WorldWideScience

Sample records for maternal relationship style

  1. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.

  2. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  3. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  4. Maternal Alexithymia and Attachment Style: Which Relationship with Their Children’s Headache Features and Psychological Profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela Tarantino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA growing body of literature has shown an association between somatic symptoms and insecure “attachment style.” In a recent study, we found a relationship between migraine severity, ambivalent attachment style, and psychological symptoms in children/adolescents. There is evidence that caregivers’ attachment styles and their way of management/expression of emotions can influence children’s psychological profile and pain expression. To date, data dealing with headache are scarce. Our aim was to study the role of maternal alexithymia and attachment style on their children’s migraine severity, attachment style, and psychological profile.Materials and methodsWe enrolled 84 consecutive patients suffering from migraine without aura (female: 45, male: 39; mean age 11.8 ± 2.4 years. According to headache frequency, children/adolescents were divided into two groups: (1 high frequency (patients reporting from weekly to daily attacks, and (2 low frequency (patients having ≤3 episodes per month. We divided headache attacks intensity into two groups (mild and severe pain. SAFA “Anxiety,” “Depression,” and “Somatization” scales were used to explore children’s psychological profile. To evaluate attachment style, the semi-projective test SAT for patients and ASQ Questionnaire for mothers were employed. Maternal alexithymia traits were assessed by TAS-20.ResultsWe found a significant higher score in maternal alexithymia levels in children classified as “ambivalent,” compared to those classified as “avoiding” (Total scale: p = 0.011. A positive correlation has been identified between mother’s TAS-20 Total score and the children’s SAFA-A Total score (p = 0.026. In particular, positive correlations were found between maternal alexithymia and children’s “Separation anxiety” (p = 0.009 and “School anxiety” (p = 0.015 subscales. Maternal “Externally-oriented thinking” subscale

  5. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  7. Maternal styles in a precocial bird

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet , Florent; Houdelier , Cécilia; de Margerie , Emmanuel; Le Bot , Océane; Richard-Yris , Marie-Annick; Lumineau , Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Care provided by females of many mammal species varies naturally between individuals; these differences in turn influence the phenotypic development of their offspring. When individual maternal behavioural traits are consistent over a number of breeding periods, maternal styles can be defined. These styles have been studied in a large range of mammalian species. Nevertheless, mammals rarely offer the possibility to dissociate mothers' behavioural influence from their g...

  8. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  9. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked ...

  10. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  11. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting ...

  12. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.

  15. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  17. Maternal Anxiety and Separation Anxiety in Children Aged Between 3 and 6 Years: The Mediating Role of Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P

    2018-06-04

    Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.

  18. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  19. The association between maternal perception of her child weight and maternal feeding styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Acuña-Blanco, América; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia M; Amaro-Hinojosa, Marily D; Pérez-Campa, María E; Elenes-Rodríguez, Jesús R

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Mothers do not recognize when their child is overweight or obese (OW-OB), and the evidence suggests a relationship between inadequate maternal perception of her child weight (MPCW), and maternal feeding style (MFS). Objectives: a) To assess the reliability of the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire (CFSQ); b) to verify association between MPCW and child’ nutritional status; c) to describe the MFS; d) to verify differences between MPCW and child’s body mass index (BMI); e) and to verify the association between MPCW and MFS. Methods: 566 dyads participated (mother/preschool child). Mothers circle the image that more resembled their child (MPCW), and answered the CFSQ. Cronbach alpha coeffi cient was calculated. V Cramer, ANOVA and Chi-square were applied. Results: The internal consistency of CFSQ was 0.88. The 8.4% (n = 12) mothers of children are OW-OB had adequate MPCW (V = 0.26, p = 0.001). The most frequent MFS was authoritarian (34.5%, n = 195), MFS uninvolved presented the highest child’ BMI (F = 3.91, p authoritative are recommended.

  20. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  1. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

  2. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, which ...

  3. Maternal parenting style and adjustment in adolescents with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jorie M; Skinner, Michelle; Gelfand, Donna; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M = 14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological control were associated with greater depressed mood regardless of age and gender. Firm control was strongly associated with greater depressed mood and poorer self-efficacy among older adolescents, less strongly among younger adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal acceptance were associated with less depressed mood, particularly for girls and with better self-efficacy for diabetes management, particularly for older adolescents and girls. Maternal reports of acceptance were associated only with adherence. Maternal parenting style is associated with well-being in adolescents with diabetes, but this association is complex and moderated by age and gender.

  4. The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept, academic ... the four specific parenting styles, the authoritative style has the medium correlation 'r' ... school level parent education programs should be incorporated and parents ...

  5. Maternal Employment and Children's Academic Achievement: Parenting Styles as Mediating Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…

  6. Gender differences in the relationships among parenting styles and college student mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Kirtley, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58% female, mean age = 19). Cross-sectional design. Participants completed surveys containing measures of parenting styles, college stress, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety and stress acted as mediators between some maternal parenting styles and female student depression. No mediational relationships were found for male student ratings. Daughters may be more susceptible to the influences of maternal parenting styles, which can either prepare or fail to prepare them for management and avoidance of stressors that are encountered during the college transition. College counseling centers and student affairs personnel may wish to focus attention on the instruction of self-management and problem-solving skills for incoming students.

  7. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married ... correlate significantly with marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary ... In other words, it refers to the management of ... dealing with each other so as to reduce ill-feeling. ..... Behavior exchange in happy.

  8. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…

  9. Relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in a Nigerian private manufacturing organization. The study population consisted of employees of International Brewery Plc, Ilesha and the study sample consisted of 80% of the workforce at the Brewery comprising ...

  10. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  12. Reconsidering Parenting in Chinese Culture: Subtypes, Stability, and Change of Maternal Parenting Style During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Wei, Xing; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-05-01

    Parenting in Chinese culture has been a central topic and there have been debate on whether western-derived parenting style is applicable to Chinese cultures in terms of both behavioral profiles and their relationships with child and adolescent adjustment. This study identified the subtypes of Chinese maternal parenting style and examined their stability and changes over the transition to early adolescence. In an urban Chinese sample (N = 2173, 48% girls), four waves of longitudinal data were collected when the adolescents were in the fifth (M = 11.27 years), sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Latent profile analysis identified four subtypes of parenting style: authoritative, authoritarian, average-level undifferentiated, and strict-affectionate. Adolescents of authoritative mothers exhibited the best overall adjustment, while adolescents of authoritarian mothers showed the worst adjustment. Adolescents of strict-affectionate mothers generally adjusted as well as those of authoritative mothers, except they showed lower academic achievement. The strict-affectionate parenting represented a culture-specific subtype of parenting style in Chinese culture. Latent transition analysis revealed high stability of parenting styles during early adolescence, but transitions between subtypes were also evident. These findings highlight the importance of revisiting Chinese parenting and examining the developmental course of parenting style.

  13. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  14. [Parenting styles and their relationship with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José

    2008-11-01

    The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed.

  15. Maternal symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety are related to nonresponsive feeding styles in a statewide sample of WIC participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Caulfield, Laura E; Caufield, Laura E

    2008-04-01

    Parenting, including nonresponsive feeding styles, has been related to under- or overweight among young children. The relationship between maternal mental health and feeding styles has not been examined. We hypothesized that mothers who report more symptoms of stress, depression, or anxiety report less responsive (e.g. more controlling, indulgent, and uninvolved) feeding styles than mothers who report fewer symptoms of stress, depression, or anxiety. Our analyses included 702 mother-infant pairs from a statewide sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children mothers. We assessed maternal mental health and feeding styles by a telephone survey. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, maternal stress symptomatology was significantly associated with forceful (beta = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.05) and uninvolved (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7) feeding style scores, maternal depression symptomatology was significantly associated with forceful (beta = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.004, 0.05), indulgent (beta = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.004, 0.06), and uninvolved (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.001, 2.2) feeding styles scores, and maternal anxiety symptomatology was significantly related to restrictive (beta = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.21), forceful (beta = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.06), and uninvolved (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.9) feeding style scores. Among mothers who perceived their infant as temperamentally fussy, there was a significant positive relationship between restrictive feeding styles scores and 3 indices of maternal mental health (stress, beta = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.28; depression, beta = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.38; and cumulative mental health symptomatology, beta = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.48). Mothers who report stress, depression, or anxiety symptoms are at risk for nonresponsive feeding styles. These findings provide support for broadening the focus of existing child nutrition programs to include strategies that recognize how issues of maternal

  16. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  17. Socioemotional development in adolescents at risk for depression: the role of maternal depression and attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Halligan, Sarah L; Adams, Gillian; Patterson, Paul; Goodyer, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    We examined the impact on adolescent socioemotional functioning of maternal postnatal depression (PND) and attachment style. We also investigated the role of earlier aspects of the child's development-attachment in infancy, and 5-year representations of family relationships. Ninety-one mother-child pairs, recruited in the postnatal period, were followed up at 13 years. Adolescents were interviewed about their friendships, and their level of emotional sensitivity and maturity were rated. Emotional sensitivity was heightened in girls whose mothers experienced PND; notably, its occurrence was also linked to insecure attachment in infancy and raised awareness of emotional components of family relationships at 5 years. High emotional sensitivity was also associated with adolescent depressed mood. Raised social maturity was predicted by a secure maternal attachment style and, for girls, by exposure to maternal PND. Precursors of adolescent social maturity were evident in the narrative coherence of 5-year family representations. Higher social maturity in the friendship interview was also associated with overall good adjustment.

  18. Adolescent Filial Piety as a Moderator between Perceived Maternal Control and Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sin Man; Leung, Angel Nga-Man; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parental styles of maternal warmth and control, as well as adolescent filial piety, in relation to parent-child relationship quality, in 308 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The three mother-child relationship qualities measured were perceived maternal support, conflicts, and relationship depth. Adolescents'…

  19. Child temperament, maternal adjustment, and changes in family life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, L B; Johnson, J H

    1992-04-01

    Child temperament has been implicated as a relevant factor in understanding parental adjustment. In a study of 77 mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children, difficult child temperament was found to be directly related to maternal distress, discomfort in the role of parent, poor spousal relationships, and negative changes in way of life. Quality and intensity of the child's mood were most predictive of these difficulties.

  20. A Reinforcement Model of the Relationships of Supervisors' General Communication Styles and Conflict Management Styles to Task Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeless, Lawrence R.; Reichel, Lisa S.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between general styles of communicating and more situation-specific conflict management styles. Finds substantial relationships between general communication styles and conflict management styles, as well as very substantial relationships between the style constructs and task attraction of supervisors. (SR)

  1. Maternal Symptoms of Stress, Depression, and Anxiety Are Related to Nonresponsive Feeding Styles in a Statewide Sample of WIC Participants1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Kristen M.; Black, Maureen M.; Papas, Mia A.; Caufield, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting, including nonresponsive feeding styles, has been related to under- or overweight among young children. The relationship between maternal mental health and feeding styles has not been examined. We hypothesized that mothers who report more symptoms of stress, depression, or anxiety report less responsive (e.g. more controlling, indulgent, and uninvolved) feeding styles than mothers who report fewer symptoms of stress, depression, or anxiety. Our analyses included 702 mother-infant pa...

  2. The Relationships of Problem Solving Styles to Parenting Styles: Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyen, Julia; Volpe, Carolyn Ann; Selby, Edwin C.; Houtz, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data…

  3. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  4. The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Miriam Miley

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

  5. Relationship between leadership styles of Nurese managers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job ...

  6. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  7. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  8. The impact of perceived parenting styles on attachment styles, self-evaluations and close relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sümer, N; Güngör, Derya

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay between the perceived parenting styles of the university students and attachment styles, basic self-dimensions, behavior patterns in close relationships, and relationship satisfaction. The findings indicated that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive/indulgent, and permissive/neglecting), which were constructed by crossing perceived parental acceptance/involment and strict control dimensions of parenting were consistently related w...

  9. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Crisis and Leadership Style Relationship in Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin İbrahimoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Crises are inevitable features of today‟s businesses. As a result of pressures from the economic technological and social cultural environment brought by rapid change and the ongoing intense competition, it is not possible to think of a firm that is exempt from crisis. The instability in the economy and turbulent environments force the firms to seek more effective management styles. Hence, the crisis management becomes important. Historically the traits that a leader should have a for a better management of crisis were investigated and theories were set forth thereupon. One of the theories related to the topic is thesituational leadership theory which was built by Fiedler in 1970. Fiedler found that the task oriented leaders were more successful under unfavorable conditions. In this study which is carried out to see whether there is a difference between task-oriented and relationship oriented leaders in terms of their perceptions regarding the crisis, it was found that the task-oriented leaders have a more positive perception of crisis. No significant difference between taskorientated and relationship orientated managers was found regarding the interaction of the firm with its environment and attitudes and behaviors of top management. Factor analysis and t tests were used to reach these results

  11. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  12. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained from these instruments were subjected to multiple regression analysis using SPSS and the results showed that there was a low, positive and significant relationship between authoritative parenting style and marital adjustment. The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment ...

  13. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Associations between Maternal Disciplinary Strategies and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Cook, Emily C.; Madison, Karis J.; Bridges, Tracey H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether parental use of punitive discipline and yielding to coercion varies in levels and associated child outcomes for mothers with different parenting styles. Participants were fourth-grade children (N = 370) and their mothers. Maternal parenting style was determined based on levels of responsiveness and demandingness.…

  14. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  15. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marzyeh; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Rostamian, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students' attachment styles and demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people ( P = 0.03). No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style ( P = 0.001), male gender ( P = 0.005), and scholar achievement ( P = 0.047) were associated with higher happiness score. The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  16. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  17. Relationships between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…

  18. The Relationship between Learning Style, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Kubilay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…

  19. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  20. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  1. Correspondence between Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…

  2. Maternal support for autonomy: relationships with persistence for children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal strategies when helping their child. There were also no group differences in child mastery behaviors, measured as persistence with two optimally challenging tasks. However, the two groups differed in the relationships of maternal style with child persistence. Children with Down syndrome whose mothers were more supportive of their autonomy in the shared task displayed greater persistence when working independently on a challenging puzzle, while children of highly directive mothers displayed lower levels of persistence. For typically developing children, persistence was unrelated to maternal style, suggesting that mother behaviors may have different causes or consequences in the two groups.

  3. Relationship between nurses' leadership styles and power bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara, Emilio Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Based on the results, two relationships proposed by the SLT (Situational Leadership Theory) were verified: between coercive power and S1 leadership style (telling), and between referent power and S3 leadership style (participating). In other cases, results have been opposite to expectations: the use of power proposed by the model decreases the probability of performing the prescribed leadership style.

  4. Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Organizational Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bratnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Empirical research on entrepreneurship in organizations has brought disparate and often contradictory evidence related to the impact of leadership on creativity in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss the impact of different leadership styles on creativity, with the view to formulating an integrated conceptual model that links creative novelty and creative practicality with leadership. Methodology: The author applied the methodology of meta-theoretical review. In accordance with the principles of theoretical bricolage, a new conceptual model was built on the basis of the multidimensional creativity theory and the leadership theory. In her analysis, the author took into account leadership styles that have already been subject to research; each of them was mapped in the two-dimensional space of organizational creativity. Findings: In order to fully understand the reasons for differences in organizational creativity, the drivers of divergences in the space of creative novelty and creative practicality need to be clarified. Greater knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the structure and configuration of organizational creativity is necessary. In this paper, the author provides a theoretical framework that illustrates manners in which leadership influences organizational creativity. The model clarifies the role that leadership plays in shaping a unique configuration of organizational creativity, and consequently in ensuring the necessary internal adaptation of an organization. Originality: The value of this research lies in the situational interpretation of various leadership styles in the context of their impact on organizational creativity. The analysis goes beyond the conventional discussion about leadership and creativity, focused on establishing whether a given leadership style proves beneficial or not for organizational creativity. The paper identifies particular effects that several key

  5. Leadership styles and its relationship with subordinates' self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a que...

  6. Maternal Sensitivity and Communication Styles: Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Loveland Cook, Cynthia A.; Flick, Louise H.

    2008-01-01

    Women living in poverty are at increased risk for depression, especially during their childbearing years. Whereas poverty has known adverse effects on children's cognitive, social, and communication development, maternal depression may place these children at additional risk of developmental delays. The maternal sensitivity of mothers with and…

  7. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  8. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  9. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  10. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  11. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  12. Relationship between nurses' leadership styles and power bases

    OpenAIRE

    García García,Inmaculada; Santa-Bárbara,Emilio Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random sample consisted of 204 nursing professionals from a public hospital. The following measurement instruments were used: the SBDQ (Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire) to identify leadership styles and the Power Perception Profile to determine the types of power used by leaders. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses we...

  13. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...

  14. The relationship of parental style to depression and self-esteem in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C; Miller, P M

    1997-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated low parental care and parental overprotection as risk factors for depression in adulthood. The present study further examined the association between perceived parental style and depression in two samples of medical students. In general, both low maternal and paternal care were associated with depression. Furthermore, maternal overprotection in the U.S. sample and paternal overprotection in the Scottish sample were also associated with depression. However, when results were analyzed separately for men and women, clear gender differences emerged, indicating that the observed relationships were occurring chiefly in the men, although there were some indications that low paternal care was associated with depression in women. Because such gender differences have not been previously reported, women medical students may be a unique group with respect to these relationships. Also intriguing was that although parental style characteristics demonstrated significant associations with self-esteem, this was clearly true only for men and not for women. Finally, the study provided the first partial support for the hypothesis that self-esteem mediates the relationship between parental style and depression.

  15. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother's total EQ and child's total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pauthoritative parenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; pauthoritative parenting style.

  16. Relationship between parenting styles and gender role identity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Billingham, Robert E

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between perceived parenting styles and gender role identity was examined in college students. 230 undergraduate students (48 men, 182 women; 18-23 years old) responded to the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The hypothesis was that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive for both fathers and mothers) would be significantly associated with gender role identity (undifferentiated, feminine, masculine, and androgynous) of college students, specifically whether authoritative parenting styles associated with androgyny. To account for differences in sex on gender role identity or parenting styles, sex was included as a factor. The pattern of the difference in identity groups was similar for males and females. There were significant differences in parenting styles between gender role groups. Maternal and paternal authoritativeness correlated with participants' femininity, and for both parents, the relationship was observed to be stronger in males than females; paternal authoritativeness was significantly associated with androgyny. Future research based on these results should investigate how the findings relate to children's psychological well-being and behavioral outcomes.

  17. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  18. Leadership styles and its relationship with subordinates' self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.

  19. Cognitive styles in creative leadership practices: exploring the relationship between level and style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Scott G; Babij, Barbara J; Lauer, Kenneth J

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two measures used to assist change and transformation efforts, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory which assesses style or manner of cognition and problem-solving, not level or capability, and the Leadership Practices Inventory which measures the extent to which leaders exhibit certain leadership behaviors associated with accomplishing extraordinary results. These two measures of level and style should be conceptually distinct and show no or only modest correlation. Analysis yielded statistically significant and meaningful relationships between scores on the Kirton inventory and two scales of the Leadership Practices Inventory. Implications and challenges for research and practice were outlined.

  20. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  1. Low-wage maternal employment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P; Bentler, Peter M; Franke, Todd M

    2008-07-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between times 1 and 2, less financial strain at time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers' depressive symptoms at time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers' earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed.

  2. Child Temperament, Maternal Feeding Practices, and Parenting Styles and Their Influence on Obesogenic Behaviors in Hispanic Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen

    2018-01-01

    Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.

  3. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  4. Associations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Nonresponsive Feeding Styles and Practices in Mothers of Young Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Mesa, Tatiana; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A

    2017-05-26

    feeding (1/3). In addition, evidence for the association between maternal depressive symptoms and restricting child food intake was mixed: one study (1/6) found a positive association; two studies (2/6) found a negative association; whereas one study (1/6) found no association. This review indicates that the results of studies examining the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and parental feeding styles and practices are mixed. Limitations of studies included in this review should be noted: (1) the use of a diverse set of self-report questionnaires to assess parental feeding practices is problematic due to potential misclassification and makes it difficult to compare these outcomes across studies, thus caution must be taken in drawing conclusions; and (2) the majority of included studies (6/8) were cross-sectional. There is a need for additional longitudinal studies to disentangle the influence of depression on parental feeding styles and practices. Nevertheless, given that depressive symptoms and feeding styles and practices are potentially modifiable, it is important to understand their relationship to inform obesity prevention interventions and programs. ©Ana Cristina Lindsay, Tatiana Mesa, Mary L. Greaney, Sherrie F. Wallington, Julie A. Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.05.2017.

  5. Perceived match or mismatch on the Gottman conflict styles: associations with relationship outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Dean M; Holman, Thomas B

    2009-12-01

    Gottman has proposed that there are 3 functional styles of conflict management in couple relationships, labeled Avoidant, Validating, and Volatile, and 1 dysfunctional style, labeled Hostile. Using a sample of 1,983 couples in a committed relationship, we test the association of perceived matches or mismatches on these conflict styles with relationship outcome variables. The results indicate that 32% of the participants perceive there is a mismatch with their conflict style and that of their partner. The Volatile-Avoidant mismatch was particularly problematic and was associated with more stonewalling, relationship problems, and lower levels of relationship satisfaction and stability than the Validating matched style and than other mismatched styles. The most problematic style was the Hostile style. Contrary to existing assumptions by Gottman, the 3 matched functional styles were not equivalent, as the Validating Style was associated with substantially better results on relationship outcome measures than the Volatile and Avoidant styles.

  6. Experiential avoidance mediates the link between maternal attachment style and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwoerden, Salome; Kalpakci, Allison H; Sharp, Carla

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical and empirical models suggest a relation between attachment style and theory of mind (ToM) in childhood and adulthood; however, this link has not been evaluated to the same extent in adolescence. Additionally, these models typically fail to consider mechanisms by which attachment style affects ToM abilities. The present study sought to test a mediational model in which experiential avoidance mediates the relation between maternal attachment style and ToM. A sample of 282 adolescents (Mage=15.42years, SD=1.44, 62.8% female) was recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Findings revealed that maternal attachment style in females was related to ToM, through experiential avoidance. Specifically, those with a disorganized maternal attachment were most likely to engage in experiential avoidant cognitive and emotional strategies, which in turn related to lower levels of ToM ability. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leadership styles, roles, and relationships for the nurse manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musholt, K S

    1996-12-01

    This article explores the nurse manager's relationships to physicians, staff, administration, patient and family, other department heads, and peers. Included in the discussion are the expectations of the nurse manager by these other disciplines and examples of some of the situations discussed. Throughout the article are descriptions of leadership styles that are necessary for a nurse manager to accomplish his or her pivotal role.

  8. Relationships between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Style, and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredo, Mirta R.; Cistone, Peter J.; Reio, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Research regarding the association between emotional intelligence, leadership style and organizational culture has been inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore these relationships in elementary school settings. A non-experimental ex post facto research design was utilized to investigate four research hypotheses. Fifty-seven…

  9. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results — Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, and both genders. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between fathers' authoritarian styles and emotion-focused coping strategies in ...

  10. [Control or involvement? Relationship between parenting style and adolescent depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.

  11. Significant differences in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK: the role of deprivation and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, M; Rea, D M; King, P F; Brown, A E

    2018-04-03

    Nonresponsive maternal child-feeding interactions, such as restricting, pressurising and emotional feeding, can affect the ability of a child to self-regulate intake and increase the risk of becoming overweight. However, despite findings that South Asian and Black children living in the UK are more likely to be overweight, UK research has not considered how maternal child-feeding style might differ between ethnic groups. The present study aimed to explore variations in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK, taking into account associated factors such as deprivation and parenting style. Six hundred and fifty-nine UK mothers with a child who was aged 5-11 years old completed a questionnaire. Items included ethnicity and demographic data, as well as copies of the Child Feeding Questionnaire, Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire and Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Significant differences in perceived responsibility (P = 0.002), restriction (P = 0.026), pressure to eat (P = 0.045), instrumental feeding (P = 0.000) and emotional feeding (P = 0.000) were found between the groups. Mothers from South Asian backgrounds reported higher levels of pressure to eat, emotional feeding and indulgent feeding styles, whereas mothers from Chinese backgrounds reported greater perceived responsibility and restriction. Mothers from Black and White British backgrounds were not significantly higher with respect to any behaviour. Maternal child-feeding style was also associated with deprivation and parenting style, although these did not fully explain the data. Understanding cultural factors behind maternal child-feeding style, particularly around pressurising and indulgent feeding behaviours, may play an important part in reducing levels of children who are overweight and obese in the UK. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. The relationship between leadership styles and empathy among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Mary; Evans, Ginger; Mefford, Linda; Coe, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Much of the nursing literature on leadership describes the qualities of existing nursing leaders, while emphasizing the need for leadership development in student nurses for both managerial and clinical practice. However, there is a lack of research literature on the characteristics of current students. Conducted by the University of Tennessee College of Nursing Empathy Research Group, this pilot study explores the relationship between leadership styles and empathy (cognitive and affective) levels. This correlational descriptive study involved self-report using 3 instruments. Hogan Empathy Scale (HES) and Emotional Empathy Tendency Scale (EETS) measured cognitive and affective empathy levels. The Multifactoral Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x) was used to determine leadership style. Data analysis yielded evidence of a weak positive correlation between the predominant transformational leadership style and empathy levels in both junior and senior students. This correlation has implications for both nurse educators and future employers.

