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Sample records for maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary

  1. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Raakel; Laitinen, Kirsi; Nermes, Merja; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-06-01

    The breast milk bioactive substances such as adiponectin, have a presumably long-term impact upon the health and well-being of a child. To determine the impact of probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration. Altogether 256 pregnant women were randomized into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotics) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). The intervention group received dietary counseling provided by a nutritionist, the main focus being the amount and the type of dietary fat. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) for adiponectin concentration analysis (n=181). The dietary intervention increased the colostrum adiponectin concentration (ng/mL, geometric mean [95% CI]), the difference being significant when comparing to the control group; 12.7 [10.6-29.7] vs. 10.2 [9.9-13.2], P=0.024. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy (kg) correlated inversely with colostrum adiponectin concentration; β (SE)=-1.7 (0.1), P=0.020, and gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with the likelihood of adiponectin concentration falling into the lowest quartile; OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, P=0.028. In showing that the colostrum adiponectin concentration is markedly dependent on maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy, and considering that colostrum adiponectin has potential effects on metabolism, nutrition, and immune function in the neonates, the results of this study underscore the importance of the metabolic homeostasis of the mother for the child's initial nutritional environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.

  3. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Pprobiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dietary probiotic supplementation improves growth and the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M A; Batista, S; Pires, M A; Silva, A P; Pereira, L F; Saavedra, M J; Ozório, R O A; Rema, P

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic administration can be a nutritional strategy to improve the immune response and growth performance of fish. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic blend (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune and oxidative stress responses and intestinal morphology in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The probiotic was incorporated into a basal diet at three concentrations: 0 g/kg (A0: control), 3 g/kg (A1: 1.0×106 colony forming unit (CFU)/g) and 6 g/kg (A2: 2.3×106 CFU/g diet). After 8 weeks of probiotic feeding, weight and specific growth rate where significantly higher in fish-fed A1 diet than in fish-fed A0. Alternative complement in plasma was significantly enhanced in fish-fed A2 when compared with A0. The hepatic antioxidant indicators were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Villi height and goblet cell counts increased significantly in the intestine of fish-fed A1 and A2 diets compared with A0. The dietary probiotic supplementation was maintained until 20 weeks of feeding. Then the selected immune parameters, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of diets were studied. No effect of probiotic feeding was observed after that longer period supplementation. The dietary supplementation of mixed species probiotic may constitute a valuable nutritional approach towards a sustainable tilapia aquaculture. The improvement of the immune responses and intestinal morphology play an important role in increasing growth performance, nutrient absorption and disease resistance in fish, important outcomes in such a competitive and developing aquaculture sector.

  5. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on LXRα and CYP7α1 gene expression, liver enzyme activities and fat metabolism in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Mu, C; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Chen, C; Lan, L; Xu, Q; Zhao, W; Chen, G

    2015-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) mRNA levels, protein enzymatic activities and fat metabolism in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks. 2. A total of 750 one-day-old Cherry Valley Pekin ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups with three replicates of 50 ducks each in a completely randomised experiment. Each group was fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg probiotics/kg. 3. Body rate and feed conversion ratio were highest and abdominal subcutaneous fat % was lowest at 1000 mg probiotic/kg. 4. The mRNA levels of LXRα and CYP7α1 in liver tissue was estimated by RT-PCR; serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were measured by ELISA. 5. The expression levels and enzyme activity of LXRα and CYP7α1 increased in conjunction with decreases in TG and TC concentrations following probiotic supplementation to a maximum at 1000 mg probiotics/kg and decreased thereafter. 6. It is concluded that dietary probiotics can enhance LXRα and CYP7α1 enzyme activities in the liver and reduce lipid concentrations and fat deposition in ducks.

  6. Dietary probiotic supplementation improved gut amylase to trypsin ratio in European seabass reared at different temperatures and survival after handling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Ferreira Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and chemical treatments are often used as disease control strategy. A prophylactic and alternative method to this chemical approach are the probiotics [1]. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host" (FAO, 2001. The benefits of probiotic treatments are improvements in host nutritional retention [2], antagonistic properties to bacterial pathogen proliferation [3], modulation of immune responses [4], among others. Temperature plays a major role in dietary nutrient utilization and immune responses in fish, and have a modulatory effect on probiotic activity in intestine. The current study evaluated the use of a dietary probiotic supplementation in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, one of the most important fish species in Southern Europe. Fish were fed on a multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. , reared under 3 different temperatures (17, 20 and 23 ºC for 70 days. Fish were pair-fed, fixed to the voluntary feed intake of fish reared at 17 º C, in order to have similar probiotic intake among the temperature groups. Final body weight tripled initial weight (12.7 to 30.7g. At the end of the growth trial, all fish were subjected to a handling stress, in which stocking density increased by 6 fold (from 4 kg/m3 to 25 kg/m3, followed by a 15 min chase with a pole. Growth performance was not affected by the dietary treatment. Post-stress cumulative mortality were significantly higher in the 17ºC control group (figure 1A. Digestive enzymes activity were significantly affected by temperature and diet interaction. The activity ratio of amylase to trypsin (figure 1B increased with temperature and dietary probiotic supplementation, an indication that probiotic treatment at 23oC have a positive influence on the metabolic flexibility of carbohydrate-protein utilization. Non-specific immune response (ACH50

  7. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two commercially-available probiotics, based on Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium genera on performance and cholesterol and triglyceride amounts of broiler chicks' sera. One hundred and fifty-six (156), day-old, Ross chicks were randomly divided into groups A, ...

  8. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  9. The effects of probiotics supplementation on metabolic health in pregnant women: An evidence based meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    Full Text Available The prevalence of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly. Probiotics supplementation have been shown to improve metabolic health in humans. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics supplementation on metabolic health and pregnancy complications in pregnant women. The literature search, data extraction and quality assessment were performed, and data were synthesized in accordance with standardized guidelines. Ten randomized clinical trials with eligible data were included in our meta-analysis. For pregnant women with GDM, we found negative correlations between probiotics supplementation and fasting serum insulin (OR -2.94, 95%CI [-5.69, -0.20], p = 0.04 and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (OR -0.65, 95%CI [-1.18, -0.11], p = 0.02. There were no significant correlations between probiotics supplementation and lipid levels in women with GDM, including total cholesterol (OR -2.72, 95%CI [-17.18, 11.74], P = 0.71, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (OR -0.29, 95%CI [-3.60, 3.03], P = 0.87, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c (OR -0.38, 95%CI [-18.54, 17.79], P = 0.97, or triglycerides (OR -12.83, 95%CI [-36.63, 10.97], P = 0.29. For healthy pregnant women, probiotics supplementation were negatively associated with fasting serum insulin (OR -3.76, 95%CI [-4.29, -3.23], P < 0.00001 and HOMA-IR (OR -0.57, 95%CI [-1.08, -0.06], p = 0.03. However, no significant correlations were observed between probiotics supplementation and fasting plasma glucose (FPG (OR -2.02, 95%CI [-5.56, 1.52], p = 0.26. Thus, our study revealed that probiotics supplementation during pregnancy have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, rather than lipid metabolism among pregnant women.

  10. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  11. Probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan.This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases.Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use.The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.

  12. The effects of probiotic supplements on insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijmanawat, Athasit; Panburana, Panyu; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Tangshewinsirikul, Chayada

    2018-05-20

    To evaluate the effect of probiotic supplements on insulin resistance in pregnant women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between June 2016 and February 2017. Pregnant women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study at 24-28 weeks of gestation and randomized to receive either probiotic supplements containing Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus or placebo daily for four consecutive weeks. Primary outcomes were mean differences in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin and fasting plasma glucose between the two groups. Secondary outcomes were changes in maternal weight after the intervention. Data from 28 patients in the probiotic group and 29 in the placebo group were analyzed. The changes in metabolic parameters after randomization indicated significant improvement in glucose metabolism in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group, including fasting plasma glucose (0.68 ± 5.88 vs. 4.620 ± 7.78 mg/dL, mean difference, MD, -3.94 mg/dL (95% CI -7.62, -0.27), p-value 0.034), fasting plasma insulin (1.11 ± 1.71 vs. 3.77 ± 1.70 mIU/L, MD -2.67 mIU/L (95%CI -3.57, -1.76), p-value 0.001) and HOMA-IR (0.25 ± 0.37 vs. 0.89 ± 0.46, MD -0.63 (95% CI -0.86, -0.41), p-value 0.001). Weight gain during randomization was similar between the two groups. Four weeks of probiotic supplements in women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes in the late second- and early third-trimester lowered fasting glucose and increased insulin sensitivity. Probiotic supplements may be considered as an adjunct treatment for glycemic control in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Probiotic supplementation on Growth parameters of Osmanabadi Kids

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    A.B. Kanduri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on growth parameters viz. body weight, body height, chest girth and body length of Osmanabadi kids. A multi-strain commercially available probiotic (Protexin containing Lactobacillus species, Streptococcus species and Yeast was administered orally at a dose rate of 2 gm per 25 kg body weight daily for 2 months to the treatment group. At the end of the first and second week, all the growth parameters were higher in the treatment group as compared to the control group, though the difference was not statistically significant. However, from the third week onwards, all growth parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group as compared to the control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 29-30

  14. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for patholog...

  15. Use of a commercial probiotic supplement in meat goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S

    2009-02-01

    Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO

  16. Efficacy of probiotic supplement for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiajia; Pan, Qiangwei; Chen, Yumei; Zhang, Hongping; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-09-19

    Probiotic supplement might be beneficial for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome were fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma glucose. Meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effect or random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 830 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting serum insulin (Std. mean difference = -0.95; 95% CI = -1.73 to -0.17; p gestational age (Std. mean difference = 0.07; 95% CI = -0.20-0.34; p = .63), and gestational weight (Std. mean difference = -0.11; 95% CI = -0.38-0.16; p = .43). Compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation was found to significantly reduce insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting serum insulin, but had no substantial influence on fasting plasma glucose, gestational age and gestational weight.

  17. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: -18.05, 95% CI (-25.51, -10.58), P jaundice fading [MD: -1.91, 95% CI (-2.06, -1.75), P probiotics supplementation therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pathological neonatal jaundice.

  18. Maternal dietary intake and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Suzanne; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2003-02-01

    To study the relationship between maternal diet and infant anthropometric measurements in 56 women, aged 28 +/- 5.1 years, with singleton pregnancies. The overall quality of the diet (three 24-hour recalls), including supplementation, was evaluated at 34 +/- 1.3 weeks using a total mean adequacy ratio (TMAR) of 12 nutrients. Specific interviewing techniques were used to minimize social desirability bias. Anthropometric measurements of both parents and maternal lifestyle practices were also obtained. Infant weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured 14.6 +/- 4.4 days after birth. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal diet quality (TMAR) was significantly related to infant weight (r = .039, P = .036) and crown-heel length (r = .071, P = .007). Other significant predictors included gestational age, maternal height, sex, smoking and physical activity. Maternal diet was positively associated with infant weight and crown-heel length.

