditional Nso farmers. The participants of the study were 29 Cameroonian Nso mothers with one-year old children. Using a multi-method approach, we demonstrate that Nso mothers value inexpressive infants that adjust easily to others. Accordingly, a considerably large number of one-year old Nso infants showed no stranger anxiety when encountered by a stranger. Maternal social status and her social support system proved crucial to successful implementation of the socialization goal of a calm child. Our data support the view that child behavior is a product of culturally constructed experiences of daily life. The acknowledgement of the cultural construction of stranger anxiety carries implications for developmental theories, especially for attachment theory, which relies on the universality of stranger anxiety in their most acclaimed paradigm, the Strange Situation.

  13. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  14. The association of maternal vitamin D status with infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity in the first 2 years of life in a multi-ethnic Asian population: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Lin; Quah, Phaik Ling; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Heppe, Denise; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Foong-Fong Chong, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of population.

  15. Maternal oral health status and preterm low birth weight at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manji Karim P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined the relationship between oral health status (periodontal disease and carious pulpal exposure (CPE and preterm low-birth-weight (PTLBW infant deliveries among Tanzanian-African mothers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Tanzania. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted, involving 373 postpartum mothers aged 14–44 years (PTLBW – 150 cases and at term normal-birth-weight (TNBW – 223 controls, using structured questionnaire and full-mouth examination for periodontal and dentition status. Results The mean number of sites with gingival bleeding was higher in PTLBW than in TNBW (P = 0.026. No significant differences were observed for sites with plaque, calculus, teeth with decay, missing, filling (DMFT between PTLBW and TNBW. Controlling for known risk factors in all post-partum (n = 373, and primiparaous (n = 206 mothers, no significant differences were found regarding periodontal disease diagnosis threshold (PDT (four sites or more that had probing periodontal pocket depth 4+mm and gingival bleeding ≥ 30% sites, and CPE between cases and controls. Significant risk factors for PTLBW among primi- and multiparous mothers together were age ≤ 19 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.09, 95% Confidence interval (95% CI: 1.18 – 3.67, P = 0.011, hypertension (aOR = 2.44, (95% CI: 1.20 – 4.93, P = 0.013 and being un-married (aOR = 1.59, (95% CI: 1.00 – 2.53, P = 0.049. For primiparous mothers significant risk factors for PTLBW were age ≤ 19 years (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.13 – 3.81, P = 0.019, and being un-married (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.42 – 4.67, P = 0.002. Conclusions These clinical findings show no evidence for periodontal disease or carious pulpal exposure being significant risk factors in PTLBW infant delivery among Tanzanian-Africans mothers at MNH, except for young age, hypertension, and being unmarried. Further research incorporating periodontal pathogens is recommended.

  16. Ifugao males, learning and teaching for the improvement of maternal and child health status in the Philippines: an evaluation of a program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulnuan Marcelyn M

    2011-05-01

    attitude needs further assessment, this strategy of continuous learning and teaching of MCH topics within community males is shown to improve knowledge and has a potential to uplift the MCH status, including the reduction of maternal deaths, in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao, Philippines.

  17. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

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    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  18. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Review of the importance of nutrition during the first 1000 days: maternal nutritional status and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrottesley, S V; Lamper, C; Pisa, P T

    2016-04-01

    Maternal nutritional status (MNS) is a strong predictor of growth and development in the first 1000 days of life and may influence susceptibility to non-communicable diseases in adulthood. However, the role of nutrition during this window of developmental plasticity in Africa is unclear. This paper reviews published data to address whether maternal nutrition during the first 1000 days is important for Africa, with a focus on MNS and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes. A systematic approach was used to search the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciSearch and Cochrane Library. In all, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria for the specific objectives. MNS in Africa showed features typical of the epidemiological transition: higher prevalences of maternal overweight and obesity and lower underweight, poor diet quality 1 and high anaemia prevalence. Maternal body mass index and greater gestational weight gain (GWG) were positively associated with birth weight; however, maternal overweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Maternal anaemia was associated with lower birth weight. Macro- and micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy were associated with improvements in GWG, birth weight and mortality risk. Data suggest poor MNS in Africa and confirms the importance of the first 1000 days as a critical period for nutritional intervention to improve growth, birth outcomes and potential future health risk. However, there is a lack of data beyond birth and a need for longitudinal data through infancy to 2 years of age.

  20. Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status of 1-5 years Children Residing in Field Practice Area of Rural Health Training Centre Naila, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition bene-fits families, their communities and the world as a whole. Maternal factors are important in maintaining the nutrition of 1-5 year children. Objective: To ascertain the association of maternal factors with nutrition of 1-5 year children. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was carried out in the field practice area of RHTC Naila in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. 30 Cluster sampling technique was ...

  1. Development Of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status And Perspectives. HRMS Coupled With A Laser Dilatometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalas L.B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent achievements in the development of low-frequency high-resolution mechanical spectroscopy (HRMS are briefly reported. It is demonstrated that extremely low values of the loss angle, ϕ, (tanϕb = 1×10−5 can be measured as a function of frequency, and the precision in estimation of the dynamic modulus is better than 1×10−5 in arbitrary units. Three conditions must be fulfilled to obtain high resolution in subresonant and resonant mechanical loss measurements: (1 noise in stress and elastic strain signals must be lower than 70 dB, (2 high quality of stress and strain signals must be tested both in the frequency- and time-domains, and (3 the estimation of the mechanical loss and modulus must be verified by at least two different computing methods operating in the frequency- and time-domains. It is concluded that phase measurements in the subresonant domain are no longer determined by precision in estimation of the loss angle. Recent developments in high-resolution resonant mechanical loss measurements stem from the application of advanced nonparametric and parametric computing methods and algorithms to estimate the logarithmic decrement and the elastic modulus from exponentially damped free decaying oscillations embedded in experimental noise.

  2. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J., E-mail: jenny.bytingsvik@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S. [NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Pb 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-07-15

    High levels of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) have been found in Arctic char from Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Svalbard, Norway) compared to char from other arctic lakes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the OHC status, contaminant profile, and partitioning of OHCs between muscle and ovary tissue in spawning female char from the high-polluted Lake Ellasjøen and the low-polluted Lake Laksvatn. The second aim was to investigate if OHC levels in muscle tissue have changed over time. Between-lake comparisons show that the muscle levels (lipid weight) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (∑ CHLs), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (∑ DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑ PCBs) were up to 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn, and confirm that the char from Ellasjøen are still heavily exposed compared to char from neighboring lake. A higher proportion of persistent OHCs were found in Ellasjøen compared to Laksvatn, while the proportion of the less persistent OHCs was highest in Laksvatn. A between-year comparison of OHC levels (i.e., HCB, DDTs, PCBs) in female and male char shows higher levels of HCB in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 compared to in 1999/2001. No other between-year differences in OHC levels were found. Due to small study groups, findings associated with between-year differences in OHC levels should be interpreted with caution. OHCs accumulate in the lipid rich ovaries of spawning females, resulting in up to six times higher levels of OHCs in ovaries compared to in muscle (wet weight). The toxic equivalent (TEQ)-value for the dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105 and -118) in ovaries of the Ellasjøen char exceeded levels associated with increased egg mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hence, we suggest that future studies should focus on the reproductive health and performance abilities of the high-exposed population of char inhabiting Lake Ellasjøen. - Highlights: • Examine levels

  3. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytingsvik, J.; Frantzen, M.; Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S.; Christensen, G.; Evenset, A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) have been found in Arctic char from Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Svalbard, Norway) compared to char from other arctic lakes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the OHC status, contaminant profile, and partitioning of OHCs between muscle and ovary tissue in spawning female char from the high-polluted Lake Ellasjøen and the low-polluted Lake Laksvatn. The second aim was to investigate if OHC levels in muscle tissue have changed over time. Between-lake comparisons show that the muscle levels (lipid weight) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (∑ CHLs), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (∑ DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑ PCBs) were up to 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn, and confirm that the char from Ellasjøen are still heavily exposed compared to char from neighboring lake. A higher proportion of persistent OHCs were found in Ellasjøen compared to Laksvatn, while the proportion of the less persistent OHCs was highest in Laksvatn. A between-year comparison of OHC levels (i.e., HCB, DDTs, PCBs) in female and male char shows higher levels of HCB in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 compared to in 1999/2001. No other between-year differences in OHC levels were found. Due to small study groups, findings associated with between-year differences in OHC levels should be interpreted with caution. OHCs accumulate in the lipid rich ovaries of spawning females, resulting in up to six times higher levels of OHCs in ovaries compared to in muscle (wet weight). The toxic equivalent (TEQ)-value for the dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105 and -118) in ovaries of the Ellasjøen char exceeded levels associated with increased egg mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hence, we suggest that future studies should focus on the reproductive health and performance abilities of the high-exposed population of char inhabiting Lake Ellasjøen. - Highlights: • Examine levels

  4. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  5. Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of Health Insurance ... a mandatory social insurance program based on contributions from employees ... of maternal mortality such as socioeconomic status, physical access to care, ...

  6. Maternal Health Status and Parenting Stress in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Mothers of Children with Conduct Disorder Problems: the Role of Daily Parenting Hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-12-01

    Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles mediated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. The sample included 177 low-income black, Latina, and white mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. Path analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediated the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems.

  7. Roadmapping the Resolution of Gas Generation Issues in Packages Containing Radioactive Waste/Materials - A Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, D.E.; Hamp, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen, have been an area of concern for the transport and storage of radioactive materials and waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Potentially combustible gases can be generated through a variety of reactions, including chemical reactions and radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-containing material. Since transportation regulations prohibit shipment of explosives and radioactive materials together, it was decided that hydrogen generation was a problem that warranted the execution of a high-level roadmapping effort. This paper discusses the major gas generation issues within the DOE Complex and the research that has been and is being conducted by the transuranic (TRU) waste, nuclear materials, and spent nuclear fuels (SNF) programs within DOE's Environmental Management (EM) organizations to address gas generation concerns. This paper presents a ''program level'' roadmap that links technology development to program needs and identifies the probability of success in an effort to understand the programmatic risk associated with the issue of gas generation. This paper also presents the status of the roadmap and follow-up activities

  8. 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K ) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP 9K and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP 9K was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 depends on maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H) 2 D 3 has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat

  9. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers

  10. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Borel, Christophe; Moinet, Marie; Jouan, Dorothée; Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Boué, Franck; Montchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Servat, Alexandre; Gimenez, Olivier; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne

    2017-11-01

    This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies

  11. Maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F.A. Simões

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3] in children, adolescents and adults, but it remains unclear whether maternal adiposity influences maternal and foetal concentrations of this vitamin. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. It involved 101 mother–newborn pairs from a public maternity in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data, as well as anthropometry, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, were investigated. Maternal adiposity was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two multiple linear regression models that included maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations as outcomes and maternal adiposity as independent variable were used. No association was observed between maternal adiposity and maternal or cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. Maternal vitamin D concentration was associated with race, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation (adj. R2 = 0.74. Cord blood vitamin D concentration was associated with maternal vitamin D concentration (adj. R2 = 0.24. Although fat mass quantification is important to understand vitamin D status during all stages of life, this may not be true in pregnancy as race, vitamin D supplementation and physical activity appeared to be more relevant to vitamin D status. Understanding vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy may elucidate how or if adiposity influences maternal vitamin D status and how it impacts vitamin D transport to the foetus.