  13. The relationship between mother narrative style and child memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayıran, Sinan Mahir; Cure, Sena

    2011-07-26

    The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest. Until recently, it was thought that compared to adults, infants have very limited memory processing abilities. Knowledge about factors affecting a child's memory abilities can help families (specifically mothers) behave in a manner that best benefits their children in language and memory skills. The present study examines one factor that may underlie a child's memory capabilities; namely the mother's narrative style. Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Forty healthy children (mean age of 31.55 months, range 25-37 months) and their mothers were entered into the study. All participants were native Turkish speakers, from similar socioeconomic status backgrounds. Memory was assessed by a modified version of the Magic Shrinking Machine. Narrative style was assessed by the mother "reading" a Frog Story; a picture book with no words in it. Children were then grouped according to their mother's level of narrative style. Children's language skills were measured via the Turkish form of the CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) which was translated to Turkish as TIGE. To explore the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory and language skills and between children's language skills and memory capabilities, linear regressions were run. There were no significant correlations among any comparisons (P > 0.05). Children's language skills do not improve according to their mothers' narrative styles, and children do not show better memory abilities when mothers use more words and longer sentences. In order to have a better understanding of these relationships, future research that includes several more variables is needed. Child; Mother; Memory; Narrative style.

  14. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Rochele D; Quevedo, Luciana de Á; Coelho, Fábio M; Lopez, Mariane A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Böhm, Denise M; Souza, Luciano D; de Matos, Mariana B; Pinheiro, Karen A; Pinheiro, Ricardo T

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0), and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7) when compared with those who received optimal care. Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  15. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele D. Castelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. Methods: A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0, and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7 when compared with those who received optimal care. Conclusion: Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  16. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered...... and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains...

  17. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship between parenting style and adolescents aggression in Shabestar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahangareanzabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting ‎styles and aggression in adolescents of Shabestar city.Method: The sample included sixty ‎students who ‎answered. the Baumrind. Parenting. Questionnaire. and.Bass. and.Perry. Aggressive.Questionnaire. ‎Results: There was no relationship between democratic style and aggression but there was a ‎significant relationship between physical aggression and democratic style (P<0‎‏.‏‎05. There was ‎also a relationship between hostility and democratic style (P<0‎‏.‏‎05 and between anger and ‎democratic style (P<0‎‏.‏‎05. There was also a relationship between verbal aggression and ‎democratic style (P<0‎‏.‏‎05. There were no significant relationship between the following ‎variables: pessimistic style and aggression, pessimistic style and physical aggression, pessimistic ‎style and hostility, permissive style and anger and verbal aggression.also There were no ‎significant relationship between the following variables: authoritarian style and aggression, ‎authoritarian style and physical aggression, authoritarian style and hostility, authoritarian style ‎and anger and verbal aggression. Conclusion: democratic style was the best method for reducing ‎aggression and its components.‎

  19. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard-Gran Malin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558 completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25. Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11, somatic disease (β = 0.11, work related stress (β = 0.10 and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09. Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors.

  20. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children�s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother�s total EQ and child�s total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pparenting style and mother�s EQ (r=0.286; pbehavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; pbehavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother�s emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style. Key words:Anxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry. PMID:22926462

  1. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  2. The minimizing style: perceptions of psychological abuse and quality of past and current relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varia, R; Abidin, R R

    1999-11-01

    The goals of this current project were to expand and elaborate on the results of Varia, Abidin, and Dass' (1996) study to better understand what historical parenting factors may contribute in creating a "Minimizing" perception of childhood psychological abuse. A second objective included examining the association between perceptual styles and adult ratings of adult relationship satisfaction. Ninety individuals from a non-clinical adult sample completed self-report questionnaires regarding psychological maltreatment and adult relationship satisfaction. Three groups were created and compared using analysis of variance. The groups were (I) "Non-Abused," consistent reporters of no abuse; (II) "Acknowledgers," consistent reporters of abuse; and (III) "Minimizers," reporters of abuse, but do not label themselves as having been abused. Results indicated a continuum effect with the Non-Abused individuals reporting the highest level of maternal warmth and affection, the Acknowledgers reporting the lowest, with the Minimizers in the middle. The Non-Abused group reported the healthiest adjustment in terms of adult relationship satisfaction. While Minimizers and Acknowledgers reported similar levels of psychologically abusive experiences, Acknowledgers reported more difficulties with adult relationships. This study highlights the importance of studying Minimizers, a group which describes abusive events but minimizes the meaning and scope of these experiences. The relatively higher levels of maternal care which the Minimizers reported is hypothesized to be associated with their perceptions that they were not abused and acted as a protective factor associated with better quality adult relationships. The varying degrees of nurturance and care in the early family environment of abused individuals is speculated to be associated with distinct perceptual styles.

  3. A longitudinal study on the relationship between eating style and gestational weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijden, C.; Steinbach, S.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; van Mechelen, W.; van Poppel, M.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gaining too much weight in pregnancy poses health risks for mother and child. Eating style has been shown to be related to weight gain in general but the relation to maternal weight gain in pregnancy is unclear. Objectives: To assess the influence of eating style and psycho social

  4. Adolescents' perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1998-09-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 429) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perception of parents' global parenting styles and specific parenting practices. Results showed that there were significant differences between reported paternal parenting and maternal parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived as relatively less responsive, less demanding, less concerned, and more harsh. Adolescent girls' perceptions of fathers' parenting characteristics generally did not differ from those of the boys, but the girls tended to perceive their mothers as more demanding but less harsh. The present findings provide some support for the popular Chinese saying, "strict father, kind mother," but they also suggest that it requires redefinition.

  5. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  6. Maternal interaction style in affective disordered, physically ill, and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E B; Jones, M; Hammen, C

    1993-09-01

    Affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) have been suggested as markers of dysfunctional family environments that may be associated with psychiatric illness. Studies have focused mainly on parental responses during family interactions when an offspring is the identified patient. The present study is unique in examining AS and CD in mothers with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, or chronic physical illness, and in normal controls. The sample consisted of 64 mothers with children ages 8 to 16. Unipolar mothers were more likely to show negative AS than were any other maternal group. There were no group differences for CD. Chronic stress, few positive life events, and single parenting were associated with AS. CD was associated solely with lower socioeconomic status. Results suggest that dysfunctional interactions are determined not only by maternal psychopathology, but also by an array of contextual factors that are related to the quality of the family environment.

  7. The Relationship between Kolb's Learning Styles and StrengthsFinder's Talent Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Adonna B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were relationships between college students' talent themes as defined by the Clifton StrengthsFinder(TM) Instrument and their learning style as defined by Kolb Learning Styles Inventory. Logistical regression methodology was utilized to assess the relationship between learning styles and talent…

  8. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p attachment behaviors.

  9. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Herwijnen, Van, Ineke R.; Borg, Van Der, Joanne A.M.; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire ...

  10. Relationship between maternal depression symptoms and child weight outcomes in Latino farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah A; Ip, Edward H; Suerken, Cynthia K; Arcury, Thomas A; Saldana, Santiago; Daniel, Stephanie S; Quandt, Sara A

    2018-05-09

    This study sought to characterize depressive symptoms among mothers in Latino farmworker families, determine if maternal depression increases children's risk of obesity, and ascertain whether relevant risk factors such as physical activity, diet, and feeding style mediate this relationship. Mothers from 248 families completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 9 times over a 2-year period. Four distinct patterns were used to describe mothers: few symptoms, moderate episodic symptoms, severe episodic symptoms, and chronic symptoms. Approximately two-thirds of women experienced moderate symptoms of depression at least once. Children of mothers fitting each pattern were compared. At the end of the study, children of mothers with severe episodic and chronic symptoms were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese than children of mothers with few symptoms (p children of mothers with severe episodic symptoms remained significant. Children of mothers with either moderate episodic or chronic symptoms were fed in a less responsive fashion (p children of chronically symptomatic mothers had lower diet quality (p obesity, in this analysis, feeding style did not mediate the relationship between maternal depression and diet quality. Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are common in this population, and those symptoms, especially when severe or chronic in nature, may increase children's risk of obesity. Additional research is needed to characterize the pathways through which maternal depression influences children's weight. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Relations between Decision Making in Social Relationships and Decision Making Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Enver

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper aimed to examine the relationships between decisiveness in social relationships, and the decision-making styles of a group of university students and to investigate the contributions of decision-making styles in predicting decisiveness in social relationship (conflict resolution, social relationship selection…

  12. Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.

  13. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ Social Anxiety in Migrant Families: A Study in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children’s well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent’s social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father’s rearing styles and mother’s rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents’ social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it.

  14. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Social Anxiety in Migrant Families: A Study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children's well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents' mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent's social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father's rearing styles and mother's rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents' social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it.

  15. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ Social Anxiety in Migrant Families: A Study in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children’s well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent’s social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents in migrant families from four non-government-funded junior middle schools in Guangdong province formed the research sample. Parenting styles were measured using short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran, and social anxiety was evaluated using Social Anxiety Subscale of Self-Consciousness Scale. The results showed that emotional warmth, overprotection and rejection were significantly more often perceived from mothers than from fathers. Significant group differences between high social anxiety group and low social anxiety group were found in both father’s rearing styles and mother’s rearing styles. Furthermore, in migrant families, paternal emotional warmth could decrease adolescents’ social anxiety, whereas maternal overprotection could increase it. PMID:28473798

  16. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between Quality of Life, Relationship Beliefs and Attribution Style in Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Behnaz; Mohammadi, Maryam; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Amini, Payam; Shirin, Zahra; Omani-Saman, Reza

    2018-07-01

    Many infertile couples experience psychological distress and suffer from impaired quality of life. Generally, when couples are dealing with uncontrolled events such as infertility, it is important to manage it well and to use the suitable coping style; so this can represent an example of attribution style. The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of life, relationship beliefs and attribution style in infertile couples. This cross-sectional study consisted of 50 infertile couples, who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the quality of life (SF-12), relationship belief inventory (RBI) and attribution style (ASQ) forms. Data was analyzed by the paired t test, Pearson correlation tests and multiple linear regression analysis, using SPSS version 22 statistical software. Overall, 50 infertile couples participated in our study. The males had a significantly higher score for quality of life compared to the females (P=0.019). In RBI subscales except "Disagreement is Destructive" all others significantly higher in wives than husbands. All subscales of RBI had a negative correlation with the quality of life. The quality of life had a significant correlation with positive internal (r=0.213, P=0.033). The adjusted regression model showed that the quality of life for males was higher than in females (β=-3.098, P=0.024). The current data indicate that in infertile couples, the husbands have a higher quality of life in comparison to their wives. Also, all subscales of relationship beliefs have a negative correlation with the quality of life, but in attribution style, just internal attribution style for positive events is associated with the quality of life. In general, there is a correlation between relationship beliefs and the quality of life in infertile couples. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between leadership styles of hospital pharmacists and perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C R; Grussing, P G; Hutchinson, R A; Stewart, J E

    1988-08-01

    Relationships between hospital pharmacists' perceptions of their own and their immediate supervisors' leadership styles and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units were examined. Pharmacists practicing in 12 large Chicago-area hospitals were asked to complete a four-part questionnaire that consisted of demographic questions, the LEADSelf instrument, the LEADOther instrument, and a measure of perceived work unit effectiveness. Respondents' primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and their degree of style adaptability were determined and compared with the primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and style adaptability of their immediate supervisors and with their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units. Pharmacists involved in providing clinical or drug information services and pharmacists responsible for purchasing activities perceived their work units to be most and least effective, respectively. Most respondents perceived their primary leadership style to be high task-high relationship, but only 32% perceived their immediate supervisors to exhibit this style. Pharmacists who perceived their immediate supervisors to have high relationship leadership styles (based on primary and combination style classifications) had significantly more favorable perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units than did pharmacists who perceived their supervisors to exhibit low relationship styles. Respondents' perceptions of their supervisors' style adaptability were positively and significantly correlated with their perceptions of work-unit effectiveness. Respondents who thought their supervisors' leadership styles were more adaptable than their own had the most favorable perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Hamid; Ahmad, Muhammad Shakil; Jan, Farzand Ali; Jamil, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The literature supports the importance of parenting styles that are necessary to fulfill the developmental needs of the children and eventually improve their quality of life. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles was used. There are many studies that examined the relationship of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive…

  20. Self- and Co-regulation of Anger and Fear in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Maternal Parenting Style and Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and anger ER paradigms, micro-coded for child self- and co-regulatory behaviors and parent's regulation-facilitation. Mothers' parenting style and temperament were self-reported. In the ASD group only, maternal authoritarian style predicted higher self-regulation and lower co-regulation of anger and maternal authoritative style predicted higher self-regulation of fear. Maternal temperament did not predict child's ER. Findings emphasize the importance of maternal flexible parenting style in facilitating ER among children with ASD.

  1. Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn Sulieman Alqatawenah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformational leadership is considered one of the main leadership styles that influence organizational and individual outcomes to achieve competitive advantage. This study aims to identify the relationship between some dimensions of transformational leadership namely: Idealized Influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation and empowerment, and change management in Jordanian Insurance companies. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the dimensions of the study and was applied to a sample that consisted of 500 respondents. SPSS package was utilized to analyze the quantitative data. The study has concluded that the dimensions of the transformational leadership (Idealized Influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation and Empowerment and change management are available in Jordanian Insurance companies. The study contributes by recommending organizations to conduct and organize training courses to enhance the capability of the workers by promoting empowerment’s behaviors, also taking into account the individual differences between the employees, particularly in assigning work and tasks.

  2. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style

  3. Young adult's attachment style as a partial mediator between maternal functioning and young adult offsprings' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  5. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  6. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  7. Relationship between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles: a cross-national study in Sicilian and Andalusian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pellerone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature underline that attachment styles can be considered as an important factor that facilitates exploration of the self and environment, and influences individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior, above all during adolescence. The purposes of the present study were the following: to investigate the relation between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles; to measure the predictive variables of the adult attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and the predictors of the level of alexithymia. Method: The participants were 217 students, of which: a group of 97 Andalusian academic students (44.7%, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 19.47; SD = 2.23; a group of 120 students from Sicilian academic students (55.3%, aged between 18 and 23 (M = 18.85; SD = 1.11. The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships. Results: Findings suggest that there are differences between Italy and Spain in adult attachment styles: in particular, Italian students appeared to manifest a higher tendency to use the avoidance style than Spanish ones, which manifested a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, belonging to the Andalusian culture, and above all, having an elevated perception of the paternal and maternal overprotection could represent possible predictive variables to the general level of alexithymia. Conclusions: The results of this study support the research hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with the perceived parental bonding and attachment style.

  8. Relationship between Academic Optimism and Classroom Management Styles of Teachers--Case Study: Elementary School Teachers in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadaie, L.; Hoveida, R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between classroom management styles of the teachers and their academic optimism. In this study, three types of classroom management styles (interventionist style, interactionist style, and non-interventionist style) have been considered. Research community is all public primary school…

  9. Maternal response to child affect: Role of maternal depression and relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Ambrosia, Marigrace; Forbes, Erika E; Cyranowski, Jill M; Amole, Marlissa C; Silk, Jennifer S; Elliott, Rosalind D; Swartz, Holly A

    2015-11-15

    Maternal depression is associated with negative outcomes for offspring, including increased incidence of child psychopathology. Quality of mother-child relationships can be compromised among affectively ill dyads, such as those characterized by maternal depression and child psychopathology, and negatively impact outcomes bidirectionally. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that may modulate depressed mothers' responses to their psychiatrically ill children during middle childhood and adolescence, partially because of a need for ecologically valid personally relevant fMRI tasks that might most effectively elicit these neural mechanisms. The current project evaluated maternal response to child positive and negative affective video clips in 19 depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill offspring using a novel fMRI task. The task elicited activation in the ventral striatum when mothers viewed positive clips and insula when mothers viewed negative clips of their own (versus unfamiliar) children. Both types of clips elicited activation in regions associated with affect regulation and self-related and social processing. Greater lifetime number of depressive episodes, comorbid anxiety, and poor mother-child relationship quality all emerged as predictors of maternal response to child affect. Findings may be specific to dyads with psychiatrically ill children. Altered neural response to child affect may be an important characteristic of chronic maternal depression and may impact mother-child relationships negatively. Existing interventions for depression may be improved by helping mothers respond to their children's affect more adaptively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dog owner interaction style: the transmission of working models in human/non-human caregiving relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Taggart, Jill Monica

    2011-01-01

    A model of parental sensitivity in caregiving informs later romantic relationships and is transmitted in caregiving behaviours to children. Differences in parental caregiving contribute to individual differences in infant attachment style. The owner/dog bond mirrors this relationship as dog careseeking activates owner caregiving. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of individual differences in owner caregiving on dog attachment style.The first study defined dog attachment style...

  11. Study on the relationship between Islamic leadership style, work ethics, job satisfaction, and employee performance

    OpenAIRE

    FEBRIANI RIZKI; THOYIB ARMANU; SURACHMAN S.; ROFIATY R.

    2017-01-01

    There are many studies to examine the relationship of Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance. However, these research more emphasis on study of non-Muslims. In addition, there is no study has comprehensively discussed the Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance. Therefore, this study will examine theoretically the relationship between Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance comprehensively and within Islamic ...

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Annotation Use of EFL Learners and Their Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Şakar, Asım

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between (perceptual and cognitive) learning styles and the use of hypermedia annotations by intermediate EFL learners while reading a hypermedia text. The participants were 44 EFL adult learners studying English for academic purposes. Data were collected through a software tracking tool, a learning styles survey and interviews. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, suggesting that learners with different learning styles had similar patterns ...

  13. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  14. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke R van Herwijnen

    Full Text Available Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a

  16. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Borg, Joanne A. M.; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining

  17. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwijnen, Ineke R van; van der Borg, Joanne A M; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining

  18. Maternal fatigue and its relationship to the caregiving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carmel Parker; White, Mark B; Fox, Melissa A

    2009-12-01

    For women with an autoimmune illness, fatigue can be a debilitating symptom that impacts many aspects of their life. There is scant research on maternal fatigue and its impact on the caregiving environment for either well women or women with chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to examine the role maternal fatigue played in the caregiving environment, specifically in the mother's experience of the daily hassles of parenting, the discipline style she employed, and how she monitored her child's whereabouts. Two-hundred sixty-two mothers participated in this study: 103 mothers with multiple sclerosis (MS), 68 mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and a comparison group of 91 well mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their self-reported levels of fatigue, depression, quality and quantity of sleep, parenting daily hassles, discipline styles, and monitoring. After sleep, depression, and number of children were controlled for, fatigue explained additional variance in predicting monitoring for all three groups of mothers. Fatigue was also a significant predictor of parenting daily hassles for both well mothers and mothers with RA, but not for mothers with MS. For mothers with MS, it was the covariates (i.e., the number of children in the family and sleep quality and quantity) that were predictive of parenting daily hassles. Several explanations for mothers with MS not being as influenced by fatigue are discussed.

  19. The features of family relationship experience, style of parental bonding and relationship with family members of convicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Karkockienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reveal the features of family relationship, style of parental bonding and relationship with family members of convicts. The tasks of the research: 1 to analyse the relationships experienced in families of convicts and the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding in their childhood; 2 to assess the relationships of convicts (men and women with their families; 3 to compare the attachment styles of convicts analysing different close relationships (with parents, relatives, partner or a close friend. The research was carried out in Panevėžys Correctional Facility and Lukiškės Remand Prison – Closed Prison. In total, the research involved 63 subjects, out of whom 33 were men and 30 women. The female subjects were 18–64 years old, males – 18–45 years old. The following tools were used: Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker G. et al., 1997, Familial Relationship Quality Measure (Ryan & Willits, 2007, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR – RS; Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000 and demographic questionnaire. The findings have showed that were no statistically significant differences with regard to gender were established assessing the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding, satisfaction with familial relationships and the attachment style in different close relationships. Both male and female subjects attributed the subjectively perceived upbringing style of a father to “overprotection”, that of a mother – to “care”. The attachment style of males characterised as “avoidance” is insignificantly higher than females, whereas the “anxiety” style of attachment in samples of males and females showed almost no differences. A positive relationship was established between the satisfaction with experienced familial relationships and the “caring” style of upbringing of both parents. Satisfaction with familial relationships positively correlates with the importance of

  20. Relationship of Parenting Styles and Offspring’s Perceived Childhood Traumas with their Attachment Styles in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مهسا اکبریان فیروزآبادی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies on attachment show that child-caregiver interaction and caregiver’s reaction to child have momentous role in formation of child’s attachment. The aim of this study was to explain the intergenerational transmission cycle of attachment styles. In this regard the effect of parenting styles and childhood traumas on children’s attachment styles was investigated. This study is an ex post facto with causal design, and 175 Iranian available students were selected from Kharazmi University, Tehran University and Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, mediation analysis, and path analysis. The results indicated that different parenting styles lead to different attachment styles in children. Our results supported the relationship between parent’s care and over-protection factors with avoidance index of attachment, while no significant relationship was observed between these two factors with anxiety index. Moreover, perceived emotional abuse had a mediator roll in the relationship between parenting components and avoidance index of attachment. Finally, we achieved a model of simultaneous effects of two care and control factors on avoidance index, which is mediated by the perceived childhood trauma.

  1. The Relationships Among Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Wen Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation at small and medium enterprises as well as their effects on business performance. This study examines how leadership style can affect the development and implementation of entrepreneurial orientation in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan. It is also designed to examine the effects of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Significant conclusions from this...

  2. The relationship between maternal education and reported childhood conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchick, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    Children of more-educated mothers tend to be healthier than children of less-educated mothers. However, in the United States, evidence for this relationship largely focuses on summary measures of health, such as subjective health status, birth weight, and height. Few studies have examined the relationship between mothers' education and children's reported conditions, the health metric that underlies many policy decisions concerning population health. Contrary to stylized facts about socioeconomic gradients in health, higher detection and reporting rates may lead to higher reporting rates among children of more-educated mothers, despite their better underlying health. This reporting pattern that might not mirror gradients for summary health measures. To examine this possibility, I investigate the association between maternal education and nine health conditions in the 1998-2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n = 176,097). I consider variation in the maternal education gradient across the specific reported conditions that children experience, paying particular attention to how patterns differ across children's ages. Results suggest that, unlike for the income gradient in child health, the relationship between maternal education and reported conditions varies in magnitude and direction across conditions. With some exceptions, the probability of reporting a diagnosed condition increases with maternal schooling. For some diagnoses, like asthma, this relationship is curvilinear, with an inverse gradient for children of the most educated mothers. However, the probability of reporting conditions that require neither diagnosis nor substantial parent-child involvement for detection tends to be flat across maternal education. Contrary to expectations, these relationships tend to be more pronounced for children who are 6 years of age or older than for younger children. These results expand understanding of the production and reporting of early-life health inequalities

  3. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of communication style and physician-family relationships on satisfaction with pediatric chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedlund, Matthew P; Schumacher, Jayna B; Young, Henry N; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2012-01-01

    Over 8% of children have a chronic disease and many are unable to adhere to treatment. Satisfaction with chronic disease care can impact adherence. We examine how visit satisfaction is associated with physician communication style and ongoing physician-family relationships. We collected surveys and visit videos for 75 children ages 9-16 years visiting for asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell disease management. Raters assessed physician communication style (friendliness, interest, responsiveness, and dominance) from visit videos. Quality of the ongoing relationship was measured with four survey items (parent-physician relationship, child-physician relationship, comfort asking questions, and trust in the physician), while a single item assessed satisfaction. Correlations and chi square were used to assess association of satisfaction with communication style or quality of the ongoing relationship. Satisfaction was positively associated with physician to parent (p relationships (p communication style and the quality of the ongoing relationship contribute to pediatric chronic disease visit satisfaction.

  5. Relationship between management styles and nurses' retention at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Management style and nurses' retention were significantly interrelated in terms of exploitative/authoritative management style. Recommendation, the researcher recommended that hospital leaders should plan and implement effective strategies to promote nurse retention. This can be done through creating a ...

  6. The Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell-Moskwa, Claire

    A study investigated the correlation between students' learning styles and their academic achievement on report cards and standardized tests. Subjects were 58 fifth-grade students in a suburban middle school. The "Learning Style Inventory" by Brown and Cooper was administered to this population, and students' academic averages and…

  7. Relationship of Cognitive Style and Job Level: First Demonstration of Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.

  8. Relationship of Cognitive Style and Job Level: First Demonstration of Cultural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kageyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.

  9. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.

  10. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2014-03-01

    Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies

  11. When Do Adolescents Accept or Defy to Maternal Prohibitions? The Role of Social Domain and Communication Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Baudat, Sophie; Audenaert, Elien

    2017-05-01

    Drawing upon both Social-Cognitive Domain Theory and Self-Determination Theory, the goal of the present multi-informant study was to test whether the correlates of maternal prohibitions depend on what is prohibited (i.e., the content of the social domain involved), thereby contrasting moral with friendship prohibitions, as well on how the prohibition is communicated, thereby contrasting an autonomy-supportive with a controlling communication style. In a sample of adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 13.9 years; 63 % female) and their mothers (N = 185; mean age = 44 years), we first examined mean-level differences between the two domains in terms of mothers' degree and style of prohibition, as well as on a number of developmental outcomes (i.e., adolescents' legitimacy perceptions, internalization, and oppositional defiance). Both adolescents and mothers reported more maternal involvement in the moral domain (e.g., higher scores for degree of prohibition and controlling communication style). In addition, adolescents reported greater perceived legitimacy and less oppositional defiance in the moral domain (as compared to the friendships domain). Second, we tested whether associations between degree and style of prohibition and the developmental outcomes were moderated by social domain. Whereas associations between degree of prohibition and developmental outcomes either were non-significant or moderated by domain, the associations with communication style were more domain-invariant, with an autonomy-supportive style generally yielding an adaptive pattern of correlates and with a controlling style relating to maladaptive outcomes. The discussion focuses on similarities and differences in the characteristics and correlates of both types of prohibitions.