  19. Corrosion of Nickel-Titanium Orthodontic Archwires in Saliva and Oral Probiotic Supplements

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    Gianluca Turco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine how probiotic supplements affect the corrosion stability of orthodontic archwires made of nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi. Materials and Methods: Ni-Ti archwires (0.508x0.508 and having the length of 2.5 cm were tested. The archwires (composition Ni=50.4%, Ti=49.6% were uncoated, nitrified and rhodium coated. Surface microgeometry was observed by using scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was measured by profilometer through these variables: roughness average, maximum height and maximum roughness depth. Corrosion was examined by electrochemical method of cyclic polarisation. Results: Rhodium coated alloy in saliva has significantly higher general corrosion in saliva than nitrified alloy and uncoated alloy, with large effect size (p=0.027; η2=0.700. In the presence of probiotics, the result was even more pronounced (p<0.001; η2=0.936. Probiotic supplement increases general and localised corrosion of rhodium coated archwire and slightly decreases general corrosion and increases localised corrosion in uncoated archwire , while in the case of nitrified archwire the probability of corrosion is very low. The differences in surface roughness between NiTi wires before corrosion are not significant. Exposure to saliva decreases roughness average in rhodium coated wire (p=0.015; η2=0.501. Media do not significantly influence surface microgeometry in nitrified and uncoated wires. Conclusion: Probiotic supplement affects corrosion depending on the type of coating of the NiTi archwire. It increases general corrosion of rhodium coated wire and causes localised corrosion of uncoated and rhodium coated archwire. Probiotic supplement does not have greater influence on surface roughness compared to that of saliva.

  20. Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Katz, Joel; de Souza, Russell J; Stearns, Jennifer C; Motamed, Mehras; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota, consisting of microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract, play an important role in digestive, metabolic, and immune functioning. Preclinical studies on rodents have linked behavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system with deficits or alterations in these bacterial communities. Moreover, probiotic supplementation in rodents has been shown to markedly change behavior, with correlated changes in central neurochemistry. While such studies have documented behavioral and mood-related supplementation effects, the significance of these effects in humans, especially in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms, are relatively unknown. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate current literature on the impact of probiotic supplementation on anxiety and depression symptoms in humans. To this end, multiple databases, including Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials published between January 1990 and January 2016. Search results led to a total of 10 randomized controlled trials (4 in clinically diagnosed and 6 in non-clinical samples) that provided limited support for the use of some probiotics in reducing human anxiety and depression. Despite methodological limitations of the included trials and the complex nature of gut-brain interactions, results suggest the detection of apparent psychological benefits from probiotic supplementation. Nevertheless a better understanding of developmental, modulatory, and metagenomic influences on the GI microbiota, specifically as they relate to mood and mental health, represent strong priorities for future research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probiotic supplementation in sports and physical exercise: Does it present any ergogenic effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; de Oliveira Garcia, Amanda Beatriz; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Tirapegui, Julio

    2017-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits to the host. Evidence indicates that some probiotic strains play an immunomodulatory role and reduce the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in athletes and in physical activity practitioners. For this reason, probiotic supplementation could indirectly improve exercise performance. However, recent studies have observed direct ergogenic effects of probiotics, but the mechanisms of action are poorly elucidated. In this study, we aim to synthesize available knowledge on the effect of probiotics on physical exercise, identify the mechanisms of action by which probiotics could improve performance directly and indirectly, and verify whether probiotics have any ergogenic effect. The study was performed in the PubMed database in February 2017, without limitation as to the publication period. The keyword combinations used were: 'Probiotics' and 'Sports' ( n = 17 articles), 'Probiotics' and 'Exercise' ( n = 26 articles) and 'Probiotics' and 'Athletes' ( n = 11 articles). Of the 16 studies evaluated, only six applied performance tests, of which only two demonstrated that probiotic supplementation increases performance, but one of them was performed with mice. According to the studies evaluated, probiotic supplementation does not present ergogenic effect, however, considering the small number of studies, this subject should be better investigated.

  2. Effect of probiotics supplementation of cassava-groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 56 days feeding trial, eighteen starting pigs with initial body weight of 6.78 ± 0.5 kg were assigned randomly to 2 dietary treatment groups of nine pigs each (3 pens of 3 pigs each). Diet I was the control, which was not supplemented with probiotics, while Diet II was supplemented with 0.05% probiotics (probiotics ...

  3. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice.Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR or mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval (CI was used to measure the effect.Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26, P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: −18.05, 95% CI (−25.51, −10.58, P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (−32.80, −14.18, P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: −33.01, 95% CI (−37.31, −28.70, P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: −1.91, 95% CI (−2.06, −1.75, P < 0.00001], as

  4. Maternal and child dietary intake: The role of maternal healthy-eater self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Julie; Stein, Karen Farchaus; Groth, Susan; Fernandez, I Diana

    2018-06-01

    Mothers play a key role in shaping the dietary intake of their young children through their own dietary intake and the foods they make available at home. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying maternal food choices is crucial. Cognitions about the self as a healthy eater, referred to as healthy-eater self-schema (HESS), predict dietary intake in diverse samples, but the linkage has not been investigated in mothers and their feeding behaviors. This study examined the relationship between a maternal HESS, maternal and child intake of fruits, vegetables, saturated fat, and added sugar, and home food availability. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with mothers and their 2-5 year old children (N = 124 dyads). Kendzierski's Healthy-Eater Self-Schema questionnaire was used to measure HESS. Block Food Frequency Screeners were used to measure diets (mother and child) and the Home Environment Survey was used to measure home availability of fruits/vegetables and fats/sweets. Multiple regression and multiple mediation analyses were performed. Maternal HESS was positively associated with maternal intake of fruits and vegetables, and negatively associated with intake of added sugar. Maternal HESS was not directly associated with child dietary intake, but was indirectly associated with child intake of fruits, vegetables, and added sugar through maternal intake of the same foods. Home food availability was not significantly associated with HESS. This study found that a mother's HESS was positively associated with her diet, which was subsequently associated with aspects of her child's diet. Interventions to foster development of HESS in mothers may be an effective means to promote healthy dietary intake in mothers and their young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Proteins, Developmental Programming, and Potential Implication in Maternal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jahan-mihan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proteins are known mainly based on their metabolic and nutritional functions including protein synthesis and a source of energy. In spite of various physiological properties attributed to proteins, their functions have neither been addressed by assessing quality of proteins nor by nutrition and dietetic practices. Methods: Studies were included if they were randomized animal studies, clinical trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis published in English language. Results: The effect of maternal diet in general and dietary proteins in particular during development on health of offspring has been well-studied. Protein content as well as source of protein in the diet consumed during pregnancy and lactation influenced the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. Both high and low protein diets showed detrimental effects on health of offspring. Moreover, comparison of maternal casein-based diet with soy protein-based diet showed more favorable effect on body weight, body composition, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism in offspring. However, the role of maternal dietary proteins in developing the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring in gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study. Conclusions: Dietary proteins are determining factors in developmental programming. Both quantity and source of proteins in maternal diet influenced the development of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. However, whether they have the same function in presence of gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study.

  6. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol.To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies.Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed.Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics produced changes in total cholesterol (TC (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains.In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  7. Probiotic supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, Anitha; Balasubramanian, Haribalakrishna; Rao, Shripada; Patole, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Probiotics may benefit in cystic fibrosis (CF) as gut dysbiosis is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in CF. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of probiotic supplementation in children with CF, using the Cochrane methodology, preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) statement, and meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were pulmonary exacerbations, duration of hospitalization and antibiotics, and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms, markers of gut inflammation, and intestinal microbial balance. A total of nine studies (RCTs, 6, non-RCTs, 3; N = 275) with some methodological weaknesses were included in the review. The pooled estimate showed significant reduction in the rate of pulmonary exacerbation (fixed effects model, two parallel group RCTs and one cross-over trial: relative risk (RR) 0.25, (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.15,0.41); p probiotic supplementation. Probiotic supplementation significantly improved gastrointestinal symptoms (one RCT, one non-RCT) and gut microbial balance (decreased Proteobacteria, increased Firmicutes, and Bacteroides in one RCT, one non-RCT). Limited low-quality evidence exists on the effects of probiotics in children with CF. Well-designed adequately powered RCTs assessing clinically meaningful outcomes are required to study this important issue. • Gut dysbiosis is frequent in children with cystic fibrosis due to frequent exposure to pathogens and antibiotics. • Probiotics decrease gut dysbiosis and improve gut maturity and function. What is New: • This comprehensive systematic review shows that current evidence on the safety and efficacy of probiotics in children with cystic fibrosis is limited and of low quality. • Well-designed and adequately powered trials assessing clinically important outcomes are

  8. Probiotics supplementation and length of hospital stay in neonates with gastrointestinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mugarab-Samedi

    Full Text Available Any manipulation on open bowel causes interventional impact on gut microbiome, and surgical stress triggers bacterial translocation; thus, it will be fundamental to determine gut microbiome after surgery. Monitoring dynamic changes in microbiome of post-surgical infants who received probiotics and placebo could provide with important information about gut colonization and potential bacterial overgrowth.The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of probiotics supplementation on length of hospital stay, duration of parenteral nutrition, and feed tolerance in neonates after gastrointestinal surgery. Keywords: Neonates, Surgery, Probiotics, Microbiome, Length of hospital stay, Full enteral feeds

  9. The effect of maternal dietary diversity on infant outcome of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of maternal dietary diversity on infant outcome of Pregnant women. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... can serve as useful predictive indicator of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the likelihood of delivering LBW babies.

  10. Probiotic supplementation and fast freezing to improve quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen chicken breast muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation and fast freezing on quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen/thawed chicken breast meat. Broilers were fed with a basal diet or the basal diet plus 250 ppm Sporulin (three strains of Bacillus subtilis)...