  12. The relationship between maternal education and the neural substrates of phoneme perception in children: Interactions between socioeconomic status and proficiency level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Lisa L; Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    Relationships between maternal education (ME) and both behavioral performances and brain activation during the discrimination of phonemic and nonphonemic sounds were examined using fMRI in children with different levels of phoneme categorization proficiency (CP). Significant relationships were found between ME and intellectual functioning and vocabulary, with a trend for phonological awareness. A significant interaction between CP and ME was seen for nonverbal reasoning abilities. In addition, fMRI analyses revealed a significant interaction between CP and ME for phonemic discrimination in left prefrontal cortex. Thus, ME was associated with differential patterns of both neuropsychological performance and brain activation contingent on the level of CP. These results highlight the importance of examining SES effects at different proficiency levels. The pattern of results may suggest the presence of neurobiological differences in the children with low CP that affect the nature of relationships with ME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both Ppreeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is associated with low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. A 'relative', rather than 'absolute' EFA deficiency might explain this finding. A relative EFA deficiency may derive from

  15. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  16. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  17. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors at birth as moderators of the association between birth characteristics and school attainment: a population study of children attending government schools in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, E; Li, J; Blair, E; Mattes, E; de Klerk, N; Stanley, F

    2009-10-01

    This article investigates whether reading and writing skills among children of equivalent perinatal characteristics differ by neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors. Notifications of births for all non-Aboriginal singletons born in 1990-7 in Western Australia subsequently attending government primary schools were linked to the State literacy tests in grade three and with information on socioeconomic status of the school and the residential area. Using multilevel modelling, the associations between birth characteristics (gestational age, intrauterine growth, birth order and Apgar score at 5 minutes) and literacy attainment in grade three were examined in models that included socioeconomic and demographic factors of the child, mother and community. Higher percentages of optimal head circumference and birth length and term birth were positively and independently associated with literacy scores. A higher percentage of optimal birth weight was associated with higher reading scores especially for children born to mothers residing in educationally advantaged areas. First birth was positively associated with reading and writing attainment: this association was stronger for children born to single mothers and additional advantage in writing was also associated with first birth in children living in disadvantaged areas. These findings suggest that having suboptimal growth in utero or an older sibling at birth increases vulnerability to poor literacy attainment especially among children born to single mothers or those in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. These data provide evidence for advocating lifestyles compatible with optimum fetal growth and socioeconomic conditions conducive to healthy lifestyles, particularly during pregnancy.

  18. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  19. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  20. Associação entre desnutrição em crianças moradoras de favelas, estado nutricional materno e fatores socioambientais Association between malnutrition in children living in favelas, maternal nutritional status, and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia B. R. Silveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação da desnutrição em crianças residentes em assentamentos subnormais (favelas de Maceió (AL com o estado nutricional materno e as condições socioambientais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo amostra probabilística de 2.075 mães (18 a 45 anos e respectivos filhos (4 meses a 6 anos, moradoras nas favelas da cidade de Maceió (AL. Para escolha dos assentamentos, procedeu-se primeiramente a uma análise de clusters para eleger a região administrativa da cidade de Maceió com menor índice de desenvolvimento humano. Após essa análise, a 7ª Região Administrativa foi a designada para o estudo, com seus 23 assentamentos subnormais. Os dados socioeconômicos, demográficos, antropométricos e de saúde materno-infantil foram coletados através de inquérito domiciliar. A estatística analisou a razão de chances de uma criança ser desnutrida, e a regressão univariada foi usada para verificar quais variáveis maternas estariam associadas a essa desnutrição. RESULTADOS: A desnutrição crônica (-2 desvios padrão/altura por idade esteve presente em 8,6% das crianças e associou-se com idade e escolaridade materna, tipo de residência, número de cômodos, revestimento de piso, origem da água e baixo peso ao nascer (OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of malnutrition in children living in substandard settlements (slums of Maceió, AL, Brazil, with maternal nutritional status and environmental conditions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving a probability sample of 2,075 mothers (18 to 45 years and their children (4 months to 6 years, living in the slums of the city of Maceió. First, we conducted a cluster analysis with the purpose of choosing the settlements and the administrative region of the city of Maceió with the lowest human development index. After this analysis, the 7th Administrative Region was designated for the study, including its 23 substandard settlements. Socioeconomic

  1. Consumo calórico, estado nutricional materno, y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino Energy intake, maternal nutritional status and intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bender Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la asociación entre el consumo de energía en el embarazo y el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU, se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso-cohorte en tres hospitales de maternidad de la ciudad de México, entre enero y agosto de 1995. De un total de 4.000 partos que ocurrieron en este período, nos referimos en este estudio a los resultados de un análisis de 264 casos de RCIU y 892 controles. Se procedió a un análisis de regresión logística no condicionada, en el que también se ajustaron los factores maternos potencialmente proclives a la confusión. Para el total de los casos no se observó un efecto directo del consumo de energía en el RCIU (RM: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,99-1,00. Sin embargo, entre las mujeres que comenzaron el embarazo con un peso de 50 kilos o menos, el consumo de energía en relación a RCIU mostró una razón de momios de 2,31 (RM: 2,31; IC 95%: 1,59-3,36; para las mujeres primigestas de 1,72 (RM: 1,72; IC 95%: 1,18-2,51; en aquellas con antecedente de bajo peso al nacer de 3,54 (RM: 3,54; IC 95%: 1,93-6,46 y para aquellas que presentaron tensión arterial alta en el embarazo de 1,61 (RM: 1,61; IC 95%: 1,00-2,59.To explore the association between low caloric intake during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, a case-control study with 264 cases and 892 controls was conducted in three maternity hospitals in Mexico City from January to August 1995. Nutritional information on pregnancy was recorded using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for other known maternal risk factors in the non-conditional logistic regression analysis, for the total sample, caloric intake did not present a direct effect on IUGR (OR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.99-1.00. However the odds ratios were as follows for women: with low pre-gestational weight (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.59-3.36, in first gestation (OR: 1.72; CI 95%: 1.18-2.51, with low birth weight infants (OR: 3.54; CI 95%: 1.93-6.46, and

  2. Expectant fathers’ knowledge of maternal morbidity: a Sri Lankan experience [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/zj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Weekrakkody

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male partners play an important and vital role in the decision-making process regarding pregnant women’s health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of expectant fathers about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, and anaemia during pregnancy. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among expectant fathers whose partners were attending antenatal clinics at the Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. All consenting participants were interviewed by investigators using an interviewer administered questionnaire to collect data on knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, complications and their control. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis test.  Results: Of the 246 expectant fathers studied, 192 (78% were aware of GDM, 183 (74.4% and 154 (62.6% were aware of PIH and anaemia during pregnancy, respectively. The total number of answers provided by expectant fathers ranged from 0 to 33 (of 41 questions. There were 44 fathers who could not answer even a single question. For GDM, anaemia, and PIH, the percentages of expectant fathers who failed to provide at least a single correct answer were 24.8%, 40.2%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median number of total correct answers provided increased steadily along with the average income (chi-square 31.24, p<0.001 and educational level (chi-square 33.57, p<0.001. Expectant fathers in the 25-34 age group had significantly higher scores, compared to younger and older fathers (chi-square 15.11, p=0.001. Fathers experiencing the second pregnancy of their spouses also had higher scores. Conclusions: Expectant father’s knowledge of the selected morbidities was limited. To improve maternal health, any health promotional programmes should include expectant fathers.

  3. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  5. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene ( p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.

  6. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  7. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  8. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  9. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  10. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine status during pregnancy in the metformin in gestational diabetes trial: responses to maternal metformin compared with insulin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatford, K L; Houda, C M; Lu, Z X; Coat, S; Baghurst, P A; Owens, J A; Sikaris, K; Rowan, J A; Hague, W M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the effects of metformin and insulin treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) status. Women with GDM, who met criteria for insulin treatment, were randomly assigned to metformin (n = 89) or insulin (n = 91) in the Adelaide cohort of the metformin in gestational diabetes (MiG) trial. Fasting serum total vitamin B12 (TB12), holotranscobalamin (HoloTC), a marker of functional B12 status and plasma Hcy concentrations were measured at 20-34 weeks (at randomization) and 36 weeks gestation, then at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Circulating TB12, HoloTC and Hcy were similar in both treatment groups at each time point. Women who were taking dietary folate supplements at randomization had higher serum TB12 and HoloTC at randomization than those not taking folate. Overall, serum TB12 fell more between randomization and 36 weeks gestation in the metformin group than in the insulin group (metformin: -19.7 ± 4.7 pmol/l, insulin: -6.4 ± 3.6 pmol/l, p = 0.004). The decrease in serum TB12 during treatment was greater with increasing treatment duration in metformin-treated (p pregnancy to a greater extent in metformin-treated than in insulin-treated women with GDM, but neither analyte differed between groups at any stage. This adds further evidence supporting metformin as a safe alternative treatment to insulin in GDM. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether women treated with metformin for longer periods in pregnancy require additional B12 or other supplementation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  12. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  13. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Maternal Employment and Perceived Stress: Their Impact on Children's Adjustment and Mother-Child Interaction in Young Divorced and Married Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of maternal employment, marital status, and perceived maternal stress on children's adjustment and mother-preschool child interaction in 104 married and 99 divorced families. Results indicated that maternal employment had little impact on these variables. Maternal stress, in form of divorce and daily maternal hassles, demonstrated…

  15. Correlation of maternal age, gravida status, major malformations, stillbirth and sex ratio in high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K.R.; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing study on biological and health effects of chronic low dose and/or dose rate on human population, consecutive births were monitored in selected Govt. hospitals located in normal and high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast. This area is unique because of its vast population size and varied range of background radiation level due to natural deposit of monazite containing thorium. The objective is to elucidate the role of chronic low dose radiation, if any, on the adverse pregnancy outcome. Since 1995, ∼1,70,000 newborns were monitored in this area, of which 74,238 singleton first births were monitored. Of these, 634 (0.85%) cases were observed with detectable major congenital malformations (that include serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management) and 240 (0.32%) cases were stillborn. Sex ratio at first birth was observed in the ratio of 1050 males to 1000 females. The distribution of age at marriage of the mothers was stratified into the following groups: d"18 years (15.5%), 19 20 years (25.9%), 21 22 years (25.6%), 23 24 years (17.2%) and >25 years (15.8%). It was observed that about 78.9% mothers had their first birth within one year of marriage, 13.7% had their first birth within 1.1 2 years and 5.2% within 2.1 4 years. About 2.2% (1613) mothers had their first child after 4 years or more. Individual, combined and interactive effects of age at marriage, first birth interval (first gravida status), background radiation levels and gender of the newborn on major congenital malformation and stillbirth will be discussed. (author)

  16. Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Randell, Kaisa; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2013-01-01

    Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?......Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?...