  12. Paternal and maternal bonding styles in childhood are associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in a general adult population: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2015-07-31

    Previous research has suggested that extraordinary adverse experiences during childhood, such as abuse, are possible risk factors for the development of chronic pain. However, the relationship between the perceived parental bonding style during childhood and chronic pain has been much less studied. In this cross-sectional study, 760 community-dwelling Japanese adults were asked if they had pain that had been present for six months or more. They completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a self-administrated questionnaire designed to assess perceived parental bonding, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess current depressive symptoms. The PBI consists of care and overprotection subscales that are analyzed by assigning the parental bonding style to one of four quadrants: Optimal bonding (high care/low overprotection), neglectful parenting (low care/low overprotection), affectionate constraint (high care/high overprotection), and affectionless control (low care/high overprotection). Logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the contribution of the parental bonding style to the risk of chronic pain, controlling for demographic variables. Compared to the optimal bonding group, the odds ratios (ORs) for having chronic pain were significantly higher in the affectionless control group for paternal bonding (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27) and for maternal bonding (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36). After adjusting for depression, significance remained only for paternal bonding. The results demonstrate that the parental bonding style during childhood is associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in adults in the general population and that the association is more robust for paternal bonding than for maternal bonding.

  13. An empirical study to measure the relationship between management style and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Moghaddas Pour; Alireza Bakhshi Zadeh; Elham Barati

    2012-01-01

    Leadership plays an important role among five main components of management. These days, many organizations try to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and conflict management. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between relationship-oriented leadership style and solution-oriented strat...

  14. The Socialization of Children’s Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children’s Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children’s autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were 3, 5, and 6 years of age, and the results reveal concurrent and longitudinal linkages between maternal conversational style in a mother-child reminiscing task and children’s autobiographical memory performance. Maternal conversational style while reminiscing was also significantly related to children’s strategic behaviors and recall in two deliberate memory tasks, both concurrently and longitudinally. Results from this examination replicate and extend what is known about the linkages between maternal conversational style, children’s abilities to talk about previous experiences, and children’s deliberate memory skills as they transition from the preschool to early elementary school years. PMID:29270083

  15. Maternal Parenting Styles, Homework Help, and Children's Literacy Development in Language Minority and Finnish-Speaking Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena; Silinskas, Gintautas; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of mothers' (language minority mothers, LM, n = 49, and Finnish-speaking mothers, MP, n = 368) parenting styles and maternal help with their children's homework in the children's (mean age 11.43 years) literacy skills at fourth grade in Finland. In addition, the moderating effect of a child's gender on…

  16. The design of maternal centered life-style modification program for weight gain management during pregnancy - a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Pozveh, Zahra Amini

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy increases the adverse health outcomes during the pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Most of the pregnant women develop weight gain more than the recommended limits; therefore, interventions to manage such disproportionate weight gain are needed. In this paper, the design of the maternal centered life-style intervention study is described, which focuses on controlling weight gaining during pregnancy for all body mass index (BMI) groups. In our randomized field trial, 160 pregnant women with 6-10 weeks of gestational age who visit one of the participating Isfahan four urban public-health centers and 4 private obstetric offices are included. The maternal centered life-style intervention carried out by trained midwives is standardized in a protocol. All the participants are visited at 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-34, 35-37, 38, 39, and 40 weeks of pregnancy. The women who are randomized in the intervention group receive maternal centered educational package of prenatal care for the pregnant woman and a log book in the first visit. Counselors accompany the pregnant women to maintain or develop a healthy life-style. Data collection will perform monthly measuring body weight, BMI. Because, we don't have structured protocol for weight management during pregnancy especially, in private sectors if the maternal centered life-style intervention proves to be effective, it will be suggested to merge this package to routine care. Therewith by empowering women to manage their weight the public-health burden can be reduced. Beside that private obstetricians also have structured protocol for their client management.

  17. [The relationship between early neo-maternal exposure, and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in the mothers of NICU infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Mee; Kim, Mi-Ran

    2005-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the quantities of three neo-maternal exposures; visiting frequency, auditory contact and physical contact, and to examine the relationship between the quantities of each exposure and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in 40 mothers of NICU babies during the first week in the NICU. Each neo-maternal exposure was counted at every mother's visit to the newborn and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression were measured using the maternal attachment inventory, the maternal self-report inventory and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) on the first and seventh day in the NICU. The Mean of each neo-maternal exposure was 8.77(2.81) for the visiting frequency, 5.82(3.66) for the auditory contact and 5.60(2.89) for the physical contact during 7 days in the NICU. No significant changes were found in the scores of maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression between the first and the seventh day in the NICU. The quantities of neo-maternal exposures were positively related to the scores of maternal attachment and maternal self-esteem but not related to postpartum depression. The results of the study suggest the lack of early neo-maternal exposure in cases of NICU hospitalization negate its beneficial effects on maternal psychological well-being in increasing maternal attachment and self-esteem. More efforts are needed for the neo-maternal interaction and the reevaluation of NICU visitation hours in order to promote maternal-infant interaction.

  18. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  20. Examination of Relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity and Parenting Styles in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived parenting styles of adolescents and the predictive role of perceived parenting styles on anxiety sensitivity. The study group was composed by 545 (255 females; 290 males) students studying in different high schools in Mugla. The data were collected using the…

  1. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Creativity in a Sample of Jamaican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Danielle D.; Copeland, Daelynn; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and creativity among a sample of Jamaican students and their parents. A total of 54 parents and 66 students participated in the study. Results revealed that the authoritarian style of parenting is the most salient predictor of creativity in children and that this…

  2. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  3. The relationship betweenmanagers’ leadership styles and emergency medical technicians’ job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimeh Ghorbanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsLeadership plays a crucial role in many professions, especially in challenging positions such as emergency medical service jobs. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between managers’ leadership styles and emergency medical technicians’ job satisfaction.MethodThis is a descriptive and cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2010. The research population included 21 managers and 87 emergency medical technicians working in 23 stations in Isfahan city, Iran. The main tools used for data accumulation were the Multiple Leadership Questionnaire for evaluating leadership styles and the Job Descriptive Index for measuring job satisfaction levels. Also, the Pearson correlation analysis test was used to evaluate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction.ResultsAmong both managers and technicians, the highest mean score related to the transformational management style, whereas the lowest mean score related to the laissez-faire management style. Moreover, a significant relationship (P<0.01 was found between the transformational and transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction. However, no significant relationship was observed between the laissez-faire management style and job satisfaction.ConclusionConsidering the importance of job satisfaction in medical emergencies, it is recommended that health sector policy makers should provide the groundwork for implementing the transformational leadership style to enhance job satisfaction of the medical emergency staff.

  4. The Relationship between School Principals' Leadership Styles and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Durdagi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between school administrators' leadership styles and the collective teacher efficacy based on teachers' perceptions. In line with this objective, the multifactor leadership style scale and the collective teacher efficacy scale were applied on 223 teachers who were working in the province of Erzurum.…

  5. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  6. The Effect of Mentor Intervention Style in Novice Entrepreneur Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne; Audet, Josee

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether mentor intervention styles influence benefits gained by novice entrepreneurs through their mentoring relationship. An empirical study conducted with 360 mentees who had received mentoring services shows that an intervention style which combines a maieutic approach with mentor involvement produced the…

  7. Gender Differences in the Relationships among Parenting Styles and College Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Kirtley, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants: Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58%…

  8. The Relationship between Followership Style and Job Performance in Botswana Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunji, Christianah O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the followership style and job performance in Botswana private universities. Attempt was made to determine if there is a significant relationship between followership styles in relation to job performance. A total of 102 randomly selected lecturers from the two private universities completed followership and job performance…

  9. The Relationship between Leadership Styles (Autocratic and Democratic) of School Administrators and the Mobbing Teachers Suffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Sevinç; Inandi, Yusuf; Giliç, Fahrettin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between democratic and autocratic leadership styles of school administrators and mobbing teachers experience as well as determining whether these leadership styles predict the mobbing level teachers suffer. The data in the study were collected from 395 primary school teachers (165 male and…

  10. The relationship between managers' leadership styles and emergency medical technicians' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanian, Azimeh; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Nejati, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Leadership plays a crucial role in many professions, especially in challenging positions such as emergency medical service jobs. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between managers' leadership styles and emergency medical technicians' job satisfaction. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2010. The research population included 21 managers and 87 emergency medical technicians working in 23 stations in Isfahan city, Iran. The main tools used for data accumulation were the Multiple Leadership Questionnaire for evaluating leadership styles and the Job Descriptive Index for measuring job satisfaction levels. Also, the Pearson correlation analysis test was used to evaluate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Among both managers and technicians, the highest mean score related to the transformational management style, whereas the lowest mean score related to the laissez-faire management style. Moreover, a significant relationship (Pleadership styles and job satisfaction. However, no significant relationship was observed between the laissez-faire management style and job satisfaction. Considering the importance of job satisfaction in medical emergencies, it is recommended that health sector policy makers should provide the groundwork for implementing the transformational leadership style to enhance job satisfaction of the medical emergency staff.

  11. The relationship between the principals’ leadership styles and their efficacy in change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf İNANDI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between principles’ efficacy in change management and their democratic and autocratic leadership styles are examined. The data in the research were collected from 231 teachers and 49 principals working in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. According to the results obtained, there is a significant difference between teachers’ and principals’ views about principals’ efficacy in change management and their leadership styles. While principals define their leadership style as one of democratic leadership, teachers define their principles’ leadership style as autocratic. Also, a positive relation at the middle level is observed between all the dimensions of principals’ efficacy in change management and their democratic leadership styles. According to the results of regression analysis to understand the degree of the relation, democratic leadership style applied by the principals very much determines the dimensions of their efficacy in change management.

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ajideh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are often linked to the individual's learning style. The purpose of this study was to identify Art and Science students’ major learning style preferences and their strategies they employ to tackle their reading materials in ESP courses at Tabriz Islamic Art University. To this end, 313 Art and Science students at Tabriz Islamic Art University answered two self-report questionnaires (PLSPQ and SORS to identify their major and minor learning styles as well as their reading strategies in ESP reading. In order to find any relationship between the students’ preferred learning style (s and their reading strategies in ESP, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient r was used to analyze the participants’ answers to the questionnaires. The results showed that Art students favored Kinesthetic, Auditory, Visual and Tactile learning styles as their major learning styles while Science students showed preference to only Kinesthetic Learning style as their major learning style and other learning styles as their minor ones. It was also found that the most dominant reading strategies both Art and Science students apply in reading their ESP texts was cognitive strategies. Correlational analyses of their major learning styles and their reading strategies are discussed.

  13. Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Status of Babol Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying and employing students’ learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students’ final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual–aural–reading/writing–kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles’ questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Results Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). Conclusion The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students. PMID:27382442

  14. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  15. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  16. Fairness Perceptions and Job Satisfaction as Mediators of the Relationship between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Sušanj; Ana Jakopec

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationship between different leadership styles and organizational commitment. Furthermore, it attempts to clarify the role of justice perceptions and job satisfaction as mediators of the relationship between (active and passive/avoiding) leadership styles and organizational commitment. The structural equations modeling was used to analyze data collected from a sample of participants recruited from different organizations. The results have indicated th...

  17. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2018-02-01

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between pediatric obesity and maternal emotional states and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Aynur Pekcanlar; Ozturk, Yesim; Avcil, Sibel Nur; Kavurma, Canem; Tufan, Evren

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate depression and anxiety levels of mothers whose child (7-11 years) and adolescent (12-18 years) offspring had obesity, as well as those mothers' attitudes toward their children and their family relationships. This is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 100 dyads. All mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. Maternal state anxiety in the group with obesity was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.03). As measured by Family Assessment Device, affective involvement (p = 0.05) and behavior control (p = 0.00) scores were significantly higher for those with obesity. Obesity and adolescence have independent effects on maternal state anxiety; affective involvement domain of family function is affected by both obesity and its interaction with adolescence, while behavior control domain is singularly affected by obesity. Our results may demonstrate that, for the mothers of children who have obesity, this condition may have an adverse effect on their lives and their family relationships. Pediatric obesity and developmental stage of offspring may have different effects on maternally reported psychometric variables. Cross-sectional design may hinder causal explanations. Further studies with longitudinal designs are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Exploring the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering health services to dense populations is more practical than to dispersed populations, other factors constant. This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level. Methods We use cross-sectional data to conduct cross-country, OLS regressions at the national level to estimate the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage. We separately estimate the effect of two measures of density on three population-level coverage rates (6 tests in total. Our coverage indicators are the fraction of the maternal population completing four antenatal care visits and the utilization rates of both skilled birth attendants and in-facility delivery. The first density metric we use is the percentage of a population living in an urban area. The second metric, which we denote as a density score, is a relative ranking of countries by population density. The score’s calculation discounts a nation’s uninhabited territory under the assumption those areas are irrelevant to service delivery. Results We find significantly positive relationships between our maternal health indicators and density measures. On average, a one-unit increase in our density score is equivalent to a 0.2% increase in coverage rates. Conclusions Countries with dispersed populations face higher burdens to achieve multinational coverage targets such as the United Nations’ Millennial Development Goals.

  20. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine

    2004-09-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.

  1. Longitudinal Transmission of Conflict Management Styles Across Inter-Parental and Adolescent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Soundry; van der Valk, Inge E; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2018-03-01

    This study longitudinally investigated transmission of conflict management styles across inter-parental, adolescent-parent, adolescent-friend, and adolescent-partner relationships. During four waves, 799 middle-to-late adolescents (M age-t1  = 15.80; 54% boys) and their parents completed the Conflict Resolution Style Inventory. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated transmission of adolescent conflict management styles in relationships with parents to relationships with friends and romantic partners: Positive problem solving and conflict engagement utilized by adolescents in conflicts with parents were significantly, positively related to, respectively, adolescent positive problem solving and conflict engagement in relationships with friends 1 year later and relationships with partners 2 years later. Thus, the study showed that the way adolescents manage conflicts with parents predicts how they handle conflicts later in relationships outside the family. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles, Self-Monitoring and Cybercrime in Social Network Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Abolghasem; Mohammadzade, Serwa; Chegini, Ali Asghar; Yarmohammadi Vasel, Mosaeib; Zoghi Paidar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users. Of these, 203 users (103 men and 100 women) filled out the questionnaires. The results showed that women achieved higher scores in self-monitoring and the anxious attachment style, and men achieved higher scores in cybercrime and the anxious attachment style. There was a negative correlation between self-monitoring and cybercrime, and the anxious attachment style had a positive correlation with cybercrime and a negative correlation with self-monitoring. The secure attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. The dependent attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. All correlations were significant. Attachment styles have significant relationships with both self-monitoring and cybercrime. Self-monitoring and attachment styles are significant predictors of cybercrimes.

  3. The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam

    2009-04-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.

  4. Conflict management style of Jordanian nurse managers and its relationship to staff nurses' intent to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Zaid; Nussera, Hayat; Masa'deh, Rami

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between conflict management styles used by nurse managers and intent to stay of staff nurses. Nursing shortages require managers to focus on the retention of staff nurses. Understanding the relationship between conflict management styles of nurse managers and intent to stay of staff nurses is one strategy to retain nurses in the workforce. A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was carried out in Jordan. The Rahim organization conflict inventory II (ROCI II) was completed by 42 nurse managers and the intent to stay scale was completed by 320 staff nurses from four hospitals in Jordan. The anova analysis was carried out. An integrative style was the first choice for nurse managers and the last choice was a dominating style. The overall level of intent to stay for nurses was moderate. Nurses tend to keep their current job for 2-3 years. There was a negative relationship between the dominating style as a conflict management style and the intent to stay for nurses. The findings of the present study support the claim that leadership practices affect the staff nurses' intent to stay and the quality of care. Nurse managers can improve the intent to stay for staff nurses if they use the appropriate conflict management styles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-esteem and demographic information questionnaires. The mean age of patients was 56.21 ± 1.45 years and 58.5% were male. The statistically positive relationship between self-esteem and problem-oriented coping style (p=0.05 and inverse relationship between self-esteem and emotion-oriented style (p<0.001. The patients with higher and lower self-esteem used problem-oriented and emotion-oriented styles, respectively. According to the results, it is necessary for nurses to enhance their role in promoting self-esteem and help patients undergoing hemodialysis while using problem-oriented style.

  6. The Relationship between Fashion and Style Orientation and Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gupta, Shipra

    The present paper unfolds the conceptual distinction between style and fashion orientation – two trait-like orientations of clothing consumption. We relate both concepts with subjective well-being and assume a higher subjective well-being for consumers with a higher style orientation than a higher...... fashion orientation. These assumptions were tested using survey data from four countries - Germany, Poland, Sweden, and the United States - with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. Employing structural equation modelling, we found that style orientation was stronger related to subjective well......-being than fashion orientation. We further found that materialism mediated the relationship between fashion and style orientation and subjective well-being and that fashion orientation was statistically significantly stronger related to materialism than style orientation. When including materialism...

  7. The role of child maltreatment and attachment style in adolescent relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, C; Wolfe, D A

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing attachment theory as a basis for conceptualizing close relationships among adolescents, this study investigated two important relationship risk factors (child maltreatment, and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style) as predictors of "offender" and "victim" experiences in youth relationships. In addition to considering the influence of these risk factors, we further considered their interaction in predicting conflict in close relationships. Of interest was the extent to which attachment styles may function as a moderator of the relationship between childhood abuse and current abuse in teen close relationships. High school students (N = 321) in grades 9 and 10 completed questionnaires tapping their histories of maltreatment, currently viewed styles of attachment, and conflict in close relationships over the past 6 months. Maltreatment alone emerged as the most consistent predictor, accounting for 13-18% of the variance in male's physically, sexually, and verbally abusive behaviors; in contrast, it was not highly predictive of female's abusive behaviors. Maltreatment was predictive of victimization experiences for both males and females. Attachment style did not substantially add to the prediction of relationship conflict beyond maltreatment; however, avoidant attachment style emerged repeatedly as a significant predictor of female abusiveness and victimization. Attachment self-ratings were found to function as a moderator of child maltreatment in predicting primarily male coercive behavior towards a relationship partner as well as predicting male's experience of coercion from a partner. Thus, the presence of childhood maltreatment and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style applies predominantly to male youth. The implication of these gender differences for understanding relationship violence is discussed.

  8. Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.

  9. Relationship between perception of parental communication styles incompatibility amongst high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbari Booreng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Family is an influential setting in physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Accordingly, studying the atmosphere and current relationships in the family in terms of their effect on children and adolescents is highly necessary. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the relationship between students' perception of parental communication styles and their own incompatibility. In this descriptive study, population consisted of female students of high school, of whom, 300 were selected and studied in a random cluster method. Data were collected using the standardized students' compatibility and family communication pattern questionnaire. The results showed a significant relationship only between emotional incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. A statistically significant relationship was also observed between general incompatibility and conformity communication orientation. The results also showed that parental communication styles have a role in children's incompatibility. Analysis of each dependent parameter alone showed a difference in parental communication styles only in emotional incompatibility component. Pluralistic family communication style is associated with emotional compatibility of children of the family. The present study results relating to role of communication styles in students' compatibility suggest that it is necessary to teach parents appropriate communication styles.

  10. Relationship between leadership styles of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Nebiat; Demissie, Asresash

    2013-03-01

    Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when pleadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, pleadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.

  11. [Relationship between characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD and mothers' parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Shoko; Uno, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have an authoritarian parenting style. However, the psychological process of developing an authoritarian parenting style has yet to be clearly defined. To clarify this psychological process, the present study examined the hypothesis that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD initially increase the mothers' parenting stress, which influences their parenting style. Thirty-six mothers of children with AD/HD (children's mean age: 8.1 years) and the same number of controls (children's mean age: 8.4 years) participated in the present study. The mothers' parenting stress was assessed using the Japanese Parenting Stress Index. Parenting styles were assessed using the TK-style scale for evaluating the relationships between parents and children. The results indicated that the mothers of children with AD/HD had significantly higher scores than controls for all parenting stress items and negative parenting style variables (dissatisfaction, reproach, strictness, interference, inconsistency and disagreement of 10 attitudes). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD were associated with the degree of attachment in mothers, which was related to the strict and reproachful parenting style in the AD/HD group. These results suggest that mothers of children with AD/HD are likely to have a strict and reproachful parenting style as a result of a lack of attachment with the child.

  12. An empirical study to measure the relationship between management style and conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Moghaddas Pour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays an important role among five main components of management. These days, many organizations try to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and conflict management. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between relationship-oriented leadership style and solution-oriented strategy as well as between leadership style and conflict management. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 43 managers who were in different industries in west part of Iran. Most of the people who participated in our survey were male and they were between 25 to 30 years old. The study considers relationship between leadership style and conflict management, which includes the relationship between relationship-oriented and task-oriented leaderships with avoiding conflict management strategy, solution and control based conflict managements. The results confirmed that there is only a meaningful relationship between relationship-oriented leadership with solution-based conflict management. In other words, our survey indicates that when there is a conflict, management can handle the problem using his/her relationship and find appropriate solution to resolve any possible conflict.

  13. A Study of the Relationship of Parenting Styles, Child Temperament, and Operatory Behavior in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.

  14. An empirical investigation on the relationship between parenting styles and employees' career adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Sedrpoushan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between parenting styles and employees' career adaptability. The statistical population includes all employees in Polyacrid's Factory of Isfahan in 2012. The proposed study selects a sample of 321 employees using cluster sampling. The study has used a based on Baumrind's theorem, which maintains three groups of permissive, authoritarian and authoritative in Likert scale. The results of our study have indicated that there is definitely a difference in parenting style among various members in terms of career concern, career curiosity and career confidence but such relationship does not exists in terms of career control. In addition, the study explains that people with permissive parenting style have less career concern, career curiosity and career confidence than those with permissive parenting style do.

  15. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  16. Fairness Perceptions and Job Satisfaction as Mediators of the Relationship between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Sušanj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the relationship between different leadership styles and organizational commitment. Furthermore, it attempts to clarify the role of justice perceptions and job satisfaction as mediators of the relationship between (active and passive/avoiding leadership styles and organizational commitment. The structural equations modeling was used to analyze data collected from a sample of participants recruited from different organizations. The results have indicated that perceived supervisors active leadership styles are positively linked, and have both, direct and indirect effects on employees' organizational commitment. Perceived passive/avoiding leadership styles do not have any effect on organizational justice, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Employees' job satisfaction depends directly on the level of organizational justice being perceived by the employees. Job satisfaction also significantly contributes to organizational commitment. Implications of the results concerning job and organizational attitudes are discussed, and suggestions for managing human resources are given.

  17. Survey of relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and conflict management style choices

    OpenAIRE

    SEDIGHEH MOKHTARPOUR; MOHSEN KHADEMI; HOSSEIN MOKHTARPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Conflict is inevitable in workplaces and it is very important to manage it in a proper way to minimize the problems that might arise. The aim of this research is surveying the relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and the choice of conflict management styles. Methods: The statistical society included 213 employed principals of Shiraz high schools. The data on conflict management style choices were gathered using the conflict management qu...

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Ajideh; Mohammad Zohrabi; Kazem Pouralvar

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are ...

  19. Individual differences in impulsivity and their relationship to a Western-style diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Jordan; Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan; Mahmut, Mehmet; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    In two studies we tested for a relationship between consumption of a Western-style diet, characterised by high intakes of saturated fat and added sugar, and individual differences in impulsivity. In Study 1, participants completed both a food frequency measure to assess diet and a measure of trait impulsivity. Greater trait impulsivity was associated with consumption of a Western-style diet in both men and women, independent of body mass index (BMI). Greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverage...

  20. An Exploration Of The Relationship Between Leadership Styles And The Implementation Of Transformation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    J. Naidu; M. S. van der Walt

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a relationship exists between the way in which subordinates experience their managers’ leadership styles and the influence of such leadership styles on the implementation of transformation interventions. A two-phase triangulated research design was employed where the qualitative phase preceded the quantitative phase. Ninety six (N = 96) respondents from a mining company participated in the survey. Results indicate a statistical and meani...

  1. The Relationship among Parenting Styles, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Taran; Siavash Kalantari; Fateme Dahaghin; Zahra Shahsavari Abhari

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship among parenting styles, self-efficacy, and achievement among students. This study used ex post facto research method. The population consisted of all high school students in Zanjan in academic year 2014-2015. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, 400 participants were selected as sample. The Scheffer’s parenting styles questionnaire and Scherrer’s self-efficacy questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results showed that there was ...

  2. The relationship between the principals’ leadership styles and their efficacy in change management

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf İNANDI; Ayşe UZUN; Hayriye YEŞİL

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between principles’ efficacy in change management and their democratic and autocratic leadership styles are examined. The data in the research were collected from 231 teachers and 49 principals working in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. According to the results obtained, there is a significant difference between teachers’ and principals’ views about principals’ efficacy in change management and their leadership styles. While principals define their lea...

  3. Uninvolved Maternal Feeding Style Moderates the Association of Emotional Overeating to Preschoolers' Body Mass Index z-Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  5. The Relationships among Attachment Style, Personality Traits, Interpersonal Competency, and Facebook Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Wright, Stephen L.; Hudiburgh, Lynette M.

    2012-01-01

    Among emerging adult populations, the increasingly prevalent use of online social media, such as Facebook, and its relationship to individual personality traits and interpersonal relationships are of growing interest to researchers. The current study sought to investigate how attachment style, personality traits based on the Five Factor Model, and…

  6. Maternal Parenting Style and Delinquency by Race and the Moderating Effect of Structural Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J.; Schroeder, Ryan D.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary research suggests authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style in deterring juvenile delinquency. Some research has found there are differences in parenting style between racial groups due to structural disadvantage faced by marginalized individuals. Yet, relatively little is known about how racial differences in…

  7. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles: Unique and Combined Links to Adolescent and Early Adult Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…

  8. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    OpenAIRE

    VAR, Esra ÇALIK; Kılıç, Şükran; Kumandaş, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parenting style affects the capacity of children to interact with others, psychological wellbeing, and life skills; therefore, ...

  9. Original article Attachment styles and anxiety of rejecters in intimate relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.