  11. Effect of probiotic supplementation and genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, hematological parameters and immunity of growing rabbits under hot environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Moataz; Abdelsalam, Magdy; Al-Homidan, Ibrahim; Ebeid, Tarek; El-Zarei, Mohamed; Abou-Emera, Osama

    2017-10-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of probiotics and genetic groups on rabbit performance under hot environmental conditions was studied. A total of 80 rabbits aged 8 weeks were distributed into a completely randomized design in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement, including four genetic groups and three concentrations of dietary probiotic (0, 200 and 400 g/t feed). The utilized probiotic contained 4 × 10 9  colony-forming units/g of Bacillus subtilis. Jabali local breed (J), imported Spanish V-line (V) and their crossbreds (¼J¾V and ¾J¼V) were included in the current study. Final weight and body weight gain were not significantly affected by dietary probiotic levels or genetic group. The feed conversion ratio was better for purebreds than that of crossbreds. A significant improvement in percentage of dressed carcass, mid and hind parts was recorded for rabbits fed a diet containing 400 g probiotic/t feed compared with those fed a basal diet or low probiotic level. Probiotic supplementation had a significant decrease in serum cholesterol. Rabbits given 400 g probiotic/t feed had higher hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets. Adding 400 g probiotic/t feed to rabbit's diet significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved cell-mediated immunity compared to the other treatments 48 h post-injection. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Munger, Kassandra L; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Santangelo, Susan L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-07-15

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether maternal fat intake before or during pregnancy was associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Our primary analysis included 317 mothers who reported a child with ASD and 17,728 comparison mothers from the Nurses' Health Study II (index births in 1991-2007). Dietary information was collected prospectively through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Maternal intake of linoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk in offspring, corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk in the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. Mothers in the lowest 5% of ω-3 fatty acid intake had a significant increase in offspring ASD risk as compared with the remaining distribution (risk ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.32); this association was also seen in the subgroup of women (86 cases and 5,798 noncases) for whom dietary information during pregnancy was available (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 4.91). Thus, variations in intake of polyunsaturated fats within the range commonly observed among US women could affect fetal brain development and ASD risk. Because the number of women with diet assessed during pregnancy was small, however, these results should be interpreted cautiously.

  13. The Effect of Probiotic Supplementations on Cognitive Function in Patients with Primary and Secondary Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Agahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a most common neurodegenerative disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer disease. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 48 AD patients. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n=23 in control group and n=25 in probiotic group treating with capsules 500mg containing maltodextrine (control group and probiotic supplementation (probiotic group for 12 weeks. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE and TYM test score was recorded in all subjects before and after treatment. Results: After 12 weeks intervention, compared with the control group, the probiotic treated, patients with mild degree of Alzheimer disease showed an improvement in the MMSE, TYM score (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our current study demonstrated that probiotic consumption for 12 weeks positively affects cognitive function in mild degree of AD.

  14. Dietary probiotic supplement positively affects sperm motility in obese murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in adult men in recent years has inconsistently been associated with low semen quality and sub-fecundity. Probiotics have gained high interest as alternatives to pharmacological compounds. However, their possible effect on male fertility has been less investigated. This study aimed...... dose (1x109CFU) of L.Rhamnusus (test group) or physiological saline (control group) for 4 weeks. Sperm motility and kinematics were assessed by the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA). The control group maintained a raising trend in weight gain leading to a significant difference on week 5 continuing to week 8...... whereas the DIO mice in the test group did not gain significant weight after the start of probiotic test. The test group showed a significantly higher progressive motility compared to the control group after 4 weeks of receiving the probiotic treatment. L.Rhamnusus supplementation demonstrated a higher...

  15. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  16. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Plasma Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Natália A; Stenvinkel, P; Bergman, P; Qureshi, A R; Lindholm, B; Moraes, C; Stockler-Pinto, M B; Mafra, D

    2018-04-12

    Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26.1 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 , dialysis vintage 68.5 (34.2-120.7) months]. Ten patients were randomly allocated to the placebo group and 11 to the probiotic group [three capsules, totaling 9 × 10 13 colony-forming units per day of Streptococcus thermophilus (KB19), Lactobacillus acidophilus (KB27), and Bifidobacteria longum (KB31). Plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were measured by LC-MS/MS at baseline and after 3 months. While TMAO did not change after probiotic supplementation, there was a significant increase in betaine plasma levels. In contrast, the placebo group showed a significant decrease in plasma choline levels. Short-term probiotic supplementation does not appear to influence plasma TMAO levels in HD patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether probiotics may affect TMAO production in CKD patients.

  17. Impact of probiotic supplements on microbiome diversity following antibiotic treatment of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul, Hannah; Kanda, L Leann; Gondek, David

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in microbial populations of the intestinal tract have been associated with a multitude of nutritional, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The limited diversity following antibiotic treatments creates a window for opportunistic pathogens, diarrhea, and inflammation as the microbiome repopulates. Depending on the antibiotics used, microbial diversity can take weeks to months to recover. To alleviate this loss of diversity in the intestinal microbiota, supplementation with probiotics has become increasingly popular. However, our understanding of the purported health benefits of these probiotic bacteria and their ability to shape the microbiome is significantly lacking. This study examined the impact of probiotics concurrent with antibiotic treatment or during the recovery phase following antibiotic treatment of mice. We found that probiotics did not appear to colonize the intestine themselves or shift the overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota. However, the probiotic supplementation did significantly change the types of bacteria which were present. In particular, during the recovery phase the probiotic caused a suppression of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth (Shigella and Escherichia) while promoting a blooming of Firmicutes, particularly from the Anaerotruncus genus. These results indicate that probiotics have a significant capacity to remodel the microbiome of an individual recovering from antibiotic therapy.

  18. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  19. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Methods Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or ...

  20. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  1. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  2. Probiotic Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Natália A; Carmo, Flávia L; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; de Brito, Jessyca S; Dolenga, Carla J; Ferreira, Dennis C; Nakao, Lia S; Rosado, Alexandre; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota profile and inflammatory markers in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six HD patients were assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: probiotic (n = 23; Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterialongum, 90 billion colony-forming units per day) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 3 months. Blood and feces were collected at baseline and after intervention. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Uremic toxins plasma levels (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and indole-3-acetic acid) were obtained by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Routine laboratory parameters were measured by standard techniques. Fecal pH was measured by the colorimetric method, and the gut microbiota profile was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Sixteen patients remained in the probiotic group (11 men, 53.6 ± 11.0 year old, 25.3 ± 4.6 kg/m 2 ) and 17 in the placebo group (10 men, 50.3 ± 8.5 year old, 25.2 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ). After probiotic supplementation there was a significant increase in serum urea (from 149.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL to 172.6 ± 45.0 mg/dL, P = .02), potassium (from 4.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .02), and indoxyl sulfate (from 31.2 ± 15.9 to 36.5 ± 15.0 mg/dL, P = .02). The fecal pH was reduced from 7.2 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 0.5 (P = .01). These parameters did not change significantly in placebo group. Changes in the percentage delta (Δ) between groups were exhibited with no statistical differences observed. The inflammatory markers and gut profile were not altered by supplementation. Aprobiotic supplementation failed to reduce uremic toxins and

  3. Efficiency of Multispecies Probiotic Supplements in Bioremoval of Bisphenol A: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Solouki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Bisphenol A is a well-known industrial compound which is widely used in producing plastic throughout the world. Containers made with these plastics may expose people to small amounts of bisphenol A in food and water and cause adverse effects on human health. In this study, the effect of commercial probiotic formulations on reduction of bisphenol A in aqueous solution is investigated.Materials and Methods: One dose of six types of commercial mixtures of probiotic strains were added to a certain amount of bisphenol A in saline basal medium at 37°C. During a 24 h treatment with probiotics, samples were taken from the environments at different times and prepared for further analysis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The experimental framework was set up in a way that compares formulations and determines the most efficient strains for bisphenol A reduction. In addition, the effect of peripheral conditions such as pH and temperature were also studied.Results and Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotics had an impressively high performance in bio-removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solutions. Up to 80% of bisphenol A concentration was decreased during the first hour of treatment in almost all trials. Among them, the synergy of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains were the most successful. On the other hand, mixture of probiotics had more persistent effect and robust binding ability than single strains. Finally, it can be expected that regular usage of probiotic supplementation with special mixture of strains can suppress the harmful effects of bisphenol A.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  4. Single-species versus dual-species probiotic supplementation as an emerging therapeutic strategy for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, G; Jamaluddin, R; Mohtarrudin, N; Ahmad, Z; Khazaai, H; Parvaneh, M

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species. After 15 weeks of supplementation, the animals were examined for changes in body weight, body fat, total count of bacteria in fecal, blood serum lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin and inflammatory biomarkers. Histological analysis of the liver and adipose tissue was performed and the hepatic mRNA expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism were measured. It was found that probiotic supplementation of either B. longum or a mixture of B. longum and LcS bacteria significantly reduced weight and triglycerides in the HFD groups. Supplementation of B. longum bacteria showed better results in terms of modulating leptin level, fat mass, adipocyte size and lipoprotein lipase expression, as well as increasing adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ expression compared to dual species of bacteria. No significant differences were observed in the total count of fecal bacteria, glucose and inflammatory biomarker levels between supplemented groups. B. longum supplementation in obesity was more beneficial in metabolic profile changes than the mixture species. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B

  5. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  6. Prospective study of probiotic supplementation results in immune stimulation and improvement of upper respiratory infection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Subjects received a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus paracasei (at least 3 × 107 colony forming units (CFU ml−1, Lactobacillus casei 431® (at least 3 × 107 CFU ml−1 and Lactobacillus fermentium PCC® (at least 3 × 106 CFU ml−1 or an identical placebo without probiotics for a 12-week study period. The consumption of probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory infection (p < 0.023 and flu-like symptoms with an oral temperature higher than 38 °C (p < 0.034 as compared to the placebo group. Subjects that consumed probiotics demonstrated a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in the serum (p < 0.001 and sIgA in the gut (p < 0.010 as compared to the placebo group and a significant higher level of serum IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and gut sIgA (p < 0.001 as compared to their baseline test results. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the serum IL-4, IL-10, IgA, IgG or IgM between the probiotics and the placebo groups. Results of this study demonstrated that probiotics were safe and effective for fighting the common cold and influenza-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system. Keywords: Probiotics, Upper respiratory infections, Human microbiota, IFN-γ, sIgA

  7. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapirnasari, W P; Dewi, A R; Fathinah, A; Hidanah, S; Harijani, N; Soeharsono; Karimah, B; Andriani, A D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. About 240 quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2×10 5 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus . The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment. It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.

  8. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first

  9. Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2018-01-01

    Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome.

  10. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...

  11. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  12. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  13. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment. The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  14. Maternal first-trimester dietary intake and childhood blood pressure: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hil, Leontine C L; Rob Taal, H; de Jonge, Layla L; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; van der Heijden, Albert J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations and higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of maternal first-trimester dietary intake with blood pressure in children at the age of 6 years. We assessed first-trimester maternal daily dietary intake by a FFQ and measured folate, homocysteine and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations in the blood, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 2863 mothers and children. Childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. First-trimester maternal daily intake of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Furthermore, maternal intake of micronutrients was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Also, higher maternal vitamin B₁₂ concentrations were associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure (0·31 mmHg per standard deviation increase in vitamin B₁₂ (95% CI 0·06, 0·56)). After taking into account multiple testing, none of the associations was statistically significant. Maternal first-trimester folate and homocysteine concentrations were not associated with childhood blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that maternal Fe intake and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy might affect childhood blood pressure, although the effect estimates were small and were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to assess whether these differences in blood pressure persist in later life.