  17. Relação entre estado nutricional da gestante, fumo durante a gravidez, crescimento fetal e no primeiro ano de vida Relationship between maternal nutritional status, smoking during pregnancy and growth of fetus and of child during first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Augusto Franco de Siqueira

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre estado nutricional e hábito de fumar maternos, peso do recém-nascido ao nascer e crescimento no primeiro ano de vida num grupo de 1.066 gestantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico. Os filhos de mulheres fumantes apresentaram pesos significativamente menores que os filhos de não-fumantes, quer fossem suas mães, normais ou obesas. Também foi possível verificar que filhos de mulheres desnutridas pesaram significativamente menos que filhos de mulheres normais e estes que os de obesas. O prejuízo no peso dos filhos de mulheres fumantes manteve-se apenas até os 3 meses de idade, ao passo que até os 9 meses os filhos de mulheres desnutridas pesaram significativamente menos que as demais crianças, mostrando que, mesmo em gestantes de baixa renda, o efeito do fumo sobre o crescimento se restringe ao ambiente intra-uterino. Já o efeito da desnutrição materna é mais duradouro nessa população. Verificou-se que houve uma associação negativa entre estado nutricional e hábito de fumar maternos, sugerindo que, ao menos em parte, o efeito do tabagismo materno sobre o concepto pode ser intermediado pelo estado nutricional.The relationship between maternal nutritional state, maternal cigarette smoking habits, weight of infants at birth and their growth in the first year of life, in a group of 1,066 pregnant women (and their children of low socio-economic status was studied. Babies born to smoking mothers weighed significantly less than those born to non-smoking mothers, whether these were normal or even obese women. It was also observed that children born to undernourished mothers weighed significantly less than those born to normal or obese women. Children born to smoking mothers weighed less than the others up to the 3rd month of life only; children born to undernourished women weighed significantly less than the others up to the 9th month of life. Thus, even among pregnant women of low socio-economic status, the

  18. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MATERNAL DEATHS DUE TO PPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality is a global problem, facing every country in the world. Target specific interventions are needed for specific population. Fifth millennium development goal (MDG is to reduce maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015, worthwhile investment for every case provider, results that investing on mothers

  19. Status Gizi Ibu Hamil dan Penyakit Tidak Menular pada Dewasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Laksmining Achadi

    2012-11-01

    i.e. providing an optimal nutrition environment to the fetus through improvement of maternal nutritional status, and infant 0 – 2 years of age, is recommended. Keywords: Maternal nutrition, non-communicable disease, poor population

  20. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women.

  1. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p attachment behaviors.

  2. Maternal DHA levels and Toddler Free-Play Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high...

  3. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant

  4. Attitudinal Correlates of Maternal Employment during Infancy versus Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleger, Lindsay; Brogan, Maureen; Fronheiser, April; Hess, Auden; Kosakowski, Jill; Sosnowski, Jane; Sternberg, Tamar; Chambliss, Catherine

    Differences in attitudes about maternal employment during infancy versus childhood were assessed by measuring the perceptions of college students grouped according to their mothers employment status during different periods of their childrens development. Attitudes about both costs and benefits associated with maternal employment were examined…

  5. Review of Policies and Programs for Reducing Maternal Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to determine the status of maternal health in Cross River State, a state in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with high rate of maternal mortality. The study consisted of analysis of clinical data, desk reviews of published and unpublished materials and interviews with policymakers and service providers ...

  6. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  7. High-resolution bacterial 16S rRNA gene profile meta-analysis and biofilm status reveal common colorectal cancer consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Julia L.; White, James R.; Dejea, Christine M.; Fathi, Payam; Iyadorai, Thevambiga; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Roslani, April C.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Loke, Mun Fai; Thulasi, Kumar; Gan, Han Ming; Goh, Khean Lee; Chong, Hoong Yin; Kumar, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer worldwide, with a growing incidence among young adults. Multiple studies have presented associations between the gut microbiome and CRC, suggesting a link with cancer risk. Although CRC microbiome studies continue to profile larger patient cohorts with increasingly economical and rapid DNA sequencing platforms, few common associations with CRC have been identified, in part due to limitations in taxonomic resolution and differences i...

  8. Kesinambungan Pemanfaatan Pelayanan Kesehatan Maternal di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sulistiyowati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn an effort to decrease the maternal mortality rate in Indonesia, the government implements a lot of strategies and health programs by means of continum of care. This article aims to determine the factors of mothers affecting sustainable maternal health services using the 2013 Riskesdasdata. Data analyses were done by calculating the difference in the percentage of coverage of health indicators in each district/city and continuing to find a model determining the relationship of maternalcharacteristics factors related to the continuation of maternal health care by logistic regression. The sustainability of maternal health service utilization in Indonesia is only 46%. The factors are the mother's education (OR = 1.79 and 2.58, the work of mothers (OR = 1.38, economic status (OR= 1.65, pregnancy status (OR = 1.33, method of delivery (OR = 0.71 and 0.37, complications of pregnancy (OR = 1.13, birth complications (OR = 0.79, the travel time to health facilities (OR = 0.61 and 1.59, age at delivery (OR = 1.23. The study reveals that continuity of maternal healthservices remain unsatisfactory. Government should pay more attention to improve the quality and access to maternal health services as to encourage mothers to sustain their health care.Keywords: continuum of care, maternal health, Riskesdas 2013AbstrakDalam upaya menurunkan angka kematian ibu di Indonesia, pemerintah melakukan banyak strategi dan program kesehatan di antaranya continum of care. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor dan karakteristik ibu yang mempengaruhi kesinambungan pelayanan kesehatan maternal. Data yang digunakan dalam analisis ini adalah data Riskesdas 2013. Analisis dilakukan dengan menghitung selisih persentase cakupan indikator kesehatan di tiap kabupaten/kota. Analisis kemudian dilanjutkandengan mencari model untuk mengetahui hubungan karakteristik ibu dan faktor terkait lain dengan kelanjutan perawatan kesehatan ibu dengan regresi logistik. Persentase

  9. Correlates of Maternal Health Care Utilization in Rohilkhand Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh to cover maximum number of women. All currently ... inequalities in the utilization of maternal health care services have been ..... With regard to work status, one study made in four Indian states supports our ...

  10. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple ... mothers. Low socio-economic status is the underlying ... rate of low birth weight infants. ... Table 3: Distribution of Age against Birth weight.

  11. Chemical shift effect predicting lymph node status in rectal cancer using high-resolution MR imaging with node-for-node matched histopathological validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chongda; Ye, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zheng, Zhaoxu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Colorectal Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zou, Shuangmei [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the value of the chemical shift effect (CSE) as well as other criteria for the prediction of lymph node status. Twenty-nine patients who underwent radical surgery of rectal cancers were studied with pre- and postoperative specimen MRI. Lymph nodes were harvested from transverse whole-mount specimens and compared with in vivo and ex vivo images to obtain a precise slice-for-section match. Preoperative MR characteristics including CSE, as well as other predictors, were evaluated by two readers independently between benign and metastatic nodes. A total of 255 benign and 35 metastatic nodes were obtained; 71.4% and 69.4% of benign nodes were detected with regular CSE for two readers, whereas 80.0% and 74.3% of metastatic nodes with absence of CSE. The CSE rendered areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.879 and 0.845 for predicting nodal status for two readers. The criteria of nodal location, border, signal intensity and minimum distance to the rectal wall were also useful but with AUCs (0.629-0.743) lower than those of CSE. CSE is a reliable predictor for differentiating benign from metastatic nodes. Additional criteria should be taken into account when it is difficult to determine the nodal status by using only a single predictor. (orig.)

  12. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  13. Maternal Employment and Children's Academic Achievement: Parenting Styles as Mediating Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…

  14. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  16. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  17. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal role rewards, opportunity costs and fertility.

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong C

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a literature survey of interrelations between women's social role, maternity and fertility - discusses the social theory background, opportunity cost of children, economic, political, psychic and social status, role rewards, conflicts, etc. Bibliography pp. 35 to 47 and references.

  19. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  20. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  1. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  2. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Precision of high-resolution dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of bone mineral status and body composition in small animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochmüller E. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ precision (reproducibility of bone mineral and body composition measurements in mice of different body weights and rats, using a high-resolution DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We examined 48 NMRI mice weighing approximately 10 to 60 g, and 10 rats weighing approximately 140 g. Four repeated measurements were obtained on different days. In mice, the standard deviations of repeated measurements ranged from 2.5 to 242 mg for bone mineral content (BMC, from 0.16 to 3.74 g for fat, and from 0.40 to 4.21 g for lean mass. The coefficient of variation in percent (CV% for BMC/BMD (bone mineral density was highest in the 10 g mice (12.8% / 4.9% and lowest in the 40 g mice (3.5% /1.7%. In rats, it was 2.5 /1.2% in the lower extremity, 7.1/3.0 % in the spine, 5.7/2.0 % in the femur, and 3.6%/2.1% in the tibia. The CV% for fat and lean mass in mice was higher than for BMC. The study demonstrates good precision of bone mineral and moderate precision of body composition measure-ments in small animals, using a high-resolution DXA system. The technique can be used for testing the efficacy of drugs in small animal models, for muta-genesis screens, and for the phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice.

  4. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  5. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Resolution 1540 (2004) overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, N.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the Resolution 1540, its features and its status of implementation. Resolution 1540 is a response to the risk that non-State actors may acquire, develop, traffic in weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. Resolution 1540 was adopted on 28 April 2004 by the U.N. Security Council at the unanimity of its members. Resolution 1540 deals with the 3 kinds of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) as well as 'related materials'. This resolution implies 3 sets of obligations: first no support of non-state actors concerning weapons of mass destruction, secondly to set national laws that prohibit any non-state actors to deal with weapons of mass destruction and thirdly to enforce domestic control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery. Four working groups operated by the 1540 Committee have been settled: - Implementation (coordinator: Germany); - Assistance (coordinator: France); - International cooperation (interim coordinator: South Africa); and - Transparency and media outreach (coordinator: USA). The status of implementation of the resolution continues to improve since 2004, much work remains to be done and the gravity of the threat remains considerable. (A.C.)

  7. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, initial review...

  8. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  9. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  10. Factors influencing non-utilisation of maternity care services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rather, socio-cultural beliefs in the TBA services, low educational status, and husband and family decision (gender influence) were found to be strong determinants of the non-utilization of the maternity centres by expectant mothers in this community. Improving the educational status of women, reducing the waiting time at ...

  11. Adolescents’ Conflict Resolution Styles Toward Mothers : The Role of Parenting and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  12. Adolescents’ conflict resolution styles toward mothers : The role of parenting and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.C.; Luyckx, K.; Van Leeuwen, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Branje, S.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  13. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  14. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  16. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  17. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  18. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  19. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  20. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Associations of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and post-partum with maternal cognition and caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Sadalaki, John; Oaks, Brietta M; Haskell, Marjorie; Allen, Lindsay H; Vosti, Steve A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet. After delivery, supplementation continued in the MMN and LNS arms, and the IFA control group received placebo until 6 months post-partum, when cognition (n = 712), caregiving behaviour (n = 669), and biomarkers of nutritional status (n = 283) were assessed. In the full group, only one difference was significant: the IFA arm scored 0.22 SD (95% CI [0.01, 0.39], p = .03) higher than the LNS arm in mental rotation. Among subgroups of women with baseline low hemoglobin, poor iron status, or malaria, those who received LNS scored 0.4 to 0.7 SD higher than the IFA arm in verbal fluency. Breastmilk docosahexaenoic acid and Vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with verbal fluency and digit span forward (adjusting for covariates ps < .05). In this population in Malawi, maternal supplementation with MMN or LNS did not positively affect maternal cognition or caregiving. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid and B12 status may be important for post-partum attention and executive function. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-04-01

    Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Overall, mean (± SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine effects of more readily incorporated forms of selenium (ie, selenomethionine) in HIV-infected breastfeeding women.