  10. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  11. Attachment styles, relationship satisfaction, and well-being in working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, Annette J; Stuhlmacher, Alice F

    2013-01-01

    We propose and test a model connecting women's attachment styles, intimate relationship quality, workplace supervisor relationships, and well-being. The factors that lead to women's successful interaction patterns at home with a partner are suggested to be similar to successful interactions at work and are suggested to be related to well-being. A model was tested with data from 209 working women across various U.S. organizations. Women with an avoidance attachment style tended to have intimate relationships that were low in satisfaction and cohesion as well as low-quality relationships with their supervisors. Women in cohesive intimate relationships were likely to be satisfied with their job, experience low conflict at work, and report few physical symptoms. Women who had quality relationships with their superiors also had low conflict at work and were satisfied with their jobs. Results show important associations among social relationships at home and work related to quality of life.

  12. The Effects of Maternal Verbal Aggression on the Adult Child's Future Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith; Patterson, Brian R.

    1997-01-01

    Considers maternal verbal aggression and its effects on the adult-children's romantic relationships later in life. Introduces solidarity, emotional support, and relationship quality as rational outcomes and uses them to evaluate the effects of maternal verbal aggression on relationships. Indicates undergraduate students who report receiving high…

  13. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-12-01

    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  14. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  15. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  16. A longitudinal study on the maternal–fetal relationship and postnatal maternal sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; de Cock, E.S.A.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined whether early signs of maternal sensitivity can be detected during pregnancy by focusing on the maternal–fetal relationship and postnatal maternal sensitivity. Background: Earlier research has identified maternal sensitive behaviour as an important factor for

  17. Survey of relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and conflict management style choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH MOKHTARPOUR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conflict is inevitable in workplaces and it is very important to manage it in a proper way to minimize the problems that might arise. The aim of this research is surveying the relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and the choice of conflict management styles. Methods: The statistical society included 213 employed principals of Shiraz high schools. The data on conflict management style choices were gathered using the conflict management questionnaire. The t-test, ANOVA and regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The results of this research showed that the compromise style was the most frequently used method by principals followed by collaboration and accommodation, domination and avoidance, respectively. There was a significant association between the principals’ level of income and the use of collaboration and accommodation styles. There was a statistically significant difference between gender and the use of the five fold approach in the domination style. Overall, there was a significant association between the principals’ demographic characteristics and the conflict management style choices. Concolusion: The principals should notice that conflict is inevitable in organizations and they should consider the opinions and ideas of both parties involved in the conflict. So the best approach for conflict management by principals is to pay attention to its outcomes and choose the style which has the most benefit for the involved parties.

  18. The study of the relationship between teachers' teaching styles and TPACK education competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rkan Efilti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determining teacher candidates' TPACK education competencies and qualifications and the status of different teaching styles so the relationship between TPACK education competencies and teaching styles could be shown. For this purpose, two different measuring tools of quantitative methods were applied to teacher candidates. To determine teacher candidates’ teaching styles "Teaching Style Inventory" developed by Grasha , and adapted by Uredi to Turkish was applied. Moreover, "TPACK-Deep - Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale" developed by Kabakçı-Yurdakul, Odabaşı, Kılıçer, Çoklar, Birinci and Kurt was used. The participants of the study consisted of 342 senior students who were teacher candidates studying at the University of Necmettin Erbakan during the academic year of 2012-2013. As a result of the research it was seen that teacher candidates' teaching style scores were respectively listed as, facilitator, delegator, personal model, expert and authority. In terms of TPACK education competencies, teachers found themselves at a highly advanced level. On the other hand, the type of teaching style, as well as TPACK competencies didn’t show any statistically significant gender differences. Finally, between all the teaching styles and TPACK competencies, there was an intermediate and a positive correlation.

  19. Relations among Maternal Parenting Style, Academic Competence, and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Candice Y.-W.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lai, Beatrice P.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The relations among maternal concern and restrictiveness, self-evaluated academic competence, and life satisfaction were explored in a short-term longitudinal study of 346 7th-grade students (126 males and 220 females) in Hong Kong. The authors found that perceived maternal concern, academic competence, and life satisfaction significantly declined…

  20. The Relationship Between Perceived Parenting Styles and Dimensions of Perfectionism in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فریبا فرازی

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that predict perfectionism in children education is reported to be families and the way their expectation of children. The aim of the present research is to investigate the role of perceived parenting styles in perfectionism of third grade female students in high school. Using a correlational method, 161 students through a multi stage cluster method were selected. Scales of perception of parenting styles (POPS, and dimensions of perfectionism (MPS were applied to evaluate the research variables. The results of the regression analysis showed that among parenting styles, mother's involvement and warmth have a significant negative relationship with socially prescribed perfectionism. As a result of warmer relations of mother and child and mother's involvement in children's various activities may reduce socially prescribed perfectionism. It seems that the involvement style and warmth of the mothers would play an important role in prediction of socially prescribed perfectionism.

  1. Relationship of recalled parenting style to self-perception in Korean American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesoo; Chung, Ruth H Gim

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles and the number of years in the United States with self-perception (academic competence, morality, and self-reliance) as recalled by Korean American college students (N = 144). Authoritative parenting behaviors were most common in Korean American families, followed by authoritarian behaviors, with permissive behaviors a distant 3rd. Authoritative parenting styles and the number of years lived in the United States were predictive of higher academic competence. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were predictive of lower self-reliance, whereas number of years lived in the United States was related to higher self-reliance. Those findings provide partial support for generalizing D. Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles to Korean American families, and the findings demonstrate the importance of considering acculturation issues in parenting studies.

  2. Parental communication style and family relationships in children of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Yvonne H; Huntley Jones, Steven; Espie, Jonathan; Bentall, Richard; Tai, Sara

    2008-09-01

    To examine relationships between parental communication styles and family environment in parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and their children (CBP). On measures of parental communication styles and family environment, 20 BD parents and their 23 children (CBP) were compared to controls. Children completed a current mood measure. BD parents endorsed more negative communication styles and were less expressive than controls. CBP presented with more current or lifetime mood disorder diagnoses than control children (CC). Current depressive mood was associated with different perceptions of family environment for both CBP and CC. This familial high risk design indicated differences in family environment, parenting style, and in children of bipolar parents' perception of their family environment as it relates to their current mood.

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Teaching Collaboration Skills and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... style, and Group 2 showed a strong preference for competitive and cooperative learning styles. Group 1 rated the workshop more positively than Group 2. However, Group 2 reported a larger increase in self-efficacy compared to those in Group 1 (18.9% vs. 6.0%). Both groups provided different suggestions...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...

  4. Maternal unemployment and childhood overweight: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Leslie; Liu, Yujia; Rodriguez, Eunice

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis. As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups. Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

  5. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW (birth weight below 2500g- case group and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group. The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test. Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042, and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.

  6. The relationship between leadership style and nurse-to-nurse incivility: turning the lens inward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of leadership styles on the reported rates of lateral hostility in nurses. Previous explanations of horizontal incivility point to oppressed group behaviour and socialisation of nurses. Leadership and organisational culture are known to have a profound impact on workplace behaviour, yet few studies have examined the relationship between leadership style and nurse-to-nurse incivility. A survey was used to assess the perceived levels of incivility and the leadership styles experienced by 237 participants defined as 'staff nurses'. Transformational leadership style had the strongest correlation with low levels of incivility. Staff input and leader/staff teamwork also influence staff incivility. Leadership style is not a definitive factor of incivility, but leader behaviours impact the level of incivility between staff nurses. The relationship between leaders and staff and the empowerment of staff have the strongest impact on nurse incivility. The factors found to correlate with incivility in this study are under the influence of nurse leaders. Relationships and interpersonal dynamics must be attended to. Leaders can also instil the structures known to foster nurse empowerment, which are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  8. A relationship between leadership style and perceived organizational effectiveness by directors and managers in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Derakhshandeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Management is the basis of all necessary changes required for any organization. In order to reach organizational objectives, it is necessary to use human resources as effectively as possible. All management team members need to know about their own thinking as well as their ideas on reaching common objectives with better outcomes. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the relationship between leadership style and perceived organizational effectiveness by directors and managers in organizations. The proposed study distributes a questionnaire consists of 37 questions among some management team of Agricultural ministry in one of the provinces of Iran. The main hypothesis of this survey examines the positive relationship between leadership style and perceived organizational effectiveness. The other hypothesis is associated with the supportive leadership style and perceived organization effectiveness and the third question is associated with democratic leadership style and perceived organization effectiveness. The results of Spearman-Pearson test confirm all three results, which indicate there is a meaningful and positive relationship between leadership style and perceived organizational effectiveness.

  9. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  10. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  11. The relationship between acculturation and infant feeding styles in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancel, Liz D; Perrin, Eliana; Yin, Shonna H; Sanders, Lee; Delamater, Alan; Perreira, Krista M; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Eden, Svetlana; Shintani, Ayumi; Rothman, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between parental acculturation and infant feeding style in a sample of Latino parents. A post hoc analysis was performed using data from an ongoing four-site randomized controlled trial to promote early childhood obesity prevention. Cross-sectional data of parent-child dyads at the 12-month well-child visit who self-reported their Latino ethnicity were analyzed. The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) and a subset of the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (IFSQ) that assessed four primary feeding styles were administered. SASH level (low vs. high) with each feeding style was compared by analyses. Complete SASH data were available for 398 of 431 Latino dyads. Median SASH score was 1.8 (IQR 1.4-2.7); 82% of participants had low acculturation (score parents with lower acculturation were more likely than those with higher acculturation to endorse feeding styles that are associated with child obesity. Further research is needed to determine why acculturation and feeding style relate. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Relationships between child-rearing styles and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, R W

    1978-02-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that "authoritarian" styles of child rearing will lead to more home and school problems than will "accommodative" styles. One hundred thirty-five children have been followed up from age 2 into first grade. Follow-up observations show no significant differences between groups on any of the scores indicating malfunctioning for boys or girls at home or school. However, the home behavior of boys being raised with accommodative styles was described in more positive terms by their mothers than those raised with authoritarian styles. The accommodatively raisded girls were described in more positive terms by their first grade teachers. We found no evidence in this study that the permissive style is producing large numbers of "spoiled brats" nor that the authoritarian styles are producing large numbers of overly aggressive or inhibited children. The way parents handle authority relationships is not sufficientyl predictive of later problems to warrant any widespread attempts by physicians to change them. The physician should respect individual differences in child-rearing syle and only intervene where there is substantial evidence that a particular approach is having a harmful effect.

  13. The Relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principal Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, H. William; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study employed Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership concept to investigate the relationship between teacher job satisfaction and leadership behaviors of telling, selling, participating, and delegating. About 42 percent of the 339 teachers queried were dissatisfied. Teachers were least satisfied with teaching's financial aspects and most…

  14. Relationship between Communication Competence and Conflict Management Styles of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Tevfik; Ayik, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Determining the relationship between communication competence and conflict management styles of school principals, according to teacher perceptions, is important for school principals to effectively manage and foster a positive school environment. Conflicts are inevitable in all types of schools. Managing conflicts and maintaining…

  15. Examination of the Relationship between Coaching Efficacy and Conflict Management Style in Soccer Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Melih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between coaching efficacy and conflict management style of the soccer coaches. The sample included 224 male soccer coaches ranging in coaching experience from 2 to 15 years. The Coaching Efficacy Scale and The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory were used to measure coaching…

  16. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Students' Attitude toward Leisure Time Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rena, Syahidah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to state the relationship between the parenting style and students' attitude toward leisure reading. A total of 147 (65 male and 82 female) students from two classes (class five, 80 and class six, 67) were participated in the present study. The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Elementary Reading…

  17. Family-Style Dining: Focusing on the Importance of Rituals in Building Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of family-style dining in early childhood education and care settings for child nutrition, socialization, and cognitive development. Illustrates how family dining experiences build family relationships and provide a context for defining family roles and responsibilities. Shows how easily television can become a mealtime…

  18. Relationship between Leadership Styles of School Principals and Whistleblowing Behaviors of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Abbas; Donmez, Emrah

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between leadership styles of school principals and whistle blowing behaviors of teachers. The sample of this study, which is designed in the relational survey model, consists of 393 teachers working in primary, secondary and high schools in the province of Mugla. The data were collected through…

  19. The Relationship between Writing Anxiety and Learning Styles among Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between learning styles and writing anxiety with female (n=72) and male (n=18) graduate students. Findings reveal that students with the highest levels of writing anxiety tended to be those who prefer to learn in warm environments, lacked self-motivation, liked structure, were peer-oriented learners, were…

  20. Burnout in Nurse Faculty: Relationships with Management Style, Collegial Support, and Work Load in Collegiate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Margaret Jorgensen

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of management behavior of the dean, collegial support, and workload to burnout among faculty in collegiate nursing programs found that collegial support, positive feedback from the dean, and a participatory management style are more important for protecting faculty against burnout than attention to workload. (MSE)

  1. Coping Styles as Moderating the Relationships between Terrorist Attacks and Well-Being Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…

  2. The Relationship among Parenting Styles Experienced during Childhood, Anxiety, Motivation, and Academic Success in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…

  3. The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Multiple Intelligences among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shayeghi, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between preferences of Multiple Intelligences and perceptual/social learning styles. Two self-report questionnaires were administered to a total of 207 male and female participants. Pearson correlation results revealed statistically significant positive relations between…

  4. Predictor Relationships between Values Held by Married Individuals, Resilience and Conflict Resolution Styles: A Model Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…

  5. Leadership style and leadership effectiveness: Does cultural intelligence moderate the relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-06-01

    Contribution and value add: Being one of the first studies to explore the moderating effect of leader cultural intelligence on the relationship between leadership style and leadership effectiveness, this research has made a valuable contribution to building both the cultural intelligence and leadership knowledge bases.

  6. The Relationship between Parenting Styles, General Deviance, Academic Dishonesty, and Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Hanna M.; Avalos, Maria D.; Olson, James N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand upon the existing research on the relationship between parenting styles, general deviance, and romantic infidelity. It was hypothesized that the adult children of parents who practiced authoritative parenting would report less favorable attitudes toward, and fewer incidences of, general deviance and…

  7. Coping Strategies in the Workplace: Relationships with Attributional Style and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L.; Eggerth, Donald; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Sanchez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    This paper examined the relationships between workplace coping strategies, occupational attributional style, and job satisfaction among a sample of 190 nurses employed with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. As an occupational group, nurses experience high levels of chronic workplace stressors. Participants completed a questionnaire packet…

  8. Psychosocial Predictors of Relationship Conflict Styles as Mediated by Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M. Monteiro; Shyngle K. Balogun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and emotional intelligence (EI) on conflict management styles among dating age adults in Botswana. A mixed survey and quasi-experimental design was used to assess the relationship between age and gender and the mediating influence of EI on participants’ preferred conflict management strategies (avoidance, competition, compromise, accommodation, and collaboration) in...

  9. An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Learning Styles in Turkish Freshman Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the language learning strategies of freshman students and their learning styles. This study is a descriptive research and employs a relational screening model. Participants of the study were 328 freshman students majoring in different fields at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet…

  10. Determination of the Relationship between 8th Grade Students Learning Styles and TIMSS Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur; Hanci, Alper

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determination of the relationship between learning styles and TIMSS mathematics achievements of eighth grade students. Correlational research design that is one of the quantitative research methods, was used in this study. The sample of the research consists of 652 8th grade students 347 are male and 305 are female…

  11. The relationships between expressed emotion, affective style and communication deviance in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugter, M. A.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D. H.; van der Does, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between expressed emotion (EE), affective style (AS) and communication deviance (CD) were studied during hospitalization and after discharge. EE was measured with both the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Five-Minutes Speech Sample (FMSS). The study subjects were patients

  12. Longitudinal transmission of conflict management styles across inter-parental and adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, S.; Branje, S.J.T.; van der Valk, I.E.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study longitudinally investigated transmission of conflict management styles across inter-parental, adolescent-parent, adolescent-friend, and adolescent-partner relationships. During four waves, 799 middle-to-late adolescents (Mage-t1 = 15.80; 54% boys) and their parents completed the Conflict

  13. The Relationships between Critical Thinking Skills and Learning Styles of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilekli, Yalçin

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the relationship between critical thinking skills and learning styles of mentally gifted students. The participants were 225 gifted students in Turkey attending Science and Art Centres which are after-school activity centers for mentally gifted students. Participants were 9-15 years old and were attending secondary…

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGERS' LEADERSHIP STYLES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION OFFICES UNIVERSITIES AND SPORT VOLUNTEERS' SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between managers' leadership styles in physical education offices universities and sport volunteers' satisfaction. Statistical populations of this study included the whole volunteer students in sport associations of countries decimal zones universities. The sample of the study consisted of 231 volunteers who were selected by Morgan Table (n=231, which the results of 208 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. After verifying the validity of questionnaires by the experts, their reliability were calculated as (α=0.91 and α=0.88 respectively for leadership style and Satisfaction questionnaires by Cronbach's alpha coefficient in a pilot study. Data were analyzed with parametric tests at P0.05. Also, There was negative significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership style and volunteers' satisfaction (r= -0.355, sig=0.001. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between preferences of managers' leadership styles. Thus, transformational style (3.723+0.683 was in first and the transactional (3.476+0.572 and laissez-faire (2.827+0.833 styles were in next preferences. Also, from volunteer students' perspective, Satisfaction of acquiring experience, career and social were the most important dimensions, and material Satisfaction was the least important factor. According to research results, It seems that managers of Physical Education offices universities can increase the amount of volunteers' Satisfaction and provide background of their more and most effective attendance in sport association with transformational and inspiration leadership styles, appropriate incentive policies and converting sport association environment to a place in which easier accessibility to individuals' volunteer incentives becomes possible.

  15. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Leadership Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Hasan; Uslu, Barış

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to determine the relationship between learning styles and leadership orientations of pre-service teachers. In the research process, the data collection tool consists of “Learning Styles” and “Leadership Orientations” scales and the personal information form was applied to 452 pre-service teachers. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis; to determine the relationship between the variables, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis; to examine the predictive strength of le...

  16. Relationship between perception of parental communication styles incompatibility amongst high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akbari Booreng

    2017-01-01

    Family is an influential setting in physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Accordingly, studying the atmosphere and current relationships in the family in terms of their effect on children and adolescents is highly necessary. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the relationship between students' perception of parental communication styles and their own incompatibility. In this descriptive study, population consisted of female students of high school, of whom,...

  17. Relationship between Teaching Styles of Faculty Members and Social Adjustment of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Nejad B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Teachers as one of the most important and most influential people in students’ life and they have an important effect on their personal and social life. Social adjustment as an important indicator of mental health is an issues which has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. The aime of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' learning styles faculty members and social adjustment. Instrument & Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was done in 2014. The study population consisted of all first-year students and faculty of the Urmia Medical University. 220 faculty and 350 students were selected using Cochran formula and random sampling. Data collected by Grasha teaching styles standard questionnaires and California psychological tests. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and analysis of variance. Findings: There was a significant correlation between specialty-oriented (p=0.042 r=0.15, authoritarian (p=0.02 r=0.14, model-oriented (p=0.17 r=0.03 and facilitates styles (p=0.032 r=0.21 with students' social adjustment, but sthere was no significant correlation between selected style with social adjustment (p=0.23 r=-0.18. No significant relationship was observed between educational degree (p=0.274 and work experience (p=0.583 of faculty members with teaching methods. Conclusion: Specialty-oriented, authoritarian, model-oriented, and facilitates teaching styles are associated with students' social adjustment no relationship is observed between the selected teaching style with students' social adjustment.

  18. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  19. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  20. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik Var, Esra; Kiliç, Sükran; Kumandas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and…

  1. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a

  2. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: Unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14–22), followed across two measurement waves with a

  3. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  4. Self- and Co-Regulation of Anger and Fear in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Maternal Parenting Style and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and…

  5. The Effects of Maternal Parenting Style and Religious Commitment on Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behavior among African-American Parochial College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…

  6. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  7. Children's inferential styles, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and maternal expressed emotion-criticism: An integrated model for the intergenerational transmission of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Grassia, Marie; Benas, Jessica S; McGeary, John

    2009-11-01

    The authors tested a model for the intergenerational transmission of depression integrating specific genetic (5-HTTLPR), cognitive (inferential style), and environmental (mother depressive symptoms and expressed-emotion criticism [EE-Crit]) risk factors. Supporting the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with elevated levels of stress in children's lives, mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibited higher depressive symptoms across a 6-month multiwave follow-up than mothers with no depression history. In addition, partially supporting our hypothesis, levels of maternal criticism during the follow-up were significantly related to mothers' current depressive symptoms but not to history of MDD. Finally, the authors found support for an integrated Gene x Cognition x Environment model of risk. Specifically, among children with negative inferential styles regarding their self-characteristics, there was a clear dose response of 5-HTTLPR genotype moderating the relation between maternal criticism and children's depressive symptoms, with the highest depressive symptoms during the follow-up observed among children carrying 2 copies of the 5-HTTLPR lower expressing alleles (short [S] or long [LG]) who also exhibited negative inferential styles for self-characteristics and who experienced high levels of EE-Crit. In contrast, children with positive inferential styles exhibited low depressive symptoms regardless of 5-HTTLPR genotype or level of maternal criticism. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal spillover effects of conflict resolution styles between adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Vandervalk, Inge E; De Goede, Irene H A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-02-01

    This study longitudinally investigated spillover effects of conflict resolution styles in adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles with parents and best friends were completed by adolescents from two age cohorts: 559 early adolescents (mean age 13.4) and 327 middle adolescents (mean age 17.7). Path analyses on two waves, with a three-year interval, indicated that in the early-to-middle adolescent group positive problem solving and conflict engagement spilled over from adolescent-parent relationships to adolescent friendships and not from adolescent friendships to adolescent-parent relationships. In the middle-to-late adolescent group, we found bidirectional spillover effects for these two conflict resolution styles. For withdrawal, we found bidirectional spillover effects in both cohorts. This study showed that both parents and friends set the stage for exercising and learning conflict resolution styles and thereby shape adolescents' future conflict behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  10. Maternal Self-Regulation, Relationship Adjustment, and Home Chaos: Contributions to Infant Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Laake, Lauren M.; Oddi, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the direct and indirect effects of parental self-regulation on children’s outcomes. In the present investigation, the effects of maternal self-regulation, home chaos, and inter-parental relationship adjustment on broad and specific indicators of infant negative emotionality (NE) were examined. A sample of maternal caregivers and their 4-month-old infants (N = 85) from a rural community participated. Results demonstrated that better maternal self-regulation was associated with lower infant NE broadly, as well as with lower infant sadness and distress to limitations/frustration and better falling reactivity (i.e. emotion regulation), specifically. Maternal self-regulation also predicted less chaotic home environments and better maternal inter-parental relationship adjustment. Findings also supported the indirect effects of maternal self-regulation on broad and specific indicators of infant NE through home chaos and maternal relationship adjustment. Some differential effects were also identified. Elevated home chaos appeared to specifically affect infant frustration/distress to limitations whereas maternal relationship adjustment affected broad infant NE, as well as several specific indicators of infant NE: frustration/distress to limitations, sadness, and falling reactivity. In conjunction with other recent investigations that have reported the effects of maternal self-regulation on parenting, the findings in the present investigation suggest that parental self-regulation may influence children’s outcomes through several proximal environmental pathways. PMID:23748168

  11. A study of relationship between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Ali Mohammad Mosadegh; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to explore the relationships between managers' leadership styles and employees' job satisfaction in Isfahan University Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran, 2004. The data were collected through the distribution of two questionnaires among the 814 employees, first line, middle and senior managers of these hospitals through a stratified random sampling. The dominant leadership style of managers was participative. The mean score of employee-oriented dimension of leadership style in first line, middle and senior managers were 52, 54, and 54 (from 75 credit) respectively. The mean score of task-oriented dimension of leadership style in first line, middle and senior managers were 68, 69, and 70 (from 100 credit) respectively. The mean score of employee's job satisfaction was 3.26 +/- 0.56 on a 6 scale (moderate satisfaction), 1.9, 26.1, 64.7, and 7.3 percent of hospital employees had respectively very low, low, moderate, and high satisfaction with their job. Employees demonstrated less satisfaction with salaries, benefits, work conditions, promotion and communication as satisfier factors and more satisfaction with factors such as the nature of the job, co-workers and supervision type factors. There was significant correlation (p leadership behaviors and employees and job satisfaction. Employee job satisfaction depends upon the leadership style of managers. Nevertheless, participative management is not always a good management style. Managers should select the best leadership style according to the organizational culture and employees' organizational maturity. Although this study conducted in Iran, it is anticipated that the findings may have relevance on a broader scale. By replicating this study in different countries and contexts the results of could be very helpful for developing a new model of leadership with new implementation techniques that can be implemented easily and successfully in a cross cultural context.

  12. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  14. Psychosocial Predictors of Relationship Conflict Styles as Mediated by Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Monteiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and emotional intelligence (EI on conflict management styles among dating age adults in Botswana. A mixed survey and quasi-experimental design was used to assess the relationship between age and gender and the mediating influence of EI on participants’ preferred conflict management strategies (avoidance, competition, compromise, accommodation, and collaboration in response to violent and nonviolent relationship conflict. One hundred fifty-two participants were surveyed before (with the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale and after (with the Conflict Style Questionnaire watching video clips of nonviolent and violent relationship conflict. Correlations, t tests, and regression analyses were conducted. Findings revealed that women were more likely than men to report use of collaboration conflict strategies in response to the nonviolent video, and men were more likely than women to report accommodation strategies in response to the violent video. In the regression analysis, gender was a significant predictor of accommodation conflict style in response to the violent video, and EI had a significant independent and partial mediating relationship with compromise in response to the violent situation and collaboration in response to both violent and nonviolent conflict situations. Findings highlight the important role of EI in the use of higher-level relationship conflict strategies. Implications in the way of communication and conflict management for dating age adults and couples are discussed.