  15. Considering Maternal Dietary Modulators for Epigenetic Regulation and Programming of the Fetal Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abalo Chango

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life. To enhance the quality and safety of food products for proper fetal health and disease prevention in later life, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dietary epigenetic modulators during the critical prenatal period is necessary. This review focuses on the influence of maternal dietary components on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, and summarizes current knowledge of the effect and importance of dietary components on epigenetic mechanisms that control the proper expression of genetic information. Evidence reveals that some components in the maternal diet can directly or indirectly affect epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how early-life nutritional environment affects the epigenome during development is of great importance for the successful prevention of adult chronic diseases through optimal maternal nutrition.

  16. Considering maternal dietary modulators for epigenetic regulation and programming of the fetal epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Abalo; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-04-14

    Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline) and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life. To enhance the quality and safety of food products for proper fetal health and disease prevention in later life, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dietary epigenetic modulators during the critical prenatal period is necessary. This review focuses on the influence of maternal dietary components on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, and summarizes current knowledge of the effect and importance of dietary components on epigenetic mechanisms that control the proper expression of genetic information. Evidence reveals that some components in the maternal diet can directly or indirectly affect epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how early-life nutritional environment affects the epigenome during development is of great importance for the successful prevention of adult chronic diseases through optimal maternal nutrition.

  17. Maternal dietary intake in pregnancy and lactation and allergic disease outcomes in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Brown, Kari R; Maslin, Kate; Palmer, Debra J

    2017-03-01

    As the prevalence of allergic disease dramatically rises worldwide, prevention strategies are increasingly being considered. Given the potential modulatory effect of nutritional factors on disease, altering maternal diet during pregnancy and/or lactation has been considered in preventing allergic disease in offspring. Although there are a number of observational studies that have examined possible associations between maternal diet and allergic outcomes in offspring, interventional trials are limited. Furthermore, there is a paucity of studies that have prospectively studied maternal dietary intake as well as measuring maternal and infant biologic samples (blood, urine, breast milk) and their relation to allergic outcomes in infants. There is also a particular need to define terminology such as 'fruit and vegetables intake', 'healthy diet', and 'diet diversity' in order to make studies comparable. In this review, we discuss current evidence of maternal dietary factors during pregnancy and/or lactation that may play a role in the offspring developing allergic disease, including factors such as overall dietary intake patterns, specific whole food consumption (fish, fruit and vegetables, and common allergic foods), and individual immunomodulatory nutrient intakes. Additionally, we discuss the limitations of previous studies and propose improvements to study design for future investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Screening and selection of lactic acid bacteria from calves for designing a species-specific probiotic supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cantoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation to animal feeds has become a standard practice in the feed industry especially since European Union banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB from calves, that can be used as feed additive. For this purpose, bacterial strains were recovered from calf faecal samples and characterized using MicroLog™ system, 16s rRNA gene sequencing and Riboprinter™ system. Major representative strains were evaluated for their potential probiotic activity in vitro. Of 145 strains isolated, 3 clonal strains were selected for their potential probiotic activity, namely Lactobacillus animalis DUP5009, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei DUP13077 and Bacillus coagulans RiboGroup 189-444-S-1. In light of this result these clonal strains can be considered for develop new probiotic products for calves.

  19. Association of maternal characteristics and behaviours with 4-year-old children's dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association of family and maternal characteristics with preschool children's dietary patterns. Trained interviewers evaluated subsample 3422 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal, 2005-2006). Maternal characteristics and behaviours (exercise, smoking habits, diet and child-feeding practices) and family characteristics were evaluated. Maternal diet was classified by a dietary score, and children's dietary patterns were identified by latent class analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by multinomial regression models. The analysis was based on a framework with four conceptual levels: maternal socio-economic position (SEP) at 12 years, maternal socio-economic and demographic characteristics at child's delivery, family characteristics and maternal behaviours at child's 4 years. Three dietary patterns were identified in children: high in energy-dense foods (EDF); low in foods typically consumed at main meals and intermediate in snacks (Snacking); higher in healthy foods; and lower in unhealthy ones (Healthier, reference). Lower maternal SEP had an overall effect on children's diet (low vs. high SEP; EDF, OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42-2.18; Snacking, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.27-2.35), while maternal education was directly associated with it (≤9 vs. >12 schooling years, EDF, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.70-2.81; Snacking, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.82-3.55). Children whose mothers had worse dietary score were significantly more likely to follow unhealthier patterns (first vs. fourth quartile; EDF, OR = 9.94, 95% CI: 7.35-13.44, P-trend diet was the key factor associated with children's diet, above and beyond socio-economic and demographic characteristics, accounting for one-third of the determination coefficient of the fully adjusted model. At preschool age, interventions should give a particular focus on maternal diet and low SEP groups. © 2016

  20. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent

  2. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. S.; Hashem, A. L.S.; Azamel, A. A. [Department of Animal Physiology, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Farghaly, H. A.M., [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76{+-}0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d{sub 7} post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d{sub 7} post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d{sub 0}) on d{sub 14} post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by

  3. Dietary patterns of obese children: Maternal perceptions and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Linhares Bezerra CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand maternal perceptions and experiences regarding the eating habits of obese children aged five to nine years. Methods: This is a qualitative research, and semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis were used to interpret narratives of 13 women from the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil. Results: These women described the eating habits of their obese children in terms of how they eat and mentioned: eating fast, eating in front of the television, secret eating, eating large amounts of food, and the consumption of processed foods that are high in fat, sugars, and sodium. Conclusion: Seeing the mother and her obese child as a unit that needs support and guidance is a big step to plant the seeds to reap the rewards, i.e., exerting important impacts on the lives of these families and on the current scenario of childhood obesity.

  4. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  6. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings.The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant.We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight.Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1-2.45, P; 0.017 and those who practiced 'pica' (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16-2.75, P; 0.008 had increased odds for low birth. Two dietary patterns were identified-namely 'health conscious' and 'non

  7. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  8. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and childhood bone mass: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Zoe A; Gale, Catharine R; Javaid, M Kassim; Robinson, Sian M; Law, Catherine; Boucher, Barbara J; Crozier, Sarah R; Godfrey, Keith M; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-04-01

    Maternal nutrition is a potentially important determinant of intrauterine skeletal development. Previous studies have examined the effects of individual nutrients, but the pattern of food consumption may be of greater relevance. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy and bone mass of the offspring at 9 yr of age. We studied 198 pregnant women 17-43 yr of age and their offspring at 9 yr of age. Dietary pattern was assessed using principal component analysis from a validated food frequency questionnaire. The offspring underwent measurements of bone mass using DXA at 9 yr of age. A high prudent diet score was characterized by elevated intakes of fruit, vegetables, and wholemeal bread, rice, and pasta and low intakes of processed foods. Higher prudent diet score in late pregnancy was associated with greater (p socioeconomic status, height, arm circumference, maternal smoking, and vitamin D status. Associations with prudent diet score in early pregnancy were weaker and nonsignificant. We conclude that dietary patterns consistent with current advice for healthy eating during pregnancy are associated with greater bone size and BMD in the offspring at 9 yr of age.

  9. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  10. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Pregnant Women: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Mehri; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Vahedpoor, Zahra; Salmani, Ali; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Jafari, Parvaneh; Hashemi Dizaji, Shahrzad; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-10-01

    Limited data is available on the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. The current study was carried out to determine the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 60 pregnant women aged 18-37 years. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30) received multispecies probiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) and group B (n = 30) received placebo from 9 weeks of gestation for a duration of 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention to determine metabolic profiles, inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared to the placebo group, the pregnant women who consumed probiotic capsule had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-1.5 ± 4.8 vs. +1.3 ± 5.2 µIU/mL, P = 0.03), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.3 ± 0.9 vs. +0.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.04), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (HOMA-B) (-7.2 ± 23.1 vs. +5.3 ± 22.6, P = 0.03) and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01 ± 0.05 vs. -0.01 ± 0.02, P = 0.03). In addition, changes in serum triglycerides levels (-14.7 ± 46.5 vs. +37.3 ± 74.2 mg/dL, P = 0.002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1.0 ± 2.6 vs. +1.7 ± 4.3 mg/L, P = 0.004), plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+6.8 ± 9.3 vs. -4.7 ± 7.4 µmol/L, P pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, triglycerides, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  11. Influence of Acute Multispecies and Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Cardiovascular Function and Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clara M; Olsa, Eamon J A; Ginty, Annie T; Rapelje, Alyssa L; Tindall, Christina L; Holesh, Laura A; Petersen, Karen L; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-10-01

    The potential influence of probiotic supplementation on cardiovascular health and stress responsivity remains largely unexplored. Some evidence suggests the possibility that probiotics may influence blood pressure. A separate body of research suggests that exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress in the laboratory predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current investigation explored the effect of acute probiotic use on (1) resting cardiovascular measures in healthy young adults and (2) cardiovascular and psychological reactions to an acute psychological stressor in the laboratory. Participants (N = 105, M [SD] age = 20.17 [1.26], 84.8% white) completed a 2-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of a multispecies and multistrain probiotic. Exclusion criteria included previous probiotic use, diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder, and/or current antibiotic use. At visits 1 and 2, participants completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a widely used psychological stress task. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic blend or matched placebo. Compared with placebo, 2-week probiotic supplementation did not affect resting measures of cardiovascular function, cardiovascular responses during or recovery from stress, or psychological reactions to acute psychological stress. Contrary to expectations, short-term use of a probiotic supplement in healthy participants did not influence measures of cardiovascular function or responsivity to psychological stress. Future research is needed to determine species- and strain-specific effects of probiotics in healthy participants with various degrees of stress responsiveness, as well as in diseased populations.

  12. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

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    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  13. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant. We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight. Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1-2.45, P; 0.017) and those who practiced 'pica' (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16-2.75, P; 0.008) had increased odds for low birth. Two dietary patterns were identified-namely 'health conscious' and 'non-health conscious

  14. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTICS SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TWO STRAINS OF COCKERELS

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    ANDREW ADEGBOYEGA FATUFE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In a 2 × 3 factorial design, two hundred and seven 3 weeks old black (Bovan Nera and white (Gold line cockerels were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. The basal diet was based on maize, soybean meal, groundnut cake and wheat offal. Probiotics replaced the wheat offal in Diets I, II and III in proportion of 0, 0.05 and 0.1%. Probiotics contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Saccharomyces boulardii. Each diet was offered to 3 pens of 12 black cockerels each or 3 pens of 11 white cockerels each. Starting chicken of both strains responded non-significantly to increasing probiotics concentration in feed intake, body weight gain, and feed/gain ratio. A nonsignificant interaction occurred between strain and dietary probiotics concentration for all response criteria. The slope of regression of body weight changes depending on age was higher for white than black.