  3. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal Knowledge and Practice in Mashhad City about Breast-feeding in First 6 -Month of Infant's Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tehranian

    2014-04-01

     breast-feeding. Average of maternal knowledge about exclusive breast-feeding was 19/818+4/545 of total score 28 and average of maternal practice was 7/106+2/338 of total score 12. Status of growth infants at 4/8% was very good and in 42/9% was good. There was a significant relationship between maternal practice about Breast-feeding and fathers' education, number of children, status of growth (P

  5. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  6. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  7. National estimates for maternal mortality: an analysis based on the WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmezoglu A Metin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the worldwide commitment to improving maternal health, measuring, monitoring and comparing maternal mortality estimates remain a challenge. Due to lack of data, international agencies have to rely on mathematical models to assess its global burden. In order to assist in mapping the burden of reproductive ill-health, we conducted a systematic review of incidence/prevalence of maternal mortality and morbidity. Methods We followed the standard methodology for systematic reviews. This manuscript presents nationally representative estimates of maternal mortality derived from the systematic review. Using regression models, relationships between study-specific and country-specific variables with the maternal mortality estimates are explored in order to assist further modelling to predict maternal mortality. Results Maternal mortality estimates included 141 countries and represent 78.1% of the live births worldwide. As expected, large variability between countries, and within regions and subregions, is identified. Analysis of variability according to study characteristics did not yield useful results given the high correlation with each other, with development status and region. A regression model including selected country-specific variables was able to explain 90% of the variability of the maternal mortality estimates. Among all country-specific variables selected for the analysis, three had the strongest relationships with maternal mortality: proportion of deliveries assisted by a skilled birth attendant, infant mortality rate and health expenditure per capita. Conclusion With the exception of developed countries, variability of national maternal mortality estimates is large even within subregions. It seems more appropriate to study such variation through differentials in other national and subnational characteristics. Other than region, study of country-specific variables suggests infant mortality rate, skilled birth

  8. Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal goiter caused by maternal Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, H A; Strickland, D

    1995-07-01

    We present a case of maternal Grave's disease associated with fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism. Fetal goiter was diagnosed by ultrasound and diagnosis of fetal hyperthyroidism was established by umbilical blood sampling. Fetus was successfully treated by increasing maternal propylthiouracil dosage. Fetal thyroid status was normal at birth. Role of sonography and umbilical blood sampling in management of fetal goiter complicated with maternal Grave's disease is discussed.

  9. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  10. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms, employment, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.

  12. College Students' Views of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronheiser, April; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Brogan, Maureen; Kosakowski, Jill; Hess, Auden; Alleger, Lindsay; Sosnowski, Jane; Sternberg, Tamar; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated college students' perceptions of the specific costs and benefits to children associated with maternal employment outside the home. Respondents were grouped on the basis of their own mothers' maternal employment status. Attitudes about psychological, academic, behavioral, and environmental risks associated with maternal…

  13. Neonatal Cuddliness and Maternal Handling Patterns in the First Month of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Jerrie Ann

    The effects of "cuddliness" on proximal and distal maternal stimulation and on maternal attachment were examined in 32 healthy mother/infant pairs. All mothers were black, inner-city, of low socioeconomic status, primaparous, bottle-feeding, and between 16 and 24 years of age. All also had adequate prenatal care, no complications, and…

  14. Maternal educational level and risk of gestational hypertension: the Generation R Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Silva (Lindsay); M. Coolman (Marianne); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether maternal educational level as an indicator of socioeconomic status is associated with gestational hypertension. We also examined the extent to which the effect of education is mediated by maternal substance use (that is smoking, alcohol consumption and illegal drug

  15. Is poor maternal mortality index in Nigeria a problem of care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality in Nigeria is unacceptably high. Some of the reasons may include poor socioeconomic development, weak health care system, low socioeconomic status of women and socio-cultural barriers to care utilization. A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the use of maternal services in Anambra State.

  16. Inconsistent Discipline as a Mediator between Maternal Distress and Aggression in Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Dunlap, Sarah T.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines inconsistent discipline as a mediator in the association between maternal distress and child aggression and attention problems. Participants were 215 boys, ranging in age from 9 to 12 years, and their mothers. Mothers provided self-report data on socioeconomic status (SES), parenting stress, maternal distress (depression…

  17. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T

    2012-01-01

    the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed...

  18. Associations between maternal hormonal biomarkers and maternal mental and physical health of very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and biochemical measurement. Maternal mental and physical health status using questionnaires as well as maternal testosterone and cortisol levels using an enzyme immunoassay were measured four times (birth, 40 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA], and 6 and 12 months [age of infant, corrected age]. General linear models showed that higher testosterone levels were associated with greater depressive symptoms, stress, and poorer physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and at 6 and 12 months. High cortisol levels were associated with greater anxiety at 40 weeks PMA; however, with better mental and physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and 6 and 12 months. Physical activity was associated with lower maternal perceived stress at 12 months. Maternal health did not differ by race, except anxiety, which was higher in White than non-White mothers after birth. As very low birth weight infants grew up, maternal physical health improved but mental health deteriorated. Testosterone and cortisol levels were found to be positively correlated in women but testosterone was more predictive of maternal mental and physical health than cortisol. Indeed testosterone consistently showed its associations with maternal health. Maternal stress might be improved through regular physical exercise.

  19. 76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... specified in the Affordable Care Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on different populations...

  20. Article Commentary: Prenatal Substance Use: Exploring Assumptions of Maternal Unfitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishka Terplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing knowledge and understanding of addiction as a chronic relapsing medical condition, individuals with substance use disorders (SUD continue to experience stigmatization. Pregnant women who use substances suffer additional stigma as their use has the potential to cause fetal harm, calling into question their maternal fitness and often leading to punitive responses. Punishing pregnant women denies the integral interconnectedness of the maternal-fetal dyad. Linking substance use with maternal unfitness is not supported by the balance of the scientific evidence regarding the actual harms associated with substance use during pregnancy. Such linkage adversely impacts maternal, child, and family health by deterring pregnant women from seeking both obstetrical care and SUD treatment. Pregnant women who use substances deserve compassion and care, not pariah-status and punishment.

  1. Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.

  2. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  3. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  4. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  5. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  6. Maternal Risk Factors for Childhood Anaemia in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to ... Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with ... était de 10,7 (2,2) g / dl et 50,3% étaient anémiques. ... economic status, environmental factors, food ... For the current ... Anthelmintic treatment in the previous six.

  7. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  8. Role of maternally derived immunity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P; Nayak, S K

    2009-08-01

    Maternal immunity is of paramount importance for protection of young ones at early stage of life since the immune factors of an immunocompetent female are transferred transplacentally or through colostrum, milk or yolk to an immunologically naive neonate. Both innate and adaptive type of immunity are transferred of from mother to offspring in fishes. These factors include immunoglobulin (Ig)/antibody, complement factors, lysozymes, protease inhibitors like alpha macroglobulin, different types of lectins and serine proteases like molecules. Among different types of Ig viz. IgM, IgD, IgT/IgZ and IgM-IgZ chimera types, IgM is present in most of the teleostean fishes. In teleosts, IgM either as a reduced/breakdown product or monomeric form is usually transferred to the offsprings. The maternally derived IgM usually persists for a limited duration, exhausts within the completion of yolk absorption process, and completely disappears thereafter during larval stages. Maternal transfer of immunity which provides defense to embryo and larvae depends upon the health as well as the immune status of brood fish. The overall health status of brood fish can affect breeding performances, quality seed production and protection of offsprings. However, factors such as age, maturation, reproductive behaviour and nutrition (micro and macro-nutrients) may affect the immunity in brood fishes. Besides these, seasonal changes such as photoperiods, temperature, adverse environmental conditions, and stress conditions like handling, crowding, and water pollution/contamination can also affect the immunity of brood fishes. The maintenance of the brood stock immunity at high level during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, is utmost important for reducing mortalities at larval/post larval stages through maximum/optimum transfer of maternal immunity. Brood stock immunization prior to breeding as well as selective breeding among the disease resistant families might be the ideal criteria for producing

  9. Predictors of maternal mortality among critically ill obstetric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et al.,15 that absence of prenatal care was a predictor of maternal mortality in critically ill obstetric patients, the booking status in this study was not a predictor of mortality. This could be because the delay in recognition of the need for ICU care and delays in presentation could have removed the otherwise expected beneficial ...

  10. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  11. the policies and production in maternal mortality reduction in cross

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. T. U. Agan

    The study was designed to determine the status of maternal health in Cross River ... Human resources for health are 12 Doctors and 47.4 Nurse/midwives per 100,000 of the ... It was against this background that we sought to .... Poverty is a major social cause of death in ..... The Cross River State Tourism Bureau, official.

  12. Correlates of maternal health care utilization in Rohilkhand region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal health care service utilization from health personnel was significantly associated with age at marriage ≥18 years, family size ≤3, birth order ≤2, nuclear family and higher socio‑economic status. Most of the pregnancy related complications were found among women aged >30 years, with birth order ≥3, having ...