  15. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION STYLE, PERSONALITY TRAIT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Mayowa Solaja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In organizational research and practice, prolific communication is significantly linked with quality leadership traits. Leadership quality helps in mitigating the failure of an organization to survive the increasing business challenges that may result in waste of resources, talents and potentials needed for achieving optimal organizational productivity. However, an examination of academic literatures reveal that corporate leaders are often faced with the challenge of how to move smoothly between different communication styles to communicate clearly articulating ideas and knowledge to employee’s whenever the occasion demands which hinders organizational productivity. Against this background, this study explores the relationship between leadership communication style, personality trait and organizational productivity. The study utilized cross-sectional survey method. Participants were 112 academic staff of University of Lagos, Nigeria who was selected through multi-stage sampling techniques. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and personal observation. Results show that there exists a connection between leadership communication style and personality trait. Also, the finding revealed that leadership communication style determines organization productivity. More so, the finding established that personality traits and communication styles have combine effect on organizational productivity. Conclusively, the findings were discussed with reference to relevant empirical literatures with recommendations for management of organizations both for practice and future research highlighted.

  16. Open, trusting relationships underpin safety in rural maternity a hermeneutic phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth

    2016-11-24

    There are interwoven personal, professional and organisational relationships to be navigated in maternity in all regions. In rural regions relationships are integral to safe maternity care. Yet there is a paucity of research on how relationships influence safety and nurture satisfying experiences for rural maternity care providers and mothers and families in these regions. This paper draws attention to how these relationships matter. This research is informed by hermeneutic phenomenology drawing on Heidegger and Gadamer. Thirteen participants were recruited via purposeful sampling and asked to share their experiences of rural maternity care in recorded unstructured in-depth interviews. Participants were women and health care providers living and working in rural regions. Recordings were transcribed and data interpretively analysed until a plausible and trustworthy thematic pattern emerged. Throughout the data the relational nature of rural living surfaced as an interweaving tapestry of connectivity. Relationships in rural maternity are revealed in myriad ways: for some optimal relationships, for others feeling isolated, living with discord and professional disharmony. Professional misunderstandings undermine relationships. Rural maternity can become unsustainable and unsettling when relationships break down leading to unsafeness. This study reveals how relationships are an important and vital aspect to the lived-experience of rural maternity care. Relationships are founded on mutual understanding and attuned to trust matter. These relationships are forged over time and keep childbirth safe and enable maternity care providers to work sustainably. Yet hidden unspoken pre-understandings of individuals and groups build tension in relationships leading to discord. Trust builds healthy rural communities of practice within which everyone can flourish, feel accepted, supported and safe. This is facilitated by collaborative learning activities and open respectful

  17. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R.; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A.; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V.; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the “big picture.” Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Method Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination—questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)—trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Results Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. Discussion In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). PMID:28963792

  19. The relationship between leadership styles, innovation and organisational performance: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Gilbert Sethibe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to consolidate the published scientific knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Concepts, statements and conceptual frameworks were used as structure to analyse the body of scientific knowledge. After consulting 31 major research databases using the systematic literature review methodology, only seven journals articles that examined the link between leadership, innovation and organisational performance were identified. The synthesis of the journal articles revealed (a that consensus exists among researchers as far as the relevant concepts are concerned; (b that most agree on the definition of leadership and innovation but that a uniform understanding of what constitutes organisational performance is lacking; and (c that conceptual models are too simplistic and do not consider mediator variables or multiple financial criteria measures. The findings further reveal that innovation is significantly and positively related to superior organisational performance, and that, although transformational leadership style is significantly and positively related to innovation, transactional leadership style is more appropriate when the aim is to instil a culture of innovation. Transformational leadership style, by contrast, is mostly associated with organisational performance. In addition, the findings further reveal that none of the studies investigate the mediating effect of the nature of innovation (incremental and radical on the relationship between leadership and organisational performance, and that none of the studies use the objective measures of financial performance such as ROA, ROE, price/earnings (P/E and Tobin’s Q calculated from annual financial reports.

  20. Perceived Maternal Parenting Styles, Cultural Values, and Prosocial Tendencies Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend research on parenting and positive development of Latino youth. Participants were 207 Mexican American adolescents (M age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.83 years; 50% girls) who completed measures of their parents' supportive and firm parenting, their own endorsement of respect and traditional gender role values, and their tendency to engage in six forms of prosocial behaviors. Maternal nativity was also considered as an initial predictor of parenting, adolescents' cultural values, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. Overall, the results demonstrated that maternal nativity was associated with traditional gender roles and specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Parenting dimensions were differentially associated with respect and traditional gender role values and prosocial behaviors. Cultural values, in turn, were associated with multiple forms of prosocial behaviors. Gender differences in the processes were also explored.

  1. Testing maternal depression and attachment style as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.

  2. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  3. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ Social Anxiety in Migrant Families: A Study in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jihong; Ni, Shiguang; Ran, Maosheng; Zhang, Chengping

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that parenting styles were important influencing factors for the development of children’s well-being. It is known that mass migration to the cities in China will affect family relations. However, few studies focused on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescents’ mental health in migrant families. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how parenting styles could affect adolescent’s social anxiety in migrant families. A total number of 1,345 adolescents...

  4. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Kadir PALA; Mukaddes ERDEM

    2011-01-01

    This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relati...

  5. The Relationship of Leadership Styles and Organizational Culture Case Study of an Oil and Gas Company in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darwis, Tommy K; Djajadiningrat, Surna Tjahja

    2010-01-01

    This study explores relationship between leadership styles and organizational culture in an oil and Gas Company in Indonesia. The respondents are employees of an oil and Gas Company in Indonesia. This study use Multifactor leadership questionnaires to define leadership styles and Denison's Organizational Culture Model to measure Organizational Culture. These questionnaires were used to measure leadership styles of immediate or direct supervisor and organizational culture ...

  6. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students' Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.

  7. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students’ Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692

  8. The relationship between adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, S.; Ayers, S.; Field, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N = 9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρ =-.27), and a medium...

  9. Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direc...

  10. The relationship between students' perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Gorevanova, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...

  11. Conflict Management Styles of Selected Managers and Their Relationship With Management and Organization Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Martires

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the relationship between the conflict management styles of managers and certain management and organization factors. A total of 462 top, middle, and lower managers from 72 companies participated in the study which utilized the Thomas-Killman Conflict Mode Instrument. To facilitate the computation of the statistical data, a microcomputer and a software package was used.The majority of the managers of the 17 types of organization included in the study use collaborative mode of managing conflict. This finding is congruent with the findings of past studies conducted on managers of commercial banks, service, manufacturing, trading advertising, appliance, investment houses, and overseas recruitment industries showing their high degree of objectivity and assertiveness of their own personal goals and of other people's concerns. The second dominant style, which is compromising, indicates their desire in sharing and searching for solutions that result in satisfaction among conflicting parties. This finding is highly consistent with the strong Filipino value of smooth interpersonal relationships (SIR as reflected and discussed in the numerous researches on Filipino values.The chi-square tests generated by the computer package in statistics showed independence between the manager's conflict management styles and each of the variables of sex, civil status, position level at work, work experience, type of corporation, and number of subordinates. This result is again congruent with those of past studies conducted in the Philippines. The past and present findings may imply that conflict management mode may be a highly personal style that is not dependent on any of these variables included in the study. However, the chi-square tests show that management style is dependent on the manager's age and educational attainment.

  12. [Surrogacy in Maternity. A Depersonalising Human Relationship Phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Ethical and bioethical problems, which are typical of the practice of surrogate motherhood, refer to its protagonists: the couple that orders it, due to its demand to satisfy the desire of paternity and maternity and the promptness of having a female body to fulfill its aspirations; the expectant mother, and the physical and psychic repercussions coming from the role performed in the surrogacy contract, as well as the risks of manipulation and exploitation, related to her position; the baby and his right to grow counting on the certainty of his parental relationships and on the preservation of his emotional balance. The human and anthropological importance of these issues, along with the growing development of this practice in the world, has questioned our moral conscience. In this context, the expectant mother, the weakest and the most affected part among the parts involved in the surrogacy contract, demands a particular attention. In this sense, the aim of this work is to lead a phenomenological analysis of the different steps of the practice of surrogacy, from the first stage of collection and classification of the information referring to the candidates, to the stage of the insemination and of its consequences about to the private life of the expectant. On the other hand, this work tries to justify the existence of a parallelism, as for the exploitation of the female body, between the practice of surrogate motherhood and prostitution. Finally, the issue relating to the effective social emancipation of the surrogate women in poor countries, the real autonomy and the freedom of their decision, as well as the typical features of the desire of paternity of the ordering couple are dealt with. The carried out study has allowed to conclude that this practice always implies a degree of physical, psychic and moral exploitation of the expectant mother, which suggests its prohibition at global level.

  13. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, B F; Balázs, M A

    2012-03-01

    Among factors predicting adolescent mood problems, certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship play an important role. In previous studies, children whose parents had an authoritative style of parenting reported the best behavioral and psychological outcomes. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables (negative family interactions and positive identification with parents) in adolescents' depressive symptomatology. The study was carried out in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in Hungary in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2,072): 49.2% of the sample were males; 38.1% primary school pupils; and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. Beyond descriptive statistics and calculation of correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect relationships between parental variables and depressive scores by gender. Overall, our data support a negative association between authoritative parenting style and adolescent mood problems, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsiveness was a significant predictor. Among girls, father's parenting played a decisive role; not only his responsiveness but also demandingness. Interestingly, mother's demandingness went together with an elevated depressive score for girls. Prevention programs cannot guarantee success without taking into account the role of parents. Teaching positive parenting seems to be a part of these prevention programs that may include facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships.

  15. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  16. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  17. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  18. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin ( p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI ( p < 0.001; adj. R ² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  19. Developmental Changes in Conflict Resolution Styles in Parent-Adolescent Relationships: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  1. Functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms : Coping styles and their relationship with depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, A.; van Hout, G.C.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how coping styles are related to functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and to what extent depression and anxiety account for this relationship. In 90 Dutch adult patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms, coping styles,

  2. The Relationship of Field Dependent/Independent Cognitive Styles, Stimuli Variability and Time Factor on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atang, Christopher I.

    The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…

  3. A Study of the Relationships among Learning Styles, Participation Types, and Performance in Programming Language Learning Supported by Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the relationships among learning styles, participation types, and learning performance for programming language learning supported by an online forum. Kolb's learning style inventory was used in this study to determine a learner's learning type: "Diverger", "Assimilator", "Converger", and "Accommodator". Social Learning…

  4. Interdependence of attachment styles and relationship quality in parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Hart, Ellen; Ellis, Lillian; Tan, Cin Cin

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined how attachment styles of parents and adolescents may jointly influence the quality of their relationship. Parent-adolescent (N dyads  = 77) pairs were recruited from a Midwestern town in the United States. The mean of adolescents' age was 16.25. Both members reported their attachment styles, relationship closeness, and relationship discord. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) showed that both members' attachment avoidance was associated with self-report lower levels of closeness. Parents' attachment anxiety was related to relationship discord. Parents with higher avoidant attachment reported lower closeness when adolescents were higher in avoidant attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to higher relationship closeness when adolescents were higher on anxious attachment. Such an association was negative when adolescents had lower anxious attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to greater discord when adolescents were lower on anxiety attachment. This study reveals the complex dyadic dynamics of relationship quality in parent-adolescent pairs. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between learning styles and motivation to transfer of learning in a vocational training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Olivos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is ample research about Kolb's learning styles, few studies have examined their relationship with motivations to transfer, a concept used to assess whether the content and competencies learned through professional training activities are transferred to the workplace context. Ninety-six students (M = 24.58 years old; 99% males from three vocational training institutes participated in laboratory activities at the Renewable Energy Research Institute of the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory; two scales adapted to measure student motivation to transfer their learning from training experiences; and a scale of satisfaction with the activities. A correlation analysis showed positive and moderately strong correlations (r = .708; p < .01 between motivations to transfer and “the relevance of the activities to academic performance”. A discriminant analysis between transfer and learning styles revealed that the “Student training motivation” item resulted in a distinct difference between assimilators and convergers, explaining 97.1% of the model variance (Wilks’ λ = .459; χ2 = 21.028; Sig. = .002 and classifying 56.4% of the cases. A discussion is presented as to the implications of these results for the theory of learning styles and the ways in which the design of the educational activities described in the study can be improved.

  6. Conflict Resolution Styles Scale in Romantic Relationship: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to test the reliability and validity of the 'Conflict Resolution Styles Scale' (CRSS, which was developed by the researchers. For this aim, two studies have been conducted. In the first study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants who are either married or involved in romantic relationship. A large item pool was generated with the items developed from the interviews and the items developed by the authors after reviewing the related literature. Exploratory factor analysis with 200 dating participants (M= 23.13, SD = 2.96 revealed that four factor solution is suitable for the CRSS. These factors were named as negative conflict resolution style, positive conflict resolution style, subordination, and retreat. In order to confirm the factor structure of the scale, 140 married couples (280 individuals; M = 38.09, SD = 10.35 were participated to the second study. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure of the scale. The results of these analyses and the correlations with the related variables showed that CRSS was reliable and valid measurement tool in the assessment of the conflict resolution styles.

  7. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers' perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation ( r =0.32), job satisfaction ( r =0.38), and team work ( r =0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction ( r =0.21) and teamwork ( r =0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33-10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13-5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83-17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07-8.57), idealized influence-attributed (OR

  8. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Background Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32), job satisfaction (r=0.38), and team work (r=0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21) and teamwork (r=0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33–10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13–5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19–0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83–17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07–8

  9. The Relationship of Decision-Making Styles and Attributional Styles in Addicted and Non-addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non addicted men to recognize their role in addiction. In this study, 200 addicted and non addicted men were randomly selected. Decision-making style and attributional style questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent Student's t and Pearson correlation tests. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. Addicted and non addicted men were significantly different in rational decision-making style (P rational decision making and optimistic attribution style (r = -0.305, P rational decision making and learned helplessness (r = 0.309, P rational in decision making and addicts that developed learned helplessness were less rational and did not have optimistic attribution style. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  10. Relationship of working mothers' parenting style and consistency to early childhood development: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Maruyama, Akiko; Sawada, Yuko; Ishi, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a report of a longitudinal study of the relationship of working mothers' parenting style to their children's social competence and vocabulary/ motor/intellectual development. With an increasing number of women choosing to remain in the workforce after starting a family, there has been a concomitant increase in use of non-parental childcare facilities to help look after the child while the mother is at work. This increase in non-parental care has led to a dramatic change in the traditional child-rearing environment. Long-term investigations were conducted over a period of 2 years in 41 Japanese government-licensed childcare facilities. Child development was evaluated by childcare professionals and parenting style was assessed by questionnaire. A total of 504 children and their mothers participated in the study. Data collection was carried out in 2004 and 2006. We found that the changes in parenting style were statistically significantly related to children's development after 2 years. For instance, changes in the parent-child playing routine contributed to the child's social competence (odds ratio = 11.088). Variation in working mothers' disciplinary practices was also associated with children's vocabulary development after 2 years (odds ratio = 2246). Working mothers should increase interactions with their children in their free time to reduce the risk of developmental delay. Daily childcare support provided by family members or social organizations for long-term working mothers is helpful in mediating the negative relationship of mothers' working with children's development.

  11. Adolescents' working models and styles for relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A; Shaffer, Laura; Bouchey, Heather A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the links among adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Working models of friendships were related to working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners. Working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners were inconsistently related. A similar pattern of results was obtained for self-report measures of relational styles for the three types of relationships. Perceived experiences were also related. Specifically, support in relationships with parents tended to be related to support in romantic relationships and friendships, but the latter two were unrelated. On the other hand, self and other controlling behaviors in friendships were related to corresponding behaviors in romantic relationships. Negative interactions in the three types of relationships also tended to be related. Taken together, the findings indicate that the representations of the three types of relationships are distinct, yet related. Discussion focuses on the nature of the links among the three.

  12. Less than Optimal Parenting Strategies Predict Maternal Low-Level Depression beyond that of Child Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…

  13. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Rashidi; Fatemeh Sharif Mousavi; Korosh Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, em...

  14. Examining the Relationship between Communication Patterns of Source Family and Self-Consciousness with Defensive Styles of Discordant Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’asoomeh Kheirkhah; Ebrahim Namani

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown the relationship between communication patterns of source family with defensive styles of discordant couples. For this reason, the present research has examined the relationship between communication patterns of source family and self-consciousness with defensive styles of discordant couples. This study is a descriptive-correlation type. Its population consisted of all discordant couples referred to counseling centers of Mashhad in 2015. Among the referred 140 disc...

  15. The Relationship of Decision-Making Styles and Attributional Styles in Addicted and Non-addicted Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non ...

  16. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  17. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  18. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Yahvah, Katherine M; Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-08-01

    Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations. Concentrations of maternal cells were determined using microscopy, and somatic cell counts were enumerated. Microbial ecologies were characterized using culture-independent methods. Absolute and relative concentrations of maternal cells were mostly consistent within each woman as were relative abundances of bacterial genera, and there were many apparent relationships between these factors. For instance, relative abundance of Serratia was negatively associated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.47, p < .0001) and neutrophil concentration ( r = -.38, p < .0006). Concentrations of several oligosaccharides were correlated with maternally derived cell types as well as somatic cell counts; for example, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose were inversely correlated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.64, p = .0082; r = -.52, p = .0387, respectively), and relative abundance of Staphylococcus was positively associated with total oligosaccharide concentration ( r = .69, p = .0034). Complex relationships between milk nutrients and bacterial community profile, maternal cells, and milk oligosaccharides were also apparent. These data support the possibility that profiles of maternally derived cells, nutrient concentrations, and the microbiome of human milk might be interrelated.

  19. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction with Burnout and Conflict Management Styles in Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Safi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The organizations are obligated to take sufficient attention to human resources in order to attain greater efficiency and ultimately achieve their goals. Considering the importance of desirable behavior in organizations and its impact on the attitudes and perceptions of employees, it is necessary to pay special attention to the treatment of staff and their needs. The present study was prepared to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and conflict management styles and job burnout among health care employees in north Tehran.Materials and Methods: The study was done descriptive-analytical among employees with at least 6 months of experience and with a sample size of 224 patients at the health center. Data collection tools consisted job satisfaction, job burnout and conflict management questionnaires. SPSS software was used for data analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient and T-test was used for independent groups.Results: The result indicates positive and significant relationship between job satisfactions with solution-oriented styles, job satisfaction has a negative and significant relationship with control strategy. Non confrontational strategy has not significant relationship with job satisfaction. Also, all of the components of job burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment have a significant negative correlation with job satisfaction, and solution-oriented strategy has a negative significant correlation with emotional exhaustion.Conclusion: According to the correlation of job satisfaction with burnout, control strategy and solution-oriented styles, managers can use efficient methods such as pay and benefits commensurate with ability and experience, training and professional improvement, freedom of action, the division of labor based on merit and ability, etc. affect their behavior and increase their efficiency and effectiveness in order to further the

  20. Relationship Between Maternal Obesity And Increased Risk Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The incidence of obesity has risen over the past several decades and in spite of advancement in modern medicine, it remains a risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between obesity (increased body mass index) and increased risk of preeclampsia. The possible ...

  1. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  2. The Relationship between Maternal Employment and Preadolescents' Attitudes and Ambitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Laura; McCauley, Joyce; Farrell, Debi; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Covert, Stephanie; Strauss, Aviva; Maggi, Leigh; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Denis, Lauren; Hemperly, Megan; Fronheiser, April; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the influence of maternal employment on perceptions of the costs and benefits to children associated with mothers working outside the home and professional ambition among junior high school adolescents. A sample of 151 suburban and urban junior high school students completed a questionnaire relating to their professional…

  3. Relationship between Maternal Serum Copper Level and Birth Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzarahimi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem. LBW is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal copper nutrition is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between August 2008 and August 2009. 56 women who had delivered low-birth- weight infants (<2500gr were taken as the case group, and from the mothers who had delivered normal birth weight infants (≥2500gr, 56 were selected at random as the control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method.Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between cases and control groups. Maternal copper concentration (μg/dl differed between Cases and Controls; 231.75±38.12μg/dl vs. 204.42±31.30μg/dl respectively. There is a significant difference (p<0.001 in the serum copper concentration between the two groups.Conclusion: There is a negative relation between low infant birth weight and maternal copper concentration.

  4. relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    those obtained by Okonofua et al in Ile-Ife and. 17. Iqbal et al in Bangladesh but lower than the values. 18. 11 reported in studies in India and the United States. The similarity in the mean maternal serum zinc obtained in this study with the studies in Ife and. Bangladesh could be a reflection of the similarity among the study ...

  5. The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences and Gender, Educational Major and Status in First Year Medical Students: A Survey Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style?s questionnaire was do...

  6. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  7. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  8. Social anxiety and self-protective communication style in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuming, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M

    2010-02-01

    People with higher social anxiety tend to reveal less information about themselves in interactions with strangers, and this appears to be part of a self-protective strategy adopted in situations in which the risk of negative evaluation is judged to be particularly high. This research examined whether a similar style of communication may be adopted by people with higher social anxiety in their close relationships, and whether it may be associated with decrements in the quality (support, depth, conflict) of these relationships. Over 300 people from the community completed a series of online questionnaires measuring social anxiety and depression, and disclosure in and quality of their close friendships and romantic relationships. After controlling for levels of depression, social anxiety was associated with a paucity of disclosure in both romantic relationships and close friendships in females, but not males. There was an indirect association between higher social anxiety and lower relationship quality (lower support, with a trend towards greater conflict) via lower self-disclosure in women's romantic relationships, but not their close friendships. Addressing disclosure in the context of close relationships may assist socially anxious women to develop more fulfilling and harmonious close relationships. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHING STRATEGIES AND LEARNING STYLES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tulbure

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper, we are focusing on the relationships between teaching strategies, learning styles, and the students’ academic achievement in higher education. The main objective of this study is to compare three groups of pre-service teachers having different majors (i.e., Educational Sciences, Economic Sciences, and Foreign Languages in order to identify the potential differences in their academic achievement. More precisely, we attempt to highlight the categories of teaching strategies that lead to the best academic achievement for students having the same learning style, and different fields of study. A sample of 269 pre-service teachers from three faculties belonging to Transilvania University of Braşov participated in the study. The data was collected through a survey method and the one-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among the groups. Significant differences among the three categories of students with different majors occurred in relation with the most effective teaching strategies corresponding to each learning style category.

  10. Relationship between work-family conflict and unhealthy eating: Does eating style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that work-family conflict is implicated in poor eating patterns. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. The objectives of the present study were to demonstrate the interplay between work-family conflict, eating style, and unhealthy eating, and to test whether body mass index (BMI) and its interactions further explicate the relationships. In this study, 586 Malaysian adults (normal weight n = 437, overweight n = 149) completed a questionnaire, which included demographic variables, work-family scales, eating style measures, namely, restrained, emotional or external eating and reported food intake. As hypothesized, results showed that family-to-work conflict (FWC), emotional eating and external eating were positively related to unhealthy food consumption. In addition, emotional eating was found to moderate the impact of FCW on eating. These findings are consistent with research that has revealed emotional eating can indeed increase the positive association between stress such as conflict and unhealthy food choices. However, we found no clear support for the interactive effects of BMI. Our research builds on the findings of existing research as it demonstrates the role of eating style in explaining the association between work-family conflict and unhealthy eating. This conclusion has potential implications for appropriate interventions and calls for the enhancement of various policies to tackle obesity and other health problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Humor Styles Questionnaire in Italy: Psychometric Properties and Relationships With Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Sirigatti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ and the relation between humor and psychological well-being within the context of Italy. A total of 293 (178 females, 115 males Italian high school and undergraduate university students – whose ages ranged from 14 to 25 years – completed the Italian versions of the HSQ and the Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being scales (RPWB. The HSQ scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and intercorrelations among the scales were rather low; the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. Males reported significantly more use of Aggressive humor than did females; no differences were found between adolescents and young adults in the use of humor styles. Affiliative and Self-enhancing humor styles were positively associated with the six dimensions of the RPWB, whereas Self-defeating humor was negatively correlated with the RPWB scales. SEM analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between humor as measured by the HSQ and psychological well-being as assessed by the RPWB. Overall, the findings supported the theoretical structure and usefulness of the HSQ in an Italian context and the differential role of humor components in the various dimensions of psychological well-being.

  12. The Relationship between Manager’ Leadership Style with Job Satisfaction and Burnout in Staff of Shomal Health Center of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Safi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Leadership style or behavior is an effective factor in employee performance. The purpose of the study was to determine heads' leadership style and its relationship with job satisfaction and burnout in staff of Shomal health center of Tehran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 207 subjects, including 16 heads and 191 health care staff of Shomal health center of Tehran participated. Data were collected using three questionnaires (leadership style, job satisfaction and burnout questionnaires. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS-18 software. Descriptive and analytic methods such as Pearson's correlation coefficient and t-test were used for analysis.Results: In this study 85.9% of heads of health centers use consideration leadership style. Overall job satisfaction of staff score was 50.1 (from 100, 48.6 in women and 55.1 in men. Managers’ leadership style had direct and significant relationship with job satisfaction of employees (P<0.001.17.3% of staff had average job burnout and 2.6% of them had high job burnout. Average job burnout in men and women were 32.5 and 37.5, respectively. Managers' leadership style had significantly inverse relationship with job burnout in staff (P<0.001.              Conclusion: Selecting leadership style according to the working conditions and attention to modern management methods can lead to increased job satisfaction. 

  13. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  14. Obtaining confirmation through social relationships: Norwegian first-time mothers' experiences while on maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-03-01

    The social relationships of employed women on maternity leave undergo significant changes. The aim of the study was to illuminate first-time mothers' experiences of social relationships while on maternity leave. Nine mothers were interviewed at both 3-5 months and 11-14 months post-partum and the data were analyzed by means of interpretative analysis. The main theme of obtaining confirmation through social relationships was based on two themes (being confirmed by other mothers and balancing between being a mother and an employee) and on four subthemes (seeking company, sharing experiences, feeling ineffective and in a state of stagnation, and trying to handle contact with the workplace). In order to strengthen the social relationships of mothers, the mother-child health service should offer all mothers the opportunity to join a peer support group, while employers could keep in regular contact with staff members on maternity leave.