  15. Effect of a multispecies probiotic supplement on quantity of irritable bowel syndrome-related intestinal microbial phylotypes

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    Lyra Anna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics can alleviate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, possibly by stabilizing the intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to determine whether IBS-associated bacterial alterations were reduced during multispecies probiotic intervention consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99. The intervention has previously been shown to successfully alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods The faecal microbiotas of 42 IBS subjects participating in a placebo-controlled double-blind multispecies probiotic intervention were analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Eight bacterial targets within the gastrointestinal microbiota with a putative IBS association were measured. Results A phylotype with 94% similarity to Ruminococcus torques remained abundant in the placebo group, but was decreased in the probiotic group during the intervention (P = 0.02 at 6 months. In addition, the clostridial phylotype, Clostridium thermosuccinogenes 85%, was stably elevated during the intervention (P = 0.00 and P = 0.02 at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The bacterial alterations detected were in accordance with previously discovered alleviation of symptoms. Conclusions The probiotic supplement was thus shown to exert specific alterations in the IBS-associated microbiota towards the bacterial 16S rDNA phylotype quantities described previously for subjects free of IBS. These changes may have value as non-invasive biomarkers in probiotic intervention studies.

  16. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-04-28

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" (n 1026, 14.8%), "Dairy" (n 1020, 14.7%), "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" (n 799, 11.5%), "Meats" (n 1066, 15.3%), "Vegetables" (n 1383, 19.9%), and "Varied" (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" and "Varied" groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group. Compared with women in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group, those in the "Varied" group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  17. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

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    Min-Shan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%, “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%, “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%, “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%, “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%, and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%. The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08. These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  18. Probiotic supplementation promotes calcification in Danio rerio larvae: a molecular study.

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    Francesca Maradonna

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2, Sp7 transcription factor (sp7, matrix Gla protein (mgp, and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla protein (bglap as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost, a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3, which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders.

  19. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  20. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (pde Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  2. Association between healthy maternal dietary pattern and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvadottir, E A; Medek, H; Birgisdottir, B E; Geirsson, R T; Gunnarsdottir, I

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with negative health effects for mother and child. The aim was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns and GDM. Prospective observational study including 168 pregnant women aged 18-40 years, recruited at routine 20-week ultrasound. All participants kept a 4-day weighed food record following recruitment (commencement: gestational weeks 19-24). Principal component analysis was used to extract dietary patterns from 29 food groups. A Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was constructed. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test in weeks 23-28. One clear dietary pattern (Eigenvalue 2.4) was extracted with positive factor loadings for seafood; eggs; vegetables; fruits and berries; vegetable oils; nuts and seeds; pasta; breakfast cereals; and coffee, tea and cocoa powder, and negative factor loadings for soft drinks and French fries. This pattern was labeled a prudent dietary pattern. Explained variance was 8.2%. The prevalence of GDM was 2.3% among women of normal weight before pregnancy (n=86) and 18.3% among overweight/obese women (n=82). The prudent dietary pattern was associated with lower risk of GDM (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.98). When adjusting for age, parity, prepregnancy weight, energy intake, weekly weight gain and total metabolic equivalent of task the association remained (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.94). Similar results were found when only including overweight or obese women (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.75). Adhering to a prudent dietary pattern in pregnancy was clearly associated with lower risk of GDM, especially among women already at higher risk because of overweight/obesity before pregnancy.

  3. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-12-01

    Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods. Body weight, water, and feed intake were measured throughout the study. At the end of the lactation period, blood was drawn to determine the fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in blood. Triglycerides and acetyl Co-A Carboxylase-1 (ACC1) levels in livers were analyzed, and insulin resistance was calculated. The energy intake of dams in the HFCS group was higher than in the fructose group, while weight gain was less in the HFCS group than in the fructose group. HFCS resulted in greater insulin resistance in dams, whereas free fructose had a robust effect on the fetal programming of insulin resistance. Free fructose and HFCS in the maternal diet increased blood and liver triglycerides and NEFA content in pups. Furthermore, fructose and HFCS exposure increased phosphorylated ACC1 as compared to maltodextrin and control, indicating greater fatty acid synthesis in pups and dams. Different types of added sugar in the maternal diet have different metabolic effects on the developmental programming of lipogenesis. Consequently, high fructose intake via processed foods may increase the risk for chronic diseases, and free fructose might contribute to developmental programming of chronic diseases more than bound fructose.

  4. Effects of probiotics supplement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Meng; Zhou, Feng; Yuan, Yin; Xu, Yan-Cheng

    2017-04-21

    To objectively evaluate the effects of probiotics supplement on glycemic control and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with regard to the probiotics or synbiotics for the treatment of T2DM were collected through retrieving 5 databases from their establishment to March 2016. After study selection, quality assessment and data extraction were performed by 2 authors independently; and STATA software was used for statistical analysis. The level of evidence was evaluated by applying the GRADE system. Twelve RCTs involving 770 participants were enrolled. The results of the meta-analysis showed that probiotics could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose by -11.27mg/dL (95% CI -21.76 to -0.79; PProbiotics could significantly reduce HOMA-IR of T2DM patients (-1.05; 95% CI -1.52 to -0.59; Pprobiotics on total cholesterol (-8.49mg/dL; 95% CI -15.24 to -1.73; P=.014) and triglycerides (TG; -23.66mg/dL; 95% CI -40.26 to -7.05; Pprobiotics had stronger reduction effect on serum insulin concentration (-3.32μU/mL; 95% CI -5.89 to-0.75; P=.001) and TG (-25.94mg/dL; 95% CI -65.33 to 13.44; Pprobiotics can improve glucose control and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

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    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  6. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

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    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  7. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

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    Andréa Marques Sotero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202 living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01 and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01, when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01. Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu.

  8. A crucial role for maternal dietary methyl donor intake in epigenetic programming and fetal growth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan; Bainbridge, Shannon; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte

    2018-06-01

    The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans. Based on the available evidence, it is concluded that intake of different amounts of dietary methyl donors and cofactors during pregnancy may alter fetal growth and development, thus establishing a major link between early environmental exposure and disease development in the offspring later in life.

  9. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day -1 ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg -1 Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

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    Jamie de Seymour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93. The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations.

  11. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Management of reproduction and pregnancy complications in maternal obesity: which role for dietary polyphenols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmelina; Masella, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global and dramatic public health problem; maternal obesity represents one of the main risk factors of infertility and pregnancy complications as it is associated with adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. In the last few years, adipose tissue dysfunction associated with altered adipocytokine secretion has been suggested to play a critical role in all the phases of reproductive process. Obesity is a nutrition-related disorder. In this regard, dietary intervention strategies, such as high intake of fruit and vegetables, have shown significant effects in both preserving health and counteracting obesity-associated diseases. Evidence has been provided that polyphenols, important constituents of plant-derived food, can influence developmental program of oocyte and embryo, as well as pregnancy progression by modulating several cellular pathways. This review will examine the controversial results so far obtained on adipocytokine involvement in fertility impairment and pregnancy complications. Furthermore, the different effects exerted by polyphenols on oocyte, embryo, and pregnancy development will be also taken in account. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  14. Probiotic supplementation and the effects on weight loss, glycaemia and lipid profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Jamilian, Mehri; Karamali, Maryam; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Jafari, Parvaneh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on weight loss, glycaemia and lipid profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 women with PCOS were randomized to receive probiotic capsule (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Consumption of probiotic supplements resulted in a significant reduction in weight (-0.5 ± 0.4 vs. +0.1 ± 1.0 kg, p = 0.004) and BMI (-0.2 ± 0.2 vs. +0.03 ± 0.4 kg/m 2 , p = 0.004) compared with the placebo. In addition, compared with the placebo, probiotic administration was associated with a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (-2.4 ± 8.4 vs. +2.1 ± 7.0 mg/dL, p = 0.02), serum insulin concentrations (-2.0 ± 5.8 vs. +1.6 ± 5.0 μIU/mL, p = 0.01), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-0.5 ± 1.4 vs. +0.3 ± 1.1, p = 0.01), homoeostatic model assessment-beta cell function (-7.5 ± 22.3 vs. +6.3 ± 21.7, p = 0.01), serum triglycerides (-13.3 ± 51.3 vs. +13.6 ± 37.1 mg/dL, p= 0.02) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.006 ± 0.01 vs. -0.005 ± 0.02, p = 0.01). When we adjusted the analysis for baseline values of biochemical parameters, age and baseline BMI, except for QUICKI (p = 0.08), other findings did not alter. We found that probiotic supplementation among PCOS women for 12 weeks had favourable effects on weight loss, markers of insulin resistance, triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  15. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  16. Use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for monitoring the shelf life of ham slices packed with probiotic supplemented edible films after treatment with high pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, F; Argyri, A A; Nychas, G-J E; Tassou, C; Chorianopoulos, N

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to quantify biochemical changes occurring in ham slices packed with probiotic supplemented edible films and treated with High Pressure Processing (HPP), in monitoring spoilage. Details regarding the data collection and experimental procedure were presented by Pavli et al. (2017). A series of Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were developed to correlate spectral data from FTIR analysis with ham spoilage during storage under vacuum at different temperatures (4, 8 and 12°C). FTIR spectra were collected from the surface of the ham samples in parallel with microbiological analysis of total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Qualitative interpretation of spectral data was based on a sensory evaluation, using a hedonic scale, classifying the samples in three quality classes, fresh, semi-fresh and spoiled. The scope of the modeling approach was to discriminate the ham slices in their respective quality class and additionally to predict the microbial population directly from spectral data. The results obtained demonstrated that the processing of the samples affected the performance of classification in the sensory classes, with better results observed in the case of for ham slices packed with probiotic supplemented (PS) edible films and of control samples without HPP. The performance of PLS regression models on providing quantitative estimations of microbial counts were based on specific figures of merit (bias factor, accuracy factor, root mean square error, percentage of prediction error). Bias and accuracy factors were close to unity for both microbial groups tested for samples without HPP, whereas for HPP treated samples the values of these indices ranged from 0.963 to 1.332, depending on the case and indice. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that although FTIR can be used reliably for the rapid assessment of

  17. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  18. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul

    2014-10-01

    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (κ) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (κ = 0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P = 0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dietary and supplemental maternal methyl-group donor intake and cord blood DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; A S Langie, Sabine; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-02

    Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. LC-MS/MS and pyrosequencing were used to measure global and gene specific methylation, respectively. Dietary intake of methyl-groups before and during pregnancy was associated with changes in LEP, DNMT1, and RXRA cord blood methylation. Statistically significant higher cord blood LEP methylation was observed when mothers started folic acid supplementation more than 6 months before conception compared with 3-6 months before conception (34.6 ± 6.3% vs. 30.1 ± 3.6%, P = 0.011, LEP CpG1) or no folic acid used before conception (16.2 ± 4.4% vs. 13.9 ± 3%, P = 0.036 for LEP CpG3 and 24.5 ± 3.5% vs. 22.2 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045 for LEP mean CpG). Taking folic acid supplements during the entire pregnancy resulted in statistically significantly higher cord blood RXRA methylation as compared with stopping supplementation in the second trimester (12.3 ± 1.9% vs. 11.1 ± 2%, P = 0.008 for RXRA mean CpG). To conclude, long-term folic acid use before and during pregnancy was associated with higher LEP and RXRA cord blood methylation, respectively. To date, pregnant women are advised to take a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/day from 4 weeks before until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Our results suggest significant epigenetic modifications when taking a folic acid supplement beyond the current advice.