  13. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  14. Influência do estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso e consumo energético sobre o crescimento fetal, em gestações de alto risco Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso e consumo energético sobre o crescimento fetal em gestações de alto risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de agosto de 2009 a agosto de 2010, com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: puérperas até o 5º dia; gestação de alto risco (caracterizada por complicações médicas ou obstétricas durante a gravidez; feto único e vivo no início do trabalho de parto; parto na instituição; peso materno aferido no dia do parto, e presença de intercorrência clínica e/ou obstétrica caracterizando a gravidez como de alto risco. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e no final da gestação, sendo as pacientes classificadas em: baixo peso, adequado, sobrepeso e obesidade. Para avaliação do consumo energético foi aplicado o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar. Foram investigados o ganho de peso materno, dados do parto e resultados perinatais, investigando-se o crescimento fetal pela ocorrência de neonatos pequenos para a idade gestacional e grandes para a idade gestacional. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas 374 gestantes que constituíram 3 grupos de estudo, de acordo com a adequação do peso do recém-nascido: idade gestacional adequada (270 casos, 72,2%, pequenos para a idade gestacional (91 casos, 24,3% e grandes para a idade gestacional (13 casos, 3,5%. Na análise univariada, as mulheres com neonatos pequenos para a idade gestacional apresentaram média significativamente menor do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional (23,5 kg/m², pPURPOSE: To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during

  15. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  17. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  18. 社区妇女与门诊患者人乳头瘤病毒认知和感染现状调查%Survey of Knowledge and infectious status of human papilloma Virus in community and maternal female outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉霞

    2011-01-01

    Aim To understand the knowledge level and incidence of human popillom virus in community and maternal hospital female outpatients.Methods There 380 community and maternal hospital outpatients in Heyuan City were randomly chosen and interviewed on-the-spot with questionnaire survey.Meanwhile HPV, HR-HPV and LR-HPV were detected from cervical shed cells and perineum/vaginal swab samples by means of second generation hybridization capture test.Results totally 780 questionaire were issued and 752 copies were recovered with recovery rate of 96.41%.The knowledge levels of the two outpatient groups were significant in HPV infection, HPV vaccine,transmission route (P<0.05 ,P< 0.01 ).The positive rates of HPV \PR-HPV and LR-HPV in community outpatients were 17.79%, 14.02% and 5.12%; while that in the maternal hospital outpatients were 22.31%, 17.85% and 6.30%,without significant differences.The simultaneous detection rates of HR-HPV and LR-HPV were 1.35% and 1.84%,also without significant difference (P>0.05).Conclusion The incidence of HPV, HR-HPV and LR-HPV infection is high and effective measures including health education be carried out to protect the health of the female residents.%目的 了解河源市社区和妇保门诊妇女对人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)及其疫苗认知以及HPV感染等情况.为今后针对性地开展HPV健康教育提供科学依据.方法 随机抽取河源市社区380名55岁的妇女和妇保门诊同年龄段的400名患者进行现场面访问卷调查.并使用第二代杂交捕获试验检测方法对收集的宫颈脱落细胞或会阴/阴道口拭子标本进行HPV、高危型HPV(HR-HPV)及低危型HPV(LR-HPV)检测.结果 发放问卷780份,回收有效问卷社区371份.妇保门诊381份,回收率96.41%.在听说过HPV和HPV疫苗的比例方面,两组之间比较具有统计学差异;在感染HPV后可引起癌前病变和宫颈癌的比例方面,两组之间比较具有统计学差异;在HPV传播途径

  19. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  20. Maternal employment and the health of low-income young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennetian, Lisa A; Hill, Heather D; London, Andrew S; Lopoo, Leonard M

    2010-05-01

    This study examines whether maternal employment affects the health status of low-income, elementary-school-aged children using instrumental variables estimation and experimental data from a welfare-to-work program implemented in the early 1990s. Maternal report of child health status is predicted as a function of exogenous variation in maternal employment associated with random assignment to the experimental group. IV estimates show a modest adverse effect of maternal employment on children's health. Making use of data from another welfare-to-work program we propose that any adverse effect on child health may be tempered by increased family income and access to public health insurance coverage, findings with direct relevance to a number of current policy discussions. In a secondary analysis using fixed effects techniques on longitudinal survey data collected in 1998 and 2001, we find a comparable adverse effect of maternal employment on child health that supports the external validity of our primary result.

  1. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Prenatally programmed hypertension: role of maternal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have led to the hypothesis of the fetal origin of adult diseases, suggesting that some adult diseases might be determined before birth by altered fetal development. Maternal diabetes subjects the fetus to an adverse environment that has been demonstrated to result in metabolic, cardiovascular and renal impairment in the offspring. The growing amount of obesity in young females in developed and some developing countries should contribute to increasing the incidence of diabetes among pregnant women. In this review, we discuss how renal and extrarenal mechanisms participate in the genesis of hypertension induced by a diabetic status during fetal development.

  3. A nationally representative study of maternal obesity in England, UK : trends in incidence and demographic inequalities in 619323 births, 1989-2007.

    OpenAIRE

    Heslehurst, N.; Rankin, J.; Wilkinson, J.R.; Summerbell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is an absence of national statistics for maternal obesity in the UK. This study is the first to describe a nationally representative maternal obesity research data set in England. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study of first trimester obesity. Methods: Data from 34 maternity units were analysed, including 619 323 births between 1989 and 2007. Data analysis included trends in first trimester maternal body bass index status over time, and geographical distribut...

  4. Family-based processes associated with adolescent distress, substance use and risky sexual behavior in families affected by maternal HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth aggressive conflict style, maternal bonding, maternal role reversal expectations, and overall family functioning. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that youth aggressive conflict resolution style was strongly associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. In HIV-affected families, youth less frequently reported using an aggressive conflict resolution style and more frequently reported positive maternal bonds; their mothers reported less positive family functioning than control families. Finally, maternal distress indirectly affected adolescent distress and risk behavior via youth aggressive conflict resolution style.

  5. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. © 2013.

  6. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  7. Maternal health and survival in Pakistan: issues and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasir P; Bhutta, Shereen Z; Munim, Shama; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-10-01

    Although its measurement may be difficult, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is a key indicator of maternal health globally. In Pakistan each year over five million women become pregnant, and of these 700,000 (15% of all pregnant women) are likely to experience some obstetrical and medical complications. An estimated 30,000 women die each year from pregnancy-related causes, and the most recent estimates indicate that the MMR is 276 per 100,000 births annually. In this review, we describe the status of maternal health and survival in Pakistan and place it in its wider context of key determinants. We draw attention to the economic and social vulnerability of pregnant women, and stress the importance of concomitant broader strategies, including poverty reduction and women's empowerment. Undernutrition for girls, early marriage, and high fertility rates coupled with unmet needs for contraception are important determinants of maternal ill health in Pakistan. Our review also examines factors influencing the under-utilization of maternal health services among Pakistani women, such as the lack of availability of skilled care providers and poor quality services. Notwithstanding these observations, there are evidence-based interventions available that, if implemented at scale, could make important contributions towards reducing the burden of maternal mortality in Pakistan.

  8. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  9. Maternal deaths databases analysis: Ecuador 2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC. Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC’s website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women’s socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet.

  10. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  11. Maternal factors predicting cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Adnams, Colleen M

    2013-06-01

    To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70, p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.

  12. [The importance of maternal microbiome in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhumenský, J; Hederlingová, J; Pšenková, P

    2017-01-01

    To bring the most actual published findings of the influence of maternal microbiome on the development of pregnancy and possibilities of its adjusting. Review. 2nd Department of Gyneacology and Obstetrics of the Faculty of Medicine and the University Hospital, Bratislava. Review of the literature. The appearance of microbes on various body surface areas determines the overall health status of the individual in significant manner. The change in composition of microbioma in pregnant woman is well known. It was believed that the placenta and the body of the newborn is sterile environment. Modern diagnostic methods proved the presence of microorganisms inside the fetoplacentar unit without the signs of inflammation. Mutual interaction between the immune system of the mother, microbioma and immune system of the newborn can decrease the risk of serious obstetrical syndromes as well as define the lifelong health status of the newborn. The risk can be decreased by the administration of probiotics during the pregnancy.

  13. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. RESULTS: Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  14. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  15. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  16. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Bridget; Colbourn, Tim; Dolan, Carmel; Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] nutrition resilience. Purchasing restrictions applied to food-based voucher transfers could have unintended effects, and their use needs to be carefully planned to avoid this. ISRCTN registry ISRCTN10761532.

  17. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuguhiko Kato

    Full Text Available Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children's health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554. We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children's unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers 40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health.

  18. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  19. Male and Female Middle School Students' Perceptions of Maternal Employment as a Function of Gender and School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Debi; Lindquist, Mia; Strauss, Aviva; Gorton, Larua; McCauley, Joyce; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Covert, Stephanie; Maggi, Leigh; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Black, Aimee; Denis, Lauren; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examined middle school students' perceptions of maternal employment, as a function of their gender and type of school environment (suburban vs. urban). A four-part survey, which included information about the respondents' mother's work status, the Beliefs About Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) scale, and…

  20. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  1. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  2. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  3. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  4. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  5. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  6. Maternal vitamin D deficiency associated with neonatal hypocalcaemic convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbott Rebecca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is not uncommon. Infants born to mothers who are deficient in vitamin D and or calcium, usually due to cultural modifications in their diets or clothing habits, and in addition are breastfed, are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and hypocalcaemia. We present a case of neonatal hypocalcaemic seizures secondary to vitamin D deficiency. Rickets in children resulting from vitamin D deficiency is well documented. It is also becoming clear that there is a positive correlation between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and lactation and the development of rickets both in infancy and childhood. The correlation between maternal vitamin D, neonatal vitamin D and hypocalcaemia is not well documented.

  7. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.

  8. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Fenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cash-based interventions (CBIs, offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y.We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496 with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584 at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC, a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543; double cash (DC, a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77 at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] < -2 and mean WHZ at 6 mo and at 1 y. The odds of a child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02 compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0.21; p = 0.05 compared to the CG

  9. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Resumo: Objetivos: Descrever perfil das mulheres com filhos menores de 4 meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal segundo situação de trabalho e analisar a influência da licença-maternidade sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo entre as mulheres trabalhadoras. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados extraídos da II Pesquisa Nacional de Prevalência do Aleitamento Materno realizada em 2008

  11. Percepção materna e autopercepção do estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes de escolas privadas Maternal perceptions and self-perception of the nutritional status of children and adolescents from private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Boa-Sorte

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar a percepção materna e a autopercepção da criança/adolescente do seu estado nutricional, identificando fatores associados a erro na percepção. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em Salvador (BA com 1.741 estudantes entre 6 e 19 anos, classificados de acordo com os percentis do índice de massa corporal (IMC em baixo peso (IMC p95. Perguntas acerca da percepção do peso, padrão de atividade física e realização de dieta foram respondidas por alunos e genitoras. Foram avaliados, através de análise multivariada, fatores associados a erro na autopercepção e percepção materna. RESULTADOS: Houve acerto de 64,7% para a autopercepção e de 75,3% para a percepção das genitoras. O principal fator associado a erro na autopercepção foi a faixa etária entre 6 e 9 anos (OR = 1,59; IC95% 1,15-2,20. Entre as meninas, ter excesso de peso e fazer atividade física foram as características associadas à melhor percepção. Para os meninos, a presença de excesso de peso resultou em maior risco de erro na autopercepção. Entre as genitoras, filho com excesso de peso (OR = 3,02; IC95% 2,05-4,46 e faixa etária de 6 a 9 anos (OR = 1,88; IC95% 1,28-2,76 foram os fatores associados a erro na percepção. CONCLUSÃO: A falta de percepção adequada do peso ocorreu com muita freqüência entre as crianças e suas genitoras, em especial quando havia excesso de peso, fatores que podem representar obstáculos ao correto reconhecimento de alterações nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare maternal perception and the self-perception of children/adolescents of their nutritional status, identifying factors associated with incorrect perceptions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in Salvador, BA, Brazil with 1,741 students aged 6 to 19 years, classified according to body mass index (BMI percentiles as underweight (BMI p95. Students and their mothers answered questions on perception of weight, patterns

  12. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  13. Maternal health literacy and late initiation of immunizations among an inner-city birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Feemster, Kristen A; Mohamad, Zeinab; Fiks, Alex; Grundmeier, Robert; Cnaan, Avital

    2011-04-01

    To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on immunization status adjusting for the relevant covariates. The cohort consists of primarily African-American (87%), single (87%) mothers (mean age 23.4 years). Health literacy was inadequate or marginal among 24% of mothers. Immunizations were up-to-date among 73% of infants at age 3 months and 43% at 7 months. Maternal health literacy was not significantly associated with immunization status at either 3 or 7 months. In multivariable analysis, compared to infants who had delayed immunizations at 3 months, infants with up-to-date immunizations at 3 months were 11.3 times (95%CI 6.0-21.3) more likely to be up-to-date at 7 months. The only strong predictors of up-to-date immunization status at 3 months were maternal education (high school graduate or beyond) and attending a hospital-affiliated clinic. Though maternal health literacy is not associated with immunization status in this cohort, later immunization status is most strongly predicted by immunization status at 3 months. These results further support the importance of intervening from an early age to ensure that infants are fully protected against vaccine preventable diseases.