  15. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Akgun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05, and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05. However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05. The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1% and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%. Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3% and obese (52.5% groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.

  16. Pathways of disadvantage: Explaining the relationship between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2012-11-01

    A large body of literature documents that children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes throughout the life course, though much less is known about the mechanisms linking maternal depression to children's outcomes. In this paper, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to estimate and explain the consequences of maternal depression for 5-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Ordinary least squared (OLS) regression models and propensity score models show that children exposed to both chronic and intermittent maternal depression have more problem behaviors than their counterparts with never depressed mothers. Results also show that economic resources and maternal parenting behaviors mediate much of the association between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors, but that relationships with romantic partners and social support do little to explain this association. This research extends past literature by illuminating some mechanisms through which maternal depression matters for children; by utilizing longitudinal measures of depression; by employing rigorous statistical techniques to lend confidence to the findings; and by using a large, diverse, and non-clinical sample of children most susceptible to maternal depression. Given that early childhood problem behaviors lay a crucial foundation for short- and long-term life trajectories, the social consequences of maternal depression may be far-reaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  18. A review on the relationship between marital adjustment and maternal attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Mutlu

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the relationship between marital adjustment of mothers who have babies between 1-4 months old and their maternal attachment; as well as the relationship of maternal attachment and marital adjustment with sociodemographic characteristics. Method: The research is descriptive and correlational. Its sample consists of 113 mothers. Maternal Attachment Index (MAI and Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS are used as data collection tools. Results: We found that, for mothers who participated in this research, the average level of maternal attachment is 92.17 ± 8.49, and the average level of marital adjustment is 43.06 ± 7.90. We discovered that the maternal attachment level is higher for mothers who have completed high school and university, those who breastfeed their babies exclusively and whose spouses help care for the baby. We also discovered that the Marital Adjustment Score is higher among mothers who are employed, get married by companionship (not arranged, continue attending pregnancy classes and whose duration of marriage is between 1-5 years and 10-15 years. There is weak positive relationship (r=0.38; p=0.00 between marital adjustment and maternal attachment; and the regression analysis that is run to explain this relationship is statistically significant (F=26.131; p<0.05. Conclusion: In our study, the level of maternal attachment was high, while the level of marital adjustment was liminal. There are many factors affecting sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and baby care. The level of marital adjustment for mothers increases the maternal attachment.

  19. The Analysis of Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Medical Students of Basic Sciences Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaffari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning style is an individual’s preferred method of encountering information in specific situations in order to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes through study or experience. Students and Planers’ awareness of learning styles facilitate the teaching process, increases satisfaction and makes the future choices easier. This study aimed to examine different learning styles and their relation to academic achievement in medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive – analytical study, the sample consisted of all medical students of basic sciences program at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012. The data was collected through a questionnaire which included respondents’ demographic information and overall grade point average (GPA as well as Kolb standard questions on learning styles. Results: 4.3%, 47.8%, 44.9% and 2.9% of students preferred diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles, respectively. Mean overall GPA of students who preferred diverger learning styles was 14.990.39±. Students who prefer assimilator, converger and accommodator learning styles had mean overall GPAs of 14.940.56±, 15.080.58± and 14.830.29± respectively. The findings showed no significant relationship between students’ learning academic achievement and their learning styles (p = 0.689. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between Students’ academic achievement and their learning styles. Furthermore, the majorit of the students preferred accommodator and converger learning styles. Consequently, adopting interactive teaching methods, using tutorials, running simulation programs, launching laboratory activities and encouraging students to think and analyze problems and issues can be greatly effective in prolonging their learning lifecycle.

  20. Study of the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intruduction: The comorbidity between depression and social anxiety is high in adolescence. Parental emotion socialization behaviors have been associated with the development of social skills and depressive symptomatology. Objectives: This study aims to explore the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depression, to study the associations between them, and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles, social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 122 parents and their children. Self-report instruments were used to assess social anxiety, depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Results: It was found that social anxiety is significantly associated to depression and that the former has a predictive effect on the latter. The parenting styles revealed no significant associations with either depressive symptomatology or with social anxiety, but a moderating effect of explorer parenting style was found in the relationship between social anxiety (public performance and depressive symptomatology. Conclusions: The present investigation confirmed the existence of a significant association between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescence and suggests an effect of parental practices of emotional socialization in this relation, which, however, should be replicated in future research. It will also be important to study the effect of parenting styles on children's emotional regulation skills and their possible mediating effect on the relationship between social anxiety and depression.

  1. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Emotion Expression Styles with Bullying Behaviors in Adolescent Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Basharpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Students bullying, especially in the adolescence period, is a prevalent problem in the schools, that emotional dysregulation is posed as a one cause of it. Considering this issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotion regulation and emotion expression styles with bullying behaviors in adolescent students.   Methods: The method of this study was correlation. Whole male students of secondary and high schools in Ardabil at 90-91 educational year comprised statistical population of this research. Two hundred thirty students, were selected by multistage cluster sampling method, responded to the questionnaires of bullying/victimization, emotion regulation and emotion expression. Gathered data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests.   Results: The results showed that victimization by bullying has positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.15, p<0.02, emotion suppression (r= 0.47, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.25, p<0.02, but has negative relationship with impulse severity (r= -0.35, p<0.001, and negative emotion expression (r= -0.43, p<0.001. Furthermore bullying has a positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.14, p<0.03, impulse severity (r= 0.31, p<0.003, and negative expression (r= 0.29, p<0.001, but has negative relationship with emotion suppression (r= 0.28, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.24, p<0.001. In sum emotion regulation and emotion expression styles explained 36 percent of the variance of the victimization by bullying and 19 percent of the variance of the bullying.   Conclusion: This research demonstrated that emotion dysregulation at the adolescent period plays important role in bullying and victimization, thus the training of emotion regulation abilities is suggested as the one of interventions methods for this behavioral problems.

  2. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.

  4. The Relationship of Assertiveness and Locus of Control with Learning Styles of the Physical Education and Sports School Students

    OpenAIRE

    SUCAN, Serdar; TURAN, Mehmet Behzat; PEPE, Osman; KARAOĞLU, Barış; DOĞAN, Doğan

    2016-01-01

    The present study have been conducted to investigate Physical Education and Sports School students’ learning style preferences in terms of assertiveness and locus of control to see relationship between and learning style.For this purpose “Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory” translated in Turkish by Askar and Akkoyunlu (1993), “Rathus Assertiveness Scale” which was developed by Rathus A.S. (1973) and “Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale” (1966) which was developed into Turkish by Dağ (1990) was admin...

  5. Investigating and comparing the relationship between parental monitoring types and perceived parenting styles of the Turkish students

    OpenAIRE

    Öğretir Özçelik, Ayse Dilek

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between parental monitoring and parental styles are considered as an important subject for child development field. The aim of this article is to analyze the perceptions of the adolescents about their parents’ parental monitoring and parenting styles in terms of the participants’ gender, family education and family jobs status. The sample size is 252 adolescents with 158 female nd 94 male students. The data were collected by the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI) and the Pa...

  6. An exploration of the relationship between parenting styles and health risk-taking behaviors among early phase adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Howerton, Mollie W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between parenting styles, adolescent self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 343 middle school students from Harrisonburg, Virginia who completed a questionnaire consisting of three major components: parenting styles, self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The health risk behaviors component contained questions concerning alcohol use, drug use, sexual activity, and eating behaviors. The parenting s...

  7. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Background Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' COMMITMENT : A STUDY OF GHANA OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LIMITED.

    OpenAIRE

    ADADE, PORTIA; MIREKU., MICHEAL A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In today’s world, there is a lot of focus on the importance of leadership behavior and style to the operations of organizations and at the same time, organizations are struggling to attract and retain talented employees. Even though there are many factors that contribute to employee’s decision to either stay in an organization or not, the main aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between leadership style and skilled employees’ commitment. This research identified the...

  9. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade

    2013-01-01

    We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parentin...

  10. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conrad Musinguzi,1 Leticia Namale,1 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,2 Aruna Dahal,1 Patricia Nahirya-Ntege,1 Adeodata Kekitiinwa1 1Directorate of Health Systems Strengthening, Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health Uganda, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62% compared with being transactional (42% or laissez-faire (14%. Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32, job satisfaction (r=0.38, and team work (r=0.48, while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21 and teamwork (r=0.18. Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized

  11. Relationship between leadership styles and dimensions of employee organizational commitment: A critical review and discussion of future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Keskes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is the study and the discussion of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment dimensions. Both styles of leadership known as transformational and transactional styles differ in the process by which the leader motivates his subordinates. Organizational commitment defined by its three types (Affective, Normative and Continuance measures the strength of an individual identification with and involvement in the organization. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature research has been done in order to increase our understanding of leadership and organizational commitment as well as the relationship between these two concepts. Findings: The present study of the relationships between leadership styles and organizational commitment has shown how leadership dimensions can influence employee organizational commitment. Although there is considerable research available suggesting that transformational leadership is positively associated with organizational commitment in a variety of organizational settings and cultures, there has been little empirical research focusing on the precise ways in which style of leadership impacts  employee organizational commitment. Originality/value: Some critics about previous empirical and theoretical studies will present and a number of areas for future research will highlight. In this sense, various areas that require additional research are developed and possible incorporation of some mediation variables are proposed in order to gather a better understanding about the mechanism that links leadership styles and followers organizational commitment.

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600

  13. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  14. Prenatal lead exposure and relationship with maternal exposure determinants in a public maternity hospital of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María; González, Horacio F; Girardelli, Ana; Caro, Laura Sanchez; Lobisuto, Mario; Delgado, Griselda; Disalvo, Liliana

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is a health hazard that may cause cognitive development impairments and other adverse effects in children. We conducted a cross sectional study analyzing cord blood lead levels (CBLL) of newborns and their relationship with maternal determinants of lead exposure. Mothers answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic, lifestyle habits and environmental characteristics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare CBLL geometrical means (GM) corresponding to the presence or absence of each lead exposure determinant, and Chi square test to study the relationship between CBLL and maternal lead exposure determinants. A total of 159 newborns participated in the study. CBLL GM was 2.1 μg/dL; and 25% of the participants had a measurable CBLL (LOQ=3.3 μg/dl). Although the participants had several determinants of lead exposure, we only found a significant relationship with inside household determinants, such as presence of lead piping (p=0.026), unplastered walls (p=0.046) and peeling paint (p=0.048). Our results show that CBLL GM was similar to that reported in several studies conducted around the world. However, 25% of the participants might have some degree of risk for lead poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of maternal alcohol use disorders on childhood relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joseph D

    2016-10-01

    Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.

  16. The relationship between hospital managers' leadership style and effectiveness with passing managerial training courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Abtahi, Seyyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership that rises from managerial training courses is highly constructive in managing hospitals more effectively. This study aims at investigating the relationship between leadership effectiveness with providing management training courses for hospital managers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on top and middle managers of 16 hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. As a sample, 96 participants were selected through census method. Data were collected using leadership effectiveness and style questionnaire, whose validity and reliability were certified in previous studies. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: Leadership effectiveness score was estimated to be 4.36, showing a suitable status for managers' leadership effectiveness compared to the set criteria. No significant difference was found between leadership effectiveness and styles among managers who had passed the training courses with those who had not (p>0.05). Conclusion: Passing managerial training courses may have no significant effect on managers' leadership effectiveness, but there may be some other variables which should be meticulously studied.

  17. A Comparison of Maternal Parenting Style Attitudes of Grandmothers and Mothers of Young Children in Taiwan: Development of a New Measure of Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Wen

    Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…

  18. The Relationship Between Strategic Decision-Making and Leadership Styles: An Application in 4 and 5-Star Hotels in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat ÇELİK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the relationship between leadership styles and strategic decision-making in hotel businesses. Datas are obtained by using questionnaire technique. The questionnaire is applied to general managers or executives who are effective in making decisions in hotel businesses. This study comprises four and five star hotel businesses that have tourism establishment certificates. Since the number of population used is not excrescence in the research, complete enumeration sampling method is used and data is obtained from 87 hotel businesses. Results reveal that four and five star hotel businesses in Istanbul have executives showing transformational leadership, paternalistic leadership, autocratic leadership and charismatic leadership styles. Leaders who have these leadership styles make strategic decisions aimed at innovation and change basic business strategies, intervene in conflict and risk taking. The existence of meaningful relavence among leadership styles with strategic decisionmaking is determined.

  19. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-03-11

    Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.

  20. An exploratory study of the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among students in different nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Liu, Chin-Fang; Shieh, Sue-Heui; Yang, Bao-Huan

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Background: Learning style is a major consideration in planning for effective and efficient instruction and learning. Learning style has been shown to influence academic performance in the previous research. Little is known about Taiwanese students' learning styles, particularly in the field of nursing education. Aim: This purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among nursing students in a five-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program and a two-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. Methods/Design: This study employed a descriptive and exploratory design. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M was an instrument. Data such as grade point average (GPA) were obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Registrar computerized records. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance ANOVA) and chi-square statistical analysis were used to explore the relationship between academic performance and learning style in Taiwanese nursing students. Results/Findings: The study sample included 285 nursing students: 96 students in a two-year BSN program, and 189 students in a five-year ADN program. Two common learning styles were found: introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging (ISTJ); and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging (ISFJ). A sensing-judging pair was identified in 43.3% of the participants. Academic performance was significantly related to learning style (p academic performance and enhance student success. A large sample is recommended for further research. Understanding the learning style preferences of students can enhance learning for those who are under performing in their academic studies, thereby enhancing nursing education.

  1. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwijnen, Van Ineke R.; Borg, Van Der Joanne A.M.; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent

  2. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Academic procrastination: the relationship between causal attribution styles and behavioral postponement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri Gargari, Rahim; Sabouri, Hossein; Norzad, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the relationship between attribution and academic procrastination in University Students. The subjects were 203 undergraduate students, 55 males and 148 females, selected from English and French language and literature students of Tabriz University. Data were gathered through Procrastination Assessment Scale-student (PASS) and Causal Dimension Scale (CDA) and were analyzed by multiple regression analysis (stepwise). The results showed that there was a meaningful and negative relation between the locus of control and controllability in success context and academic procrastination. Besides, a meaningful and positive relation was observed between the locus of control and stability in failure context and procrastination. It was also found that 17% of the variance of procrastination was accounted by linear combination of attributions. We believe that causal attribution is a key in understanding procrastination in academic settings and is used by those who have the knowledge of Causal Attribution styles to organize their learning.

  4. The Association between Maternal Employment and Young Adults' Subsequent Relationships with Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Christine M.; Chambliss, Catherine

    Noting that few studies have assessed the long-term correlates of maternal employment during infancy, this study assessed the quality of college-age students' current relationships with their parents as a function of the employment status of their parents during the respondents' childhood. Participating in the research were 822 college students…

  5. The Relationship between Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…

  6. Maternal Support and Brain Development: Neuroscience Validation for the Importance of Early Caregiving Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan; Rogers, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Advances in brain imaging methods and technology over the last 2 decades have opened an unprecedented window into the understanding of the structure and function of the human brain. In this article, the authors describe their investigation of the relationship between maternal support, observed during the preschool period, and the size of key brain…

  7. The relationship between maternal education and mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions: Analysis of the cross sectional WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmezoglu A Metin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of a million women die each year from pregnancy-related conditions. Three-quarters of these deaths are considered avoidable. Millennium Development Goal five calls for a reduction in maternal mortality and the establishment of universal access to high quality reproductive health care. There is evidence of a relationship between lower levels of maternal education and higher maternal mortality. This study examines the relationship between maternal education and maternal mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions and investigates the association of maternal age, marital status, parity, institutional capacity and state-level investment in health care with these relationships. Methods Cross-sectional information was collected on 287,035 inpatients giving birth in 373 health care institutions in 24 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, between 2004-2005 (in Africa and Latin America and 2007-2008 (in Asia as part of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health. Analyses investigated associations between indicators measured at the individual, institutional and country level and maternal mortality during the intrapartum period: from admission to, until discharge from, the institution where women gave birth. There were 363 maternal deaths. Results In the adjusted models, women with no education had 2.7 times and those with between one and six years of education had twice the risk of maternal mortality of women with more than 12 years of education. Institutional capacity was not associated with maternal mortality in the adjusted model. Those not married or cohabiting had almost twice the risk of death of those who were. There was a significantly higher risk of death among those aged over 35 (compared with those aged between 20 and 25 years, those with higher numbers of previous births and lower levels of state investment in health care. There were also additional effects

  8. The relationship between maternal fear of hypoglycaemia and adherence in children with type-1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Evril; Sharpe, Louise; Mullan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Regular blood glucose monitoring is important for children with type-1 diabetes; however, the relationship between maternal fear of hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control is not well understood. The relationship between maternal beliefs about diabetes, concerns about glycaemic control and adherence to recommended blood glucose levels in young children with type-1 diabetes were examined in this study. Seventy-one mothers with children under 13 were recruited, and a prospective design was used. Demographics, maternal self-reported hypoglycaemic fear and illness perceptions were measured at baseline. Self-report daily blood sugar levels were recorded over 1 week, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) blood glucose levels were collected at baseline and 3 months later. High maternal fears of hypoglycaemia were predictive of suboptimal daily glycaemic control (elevated blood glucose levels), irrespective of illness duration or age at diagnosis. The results suggest that mothers who worry most about hypoglycaemia compensate by maintaining their child's blood glucose levels above recommended levels. Elevated blood glucose levels have important consequences for long-term health, and further research could explore ways to target maternal fear of hypoglycaemia.

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms in pediatric major depressive disorder: relationship to acute treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D; Hughes, Jennifer L; Stewart, Sunita M; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child's depressive illness and treatment. We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child's baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child's acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother's depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child's depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression.

  10. A social work study on relationship between leadership style and organization change: A case study of Semnan high schools' teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this survey is to study the relationship between leadership style among teachers who work in high schools and their orientation on organizational change. The study is performed among students who attended guided schools in province of Semnan, Iran. There are five hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper including managers' attitudes on change based on demographic characteristics, the relationship between leadership style and organizational change, the effects of different leadership styles and the organizational change orientation in terms of demographical characteristics. Statistical population includes all teachers who for high schools in city of Semnan, Iran and the study used a sample of 373 people who were randomly selected from three regions of the city. The proposed study used standard leadership questionnaire based on initiating structure and consideration originally developed at Ohio university in two dimensions with 30 questions. The questionnaire also used another type questionnaire consists of 32 questions with three dimensions of structure, technology and employee. The results indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between leadership style and gender, leadership style and job experience, organizational change and gender, management change and gender.

  11. Maternal Parenting as a Mediator of the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Effortful Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parent...

  12. The relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and preferred conflict-handling styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence (EI) and preferred conflict-handling styles of registered nurses. Conflict cannot be eliminated from the workplace therefore learning appropriate conflict-handling skills is important. Ninety-four registered nurses working in three south Mississippi healthcare facilities participated in this quantitative study. Ninety-two valid sets of data instruments were collected for this study. Higher levels of EI positively correlated with collaborating and negatively with accommodating. The issue of occupational stress and conflict among nurses is a major concern. It is imperative nurses learn how to effectively handle conflict in the work environment. Developing the competencies of EI and understanding how to effectively handle conflict is necessary for nurses working in a highly stressful occupation. Effective leadership management includes conflict management and collaboration. The art of relationship management is necessary when handling other people's emotions. When conflict is approached with high levels of EI, it creates an opportunity for learning effective interpersonal skills. Understanding how EI levels and conflict skills correlate can be used to improve interpersonal relationships in a healthcare facility.

  13. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  14. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  15. The relationship of maternal bone density with nutritional rickets in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M; Thacher, Tom D

    2017-04-01

    Factors that affect maternal bone mineral density may be related to the risk of nutritional rickets in their offspring. Our aim was to determine the relationship between maternal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and rickets in Nigerian children. Using a case-control design, we measured forearm aBMD in 56 and 135 mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets, respectively. Active rickets was confirmed or excluded in all children radiographically. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of maternal aBMD, adjusted for parity, pregnancy and lactation status, duration of most recent completed lactation, age of menarche, height, body mass index, and maternal age with nutritional rickets. The median (range) age of all mothers was 30years (17-47years), and parity was 4 (1-12). A total of 36 (19%) were pregnant and 55 (29%) were currently breast feeding. Mean (±SD) metaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.321±0.057 and 0.316±0.053g/cm 2 in mothers of children with and without rickets, respectively (P=0.60). Diaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.719±0.071 and 0.715±0.072g/cm 2 , respectively (P=0.69). In an adjusted analysis, maternal forearm aBMD, bone mineral content and bone area at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites were not associated with rickets in the child. In the adjusted analysis, rickets was associated with shorter duration of most recently completed lactation (aOR 0.91 for each additional month; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), older maternal age (aOR 1.07 for each additional year; 1.00-1.14), and less frequent maternal use of lead-containing eye cosmetics (aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05-0.64), without any difference in maternal blood lead levels. Maternal age, parity, age of menarche, height, and body mass index were not associated with having had a child with rickets in multivariate analysis. Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children was not associated with maternal forearm aBMD. Other unidentified maternal characteristics and practices likely contribute to the risk

  16. Is Maternal Fatigue Mediating the Relationship between Maternal Depression and Child Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carmel Parker; King, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue, a subjective state that has been defined as a decreased capacity for physical or mental activity, has many behavioral similarities to depression (e.g., weariness, difficulty concentrating, diminished motivation). We hypothesized that fatigue might mediate the relationship between depression and poor child outcomes. A sample of mothers (14…

  17. The Relationship Between Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Attribution Styles Among Divorce Applicant Couples and its Impact on Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdoodizaman, Morteza; Razaghi, Samira; Amirsardari, Lili; Hobbi, Omran; Ghaderi, Davod

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and attribution styles among divorce applicant couples and its impact on sexual satisfaction. It was a cross-sectional study and its statistical samples were 55 divorce applicant couples (110 individuals) referred to Urmia courts, Urmia, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The required data were gathered by interpersonal cognitive distortions, Larson sexual satisfaction and attribution style questionnaire. The findings of the research indicated the existence of a significant relationship between attribution styles for pleasant events and cognitive distortions. The results showed that an increasing amount of pleasant events reduces cognitive distortions among the divorce applicant couples (P divorced couples. As stable-unstable variables increase (P factors affecting satisfaction or dissatisfaction in couples who are living together (sexual satisfaction is one of its main elements).

  18. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  19. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, R.; Rogers, D. A. G.

    2009-07-01

    The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  1. The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally.Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated.Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive

  2. The Relationship Between Teaching Styles and Motivation to Teach Among Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. Key points PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of

  3. The Relationship Between The Number of Parities and Pregnancy Age with Maternal Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irul Hidayati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, the anemia prevalence was estimated reach 9% in developed countries, while in developing countries reached 43%. The most-at-risk groups were children and women at fertile age, with an estimated prevalence of anemia in infants at 47%, pregnant women by 42%, and in non-pregnant women t ages 15-49 reached 30%. This was an observational analytic research with cross sectional approach. The purpose was to analyzed the relationship between the number of parity and the pregnancy age with the incidence of maternal anemia. The population in this study were 111 pregnant womens who checked their pregnancy to Public Healt Center (PHC Kintamani 1 at Bangli regency, the province of Bali. The  simple random sampling was used in the research with 87 peoples acted as research sample. Using Rank Spearman Correllation test, it was founded that there was a relationship between the number of parity with the incidence of maternal anemia a low  relationship, and there was a relationship between gestational age with maternal anemia incidence with a low degree relationship.

  4. The Relationship Between Child-Rearing Styles and the Effects of Familial Death on Pre-Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksey, Linda L.

    This paper primarily considers the effects of parental and sibling deaths on preadolescent children, including the relationship of child rearing styles to the process of mourning. Through a review of the literature and an integration of several psychological factors, the author shows that familial death places children at risk. However, she…

  5. Relationships between Learning Styles and Academic Achievement and Brain Hemispheric Dominance and Academic Performance in Business and Accounting Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Joseph H.

    A study determined if relationships exist between learning styles and academic achievement and brain hemispheric dominance and academic performance in the courses of principles of management, business law, intermediate accounting, and principles of economics. All second-year accounting students (64 students) at Northeast Iowa Community College…

  6. The Relationship between the Styles of Coping with Stress and the Levels of Hopelessness of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…

  7. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  8. Relationships between Special Education Teachers' Leadership Styles, Self-Efficacy, and the Team Dynamics in Their Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uresti, Mario Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between leadership styles, self- efficacy, and team dynamics of special education teachers (SETs) working with the moderate/severe student population. Review of the literature suggests that it is common for special education teacher candidates to receive little to no training on how to supervise and…

  9. The Relationship of Leadership Style of the Department Head to Nursing Faculty Professional Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Daria McConnell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a relationship between the leadership style of the nursing department head and the level of professional satisfaction and organizational commitment by nursing faculty members. The survey instrument was a self-constructed four point Likert scale designed by the researcher to determine the…

  10. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  11. An Analysis of the Relationship between Prospective Teachers' Thinking Styles and Their Attitudes to Teaching Profession According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Mehmet; Kunt, Halil

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between primary school prospective teachers' thinking styles and their attitudes to teaching profession. The study group for the research consisted of fourth-grade Primary School of Elementary Education, Social Sciences Education and Science Education students studying at Dumlupinar University Education…

  12. The Relationships among Shyness, Shame, and Attachment Style with Respect to College Student Persistence and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamana Finn, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between attachment style, shyness, shame, and college persistence and grade point average. While considerable research was conducted to examine these variables in children, less is known about how these variables interact in a college setting. This study used a quantitative,…

  13. Analysis of the relationship between the application of negotiation style and conflict management strategies physical education's experts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hassannejad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The conflict is a major behavioral complication of groups. The manager who knows the basic principles of conflict and negotiation will be ready to deal successfully with these inevitable situations. However, this study aimed to explain the role of negotiation in conflict management among physical education experts in Education and Training System of Iran. This study applied analytical- correlation study. The sample consisted of 217 physical education experts. The Robbins' Conflict Management Questionnaire and PEER’s Negotiation Styles Questionnaire (1989 were used for collecting the data. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between negotiation styles and conflict management. However, there was no relationship between negotiation styles and avoidance strategy.  The factual style and solution-oriented strategy were selected by participants. It was concluded that the negotiation styles and conflict management strategies should be used considering the situation.  It was recommended that the training courses would be hold to increase the skills of physical education managers and empower them.