  20. Neuroinflammation in Autism: Plausible Role of Maternal Inflammation, Dietary Omega 3, and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Madore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several genetic causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been identified. However, more recent work has highlighted that certain environmental exposures early in life may also account for some cases of autism. Environmental insults during pregnancy, such as infection or malnutrition, seem to dramatically impact brain development. Maternal viral or bacterial infections have been characterized as disruptors of brain shaping, even if their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Poor nutritional diversity, as well as nutrient deficiency, is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children. For instance, imbalanced levels of essential fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, are observed in patients with ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and schizophrenia. Interestingly, PUFAs, and specifically n-3 PUFAs, are powerful immunomodulators that exert anti-inflammatory properties. These prenatal dietary and immunologic factors not only impact the fetal brain, but also affect the microbiota. Recent work suggests that the microbiota could be the missing link between environmental insults in prenatal life and future neurodevelopmental disorders. As both nutrition and inflammation can massively affect the microbiota, we discuss here how understanding the crosstalk between these three actors could provide a promising framework to better elucidate ASD etiology.

  1. A maternal dietary pattern characterised by fish and seafood in association with the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obermann-Borst, S.A.; Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Wildhagen, M.F.; Looman, C.W.; Jonge, de R.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify maternal dietary patterns related to biomarkers of methylation and to investigate associations between these dietary patterns and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in the offspring. Design Case–control study. Setting Western part of the Netherlands, 2003–08.

  2. Dietary patterns are associated with child, maternal and household-level characteristics and overweight/obesity among young Samoan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Courtney C; Wang, Dongqing; Baylin, Ana; Soti-Ulberg, Christina; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Thompson, Avery A; Duckham, Rachel L; Hawley, Nicola L

    2018-05-01

    Among young Samoan children, diet may not be optimal: in 2015, 16·1 % of 24-59-month-olds were overweight/obese, 20·3 % stunted and 34·1 % anaemic. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns among 24-59-month-old Samoan children and evaluate their association with: (i) child, maternal and household characteristics; and (ii) nutritional status indicators (stunting, overweight/obesity, anaemia). A community-based, cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis on 117 FFQ items was used to identify empirical dietary patterns. Distributions of child, maternal and household characteristics were examined by factor score quintiles. The regression of nutritional status indicators v. these quintiles was performed using logistic regression models. Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu. A convenience sample of mother-child pairs (n 305). Two dietary patterns, modern and neo-traditional, emerged. The modern pattern was loaded with 'westernized' foods (red meat, condiments and snacks). The neo-traditional pattern included vegetables, local starches, coconuts, fish and poultry. Following the modern diet was associated with urban residence, greater maternal educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, lower vitamin C intake and higher sugar intake. Following the neo-traditional diet was associated with rural residence, lower socio-economic status, higher vitamin C intake and lower sugar intake. While dietary patterns were not related to stunting or anaemia, following the neo-traditional pattern was positively associated with child overweight/obesity (adjusted OR=4·23, 95 % CI 1·26, 14·17, for the highest quintile, P-trend=0·06). Further longitudinal monitoring and evaluation of early childhood growth and development are needed to understand the influences of early diet on child health in Samoa.

  3. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprecht Manfred

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals claiming positive effects on athlete’s gut health, redox biology and immunity but there is lack of evidence to support these statements. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial to observe effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation and inflammation, at rest and after intense exercise. 23 trained men received multi-species probiotics (1010 CFU/day, Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER, n = 11 or placebo (n = 12 for 14 weeks and performed an intense cycle ergometry over 90 minutes at baseline and after 14 weeks. Zonulin and α1-antitrypsin were measured from feces to estimate gut leakage at baseline and at the end of treatment. Venous blood was collected at baseline and after 14 weeks, before and immediately post exercise, to determine carbonyl proteins (CP, malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidation status of lipids (TOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Statistical analysis used multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Level of significance was set at p  Results Zonulin decreased with supplementation from values slightly above normal into normal ranges ( 0.1. CP increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups at baseline and in the placebo group after 14 weeks of treatment (p = 0.006. After 14 weeks, CP concentrations were tendentially lower with probiotics (p = 0.061. TOS was slightly increased above normal in both groups, at baseline and after 14 weeks of treatment. There was no effect of supplementation or exercise on TOS. At baseline, both groups showed considerably higher TNF-α concentrations than normal. After 14 weeks TNF-α was tendentially lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.054. IL-6 increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups (p = 0.001, but supplementation had no effect. MDA

  4. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  5. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3. Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60 and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90. Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219.

  6. Chronic probiotic supplementation with or without glutamine does not influence the eHsp72 response to a multi-day ultra-endurance exercise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Hannah; Chrismas, Bryna Catherine Rose; Suckling, Craig Anthony; Roberts, Justin D; Foster, Josh; Taylor, Lee

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS). eHsp72 concentration in the plasma was measured at baseline, 7 days pre-race, 6-8 h post-race, and 7 days post-race. The MDS increased eHsp72 concentrations by 124% (F [1,3] = 22.716, p 0.05). In conclusion, the MDS caused a substantial increase in eHsp72 concentration, indicating high levels of systemic stress. However, chronic PRO or PGLn supplementation did not affect eHsp72 compared with control pre- or post-MDS. Given the role of eHsp72 in immune activation, the commercially available supplements used in this study are unlikely to influence this cascade.

  7. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. Methods/design: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow......-up assessments available for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Discussion: The proposed IPDMA provides an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood health outcomes, including risk of obesity...

  8. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  9. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with language delay in 3year old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, I H; Haugen, M; Schjølberg, S; Vejrup, K; Knutsen, H K; Brantsæter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Alexander, J; Magnus, P; Kvalem, H E

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to dioxins and PCBs is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and may increase the risk of delayed or impaired neurodevelopment. Several studies have reported negative associations between prenatal exposure to these compounds and aspects of cognition related to language in early childhood. The aim was to examine the association between maternal low level dietary exposure to dioxins and PCB during pregnancy and language development in 3year old children in a large group of mother-child pairs participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). This study includes 44,092 children of women who were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndlPCBs). Children's language skills at age 3 were assessed by parental report including a Dale and Bishop grammar rating and questions about communication skills from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the association between maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds or PCB-153 and language development in children. The maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds and PCB-153 was generally low, and 98% of women had intakes of dl-compounds ≤14pg TEQ/kg bw/week, which is the tolerable weekly intake set by EU's Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). High maternal exposure (>14pg TEQ/kg bw/week of dl-compounds (median 2.6pg/kg bw/day, range 2-16) or >97.5-percentile intake of PCB-153 (median 11ng/kg bw/day, range 5-28) was associated with higher odds of incomplete grammar (in boys and girls, adjusted ORs 1.1 to 1

  10. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  11. Optimal dietary patterns designed from local foods to achieve maternal nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris

    2018-04-04

    Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.

  12. Dietary counseling to improve fat quality during pregnancy alters maternal fat intake and infant essential fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinivirta, Katri; Isolauri, Erika; Laakso, Päivi; Linderborg, Kaisa; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2011-07-01

    To explore the effect of maternal dietary intervention on infant essential fatty acid (FA) status, we conducted a prospective, single-blind, randomized nutrition intervention study. At the first trimester of pregnancy, 90 women from families with a history of allergy were randomized either to receive intensive dietary counseling to modify dietary intake according to current recommendations or as controls. Infants' cord and 1-mo isolated serum phospholipid FA were identified and quantified by GC. Detectable levels of eicosatrienoic acid [ETA, 20:3(n-9)] were taken as a biochemical marker for essential FA deficiency, and the DHA sufficiency index [22:6(n-3):22:5(n-6)] and the DHA deficiency index [22:5(n-6):22:4(n-6)] were taken as markers for DHA [22:6(n-3)] status. The concentration of ETA was lower in cord blood in the intervention (I) group [median 0.64 (IQR 0.40-0.78) mg/L; 2.09 (1.31-2.54) μmol/L] than in the control (C) group [0.92 (0.54-1.20) mg/L; 3.00 (1.76-3.92) μmol/L] (P = 0.048). The proportion of ETA in total FA in the I group [0.73% (0.48-0.85%)] was lower than in the C group [0.93% (0.78-1.22%)] (P = 0.003). A higher DHA sufficiency index and lower DHA deficiency index were detected in cord blood in the I group than in the C group, although the groups did not differ in the DHA concentration or proportion of the total FA. There were no differences among groups at 1 mo for any of the variables measured. Our findings suggest a better supply of essential FA, particularly important during the period of rapid development, in infants whose mothers received dietary counseling. The results thus highlight the importance of maternal diet for child health, calling for dietary counseling for pregnant women in primary health care.

  13. Effects of a Diet-Based Weight-Reducing Program with Probiotic Supplementation on Satiety Efficiency, Eating Behaviour Traits, and Psychosocial Behaviours in Obese Individuals

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    Marina Sanchez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45 and women (n = 60 participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1 based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2. During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1.6 108 CFU/capsule, 210 mg of oligofructose, and 90 mg of inulin. The LPR supplementation increased weight loss in women that was associated with a greater increase in the fasting desire to eat (p = 0.03. On the other hand, satiety efficiency (satiety quotient for desire to eat at lunch increased (p = 0.02, whereas disinhibition (p = 0.05 and hunger (p = 0.02 scores decreased more in the LPR-treated women, when compared with the female control group. Additionally, the LPR female group displayed a more pronounced decrease in food craving (p = 0.05, and a decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory score (p = 0.05 that was significantly different from the change noted in the placebo group (p = 0.02, as well as a higher score in the Body Esteem Scale questionnaire (p = 0.06. In men, significant benefits of LPR on fasting fullness and cognitive restraint were also observed. Taken together, these observations lend support to the hypothesis that the gut-brain axis may impact appetite control and related behaviors in obesity management.

  14. Probiotic Supplementation in Morbid Obese Patients Undergoing One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass-Mini Gastric Bypass (OAGB-MGB) Surgery: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschian, Zohreh; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Kabir, Ali; Hedayati, Mahdi; Moghadam, Somayeh Soleymanzadeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2018-05-03

    Bariatric surgery is known as one of the most effective treatments for sustainable weight loss; however, it may be associated with some complications. This study was designed to examine the effects of probiotic supplementation on some morbidities related to this surgery. This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial on morbid obese patients referred for One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass- Mini Gastric Bypass (OAGB-MGB) surgery to a tertiary referral center. Patients were assigned to receive a probiotic supplement (Familact®) or placebo from 4 weeks prior to surgery to 12 weeks after surgery. Anthropometric, biochemical, and inflammatory indices were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study. At the end of study, significant improvements in some serum inflammatory markers, vitamin D status, and anthropometric measurements were observed (p < 0.05), which were significantly more in probiotic group rather than placebo group (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant improvements in glycemic indices and lipid profile were observed in both groups; however, these changes were not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference in serum levels of vitamin B 12 , folate, and homocysteine between groups at week 16 of the study. Our results indicate that probiotic supplementation promotes inflammatory markers, body weight loss, and status of vitamin D in patients undergoing OAGB-MGB bypass. Whether these findings will sustain in longer treatment duration remained to be elucidated in future studies. This study has been registered at Clinicaltrial.gov with registration number NCT02708589.