  14. High Spending on Maternity Care in India: What Are the Factors Explaining It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Moradhvaj; Rammohan, Anu; Shruti; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2016-01-01

    High maternity-related health care spending is often cited as an important barrier in utilizing quality health care during pregnancy and childbirth. This study has two objectives: (i) to measure the levels of expenditure on total maternity care in disaggregated components such as ANCs, PNCs, and Natal care expenditure; (ii) to quantify the extent of catastrophic maternity expenditure (CME) incurred by households and identify the factors responsible for it. Data from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey (2014) was used to estimate maternity expenditure and its predictors. CME was measured as a share of consumption expenditure by different cut-offs. The two-part model was used to identify the factors associated with maternity spending and CME. The findings show that household spending on maternity care (US$ 149 in constant price) is much higher than previous estimates (US$ 50 in constant price). A significant proportion of households in India (51%) are incurring CME. Along with economic and educational status, type of health care and place of residence emerged as significant factors in explaining CME. Findings from this study assume importance in the context of an emerging demand for higher maternity entitlements and government spending on public health care in India. To reduce CME, India needs to improve the availability and accessibility of better-quality public health services and increase maternity entitlements in line with maternity expenditure identified in this study.

  15. Maternal buffering of fear-potentiated startle in children and adolescents with trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Cross, Dorthie; Stevens, Jennifer S; Vance, L Alexander; Kim, Ye Ji; Bradley, Bekh; Tottenham, Nim; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Parental availability influences fear expression and learning across species, but the effect of maternal buffering on fear learning in humans is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of maternal availability during fear conditioning in a group of children (ages 8-10) and adolescents (ages 11-13) from a low-income population with a range of trauma exposure. Acoustic startle response data were collected to measure fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in 104 participants. A total of 62 participants were tested with the mother available and 42 when the mother was not in the testing room. We observed that maternal availability during fear conditioning interacted with age to affect FPS discrimination between CS+ and CS-. In line with previous findings suggesting an absence of maternal buffering in adolescents, fear discrimination was affected by maternal availability only in children. Second, we observed that the effect of maternal buffering on FPS discrimination in children was not influenced by maternally reported warmth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal availability improved discrimination in children, regardless of the quality of the relationship. Adolescents discriminated irrespective of maternal status, suggesting that childhood may be a sensitive period for environmental influences on key processes such as learning of danger and safety signals.

  16. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  17. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin ( p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI ( p < 0.001; adj. R ² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  18. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  19. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  20. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  1. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Eltahir M; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2008-07-18

    In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (birth weight. In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p birth weight. A maternal height of birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for 12 years of education. Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  2. Use of maternity waiting home in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lonkhuijzen, Luc; Stegeman, Margreet; Nyirongo, Rebecca; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the results from the use of a maternity waiting home, a health facility to which women with high risk pregnancies are referred during the last weeks of pregnancy in rural Zambia. It compared the risk status and pregnancy outcome in women staying as waiters with those women who give birth in hospital after direct admission (non-waiters). Forty seven per-cent of the non-waiters (n = 292) had no maternal risk factors and 85% had no antenatal risk factors as compared to 17% and 78% among the waiters (n = 218). Eighty six per cent of waiters had spontaneous vaginal vertex delivery as compared to 95% of non-waiters. Although the differences in risk status were statistically significant, no differences were found in birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality. The similar obstetric outcome among waiters with more high risk pregnancies and non-waiters could be interpreted as a possible outcome of the maternity waiting home. When dependent on a proper functioning referral system, such waiting homes can reduce perinatal mortality.

  3. Transfer of Maternal Immunity to Newborns of Diabetic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luzía França

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with hyperglycemic pregnant women to investigate the transfer of antibody classes to newborns across the placenta or by colostrum and the functional activity of phagocytes in maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum from diabetes mothers. Samples from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum were collected from 20 normoglycemic and 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women. We determined antibodies levels, superoxide release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of phagocytes. We demonstrated that IgG levels in cord blood were higher in the hyperglycemic group. IgA and IgM levels were higher in maternal than in cord blood samples. Plasma antibody levels were lower in hyper- than in normoglycemic women. The colostrum of diabetic mothers had lower IgA and IgG levels. Colostrum and maternal blood phagocytes when exposed to EPEC increased the superoxide release. Cord blood phagocytes of hyperglycemic group, independently of bacteria, had higher superoxide release. Colostrum and blood phagocytes from diabetic group exhibited some phagocytic and microbicidal activity in response to EPEC. Mononuclear phagocytes from cord blood had the lowest phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity for EPEC, regardless of glycemic status. These data showed that hyperglycemia altered IgG transfer across the placenta and decreases immunoglobulin levels in maternal blood and colostrum.

  4. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clinical experience in implementing whole-genome high-resolution SNP arrays to investigate 33 patients with syndromic and .... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM, ..... of damaged mitochondria through either autophagy or mito- ..... malformations: associations with maternal and infant character- istics in a ...

  6. Academic Librarians: Status, Privileges, and Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vix, Heidi M.; Buckman, Kathie M.

    2012-01-01

    Three surveys from the College and University Library Division (CULD) of the Arkansas Library Association (ArLA) from the past six years representing forty-four academic institutions were studied to determine the number of students per librarian on campus, salary, faculty status, contract-length, and maternity/paternity leave for librarians.…

  7. The relationship between maternal education and mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions: Analysis of the cross sectional WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmezoglu A Metin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of a million women die each year from pregnancy-related conditions. Three-quarters of these deaths are considered avoidable. Millennium Development Goal five calls for a reduction in maternal mortality and the establishment of universal access to high quality reproductive health care. There is evidence of a relationship between lower levels of maternal education and higher maternal mortality. This study examines the relationship between maternal education and maternal mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions and investigates the association of maternal age, marital status, parity, institutional capacity and state-level investment in health care with these relationships. Methods Cross-sectional information was collected on 287,035 inpatients giving birth in 373 health care institutions in 24 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, between 2004-2005 (in Africa and Latin America and 2007-2008 (in Asia as part of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health. Analyses investigated associations between indicators measured at the individual, institutional and country level and maternal mortality during the intrapartum period: from admission to, until discharge from, the institution where women gave birth. There were 363 maternal deaths. Results In the adjusted models, women with no education had 2.7 times and those with between one and six years of education had twice the risk of maternal mortality of women with more than 12 years of education. Institutional capacity was not associated with maternal mortality in the adjusted model. Those not married or cohabiting had almost twice the risk of death of those who were. There was a significantly higher risk of death among those aged over 35 (compared with those aged between 20 and 25 years, those with higher numbers of previous births and lower levels of state investment in health care. There were also additional effects

  8. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  9. Maternal Employment and Overweight Among Hispanic Children of Immigrants and Children of Natives

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hisp...

  10. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against...... immune response that complements the maternally transferred immune factors. Evident from this study is that the general absence of M. hyosynoviae arthritis in piglets can be ascribed mainly to their immunological status....

  11. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  12. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. Gender equality as a means to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

  14. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  15. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C

    2016-07-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids regulate offspring obesity through persistent modulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Strain, Conall R; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kang, Jing X

    2018-05-24

    The early-life gut microbiota plays a critical role in host metabolism in later life. However, little is known about how the fatty acid profile of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation influences the development of the offspring gut microbiota and subsequent metabolic health outcomes. Here, using a unique transgenic model, we report that maternal endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) production during gestation or lactation significantly reduces weight gain and markers of metabolic disruption in male murine offspring fed a high-fat diet. However, maternal fatty acid status appeared to have no significant effect on weight gain in female offspring. The metabolic phenotypes in male offspring appeared to be mediated by comprehensive restructuring of gut microbiota composition. Reduced maternal n-3 PUFA exposure led to significantly depleted Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia and higher relative abundance of Clostridia. Interestingly, offspring metabolism and microbiota composition were more profoundly influenced by the maternal fatty acid profile during lactation than in utero. Furthermore, the maternal fatty acid profile appeared to have a long-lasting effect on offspring microbiota composition and function that persisted into adulthood after life-long high-fat diet feeding. Our data provide novel evidence that weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood is mediated by maternal fatty acid status through long-lasting restructuring of the gut microbiota. These results have important implications for understanding the interaction between modern Western diets, metabolic health, and the intestinal microbiome.

  17. Couple Relationship Status and Patterns in Early Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Lee, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,003), we examine the role of parental relationship status at birth on maternal adherence to current recommendations regarding breastfeeding, corporal punishment, and well-child visits. At the bivariate level, parents' union status is almost linearly related to adherence to…

  18. Maternal employment and adolescents' relations with parents, siblings, and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, R

    1984-12-01

    The association between maternal employment status and the relations that adolescents have with their parents, siblings, and peers was investigated. Three daily reports of conflicts with family members and time spent with parents, peers, and alone were obtained from 64 tenth-grade adolescents using a telephone interviewing technique. Males, but not females, had more arguments, which were of longer duration and greater intensity, with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked than when they did not. Female conflict behavior was unrelated to the work status of the mother. Adolescents of both sexes spent less time with their parents when their mothers worked, especially when they worked full-time, than when they were nonemployed. Adolescents with employed mothers generally spent less free time with their parents than those with nonemployed mothers. Time spent with parents in the performance of household tasks was not affected by maternal employment status. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand fully the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development was emphasized.

  19. Maternal depression and low maternal intelligence as risk factors for malnutrition in children: a community based case-control study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoop, S; Saravanan, B; Joseph, A; Cherian, A; Jacob, K S

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether current and postpartum maternal depression and low maternal intelligence are risk factors for malnutrition in children. In rural South India 72 children with malnutrition were identified from a central register; 72 controls were matched for age, gender, and residence. Major depression in the postpartum period (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 24.0), current major depression (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.5), and low maternal intelligence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.1) were associated with malnutrition in the child. Low birth weight (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.8) was also significantly associated with infant malnutrition. Conditional logistic regression adjusting for all other determinants yielded the following results: major depression during the postpartum period (OR 7.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 38.51), current major depression (OR 3.1; 95% CI 0.9 to 9.7), low maternal intelligence (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 14.1), and low birth weight (OR 2.7; 95% CI 2.5 to 6.8). The interactions between current maternal depression and low birth weight and between postpartum depression and low maternal intelligence were statistically significant. The level of maternal intelligence was associated with nutritional status. The severity of malnutrition was also significantly associated with major depression during the postpartum period and low maternal intelligence. There is evidence for an association between postpartum maternal depression, low maternal intelligence, and low birth weight with malnutrition in children aged 6-12 months.