  14. The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Linqi; Guo Sheng; Yu Xin; Feng Xing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

  15. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Qualities, Internal Working Models, and Styles as Predictors of Adolescents’ Observed Interactions with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how current parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ representations of relationships with parents were related to friendship interactions in 200 adolescent-close friend dyads. Adolescents and friends were observed discussing problems during a series of structured tasks. Negative interactions with mothers were significantly related to adolescents’ greater conflict with friends, poorer focus on tasks, and poorer communication skills. Security of working models (as assessed by interview) was significantly associated with qualities of friendship interactions, whereas security of attachment styles (as assessed by questionnaire) was not. More dismissing (vs. secure) working models were associated with poorer focus on problem discussions and weaker communication skills with friends, even after accounting for gender differences and current parent-adolescent relationship qualities. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed links between dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships and friendships. We also consider methodological and conceptual differences between working model and style measures of attachment representations. PMID:20174459

  16. The relationship of interpersonal conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among Iranian divorcing couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-08-15

    Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.

  17. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  18. Sex differences in the relationship between maternal fear of pain and children's conditioned pain modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Subhadra Evans, Laura C Seidman, Kirsten C Lung, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Jennie C TsaoPediatric Pain Program, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Parental behaviors, emotions, and cognitions are known to influence children's response to pain. However, prior work has not tested the association between maternal psychological factors and children's responses to a conditioned pain modulation (CPM task. CPM refers to the reduction in perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals.Methods: The present study examined sex differences in the association between maternal anxiety about pain and children's CPM responses in 133 healthy children aged 8–17 years. Maternal pain anxiety was assessed using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20. In addition to the magnitude of CPM, children's anticipatory anxiety and pain-related fear of the CPM task were measured.Results: Sequential multiple linear regression revealed that even after controlling for child age and general maternal psychological distress, greater maternal pain anxiety was significantly related to greater CPM anticipatory anxiety and pain-related fear in girls, and to less CPM (ie, less pain inhibition in boys.Conclusion: The findings indicate sex-specific relationships between maternal pain anxiety and children's responses to a CPM task over and above that accounted for by the age of the child and the mother's general psychological distress.Keywords: diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, pediatric pain, mother-child relationship, cold pressor, pressure pain, laboratory pain

  19. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal

  20. Study of the relationship between the leadership style of managers and Job Burnout among the staff of Lorestan university of medical sciences in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anahita Almasian

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: There is also a significant relationship between the leadership style of managers and job burnout among the employees of the Lorestan university of medical sciences. The presence of a relationship between the leadership style of managers and job burnout among the employees demonstrates that there is an urgent need that managers use scientific methods of management in dealing with the personnel.

  1. Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescence and its relationship with resilience, attachment and bullying involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ortiz, Olga; Rey Alamillo, Rosario del; Romera Félix, Eva María; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    El primer objetivo de este trabajo es establecer una clasificación de estilos parentales y el segundo examinar la relación entre los estilos materno, paterno y la coherencia entre ambos, y el ajuste adolescente, evaluado mediante la resiliencia, el apego y la implicación en bullying. Para ello, una muestra incidental de 626 estudiantes (49.7% chicas) de educación secundaria de la provincia de Córdoba, cumplimentaron la Escala para la evaluación del estilo educativo de padres y madres de adole...

  2. Predictors of Love Attitudes: The Contribution of Cultural Orientation, Gender Attachment Style, Relationship Length and Age in Participants From the UK and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore whether a model including psychological predictors at the individual, interpersonal and cultural level could predict romantic attitudes. Attachment style, cultural orientation, gender, and relationship length were tested as predictors for each of the six love styles conceptualized by Lee (1977. Adults from Britain (N = 56 and Hong Kong (N = 52 who were in a romantic relationship completed four self-report measures; a demographic questionnaire, The Individualism and Collectivism Scale (IC-S, The Experiences in Close Relationship Scale-Short Form (ECR-S and The Love Attitude Scale short form (LAS. The model successfully predicted each love style and in one case (Mania accounted for 52% of the variance in this love style. Each love attitude had a different profile, and no one predictor dominated any one style which supports Lee’s original idea that the styles are qualitatively different.

  3. Self-construal as moderator in the relationship between self-esteem and humour style

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Clinical Psychology) Humour serves various intrapersonal and interpersonal functions. The affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive and self-defeating humour styles are employed by individuals throughout their interactions and can influence their and others’ intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. Humour styles have been related to positive attributes, such as self-esteem and optimism. Individual differences in the type of humour style displayed could furthermore be influenced by ...

  4. Regional gray matter volume mediates the relationship between maternal emotional warmth and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Yi, Zili; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-31

    Researchers have examined how parenting behavior influences individuals' brain structure and behavioral development, primarily among people who have experienced maltreatment. However, information relating to the anatomical structure associated with the parenting behavior in young healthy individuals who have not experienced maltreatment is scant. Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality. Both the extent to which parenting behavior influences gratitude and the neural basis of the relationship between parenting behavior and gratitude are unclear. Thus, in the present study, the primary aim was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neuroanatomical basis of parenting behavior in young healthy participants. The results showed a significant negative correlation between the maternal emotional warmth and both the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex. Then, we used mediation analysis to investigate the neural basis of the relationship between parenting behavior and gratitude. The results revealed that the volume of the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the maternal emotional warmth and gratitude. Together, these findings suggest that the family environment, specifically parenting behavior, might be associated with the gray matter volume of brain structure. Further, the lateral rostral prefrontal cortex might have an important role in the relationship between the maternal emotional warmth and gratitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING STYLES AND MOTIVATION TO TEACH AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vello Hein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985 which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students

  6. The relationship between mother's parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-02-01

    Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother's parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls.

  7. Maternal exposure to a Western-style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J

    2017-01-01

    The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2-week-old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western-style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet-exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2-week-old offspring. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Maternal exposure to a Western‐style diet causes differences in intestinal microbiota composition and gene expression of suckling mouse pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Lendvai, Agnes; Pruis, Maurien G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M.; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Scope The long‐lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. Methods and results In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2‐week‐old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western‐style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet‐exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). Conclusion Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2‐week‐old offspring. PMID:27129739

  9. A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

  10. Predictors of maternal depression in the first year postpartum: marital status and mediating role of relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akincigil, Ayse; Munch, Shari; Niemczyk, Kristen C

    2010-01-01

    Existing literature has documented the associations between marital status and maternal depression within the first year postpartum. Using data that is representative of urban non-marital births in the United States with a large over-sample of non-marital births, we investigate the association of maternal depression with not only marital status but also relationship quality with the father of the baby. Quality is independently associated with maternal depression after controlling for marital status and other variables that have been documented as risk factors for maternal depression. In addition, relationship quality explains away the associations between marital status and maternal depression. After controlling for relationship quality, single women were no more likely to be depressed compared to married or cohabiting women.

  11. A study on relationship between conflict management styles and organizational agility: A case study of Ilam state University, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between various styles of conflict management and organizational agility in Ilam state university. The study is quantitative one, having developmental orientation and comparative approach, which applies the strategy of survey research with an aim of exploration and description. It is implemented as single point and utilizes questionnaire as data collecting tool. The population and sample of the study include 425 and 205 individuals, respectively. The sample size is determined through Cochran’s formula and random sampling method has been used for sampling. In order to perform the data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics as well as Spearman and Kendall test in SPSS were utilized. The results of the study reveal that there was a positive and significant relationship among four styles of conflict management (avoiding, forcing, compromising, and yielding, however there was no significant relationship between integrating conflict management and organizational agility.

  12. The Role of Coping Styles in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Quality of Life of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hejazi Taghanaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS show different reactions to the disease according to their personality traits, which can affect their quality of life. In this research, the mediator role of coping styles was investigated in the relationship between personality traits and quality of life in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Of all individuals with MS, who were member of MS Society of Qom province, 170 persons were selected using probability convenient sampling. All the patients were investigated using a general questionnaire in addition to 3 international approved standard tools (including Stress Coping Styles, Quality of life, and Personality Traits questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by descriptive-analytical statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients was in the range of 18-59 years, 32.34±8.71, of whom 138 subjects (83.2% were female. In this research, there was a significant correlation between coping styles and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. The correlation between coping styles and personality traits, was significant. There was a significant correlation between personality traits and quality of life and its dimensions in MS patients. In this study, path analysis results proved the mediator role of coping styles in the relationship between variables of quality of life and personality traits. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant correlation between personality traits of the individuals with MS and type of the used coping styles, which can affect the quality of life in these patients.

  13. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq

    2012-01-01

    Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are  intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...

  14. Relationship between a history of consistent maternal employment and depression in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; Termine, Kim; Norton, Jenifer; Barry, Oliver; Bahm, Jonathan; Papas, Adam; Papas, Harris

    2010-12-01

    Research on the correlates of maternal employment has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, 79 male and 120 female undergraduates with mothers who had been employed from the students' infancy through their adolescence scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory-II than those whose mothers had not been employed. This relationship between children's depressive symptoms and mothers' employment history was not evident among young adults whose mothers' employment was perceived to be financially unnecessary.

  15. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  16. Turkish Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Intelligence Level and Its Relationship to Their Parents' Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored Turkish prospective early childhood teachers' emotional intelligence scores in order to determine whether levels indicated differentiations according to grade level, and parenting style. Participants responded to the Turkish version of the Parenting Style Inventory and Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). EIS also…

  17. The Relationship between Family Environment and Parenting Style: A Preliminary Study of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Congruency of Perceived Principal Leadership Style and Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuanyanwu-Biemkpa, Catherine Chinedum

    2017-01-01

    Despite the constant interest in the theory and practice of leadership as it relates to leadership styles and leadership effectiveness, ongoing debate continues regarding the importance of leadership style and its effectiveness in the administration of underperforming schools. The problem addressed by this study was, despite frequent changes of…

  19. The Relationship between Stress, Coping Style, and Academic Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Windover, Sheila T.

    2017-01-01

    College students experience a great deal of stress, which is associated with poor health and poor levels of academic satisfaction which can lead to low retention. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate how stress and coping style predict academic satisfaction and understand how and if coping style moderates the…

  20. On the Relationship between Technique and Style: The Case of the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the formative interaction between instrumental technique and musical style by analysing different approaches to the violin/fiddle. It is argued that technique is constitutive of style and that musical concepts are intimately related to the accumulated experience of sensations associated with handling the instrument in a…

  1. Student Achievement in Basic College Mathematics: Its Relationship to Learning Style and Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthorpe, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    From the assumption that matching a student's learning style with the learning method best suited for the student, it follows that developing courses that correlate learning method with learning style would be more successful for students. Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute (TVI) in New Mexico has attempted to provide students with more…

  2. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  3. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  4. Relationships between Students' Engagement and the Dissimilar Cognitive Styles of Their Undergraduate Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Curtis R.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the dissimilarity of cognitive style between the instructor and the student was related to student engagement in nine undergraduate classes. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was used to measure cognitive style as a preference to a method of solving problems: either more adaptively or more…

  5. The Relationship of Parenting Styles to Commitment to the Church among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Roger L.; Wisbey, Randall L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of parenting style experiences during childhood has on the religious commitment of young adults. Surveyed Seventh-day Adventist young adults (n=653) in United States and Canada. Reveals that the affectionate constraint parenting style produced the largest percentage of members. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Humor Styles and Their Relationship to Well-Being among the Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick; Ronner, Sieuwke; Nauta, Arnolda

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which a sample of 202 gifted individuals (members of Mensa) engaged in four humor styles and the extent to which these humor styles were related to their well-being. These results were compared to a comparative population sample (n = 265). Results showed that gifted individuals most often used positive…

  7. Relationship Between Healthy Life Style and Work-Related Factors Among Call Center Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Gustainienė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Health-related issues are becoming very popular both in the broad spheres of the society and in organizations. Taking care of employee health helps the employer with maintaining and improving organizational effectiveness. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the relationship between the Five-Factor Wellness Model and work-related factors such as interpersonal conflicts, organizational constraints, workload, work-family conflict, decision latitude, transformational leadership, psychological job characteristics and perceived organizational support. The subjects of the study were 177 employees of a call center. Healthy lifestyle was measured applying a Five-Factor Wellness questionnaire (Myers, Sweeney 2005b. Physical symptoms, interpersonal conflicts, organizational constraints and workload were measured using respective scales designed by Spector and Jex (2007. Decision latitude was measured employing Karasek (1985 questionnaire. Work-family conflict was measured referring to a subscale of negative work-home interaction (Geurts et al. 2005. A transformational leadership style was measured using General Scale of transformational leadership (Carless et al. 2000. Perceived organizational support was measured using a short version of Perceived Organizational Support scale (Eisenberger et al. 1986. Research findings show that healthy lifestyle as measured by the Five-Factor Wellness Model was predicted by lower work-family conflict, whereas physical symptoms - by marked work-family conflict, decision latitude and gender (female.

  8. Relationships between communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles in accounting students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arquero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the global business environment have led to changes in the skills required by accountants in order to add value for their clients. Consequently, there is a growing pressure on accounting educators to design and implement educational programmes that could contribute to the development of the relevant skills. In such a context, it is possible that some characteristics of students (for example communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance, or learning styles could be constraints on both skills development and pedagogical change. Previous studies have reported that accounting students tend to have higher levels of the constraining characteristics than students from other disciplines. However, previous research has not considered the extent to which those characteristics are inter-related or have possible synergistic effects in accounting students. The results of this study, based on a sample of accounting students, indicate that those relationships exist. The patterns of correlations are indicative of the constraints that an accounting educator must overcome to effectively develop certain skills. Implications of the results are discussed.

  9. The relationship between maternal attitudes and young people's attitudes toward children's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Ruck, Martin D

    2006-04-01

    Relations between maternal socio-political attitudes and parenting style and young people's and mothers' attitudes toward young people's nurturance and self-determination rights were examined. Both young people (n = 121) and mothers (n = 67) were more supportive of nurturance than self-determination rights, although young people were more supportive than their mothers of self-determination rights and mothers were more supportive than young people of nurturance rights. Maternal conservatism was unrelated to young people's support for rights and negatively related to mothers' support for both types of rights. Last, young people who perceived their mother to be either authoritarian or uninvolved showed stronger endorsement of self-determination rights than young people who perceived their mother to be authoritative. The implications of these findings for the development of young people's attitudes toward rights within the context of various family factors are discussed. In particular, it is suggested that a balance needs to be achieved between assertion of rights and a respect for the rights of others.

  10. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  11. Attachment style, relationship quality, and psychological distress in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures versus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Becky; Norman, Paul; Reuber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathology levels are elevated in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. However, patients with PNES report higher rates of trauma and neglect, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and an increased prevalence of insecure attachment. We examined to what extent attachment style and relationship quality with their main informal carer impact on levels of HRQoL, depression, and anxiety in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy. Consecutive patients with PNES (N=23) and epilepsy (N=72) completed questionnaires about attachment style, quality of their relationship with their main informal carer, seizure severity, HRQoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients with PNES reported higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower HRQoL than those with epilepsy. PNES: No significant correlations were found with HRQoL but depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict, and negatively with relationship depth and support. Epilepsy: HRQoL correlated negatively with seizure severity, depression, anxiety, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with seizure severity, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Correlations between measures of relationship quality and anxiety were stronger in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy (zs=2.66 to 2.97, ps<0.004). Attachment style and relationship quality explained larger amounts of variance in depression (45%) and anxiety (60%) in the patients with PNES than those with epilepsy (16% and 13%). Levels of anxiety and depression were higher in patients with PNES than those with epilepsy. Interpersonal problems were much more closely associated with anxiety and depression in

  12. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  13. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  14. Title: A study of the relationship between managers\\' decision making styles and organizational health in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bahrami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Managers decision making style can function effectively correct departments in universities and its positive impact on organizational health group will increase efficiency. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the decision-making styles and organizational health departments in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.   Methods: A descriptive and survey research method was utilized. The statistical population included all 594 members of Isfahan Medical Science University Colleges from which a sample of 201 was selected though a classified random sampling   The data gathering instruments included, a researcher – made decision making questionnaire and the Ho & Feldmn (1990, organizational health questionnaire. The reliability of the instruments was estimated 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, though Cronbach Alpha coefficient. Utilizing SPSS (15 statistical software, both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data.   Results: Consultative decision making scored the highest average among the chairpersons, while the authoritative style scored the lowest average. The departments' organizational health was more than mean level in all dimensions except chairperson's influence. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between decision making style and organizational health indices. Also a direct relationship was not observed between authoritarian decision makings and institutional integration, chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Consultative decision making and chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, resource support, morale, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Participative decision making and chairperson Influence, consideration, initiating structure.   Conclusion: Consultative and participative decision making can lead to enhancement

  15. The relationship between mother’s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. Findings: The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p adaptability in adolescent girls. PMID:23833590

  16. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  18. Relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongjuan; Liu, Nana; Qu, Haili; Chen, Liqin; Wang, Kefang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among symptom severity, coping styles, and quality of life (QOL) in community-dwelling women with urinary incontinence (UI). A total of 592 women with UI participated in this cross-sectional study. Bivariate Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlations between symptom severity, coping styles, and QOL. Multivariate regression models and Sobel tests were used to test the mediating effect of coping styles. Additionally, a multiple mediator model was used to examine the mediating role of coping styles collectively. All regression models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, income, duration of UI, and type of UI. Participants tended to use avoidant and palliative coping styles and not use instrumental coping style. Avoidant and palliative coping styles were associated with poor QOL, and partially mediated the association between symptom severity and QOL. Nearly 73% of the adverse effect of symptom severity on QOL was mediated by avoidant and palliative coping styles. The use of avoidant and palliative coping styles was higher with more severe urine leakage, and QOL tended to be poorer. Coping styles should be addressed in UI management. It may be of particular value to look closely at negative coping styles and implement education and training of patients in improving their coping skills related to managing UI, which will in turn improve their QOL.

  19. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  20. Relationship of Challenge and Hindrance Stress with Coping Style and Job Satisfaction in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Zhao, Dong Mei

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to categorize stresses prevalent in Chinese state-owned enterprises and to investigate the relationships among stresses, coping styles and job satisfaction. Data ( n = 549) were collected from three state-owned enterprises in Cang Zhou, He Bei Province, Mainland China. The result of a factor analysis yielded the following three factors: enterprise stress, interpersonal stress, and challenge stress. In order to test the moderator effect of problem-focused coping and emotion-fo...

  1. The Relationship between Leadership Style, Organizational Culture, and Job Satisfaction in the U.S. Healthcare Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhamadou Sow; Jeanie Murphy; Rosa Osuoha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study, based on the theoretical framework of transformational leadership, was to examine the relationships between leadership style, organizational culture, and job satisfaction in the U.S. healthcare industry. The study addressed a problem faced by U.S. healthcare leaders, who are currently unaware as to how transformational leadership and organizational culture can impact job satisfaction in an industry with high burnout and low satisfaction l...

  2. Identifying the relationship of parenting styles and parent’s perfectionism with normal students’ and gifted students’ perfectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Kakavand, Alireza; Kalantari, Siavash; Noohi, Sima; Taran, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Psychologists stated that parents’ functions and behaviors influence the formation of children’s thoughts, behaviors and emotions This study aimed to identify the relationship of parenting styles and parents’ perfectionism with normal students’ perfectionism and gifted students’ perfectionism. The study is a descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of all normal and gifted female high school students of Karaj. A sample of 200 students was selected using random sampling method. ...

  3. The relationship between mother to child calories served and maternal perception of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M

    2016-06-01

    Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  5. The Validity of Observational Measures in Detecting Optimal Maternal Communication Styles: Evidence from European Americans and Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.; Sigman, Marian; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Au, Terry K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of an observational coding system for assessing positive and negative maternal behaviors of Latino and European American mothers toward their adolescent children. Ninety Latino (54 Spanish speaking and 35 English speaking) and 20 European American mother-adolescent dyads participated in an observational study of…

  6. The relationship between mother?s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  7. Relationships between maternal malaria and malarial immune responses in mothers and neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N; De Francisco, A

    1995-01-01

    and schizonts (190L and 190N) were higher in neonates than mothers. There was no clear relationship between maternal malaria and neonatal mean lymphoproliferation to malarial antigens, although fewer neonates responded when mothers were actively infected. Matched maternal and neonatal lymphoproliferation...... responses did not correlate. However, first born neonatal lymphoproliferation to PPD and malarial antigens appeared lower than other neonates, in agreement with lower lymphoproliferation in primigravidae compared with multigravidae. Also in common with mothers, autologous plasma suppressed neonatal...... lymphoproliferation to PPD and malarial antigens, suggesting common immunoregulation. Higher cortisol or other circulating factors in first pregnancies may be implicated. The relevance of cell-mediated malarial immune responses detected at birth remains to be established....

  8. Relationship of sleep quality with coping and life styles in female Moroccan immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in Western societies show poorer sleep quality in women compared with men. Socioeconomic and stress-related psychological variables have been shown to influence sleep, but not much is known about sociological and psychological influences on the sleep of women in general and non-Western women in particular. The present study reports on sociodemographic and coping variables in relation to sleep quality in female Moroccan immigrants living in Germany. Participants took part in a structured personal interview on Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) sleep quality, coping style preferences, and information related to the degree of identification with Western life style. Sleep quality was poor (PSQI > 6) in 39% of women. Surprisingly, women who had identified with a more Western lifestyle had poorer sleep quality than women who had retained their traditional Moroccan life style. An unusually large proportion of women preferred monitoring (i.e., information-seeking coping style) and adaptive coping (48% and 19%, respectively), regardless of sleep quality. Monitoring was more frequent in women who were less integrated into German culture. Results on sleep quality suggest that for Moroccan immigrant women in Germany, adopting a Western life style may be more stressful than retaining their native life style. The high preference for an information seeking approach in coping may reflect the desire for information rather than actual coping behavior.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Relationships between Conflict Management Styles and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Propensity to Leave the Job among Saudi and American Universities' Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study used Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form C to examine the preference for conflict management styles among Saudi and American faculty members. Additionally, the study examined the relationships between conflict management styles and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and propensity to leave the job. A random sample…

  10. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, N.; Kose, D.; Altinkaynak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  11. The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attributional Styles and Learned Helplessness among Addicted and Non-Addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  12. Identifying the relationship of parenting styles and parent’s perfectionism with normal students’ and gifted students’ perfectionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kakavand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists stated that parents’ functions and behaviors influence the formation of children’s thoughts, behaviors and emotions This study aimed to identify the relationship of parenting styles and parents’ perfectionism with normal students’ perfectionism and gifted students’ perfectionism. The study is a descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of all normal and gifted female high school students of Karaj. A sample of 200 students was selected using random sampling method. Data was collected using Hill’s perfectionism questionnaire and BAUMRIND’s parenting styles questionnaire. Researcher used simultaneous multivariate regression and independent sample t-test methods for data analysis. The results showed that there is a statistically significant difference between perfectionism of normal student’s parents and perfectionism of gifted student’s parents but there is no statistically significant difference between their parenting styles. There is a statistically significant difference between perfectionism of normal students and perfectionism of gifted students. Results also showed that adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism of students are not predictable based on the perfectionism and parenting styles of parents.

  13. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period.

  14. Relationship of Neonatal Leptin and Insulin to Birth Weight and Gender Difference as well as Their Relationship to Maternal Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, Kh.M.

    2005-01-01

    Normal intrauterine growth and development is dependent on many factors of which hormonal factors have been implicated. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship of neonatal leptin and insulin to birth weight and gender difference as well as their relationship to maternal levels. Serum leptin level was assessed by competitive enzyme immunoassay and insulin level by radioimmunoassay in the cord blood of sixty neonates and the venous blood of their mothers. The neonates were classified according to their birth weight into: 23 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (12 females and 11 males); 20 large for gestational age (LGA) (11 females and 9 males) and 17 small for gestational age (SGA) (9 femals and 8 males). Our results revealed a highly significant increase in maternal serum levels of leptin and insulin (24.1±11.8 ng/ml and 22.3±5.8 μ U/ml, respectively) when compared to neonatal levels (10.0 ± 7.4ng/ml and 7.4±4.3 μ U/ml, p<0.001, respectively). Cord blood leptin and insulin levels showed statistically significant differences between all weight classes with the highest levels in LGA neonates

  15. Social competence of elementary-school children: relationships to maternal authoritativeness, supportive maternal responses and children's coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S M

    2011-07-01

    Although the influences of parenting on children's development of social competence have been well established, research on the underlying mechanisms of this link is relatively limited. The present study examined children's coping strategies as a mediator of the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal inductive responses on their social competence. The mothers of 183 Hong Kong Chinese children aged 6 to 8 years (89 girls and 94 boys) reported on their adoption of authoritative parenting and their responses to their children's expressions of emotion, and rated their children's adoption of constructive coping strategies. The children's teachers reported on the children's prosocial behaviour, and rated their level of peer acceptance at school. A model of maternal authoritativeness and supportive maternal responses affecting children's social competence is presented. The study results show that the effects of authoritative parenting on children's adoption of constructive coping strategies were mediated by supportive maternal responses to children's expression of emotion, and that the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal responses on children's social competence were mediated by children's coping strategies. These results suggest that school personnel should organize training programmes on emotion-coping strategies for both parents and children. The findings imply that positive parenting facilitates children's acquisition of constructive emotion-coping strategies. Programmes on emotion-coping strategies should be introduced for both parents and school children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  17. Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Relationship Between Child and Maternal Sleep: A Developmental and Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between young children's sleep and maternal sleep from both a developmental and a cross-cultural perspective. Mothers of 10,085 young children completed the Brief Infant/Child Sleep Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Overall, there were significant relationships between maternal and child sleep for bedtime, waketime, number of night wakings, and total nighttime sleep time across ages and cultures, although these relationships were stronger with younger children than preschool-aged children. Mothers report that their child's sleep pattern significantly impacts their sleep and daytime function, and they do not feel confident in managing their child's sleep pattern. Thus, interventions to improve children's sleep and develop good sleep habits, especially in early childhood, are likely to improve the quality of life of the whole family. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  20. The relationship of parenting styles and social competency to Type A behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harralson, T L; Lawler, K A

    1992-10-01

    This study examined parenting styles, Type A behavior in parents and children, and social competence in children. Fifty 1st-6th grade children, parents, and their teachers participated. Type A behavior in parents was associated with a controlling style of parenting, but not with pressuring the child to achieve. Parenting styles of achievement pressure and high control were related to impatient and aggressive behaviors in children, as measured by the MYTH, a teacher-scored Type A behavior instrument. In addition, impatience and aggressiveness in the children were negatively correlated with the child's social competency and ability to function in school. Parenting practices, Type A behavior, and social competency in children may play important roles in the origins of detrimental components of Type A behavior, such as impatience and aggression.