  15. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.

    2015-01-01

    by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed...

  16. Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjúrdur Fródi; Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the diet consumed in, or shortly before, pregnancy can potentially lead to maldevelopment and diseases in the offspring, which may become apparent at any time from the embryonic stage until old age. For example, maternal diet may affect the chance of twinning (and...

  17. The Role of Maternal Dietary Proteins in Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring

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    Alireza Jahan-Mihan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity has been increasing. Pre-natal environment has been suggested as a factor influencing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Both observational and experimental studies showed that maternal diet is a major modifier of the development of regulatory systems in the offspring in utero and post-natally. Both protein content and source in maternal diet influence pre- and early post-natal development. High and low protein dams’ diets have detrimental effect on body weight, blood pressure191 and metabolic and intake regulatory systems in the offspring. Moreover, the role of the source of protein in a nutritionally adequate maternal diet in programming of food intake regulatory system, body weight, glucose metabolism and blood pressure in offspring is studied. However, underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature related to the role of proteins in maternal diets in development of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in offspring.

  18. Association of maternal depression with dietary intake, growth, and development of preterm infants: a cohort study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2017-11-27

    This study aimed to explore the association of maternal depression with nutrient intake, growth, and development of preterm infants. A cohort study of 201 infants was conducted in Beijing. Based on the gestational age of an infant and status of the mother, the infants were divided into four groups: non-depression-fullterm (64), non-depression-preterm (70), depression-fullterm (36), and depression-preterm (31). Data on sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional intake, growth, and developmental status of children at 8 months (corrected ages) were collected using a quantitative questionnaire, a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, anthropometric measurements, and the Bayley-III scale. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effects of maternal depression and preterm birth on infant growth and development. The energy, protein, and carbohydrate intake in the depression group was lower than the recommended amounts. The depression preterm groups indicated the lowest Z-scores for length and weight and the lowest Bayley-III scores. Preterm infants of depressed mothers are at high risks of poor growth and development delay.

  19. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  20. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

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    Roshan T. Ramlal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, arm muscle area (AMA, arm fat area (AFA, and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development.

  1. VARIATIONS IN MATERNAL DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AFFECTS THE NEURODEVELOPMENT OF RAT PUPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are part of the structural matrix of cellular and subcellular membranes. Alterations in tissue fatty acid composition can affect nerve tissue function by altering membrane thickness or by changing properties of the lipid phase. In this study, the appearance of specific neurodevelopment responses was observed on rap pups whose dams were fed on varied dietary fatty acid composition. Three dietary treatments of corn oil, fish oil and reference meals were administered on these groups of pregnant dams. From postnatal day 5 to 30, littered pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes based on the Smart- Dobbing method. The neurodevelopmental attributes of Righting reflex, Cliff avoidance, Negative geotaxis, Auditory startle, Vibrissa placing, Free-fall righting and Visual placing was observed in experimental pups between day 5 and 30. Tests were conducted between 1200 and 1400h. A 30 seconds time limit was employed in testing of the cliff-avoidance and negative-geotaxis appearance. The time appearance of auditory-startle and vibrissa-placing responses were significantly delayed (P and lt;0.05 in pups of dietary fish oil and ndash; fed dams than those of corn oil fed dams. The delay in auditory-startle response may be due to negative myelination of the auditory brainstem pathway.

  2. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  3. Impact of maternal and postnatal zinc dietary status on the prostate of pubescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camora, Lucas F; Silva, Ana Priscila G; Santos, Sérgio A A; Justulin, Luis A; Perobelli, Juliana E; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is important for cell physiology and alteration of its levels during development can modulate a series of biological events. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during morphogenesis and early postnatal development could interfere in prostate maturation. Pregnant rats were exposed to a standard diet (NZ:35 mg Zn/kg chow), low-zinc diet (LZ:3 mg of Zn/kg chow) and zinc-supplemented diet (HZ:180 mg/Kg chow) from gestational day 10 (GD10) through postnatal day 21 (PND21). After weaning, male offspring were divided into three groups that were submitted to the same food conditions as their mothers until PND53. The animals were euthanized at PND53 and PND115. The ventral prostate was removed, weighed and its fragments were subjected to histological, western blot and zymography analysis. PND53: body and prostate weight were lower in LZ compared to NZ; the epithelial compartment was reduced while the stromal compartment was increased in LZ compared to NZ; there was an increase in the amount of collagen and reduction in AR and SIRT1 expression in LZ compared to NZ. PND115: body weight was lower in LZ compared to NZ and prostate weight was similar among the groups; peripheral physiological hyperplasia was observed, as well as an increased epithelial proliferation index and reduced PAR4 expression in LZ and HZ compared to NZ. Zinc deficiency during prostate morphogenesis and differentiation is potentially harmful to its morphology, however, by restoring the standard dietary environment, the gland responds to the new microenvironment independent of the previous dietary condition. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Participating in a Food-Assisted Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Program in Rural Guatemala Alters Household Dietary Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Melissa L; Frongillo, Edward A; Leroy, Jef L; Blake, Christine E

    2016-08-01

    Food assistance programs may alter food choices, but factors determining households' decisions regarding food acquisition, preparation, and consumption in the context of food aid are not well understood. This study aimed to understand how the Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program; PROCOMIDA), a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program in rural Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, altered household food choices. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 63 households in 3 participating (n = 32 households) and 3 control (n = 31) villages. A last-day food recall (without estimating quantities) and food-frequency questionnaire that used food cards assessed dietary choices. Qualitative analysis used thematic a priori and emergent coding; food group consumption frequencies were analyzed by using 2-level, logistic, mixed modeling, and chi-square testing while accounting for community clustering. Compared with control households, PROCOMIDA changed household food choices through a combination of providing food resources (with monthly food rations) and new knowledge and skills related to health and food (in the program's behavior change communication component) while reinforcing existing knowledge and beliefs. PROCOMIDA families consumed rice, red beans, and oil more frequently than did control families (differences of 2.20 (P foods were in the rations. PROCOMIDA families also ate chicken, local plants, and some vegetables more frequently. The importance of these foods was emphasized in the behavioral change communication component; these foods may have been more accessible because provision of food rations freed resources. Our findings suggest that if a program provides food free of cost to rural indigenous families in the context of a maternal and child nutrition and health program, it may be important to include a well-designed behavioral change communication

  5. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

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    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  6. Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  8. Understanding maternal dietary choices during pregnancy: The role of social norms and mindful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A D; Charters, M; Prichard, I; Fletcher, C; Wilson, C

    2017-05-01

    Serious health complications associated with excessive weight have been documented for pregnant women and their babies during pregnancy, birth and beyond. Whilst research has focused on identifying particular foods that can be either detrimental or essential for the developing baby, pregnant women's food choices are likely determined by broader considerations. This study examined social influences as represented in reports of descriptive and injunctive social norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy, and individual differences in mindfulness while eating, as important potential correlates of pregnant women's self-reported diet. Pregnant women (N = 139) completed a questionnaire that measured self-reported consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, descriptive and injunctive norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to assess the extent to which norms and mindful eating accounted for variance in consumption of both foods. No significant associations were observed between perceived social norms related to diet during pregnancy and self-reported dietary behaviour. Mindful eating was found to play a role in pregnant women's eating behaviour, with the awareness subscale of the MEQ significantly associated with healthy eating and the emotional subscale associated with unhealthy eating. Age was also associated with consumption of unhealthy foods; younger pregnant women reported consuming more unhealthy snacks and fast food meals. The associations between mindful eating and dietary behaviour suggests that improving mindfulness related to food consumption before and during pregnancy may provide a strategy to address excessive gestational weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Caspersen, Ida H; Kvalem, Helen E; Knutsen, Helle K; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kogevinas, Manolis; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI. © 2013.

  10. Offspring predisposition to obesity due to maternal-diet-induced obesity in rats is preventable by dietary normalization before mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Heriberto; Pomar, Catalina Amadora; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina; Sánchez, Juana

    2017-03-01

    We studied in rats whether the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to maternal dietary obesity may be reverted by obesogenic diet removal 1 month before mating. Female rats were fed a cafeteria diet (CD) from days 10 to 100 and then a standard diet (SD) (postcafeteria rats). One month after CD removal, postcafeteria rats and a group of SD-fed female rats (controls) were mated with males. At weaning, offspring were fed SD and followed until 4 months old. CD was effective at inducing obesity in dams. Its removal led to a reduction in body weight, although, after 30 days, rats retained excess body weight and fat than controls. During lactation, postcafeteria dams showed greater body fat, and higher leptin and adiponectin levels in milk than controls. From 2 months of life, offspring of postcafeteria dams displayed lower body weight than controls, with no differences in the percentage of fat, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, or circulating parameters. Removal of CD in obese rats before gestation, although without complete reversion of body weight excess, may prevent the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to an excess fat accumulation in adulthood and the related metabolic disturbances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  13. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Training (HIIT and Consumption of Probiotic Supplement on Immune Cells, C – reactive Protein, and IgA in Young Football Player

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    Gholamreza Jahani Ghaeh Ghashlagh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: High intensity exercise weakens the immune system and causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Probiotic supplements reduce the incidence of infections. In the present study, the effect of 8-week high-intensity intermittent training along with probiotic yogurt consumption, was investigated on immune cells, CRP, and IgA in young football players. Methods: In this quasi-experimental and applied study, 36 healthy young men (16 to 19 years were randomly divided into two groups of supplement–training (ST and training (T, with a mean height of 172±0.77 cm, weight of 66.76±5.87, and BMI of 21.27±2.09. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after 8-week training and after aerobic and anaerobic capacity tests. The subjects performed three 90-minute sessions of training, and the experimental group had probiotic yogurt (400ml twice a day. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U test and repeated measurements at the significance level of p>0.05. Results: After training program, in the experimental group, lymphocytes, neutrophils, IgA, and C-reactive protein significantly increased, and no URTI case was observed. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that training and consumption of probiotic supplement improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and strengthen, immune system, and reduce the risk of URTI in ST group, therefore its daily consumption is recommended in athletes who perform intense physical training. Keywords: Reactive protein C; Immunoglobulin A; Probiotics; Immune cells; Respiratory tract infections.