  20. Association of Maternal Body Mass Index with Adverse Maternal and Prenatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Alijahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine association between abnormal maternal body mass index and adverse maternal/prenatal outcomesMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlation study 8270 pregnant women referred to rural and urban health centers of Ardabil district (from Mar 2009 to Dec 2010 were studied. Data were collected from prenatal healthcare records using a self designed questionnaire. Women with twin pregnancy, less than 18 and above 35 of age, and women with systemic or chronic disease were excluded from the study. The variables examined in this study include, demographic information (e.g. age, social and economy status, and literacy, present pregnancy information (e.g. parity, hemoglobin level, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and prenatal information (e.g. preterm delivery, low birth weight, and congenital malformation. Data were analyzed through Kruscal wallis, chi-square, and logistic regression tests using SPSS-16.Results: Eight point two, 25 and 15.4% pregnant of women were underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. Obese women were at increased risk for macrosomia (OR=1.820, CI: 1.345-2.447, p=0.001, unwanted pregnancy (OR= 1.436, CI: 1.198-1.720, p=0.001, pregnancy induced hypertension (OR= 1.633, CI: 1.072-2.486, p=0.022, preeclampsia (OR= 4.666, CI: 2.353-9.2550, p=0.001, and still birth (OR= 2.602, CI: 1.306-5.184, p=0.007. However, the risk of low birth weight delivery in underweight women were 1.6 times higher than the normal cases (OR= 1.674, CI: 0962-2.912, p=0.068.Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of abnormal maternal body mass index and its associated adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes; consultation before pregnancy is recommended in order to achieve normal body mass index and reduce the relevant complications.

  1. NMR spectrometers. Current status and assessment of demand for high-resolution NMR spectrometers and for high-performance, solid NMR spectrometers at the scientific colleges and other research institutes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.

    1989-01-01

    The survey includes high-resolution NMR spectrometers for liquids and solutions with magnetic field intensities of 11.7 Tesla and more (proton frequencies from 500 to 600 MHz) as well as high-performance solid-state NMR spectrometers with field intensities of, at least, 6.3 Tesla (proton frequencies of 270 MHz and more). The given results which had been obtained from documents of the manufacturers try to meet the manufacturers' need for safety. Market shares and sites are not listed. (DG) [de

  2. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  3. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  4. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  5. Impact of Maternal Diet on Offspring Bone Fracture Risk During Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo

    , including maternal diet and vitamin D status. However, few studies have investigated whether these factors during pregnancy impact offspring bone health in short as well as in the long term. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate epidemiologically whether maternal vitamin D status...... and dietary patterns in two prospective pregnancy cohorts, were associated with offspring risk of bone fractures in childhood. Overall, our studies provided limited support to the hypothesis that fetal bone health is programmed by the maternal vitamin D status and overall diet during pregnancy. However......, there were some indications of an increased risk for fractures when the mother consumed a Western diet and had high consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks. Further, our results indicated that mid-pregnancy use of dietary supplements with high doses of vitamin D increased the risk for offspring...

  6. Maternal near-misses at a provincial hospital in Papua New Guinea: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnga, John W; Morris, Marilyn; Totona, Catherine; Laman, Moses

    2017-12-01

    Maternal near-miss indices are World Health Organisation (WHO) recognised indicators that may improve our understanding of factors associated with maternal morbidity and mortality. In Papua New Guinea (PNG) where maternal mortality is among the highest in the world, only one study has documented near-miss indices in a tertiary-level hospital, but none from provincial hospitals where the majority of under-privileged women access healthcare services. To determine the near-miss ratio, maternal mortality index (MMI), and associated maternal indices for Modilon Hospital in Madang Province of PNG. All women attending Modilon Hospital who met the WHO maternal near-miss definition and/or a WHO-modified (PNG-specific) near-miss definition, were prospectively enrolled. There were 6019 live births during the audit period; 163 women presented with life-threatening conditions (153 near-misses and 10 maternal deaths). The maternal near-miss ratio was 25.4/1000 live births and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 166/100 000 live births, with a maternal death to near-miss ratio of 1:15.3. The severe maternal outcome ratio was 27.1/1000 live births and the total mortality index was 6.8%. Higher proportions of near-miss women were aged ≥30 years, nulliparous, illiterate, from rural communities, lacked formal employment, referred from peripheral health facilities, unbooked, had history of still births and were anaemic. Sociodemographic factors such as women's rights, education level and status in society, in addition to appropriate health reforms with greater financial and political support are urgently needed to ensure underprivileged women in rural PNG have access to family planning, supervised deliveries and skilled emergency obstetric care. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Maternal employment and overweight among Hispanic children of immigrants and children of natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hispanic children of immigrants, maternal employment is associated with lower percentile BMI and this association strengthens at higher levels of income. Among Hispanic children of natives and non-Hispanic whites, maternal employment is beneficial (i.e. associated with lower percentile BMI) among low-income children but detrimental among high-income children, but this pattern is significantly greater in strength for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, maternal employment is associated with worse health outcomes only in the case of Hispanic children of natives, and maternal employment is associated with the best outcomes for Hispanic children of mothers from high-income families. We speculate that among children of immigrants, maternal employment may signify and/or accelerate assimilation towards middle- or upper-class American values of healthy weight and body size. Diet, meal regularity and supervision, and childcare did not mediate the relationship between maternal employment and overweight.

  8. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and increased risk of schizophrenia in a national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein, an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large, national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. A nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort was utilized. A total of 777 schizophrenia cases (schizophrenia, N=630; schizoaffective disorder, N=147) with maternal sera available for C-reactive protein testing were identified and matched to 777 control subjects in the analysis. Maternal C-reactive protein levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Increasing maternal C-reactive protein levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.10-1.56). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  10. Maternal booking status as a criterion for admission for neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... Given this strain on resources, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) staff are under pressure to admit only those patients with the best prognosis or, conversely, to deny access to those with a worse prognosis. Because neonates born to unbooked mothers who have received inadequate or no antenatal care.

  11. Relation of maternal vitamin D status with gestational diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency, gestational diabetes and insulin resistance are interrelated. Severe vitamin D ... and bone homeostasis but also in various organs and ... whereas those with elevated glucose levels after the 50 gr OGTT but ...

  12. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  13. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  14. The effect of maternal near miss on adverse infant nutritional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce M. Zanardi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender.

  15. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  16. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Status ketersediaan makanan dan status gizi ibu sebagai faktor risiko kegemukan pada anak prasekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Indah Prasetyaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of adult obesity incidence and can increase risk factors for getting chronic diseases. The causes of obesity are multifactor, determined by genetic and food environment changes. Risk factors believed to be the cause of obesity are home food availability status and maternal obesity. Objective: To analyze the risk of home food availability status and maternal obesity to obesity in preschool children aged 3-5 years.  Method: This study was a matched case-control study. The case of this study was obese preschool children (Z-score WHZ > 2 SD and control of this study was non-obese preschool children (Z-score WHZ -2 ≤ SD ≤ 2. Control group was taken by an age and gender matching with the case group. Based on the nutritional status screening result of 53 early childhood education (ECD schools on 13 sub-districts in Kota Yogyakarta, there were 101 obese children and 101 non-obese children. Those schools were chosen by cluster sampling method and PPS (Probability Proportional to Size. Besides, information about home food availability status and maternal obesity was collected using questionnaire. The data were analyzed using McNemar test and conditional logistic regression.  Results: Home food availability status (OR = 1.85; p=0.03; 95% CI=1.08-3.16 and maternal obesity (OR=2.5; p=0.003; 95% CI=1.37-4.55 were the most dominant risk factor related to the incidence of obesity in preschool children aged 3-5 years. Conclusion: Home food availability status and maternal obesity significantly increase the risk for getting obese in preschool children aged 3-5 years.

  19. Wealth index and maternal health care: Revisiting NFHS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kr; Roy, Pritam; Rasania, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Sakhi; Kumar, Yogesh; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is a large dataset on indicators of family welfare, maternal and child health, and nutrition in India. This article using NFHS-3 data is an attempt to bring out the impact of economic status, i.e., the wealth index on maternal health. The study was based on an analysis of the NFHS-3 data. Independent variables taken were the wealth index, literacy, and age at first child birth. Effects of these variables on the maternal health care services were investigated. Out of the total 124,385 women aged 15-49 years included in the NFHS-3 dataset, 36,850 (29.6%) had one or more childbirth during the past 5 years. The number of antenatal care (ANC) visits increased as the wealth index increased and there was a pattern for choice of place of delivery (for all deliveries during the last 5 years) according to the wealth index. Logistic regression analysis of the abovementioned variables were sought to find out the independent role of key determinants of the different aspects of maternal health care. It showed that the wealth index is the leading key independent determinant for three or more ANC received: Tetanus toxoid (TT) received before delivery, iron tablet/syrup taken for more than 100 days, and institutional delivery. Mother's literacy was the leading independent key determinant for early antenatal registration. The study suggested that along with the mother's literacy, the wealth index that is an important predictor of maternal health care can be added for categorization of the districts for providing differential approach for maternal health care services.

  20. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  1. Women's education level, maternal health facilities, abortion legislation and maternal deaths: a natural experiment in Chile from 1957 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Thorp, John; Bravo, Miguel; Gatica, Sebastián; Romero, Camila X; Aguilera, Hernán; Ahlers, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the main factors related to maternal mortality reduction in large time series available in Chile in context of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Time series of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from official data (National Institute of Statistics, 1957-2007) along with parallel time series of education years, income per capita, fertility rate (TFR), birth order, clean water, sanitary sewer, and delivery by skilled attendants were analysed using autoregressive models (ARIMA). Historical changes on the mortality trend including the effect of different educational and maternal health policies implemented in 1965, and legislation that prohibited abortion in 1989 were assessed utilizing segmented regression techniques. During the 50-year study period, the MMR decreased from 293.7 to 18.2/100,000 live births, a decrease of 93.8%. Women's education level modulated the effects of TFR, birth order, delivery by skilled attendants, clean water, and sanitary sewer access. In the fully adjusted model, for every additional year of maternal education there was a corresponding decrease in the MMR of 29.3/100,000 live births. A rapid phase of decline between 1965 and 1981 (-13.29/100,000 live births each year) and a slow phase between 1981 and 2007 (-1.59/100,000 live births each year) were identified. After abortion was prohibited, the MMR decreased from 41.3 to 12.7 per 100,000 live births (-69.2%). The slope of the MMR did not appear to be altered by the change in abortion law. Increasing education level appears to favourably impact the downward trend in the MMR, modulating other key factors such as access and utilization of maternal health facilities, changes in women's reproductive behaviour and improvements of the sanitary system. Consequently, different MDGs can act synergistically to improve maternal health. The reduction in the MMR is not related to the legal status of abortion.

  2. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  3. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon

  4. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  6. Unauthorised pregnancies and use of maternity care in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Reija; Regushevskaya, Elena; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Wu, Zhuochun; Yan, Hong; Wang, Yang; Hemminki, Elina

    2011-10-01

    To describe the use of maternity care in rural China by the legal status of the pregnancy. Cross-sectional survey wherein information was obtained about 2576 women who gave birth in 2006. Logistic regression was used to compare women having an unauthorised pregnancy with those having an authorised second birth, adjusting for confounding factors. Almost all respondents had antenatal care and most deliveries occurred in hospitals. Women with unauthorised pregnancies were significantly less likely to have had maternity care, particularly prenatal care, postnatal care, to have been hospitalised during pregnancy, and to have been reimbursed for hospital delivery costs than women with an authorised second birth. They were also more likely to have been hospitalised for seven or more days after delivery. Primiparous women used maternity care services and received financial support more often than women with an authorised second birth. Among the women with an unauthorised pregnancy an important reason for not using hospital care during pregnancy or delivery was financial constraint. Women with unauthorised pregnancies use less maternity care, although pregnancy in such circumstances may adversely impact their health. Primiparous women benefit from more financial support than multiparous women.