  1. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  2. Parenting style and adolescent's reaction to conflict: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica M; DiIorio, Colleen; Dudley, William

    2002-12-01

    To determine if the reactions of adolescents toward hypothetical situations that can lead to conflict and violence varied by parenting style of their mothers. This study was part of a larger research project involving adolescents and their mothers participating in a longitudinal HIV-prevention program. Mothers and their adolescents were recruited from a community-based organization (CBO) and interviewed separately. Data were analyzed using the responses of 439 African-American adolescents ranging from ages 11 to 14 years. The responses of adolescents to questions about parenting were used to classify mothers into one of three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive. The "anticipated reactions to hypothetical situations" scale consists of 11 items with 6 response categories. The six responses were reclassified into three categories ranging from "not at all violent" to "extremely violent." Higher scores indicate more violent reactions to the hypothetical situations. The parenting scale consists of two subscales: a 13-item parental involvement scale and a 13-item parental control scale. Items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." Analysis of variance was used to determine if the anticipated reactions of adolescents toward hypothetical situations varied by parenting style of their mothers. Adolescent participants who reported a more permissive parenting style expressed more intense negative reactions toward the hypothetical situations that can provoke conflict. Male adolescents also expressed more intense reactions than females to the situations. There was no difference in intensity of reaction by age after controlling for gender and parenting style. Parenting style is associated with adolescents' reactions to hypothetical situations that can provoke conflict. This finding highlights the importance of considering parents and their approach to child-rearing as a factor in the adolescent's ability to

  3. Its ovr b/n u n me: technology use, attachment styles, and gender roles in relationship dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Delevi, Raquel

    2012-09-01

    Relationship dissolution now occurs through technologies like text messaging, e-mail, and social networking sites (SNS). Individuals who experience relationship dissolution via technology may differ in their attachment pattern and gender role attitudes from those who have not had that experience. One hundred five college students (males=21 and females=84) completed an online questionnaire about technology-mediated breakups, attachment style, and gender role attitudes. More than a quarter of the sample had experienced relationship dissolution via technology. Attachment anxiety predicted those subject to technology-mediated breakups. Attachment avoidance and less traditional gender roles were associated with increased likelihood of technology use in relationship dissolution. Implications are discussed in regards to future research and practice.

  4. Assessing the Relationship of Principals' Leadership Styles on Teacher Satisfaction and Teacher Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    Effective and efficient leadership helps schools to achieve established targets and ensures that they are operating according to federal and state guidelines. This quantitative comparative analysis study sought to address a gap in literature in terms of examining the impact of leadership styles of principals on teacher satisfaction and teacher…

  5. The Relationship between Teacher Candidates' Emotional Intelligence Level, Leadership Styles and Their Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizbas, Füsun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The personal characteristics as well as professional competencies of teachers are important in the formation of changes in student behaviors. This article examines the relation between emotional intelligence level, teacher leadership style and academic success of teacher candidates who are studying in a Pedagogical Teacher Education…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Holistic/Analytic Style and Classroom Learning Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how high school students' cognitive tendencies in holistic/analytic style relate to their active or passive behavioral patterns observed in the classroom. It was speculated that academic intrinsic motivation might play the role as a moderator and learning approach (the structure-oriented…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Critical Thinking Style and Water Conservation Behavior: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    In the past several years Cooperative Extension has focused on developing educational programs that address water conservation, specifically for individuals using exorbitant amounts of water, with limited success. However, few research studies have examined how the way people think, including their critical thinking styles, can be used to inform…

  8. The Relationship of Parenting Style to Self-Reported Mental Health among Two Subcultures of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guohua; Qian, Mingyi

    2001-01-01

    Results of this investigation with 127 youths from China supported the associations of recalled parent's styles with adolescents' self-evaluated health status. Many psychosomatic symptoms and lower scores on indexes of general mental health were significantly related to higher levels of parental rejection, denial, and over involvement, and to…

  9. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Deviance: The Moderating Role of Hostile Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Fen; Peng, Jei-Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that…

  10. Learned Helplessness: Shifts in Affect Following Uncontrollability and the Relationship to Attributional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Allison

    This study investigated the reformulated theory of learned helplessness, centering around attributional style in the cause of cognitive and emotional deficits. Subjects (N=58) were undergraduate and graduate psychology students at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (N=30) who received…

  11. Differential relationship of coping styles with well-being and ill-being of professional firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in how coping styles relate to different indicators of well- and ill-being. We assumed that coping styles are differently related to well- and ill-being indicators because they are theoretically and empirically independent from each other. To examine this assumption we asked 139 professional firemen to fill in measures of coping styles (COPE, EAS, well-being (PANAS, SWLS and ill-being (IES-R, PANAS. The results confirmed the overall importance of non-constructive coping for illbeing and well-being, whereas constructive coping predicted only positive emotionality. The prototypical masculine working environment characteristic for our sample could be the cause that socially/emotionally oriented coping is the weakest predictor of well-being, although other studies report the adaptive role of conscientious dealing with individual’s own emotions as a coping style. Both well- and ill-being measures should be used to get an insight into a complex area of individual’s adaptation to stress.

  12. Leadership Styles and Multicultural Education Approaches: An Exploration of Their Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an exploratory study that sought to identify elementary school principals' perspectives of diversity and multiculturalism in relation to their leadership styles. In particular, we examine the approaches to multiculturalism of a group of principals who lead multicultural schools in Cyprus and analyse the findings…

  13. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Young Adults' Self-Concepts and Evaluations of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 123 college students to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of parents' parenting styles. Student self-concept varied directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as function of parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were rated more highly if they were perceived as warm…

  14. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  15. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils’ total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious.

    El grado de amargor y picante de un aceite de oliva define en gran manera su tipo, y, por tanto, también su uso más apropiado por el consumidor. Para evaluar cómo los productores australianos de aceite de oliva interpretan el tipo de sus aceites, 920 aceites de oliva virgen australianos fueron clasificados por sus productores en tipo suave, medio o fuerte. Aunque, en general, la clasificación de los productores estuvo asociada a la concentración de fenoles totales de los aceites, se observó una variabilidad significativa en la concentración de fenoles en cada tipo de aceite. Los tipos percibidos en un subgrupo de estos aceites fueron además evaluados por paneles de catadores expertos. Los paneles de expertos fueron más discriminantes cuando asignaron los aceites a los diversos tipos basándose en el nivel de fenoles totales. Los productores y los paneles de expertos estuvieron en relativamente de acuerdo con respecto al tipo de aceite, si bien la interpretación de qué es un aceite suave fue la m

  16. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  17. The relationship between learning style preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year medical students: a survey study from iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style's questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts' views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x(2) test. Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners.

  18. The role of maternal factors in sibling relationship quality: a multilevel study of multiple dyads per family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-06-01

      Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and (b) this between family variation will be explained by maternal affective climate, operationalized as positive and negative ambient parenting, differential parenting and maternal malaise.   A general population sample of families with single and multiple sibling dyads were visited twice, 2 years apart. Up to 2 children in a family acted as informants; 253 relationships were rated in 118 families. A cross-classified, multilevel model was fit to separate between-family and within-family variance in sibling relationships while simultaneously controlling for informant and partner influences.   Thirty-seven percent of the variance in change in sibling affection and 32% of the variance in change in sibling hostility was between family variance. The measured maternal affective climate including, maternal malaise and maternal ambient and differential hostility and affection explained between family differences.   Sibling relationship quality clusters in families and is partly explained by maternal affective climate. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. [The relationship between socioeconomic factors and maternal and infant health programs in 13 Argentine provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, Graciela; Paganini, José María

    2007-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal and infant health and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in Argentina; to evaluate how health program quality affects the primary health indicators for mothers and infants. This is a cross-sectional study with multiple variables. The authors studied six indicators for maternal and infant health: rates for maternal, infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality; the percentage of newborns with low birthweight; and the percentage of premature newborns. The study was conducted in 79 administrative units in 13 provinces that represent different geographic regions of Argentina. They included (1) the provinces of Salta and Jujuy in northwest Argentina; (2) the provinces of Córdoba, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires in central Argentina; (3) the provinces of Entre Ríos and Misiones in the Mesopotamia or northeast region; (4) the provinces of San Luis, San Juan, and Mendoza in the Cuyo or northwest, Andean region; and (5) the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut in the south. The explanatory variable in the study was the quality of health programs, controlled by socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in 1999 and 2000. The definition of program quality ("poor," "average," "good," and "very good") was based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of selected variables such as policies, organization, and procedures as determined by the investigators. Documentation was obtained from secondary official sources. The investigators interviewed 117 health system managers (including supervisors of provincial and local health programs, administrators of maternal and child health programs, and hospital directors), who provided information on characteristics and indicators of the health programs. There were marked geographic differences in the levels of maternal and infant health, medical care, and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors. Only 10.0% of health programs were classified as "very good," 35.4% as

  20. The relationship between attributional style and destructive responses to job dissatisfaction: an exploratory study of internal migrant workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Siu-On; Wong, Fu-Keung Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attributional style and destructive responses to job dissatisfaction among internal migrant workers in mainland China. Contrary to previous studies conducted in the West, we found that internality of bad events was negatively related to destructive responses to job dissatisfaction. Stability and globality were positively related to destructive responses to job dissatisfaction. We suggest that the concept of interdependent self-construal may explain the unique positive meaning of internality of bad events among Chinese migrant workers. The practical significance of the findings is discussed.

  1. 203: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND HEALTH WORKER MOTIVATION, TEAMWORK AND JOB SATISFACTION IN HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Namale, Leticia; Dahal, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Some studies have shown that poor leadership is associated with lack of effective teamwork and a demotivated workforce leading to poor service delivery. There is scanty data in Uganda on how leadership styles relate to service delivery. This study was done to identify the leadership style in health facilities in Uganda and their relationship with health workers' motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern, Rwenzori and west Nile regions of Uganda in November 2015 using self-administered questionnaires distributed and picked the same day from 564 health workers in 270 health facilities. These questionnaires collected information on the health workers' perception of leadership styles of their facility in-charges, their level of motivation and job satisfaction; and the level of team work. Factor analysis was used to identify and confirm latent variables for constructs on leadership styles, motivation, job satisfaction and team work. Relationships were assessed using Pearson correlation. Results A total of 368/564 (64.3%) health workers indicated that transformational leadership was frequent or fairly often, while for transactional leadership it was 304/564 (54.4%) and laissez faire, it was 64/564 (11.4%). There was high correlation between transformational leadership with job satisfaction (r=0.31) and team work (r=0.47) and less correlation with motivation (r=0.18). Transactional leadership was highly correlated with teamwork (r=0.45) but low correlation with motivation (r=0.20) and job satisfaction (r=0.25). Laissez was negatively correlated with motivation at (r=−0.0002), job satisfaction (r=−0.21) and team work (r=−0.19). Conclusion Health workers who perceived their leaders to display transformational leadership had a strong likelihood of being satisfied with their jobs and working in teams. However, those who perceived their in-charges as having a laissez faire leadership style were

  2. The Comparison of Relationship between Family Communication Patterns and Self Concept with Coping Styles in Male and Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Taheri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Since people have different coping styles, the purpose of the present research was to compare the relationship between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students of Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlation study conducted in 2011 at Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz, 229 participants (91 males &119 females were selected by simple random sampling method. Data was collected by using the revised version of family communication patterns questionnaire (RFCP, Koerner & Fitz patrik (2002, Beck's Self-concept Test (CST (1990 and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS Endler & Parker (1990. Data was analyzed using correlation matrix & independent t-test analysis. Results: According to the result, there was significant correlation between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students. In the female group, task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. In male group avoidance orientation coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. Also, related to self concept variable, results showed female students task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable, but the male students avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable(P<0/05. Also, the result showed significant difference between two male and female students, in emotion oriented coping, so the female group, emotion oriented coping with (51/48 was more than the orientation within the male group with (48/18, (p<0.05. Conclusion: Family communication patterns and the concept are effective on coping styles. Therefore

  3. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  4. The relationships between Japanese interpersonal conflict styles and their language expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriizumi, Satoshi; Takai, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of interpersonal conflict management styles on language expressions and the differences in expressions in same-sex relational categories based on specific in-group-out-group classifications. Questionnaires were administered to 367 university students in Japan. After reading a scenario, participants reported on actual language use and gave ratings on an interpersonal conflict management scale. The results revealed that Japanese change their expressions, along with psychological styles, depending on the relational target. They also indicated psychological constructs were related to their equivalent expressions. The results suggested that future research should take into consideration the potential differences in behavior and interaction posture inherent in various relational and situational categories.

  5. Relationship styles of self-focused autonomy, other-focused connection, and mutuality among Mexican American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kearney, Lisa K

    2006-10-01

    The author examined relationship styles of self-focused autonomy (SFA), other-focused connection (OFC), and mutuality among 415 European and Mexican American young adults in 2 U.S. colleges. Mutuality was the most commonly reported style for both ethnic groups, although Mexican American men were more likely than the others to indicate that they had the SFA style. Mexican American participants perceived their fathers' styles as SFA more often than did the others regarding either of their parents' styles. Mutuality was associated with the best mental-health outcomes regardless of gender or ethnicity. The present results indicate that the cultural influences on autonomy and connection are complex and that collectivistic cultural contexts may sometimes promote autonomy concerns in men.

  6. Relationship between Social Media Dependency, Perceived Parenting Style, Delay of Gratification, and Narcissism

    OpenAIRE

    Derebaşı, Muhammet Burak

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, there is an increasing interest to study social media dependency. Currently, most of the researches compare social media dependency with other dependencies such as substance abuse and gambling. Although, there is limited research to investigate the effect of personality on social media dependency. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to examine the predictor roles of narcissism, perceived parenting styles and delay of gratification on social media dependency. A total of...

  7. Relationship Between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievement Among Elementary Students Grade II and III

    OpenAIRE

    Defia Rizki, Sari; Susilawati; Mariam, Iyam

    2017-01-01

    HUBUNGAN POLA ASUH ORANG TUA DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJARANAK USIA SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS II DAN IIIRelationship between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievementamong Elementary Students Grade II and IIISari Defia Rizki1, Susilawati2, Iyam Mariam3123Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan SukabumiJalan Karamat Nomor 36, Karamat, Kec. Sukabumi, Kota Sukabumi,Jawa Barat 431221e-mail: Pola asuh merupakan cara yang digunakan orang tua dalam mencoba berbagai strategi untukmendoron...

  8. Relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality in Chinese pregnant women: the mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Fang, Yueyan; Li, Ping

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, and to determine whether resilience plays a mediating role in the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality among pregnant women. Two hundred and thirty-one pregnant women in their second trimester participated in the study. They completed questionnaires, including: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS), and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10). A structural equation model was used to analyze the relationships among prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, with resilience as a mediator. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively associated with sleep quality in pregnant women (p relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality, and the mediation effect ratio was 22.0% (p stress; however, the protective factor for sleep quality was resilience. This finding could provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention strategies with which to improve sleep quality in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  10. Relationship between Personality Disorder Functioning Styles and the Emotional States in Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiashu; Xu, You; Qin, Yanhua; Liu, Jing; Shen, Yuedi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. Methods We therefore administered the Plutchick – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers. Results Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependant, Paranoid (-) and Schizoid (-) predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (-) predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (-) predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependant (-) predicted MDQ. Conclusion Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome. PMID:25625553

  11. Examining the relationship between maternal employment and health behaviours in 5-year-old British children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S Sherburne; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2009-12-01

    There is little known about potential mechanisms underlying the association between maternal employment and childhood obesity. The relationships between maternal hours worked per week (none, 1-20 hours, 21+ hours) and children's dietary and physical activity/inactivity habits were examined. Where mothers were employed, the relationships between flexible work arrangements and these health behaviours were also examined. Data from 12,576 singleton children age 5 years in the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Mothers reported information about their employment patterns. Mothers also reported on indicators of their child's dietary (crisps/sweets, fruit/vegetables, sweetened beverage, fruit consumption), physical activity (participation in organised exercise, transport to school) and inactivity (television/computer use) habits at age 5. After adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors, children whose mothers worked part-time or full-time were more likely to primarily drink sweetened beverages between meals (compared to other beverages), use the television/computer at least 2 hours daily (compared to 0-2) or be driven to school (compared to walk/cycle) than children whose mothers had never been employed. Children whose mothers worked full-time were less likely to primarily eat fruit/vegetables between meals (compared to other snacks) or eat three or more portions of fruit daily (compared to two or fewer). Although in unadjusted analyses children whose mothers used flexible work arrangements engaged in healthier behaviours, relationships were no longer significant after adjustment. For many families the only parent or both parents are working. This may limit parents' capacity to provide their children with healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. Policies and programmes are needed to help support parents and create a health-promoting environment.

  12. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare. To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old) were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ), a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson's correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292) had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence) was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, Pparenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. PParenting style and resilience have significant effects on adolescents' post-traumatic symptoms. Schools and social-related departments could share knowledge on the impact of parenting style with parents enabling them to improve their own parenting style and their children's resilience and ability to respond effectively to traumatic events.

  13. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare. Objectives To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old) were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ), a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson’s correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. Results Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292) had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence) was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, Pparenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. PParenting style and resilience have significant effects on adolescents’ post-traumatic symptoms. Schools and social-related departments could share knowledge on the impact of parenting style with parents enabling them to improve their own parenting style and their children’s resilience and ability to respond

  14. Does Maternal HIV Disclosure Self-Efficacy Enhance Parent-Child Relationships and Child Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Lisa; Goodrum, Nada; Schulte, Marya; Marelich, William; LeCroix, Rebecca; Murphy, Debra A

    2018-02-09

    Nondisclosure of maternal HIV status to young children can negatively impact child functioning; however, many mothers do not disclose due to lack of self-efficacy for the disclosure process. This study examines demographic variations in disclosure self-efficacy, regardless of intention to disclose, and assesses the relationship between self-efficacy and child adjustment via the parent-child relationship among a sample of HIV+ mothers and their healthy children (N = 181 pairs). Mothers completed demographic and self-efficacy measures; children completed measures assessing the parent-child relationship and child adjustment (i.e., worry, self-concept, depression). Across demographics, few mothers reported confidence in disclosure. Results from covariance structural modeling showed mothers endorsing higher self-efficacy had children who reported better relationship quality, and, in turn, reported fewer adjustment difficulties; higher levels of disclosure self-efficacy also directly predicted fewer adjustment problems. Findings offer support for interventions aimed at providing mothers with skills to enhance confidence for disclosing their HIV status.

  15. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  16. MATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH MODERATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OXYTOCIN AND INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Simcha; Hayton, Barbara; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Mothers with mood or anxiety disorders exhibit less optimal interactive behavior. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to more optimal interactive behaviors in mothers without mental illness, and it may play a particularly beneficial role in mothers with mood or anxiety disorders given its antidepressant and anxiolytic functions. We compared the relationship between OT and interactive behavior in mothers with and without mental health problems. Participants included 20 women diagnosed with postpartum mood or anxiety disorders (clinical sample) and 90 women with low levels of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum (community sample). At 2 months' postpartum, blood was drawn to assess maternal OT levels, and mother-infant interaction was coded for maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, remoteness, and depressiveness. Clinical mothers exhibited less sensitive, more intrusive, and more depressive interactive behaviors than did community mothers. The groups did not differ in OT levels. Mothers with higher OT levels were less intrusive with their infants. Higher OT levels were associated with less depressive interactive behavior only in clinical mothers. OT was associated with positive interactive behaviors in both groups. In clinical mothers, the calming and soothing effects of OT may promote more relaxed, energetic, and infant-focused interactive behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Local health departments and specific maternal and child health expenditures: relationships between spending and need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dunbar, Matthew; Bryan, Matthew; Morris, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    As a part of the Public Health Activities and Service Tracking study and in collaboration with partners in 2 Public Health Practice-Based Research Network states, we examined relationships between local health department (LHD) maternal and child health (MCH) expenditures and local needs. We used a multivariate pooled time-series design to estimate ecologic associations between expenditures in 3 MCH-specific service areas and related measures of need from 2005 to 2010 while controlling for other factors. Retrospective expenditure data from LHDs and for 3 MCH services represented annual investments in (1) Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), (2) family planning, and (3) a composite of Maternal, Infant, Child, and Adolescent (MICA) service. Expenditure data from all LHDs in Florida and Washington were then combined with "need" and control variables. Our sample consisted of the 102 LHDs in Florida and Washington and the county (or multicounty) jurisdictions they serve. Expenditures for WIC and for our composite of MICA services were strongly associated with need among LHDs in the sample states. For WIC, this association was positive, and for MICA services, this association was negative. Family planning expenditures were weakly associated, in a positive direction. Findings demonstrate wide variations across programs and LHDs in relation to need and may underscore differences in how programs are funded. Programs with financial disbursements based on guidelines that factor in local needs may be better able to provide service as local needs grow than programs with less needs-based funding allocations.

  18. Is there a relationship between the grade of maternal hydronephrosis and birth weight of the babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Soner; Biyik, Ismail; Ustunyurt, Emin; Keles, Ibrahim; Guzelsoy, Muhammed; Demirci, Hakan

    2015-06-01

    Mild hydronephrosis may be present in upto 90% of pregnancies. The degree of hydronephrosis was determined by maximal calyceal diameter (MCD). The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between grade of maternal hydronephrosis and birth weight of the babies. Subjects were examined in three groups: group 1 MCD of 5-10 mm (grade I), group 2 10-15 mm (grade II) and group 3 patients >15 mm (grade III). There were 45, 30, 13 patients in the groups, respectively. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) at the time that hydronephrosis was diagnosed, birth weight and duration of pregnancy were compared. The average birth weight of the babies was not statistically different in the three groups (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in fetal weights at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.02). The grade of maternal hydronephrosis does not affect the duration of pregnancy.

  19. Relationship Between Maternal Characteristics and Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Aysegul; Komurcu, Nuran

    2017-12-06

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in low-income countries and the primary cause of approximately one of every four maternal deaths worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the antenatal risk factors of PPH and its effects. The literature from nine databases was reviewed, and studies published between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed using terms such as "postpartum hemorrhage," "prevention of postpartum hemorrhage," and "management of postpartum hemorrhage." The full text of 1,061 articles was reviewed, and 29 studies were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Studies that determined bias using the funnel plot test were excluded, and 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and comprehensive meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included five studies and 1,286,752 women for maternal age, six studies and 607,822 women for body mass index, and six studies and 1,118,490 women for parity. The results of the analysis showed that body mass index ≥ 25.00 kg/m (OR = 1.43, 95% CI [1.40, 1.47]), primiparity of mothers (OR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.35, 1.40]), and hypertensive disorder in mothers (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.43, 1.61]) are risk factors for the development of PPH. No rela-tionship was found between maternal age ≥ 35 years and PPH (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.99, 1.04]). Midwives, obstetric nurses, and obstetricians should carefully evaluate mothers for the risk factors of PPH during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Moreover, at-risk pregnant women should give birth in a unit with emergency initiative options. Future studies should examine relevant personal characteristics of mothers, as familiarity with the risk factors facilitates the management and treatment of PPH. Finally, meta-analyses should review more studies to detect risk factors more comprehensively.

  20. The relationship between gambling attitudes, involvement, and problems in adolescence: Examining the moderating role of coping strategies and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ramsay W; Youssef, George J; Hasking, Penelope; Yücel, Murat; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are associated with an increased risk of adolescent problem gambling, including positive gambling attitudes, higher levels of gambling involvement, ineffective coping strategies and unhelpful parenting practices. It is less clear, however, how these factors interact or influence each other in the development of problem gambling behavior during adolescence. The aim of the current study was to simultaneously explore these predictors, with a particular focus on the extent to which coping skills and parenting styles may moderate the expected association between gambling involvement and gambling problems. Participants were 612 high school students. The data were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model, controlling for gender. Although several variables predicted the number of symptoms associated with problem gambling, none of them predicted the probability of displaying any problem gambling. Gambling involvement fully mediated the relationship between positive gambling attitudes and gambling problem severity. There was a significant relationship between gambling involvement and problems at any level of problem focused coping, reference to others and inconsistent discipline. However, adaptive coping styles employed by adolescents and consistent disciplinary practices by parents were buffers of gambling problems at low levels of adolescent gambling involvement, but failed to protect adolescents when their gambling involvement was high. These findings indicate that research exploring the development of gambling problems is required and imply that coping and parenting interventions may have particular utility for adolescents who are at risk of development gambling problems but who are not gambling frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.