  7. The Effects of Maternal Employment on the Attitudes, Work Expectations, and Self-Esteem of Urban and Suburban Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinelski, Kristin; Markowitz, Jessie; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the effects of maternal employment on beliefs and attitudes of suburban and urban middle school students in addition to their comparative levels of self-esteem. A 5-part survey, including demographic information, beliefs about consequences of maternal employment of children; information about the mother's work status;…

  8. Paperbark and pinard: A historical account of maternity care in one remote Australian Aboriginal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; McGrath, Ann; Saggers, Sherry; Narjic, Concepta Wulili

    2015-12-01

    Maternity care in remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory is restricted to antenatal and postnatal care only, with women routinely evacuated to give birth in hospital. Using one remote Aboriginal community as a case study, our aim with this research was to document and explore the major changes to the provision of remote maternity care over the period spanning pre-European colonisation to 1996. Our research methods included historical ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2013); interviews with Aboriginal women, Aboriginal health workers, religious and non-religious non-Aboriginal health workers and past residents; and archival review of historical documents. We identified four distinct eras of maternity care. Maternity care staffed by nuns who were trained in nursing and midwifery serviced childbirth in the local community. Support for community childbirth was incrementally withdrawn over a period, until the government eventually assumed responsibility for all health care. The introduction of Western maternity care colonised Aboriginal birth practices and midwifery practice. Historical population statistics suggest that access to local Western maternity care may have contributed to a significant population increase. Despite population growth and higher demand for maternity services, local maternity services declined significantly. The rationale for removing childbirth services from the community was never explicitly addressed in any known written policy directive. Declining maternity services led to the de-skilling of many Aboriginal health workers and the significant community loss of future career pathways for Aboriginal midwives. This has contributed to the current status quo, with very few female Aboriginal health workers actively providing remote maternity care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Education Gradients in Infant Health in Four South American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-11-01

    Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more

  10. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  11. Association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's mental, psychomotor and language development in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N

    2012-06-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.

  12. Maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing concern that maternal employment could have adverse or beneficial effects on children's health. Although recent studies demonstrated that maternal employment was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight, the evidence remains sparse in Asian countries. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in a rural town in Okayama Prefecture. In February 2008, questionnaires were sent to parents of all preschool children aged ≥3 yr in the town to assess maternal working status (working hours and form of employment), children's body mass index, and potential confounders. Childhood overweight was defined following the age and sex-specific criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for childhood overweight were estimated in a logistic regression. We used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix, considering the correlation between siblings. We analyzed 364 preschool children. Adjusting for each child's characteristics (age, sex), mother's characteristics (age, obesity, educational attainment, smoking status, and social participation), and family's characteristics (number of siblings), children whose mothers work working mothers, whereas the relationship was less pronounced among children whose mothers work ≥8 h/day (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.68). We observed similar patterns in a stratified analysis by the form of maternal employment. Short maternal working hours are associated with a lower odds of early childhood overweight.

  13. Maternal hepatitis B infection and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Chan, Ben C P; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Ho, Lai-Fong; Tse, Ka-Yu

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal hepatitis B virus infection, as indicated by the surface antigen status, with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a normal-risk Chinese obstetric population. Maternal demographics, risk factors, and pregnancy outcome of 13,683 singleton pregnancies delivering in 1998-2001 were analysed according to maternal hepatitis B surface antigen status, which was routinely screened. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the role of hepatitis B infection in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The 1138 women (8.3%) with hepatitis B infection had lower mean weight and body mass index, similar prevalence of chronic medical diseases and smokers, but increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, which remained significant (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.51) after adjustment for confounding variables. However, there was no difference in pregnancy outcome. Our results confirmed the independent association between hepatitis B infection with gestational diabetes mellitus. The magnitude of chronic hepatitis B infection in the developing world and certain ethnic groups could have contributed to the high prevalence of gestational and possibly type 2 diabetes in these populations. Further studies on the long-term implications of our finding are warranted.

  14. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  15. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  16. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  17. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  18. Quasat - European status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilizzi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific goals, design, and current development status of Quasat are reviewed. Quasat is a proposed 15-m orbiting radio telescope intended to serve as the space leg of an astronomical VLBI network comprising the existing large arrays in Europe, the U.S., the USSR, and Australia. The planned 63-deg-inclination 5700 x 12,500-km elliptical orbit is optimized for high-resolution imaging of quasar and radio-galaxy nuclei at cm wavelengths with the U.S. and European ground arrays. A drawing of the ESA inflatable-antenna concept, a diagram of the space/ground system, and tables listing additional observing targets and the predicted angular and spatial resolutions of a Quasat-based array at different wavelengths are included

  19. Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) for large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) detection: A new approach to assess quantitative status of BRCA1 gene in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, Angelo; De Paolis, Elisa; Concolino, Paola; De Bonis, Maria; Rizza, Roberta; Canu, Giulia; Scaglione, Giovanni Luca; Mignone, Flavio; Scambia, Giovanni; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of copy number variation (CNV) in BRCA1/2 genes, due to large genomic rearrangements (LGRs), is a mandatory analysis in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers families, if no pathogenic variants are found by sequencing. LGRs cannot be detected by conventional methods and several alternative methods have been developed. Since these approaches are expensive and time consuming, identification of alternative screening methods for LGRs detection is needed in order to reduce and optimize the diagnostic procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) as molecular tool to detect recurrent BRCA1 LGRs. C-PCR-HRMA was performed on exons 3, 14, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the BRCA1 gene; exons 4, 6 and 7 of the ALB gene were used as reference fragments. This study showed that it is possible to identify recurrent BRCA1 LGRs, by melting peak height ratio between target (BRCA1) and reference (ALB) fragments. Furthermore, we underline that a peculiar amplicon-melting profile is associated to a specific BRCA1 LGR. All C-PCR-HRMA results were confirmed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. C-PCR-HRMA has proved to be an innovative, efficient and fast method for BRCA1 LGRs detection. Given the sensitivity, specificity and ease of use, c-PCR-HRMA can be considered an attractive and powerful alternative to other methods for BRCA1 CNVs screening, improving molecular strategies for BRCA testing in the context of Massive Parallel Sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2hj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  1. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  2. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  3. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  4. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  5. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  6. Estimation of maternal and neonatal mortality at the subnational level in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Massaquoi, Moses; Bawo, Luke; Birch, Linda; Dahn, Bernice; Zolia, Yah; Barreix, Maria; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2014-11-01

    To establish representative local-area baseline estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality using a novel adjusted sisterhood method. The status of maternal and neonatal health in Bomi County, Liberia, was investigated in June 2013 using a population-based survey (n=1985). The standard direct sisterhood method was modified to account for place and time of maternal death to enable calculation of subnational estimates. The modified method of measuring maternal mortality successfully enabled the calculation of area-specific estimates. Of 71 reported deaths of sisters, 18 (25.4%) were due to pregnancy-related causes and had occurred in the past 3 years in Bomi County. The estimated maternal mortality ratio was 890 maternal deaths for every 100 000 live births (95% CI, 497-1301]. The neonatal mortality rate was estimated to be 47 deaths for every 1000 live births (95% CI, 42-52). In total, 322 (16.9%) of 1900 women with accurate age data reported having had a stillbirth. The modified direct sisterhood method may be useful to other countries seeking a more regionally nuanced understanding of areas in which neonatal and maternal mortality levels still need to be reduced to meet Millennium Development Goals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of cultural influence on maternal mortality in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emily C

    2013-05-01

    identify research examining the effect of culture on maternal mortality rates. literature review of CINAHL, Cochrane, PsychInfo, OVID Medline and Web of Science databases. developing countries with typically higher rates of maternal mortality. women, birth attendants, family members, nurse midwives, health-care workers, and community members. reviews, qualitative and mixed-methods research have identified components of culture that have a direct impact on maternal mortality. Examples of culture are given in the text and categorised according to the way in which they impact maternal mortality. cultural customs, practices, beliefs and values profoundly influence women's behaviours during the perinatal period and in some cases increase the likelihood of maternal death in childbirth. The four ways in which culture may increase MMR are as follows: directly harmful acts, inaction, use of care and social status. understanding the specifics of how the culture surrounding childbirth contributes to maternal mortality can assist nurses, midwives and other health-care workers in providing culturally competent care and designing effective programs to help decrease MMR, especially in the developing world. Interventions designed without accounting for these cultural factors are likely to be less effective in reducing maternal mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal involvement in children's leisure activities in rural China: Relations with adjustment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin

    2018-02-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined maternal involvement in children's leisure activities and its relations with children's adjustment in rural China. Participants included 184 children (93 boys and 91 girls) initially in third grade (mean age = 9.31 years). Children were asked to report the frequencies of mothers' involvement in leisure activities. Information on children's social, school, and psychological adjustment were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results showed that children's perceptions of maternal involvement in leisure activities positively predicted later social and school adjustment, particularly in boys. Furthermore, child initial adjustment status moderated the relations between maternal leisure activity involvement and child outcomes. The results suggest that maternal involvement in children's leisure activities, which has traditionally been neglected in the society, is a significant factor in contributing to child development in today's rural China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examined...... the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  10. Maternal autonomy and child health care utilization in India: results from the National Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  12. Interactive relations among maternal depressive symptomatology, nutrition, and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.

  13. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  14. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Salwa G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition and vulnerable (stunted groups with those with moderate nutrition. Results Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Conclusions Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts.

  15. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Salwa G; Nieto, F J; Palta, Mari; Smith, Maureen; Clark, Roseanne; Thabet, Abdel-Aziz

    2012-01-11

    The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition) and vulnerable (stunted) groups with those with moderate nutrition. Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts. © 2012 Massad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  17. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  18. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  19. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  20. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  1. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  2. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Maternal obesity and vitamin D sufficiency are associated with cord blood vitamin D insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefson, Jami L; Feinglass, Joseph; Rademaker, Alfred W; Metzger, Boyd E; Zeiss, Dinah M; Price, Heather E; Langman, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and increased adiposity has been established in children, adolescents, and adults. However, the relationship between neonatal adiposity and vitamin D status has not been reported. Both maternal obesity and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are common and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns, as influenced by maternal obesity, and evaluate these associations with neonatal adiposity. Sixty-one maternal-neonatal pairs participated in this cross-sectional study at an academic medical center. Mothers had a prepregnancy body mass index that was normal or obese. Maternal and cord blood sera were assayed for 25-OH D, and neonatal body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Mothers had similar and sufficient levels of 25-OH D when measured at 36-38 wk gestation, irrespective of body mass index category (normal weight, 46.05, vs. obese, 49.84 ng/ml; P = not significant). However, cord blood 25-OH D was higher in n