  14. Maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation does not exacerbate post-weaning reductions in arachidonic acid and its mediators in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Lin; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-09-13

    The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure). At PND 84, upon head-focused high-energy microwave irradiation, hippocampi were collected for PL fatty acid and lipid mediator analyses. Arachidonic acid (ARA) concentrations were significantly decreased in both total PL and PL fractions, while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations were increased only in PL fractions upon n-6 PUFA deprivation of offspring, regardless of maternal exposure. Several ARA-derived eicosanoids were reduced, while some of the EPA-derived eicosanoids were elevated by n-6 PUFA deprivation in offspring. There was no effect of diet on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or DHA-derived docosanoids concentrations under either maternal or offspring exposure. These results indicate that the maternal exposure to dietary n-6 PUFA may not be as important as the offspring exposure in regulating hippocampal ARA and some lipid mediators. Results from this study will be helpful in the design of experiments aimed at testing the significance of altering brain ARA levels over different stages of life.

  15. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenbeck, John S; Brender, Jean D; Sharkey, Joseph R; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Rene, Antonio A; McDonald, Thomas J; Romitti, Paul A; Canfield, Mark A; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina

    2010-02-19

    Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004) who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates), and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 microg respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary food sources of these compounds also varied by

  16. The Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort (MISA) Study: PCA analyses of environmental contaminants in maternal sera and dietary intake in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Hofoss, Dag; Hansen, Solrunn; Thomassen, Yngvar; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-03-01

    Although predictors of contaminants in serum or whole blood are usually examined by chemical groups (e.g., POPs, toxic and/or essential elements; dietary sources), principal component analysis (PCA) permits consideration of both individual substances and combined variables. Our study had two primary objectives: (i) Characterize the sources and predictors of a suite of eight PCBs, four organochlorine (OC) pesticides, five essential and five toxic elements in serum and/or whole blood of pregnant women recruited as part of the Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study conducted in Northern Norway (The MISA study); and (ii) determine the influence of personal and social characteristics on both dietary and contaminant factors. Recruitment and sampling started in May 2007 and continued for the next 31 months until December 2009. Blood/serum samples were collected during the 2nd trimester (mean: 18.2 weeks, range 9.0-36.0). A validated questionnaire was administered to obtain personal information. The samples were analysed by established laboratories employing verified methods and reference standards. PCA involved Varimax rotation, and significant predictors (p≤0.05) in linear regression models were included in the multivariable linear regression analysis. When considering all the contaminants, three prominent PCA axes stood out with prominent loadings of: all POPs; arsenic, selenium and mercury; and cadmium and lead. Respectively, in the multivariate models the following were predictors: maternal age, parity and consumption of freshwater fish and land-based wild animals; marine fish; cigarette smoking, dietary PCA axes reflecting consumption of grains and cereals, and food items involving hunting. PCA of only the POPs separated them into two axes that, in terms of recently published findings, could be understood to reflect longitudinal trends and their relative contributions to summed POPs. The linear combinations of variables generated by PCA identified prominent

  17. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  18. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  19. Relationship between home fruit and vegetable availability and infant and maternal dietary intake in African-American families: evidence from the exhaustive home food inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Stevens, June; Wang, Lily; Tabak, Rachel; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-10-01

    The availability of foods in the home is likely to be related to consumption. We know of no studies that have reported this association in African-American participants, and few studies have examined home food availability using objective methods. This study aimed to assess the association between objective measures of fruits and vegetables in the home with reported infant and maternal diet in low-income African Americans. A cross-sectional study design was used to compare food availability and dietary intake. The Exhaustive Home Food Availability Inventory used barcode scanning to measure food availability in the home. Maternal and infant diet was assessed by 24-hour recall. Eighty African-American first-time mother/infant dyads were recruited from Wake and Durham counties in North Carolina. Adjusted mean dietary intake of infants and mothers was calculated within tertiles of food and nutrient availability using analysis of variance. The bootstrap method was used to estimate P values and 95% confidence intervals. Models were adjusted for mother's age, household size, shopping and eating-out behavior. Infants and mothers living in homes in the highest tertile of availability of energy, nutrients, and fruits and vegetables tended to have the highest consumption, respectively; however, statistically significant associations were more likely to occur with infant diet than maternal diet. The relationship was strongest for infant consumption of fruit, with an average of 103.3 g consumed by infants who lived in homes in the highest tertile of availability, compared to 42.5 g in those living in homes in the lowest tertile (P<0.05). Availability of fruits and vegetables in the home was associated with intake of those foods in a sample of African-American mothers and infants. Results support making changes in the home environment as a method of promoting changes in fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Child Growth in the First 3 Years of Life123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Chantel L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Robinson, Whitney R; Daniels, Julie L; Perrin, Eliana M; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity.

  1. Maternal and child nutrition in rural Bangladesh: special reference to the effect of dietary fat supplementation on vitamin A status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age suffer chronic energy deficiency (BMI<18.5), nearly half of infants are born with a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and about

  2. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Tran, Hoainam; Kim, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. From day 22 to day 42, both high-nutrient-density and probiotic complex supplementation diets increased (P probiotic complex supplementation diets had higher (P probiotic complex supplementation diets. Interactive effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed from day 22 to day 42 and overall, where probiotic complex improved ADFI more dramatically in low-nutrient-density diets. The beneficial effects of probiotic complex (Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum) supplementation on ADFI is more dramatic with low-nutrient-density diets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27% or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%. Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55 and Day 90 of gestation (g90 and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160 and age at puberty period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC, cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2 mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  4. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Only one Brazilian study has examined the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current cross-sectional study examined this issue in Japan. Study subjects were 1744 pregnant women. Between April 2007 and March 2008, information under study was obtained. Dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis of 33 predefined food groups based on a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥ 16. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, employment, household income, education, and body mass index. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy', characterized by high intake of green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, pulses, seaweed, potatoes, fish, sea products, miso soup, sugar, and shellfish; 'Japanese', characterized by high intake of rice and miso soup; and 'Western', characterized by high intake of beef and pork, processed meat, vegetable oil, chicken, eggs, shellfish, and salt-containing seasonings. The healthy and Japanese patterns were independently inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals, P for trend) between extreme quartiles were 0.56 (0.43-0.73, pregnancy. Information was obtained between the 5th and 39th week of pregnancy. The healthy and Japanese dietary patterns may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of dietary selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D B; Reed, J J; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared

  6. Designing programs to improve diets for maternal and child health: estimating costs and potential dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Rosettie, Katherine L; Kranz, Sarah; Danaei, Goodarz; Webb, Patrick; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-05-01

    Improving maternal and child nutrition in resource-poor settings requires effective use of limited resources, but priority-setting is constrained by limited information about program costs and impacts, especially for interventions designed to improve diet quality. This study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify, describe and estimate the potential costs and impacts on child dietary intake of 12 nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. These potential interventions included conditional livestock and cash transfers, media and education, complementary food processing and sales, household production and food pricing programs. Components and costs of each program were identified through a novel participatory process of expert regional consultation followed by validation and calibration from literature searches and comparison with actual budgets. Impacts on child diets were determined by estimating of the magnitude of economic mechanisms for dietary change, comprehensive reviews of evaluations and effectiveness for similar programs, and demographic data on each country. Across the 12 programs, total cost per child reached (net present value, purchasing power parity adjusted) ranged very widely: from 0.58 to 2650 USD/year among five programs in Ethiopia; 2.62 to 1919 USD/year among four programs in Nigeria; and 27 to 586 USD/year among three programs in India. When impacts were assessed, the largest dietary improvements were for iron and zinc intakes from a complementary food production program in Ethiopia (increases of 17.7 mg iron/child/day and 7.4 mg zinc/child/day), vitamin A intake from a household animal and horticulture production program in Nigeria (335 RAE/child/day), and animal protein intake from a complementary food processing program in Nigeria (20.0 g/child/day). These results add substantial value to the limited literature on the costs and dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive interventions targeting children in resource

  7. Maternal and neonatal dietary intake of balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acids modulates experimental colitis in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-08-01

    The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen. A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups. We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.

  8. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  9. GCN2 in the Brain Programs PPARγ2 and Triglyceride Storage in the Liver during Perinatal Development in Response to Maternal Dietary Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Hu, Jingjie; McGrath, Barbara C.; Cavener, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in regulating lipid metabolism and facilitates efficient lipid utilization and storage. We discovered that a modest increase in maternal dietary fat in mice programs triglyceride storage in the liver of their developing offspring. The activation of this programming is not apparent, however, until several months later at the adult stage. We found that the perinatal programming of adult hepatic triglyceride storage was controlled by the eIF2α kinase GCN2 (EIF2AK4) in the brain of the offspring, which stimulates epigenetic modification of the Pparγ2 gene in the neonatal liver. Genetic ablation of Gcn2 in the offspring exhibited reduced hepatic triglyceride storage and repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (Pparγ2) and two lipid droplet protein genes, Fsp27 and Cidea. Brain-specific, but not liver-specific, Gcn2 KO mice exhibit these same defects demonstrating that GCN2 in the developing brain programs hepatic triglyceride storage. GCN2 and nutrition-dependent programming of Pparγ2 is correlated with trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in the Pparγ2 promoter region during neonatal development. In addition to regulating hepatic triglyceride in response to modest changes in dietary fat, Gcn2 deficiency profoundly impacts the severity of the obese-diabetic phenotype of the leptin receptor mutant (db/db) mouse, by reducing hepatic steatosis and obesity but exacerbating the diabetic phenotype. We suggest that GCN2-dependent perinatal programming of hepatic triglyceride storage is an adaptation to couple early nutrition to anticipated needs for hepatic triglyceride storage in adults. However, increasing the hepatic triglyceride set point during perinatal development may predispose individuals to hepatosteatosis, while reducing circulating fatty acid levels that promote insulin resistance. PMID:24130751

  10. Dietary treatments enriched in olive and safflower oils regulate seric and placental matrix metalloproteinases in maternal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sosa, M; Higa, R; Fornes, D; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes involved in placental development and function, although related to the pro-inflammatory environment when produced in excess. Previous studies have identified MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities in the placenta from diabetic rats. In this study, we aimed to determine whether diets supplemented with olive and safflower oil, enriched in natural PPAR ligands, are able to regulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the placenta and serum from diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rat neonates by streptozotocin administration (90mg/kg s.c.). Control and diabetic rats were fed with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets from days 0.5-13.5 of gestation. On day 13.5 of gestation, placentas and sera were isolated for further determination of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activities by zymography. Placental MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein concentration and immunolocalization were also determined. Sera from diabetic pregnant animals showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities when compared to controls. Serum MMP-9 activity was significantly decreased when the diabetic animals received the olive and safflower oil dietary treatments. Placentas from diabetic rats showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and protein concentrations, and both were decreased when diabetic rats received the olive and safflower dietary treatments. This study demonstrates that both olive and safflower oil-supplemented diets were able to prevent MMPs overactivities in the placenta from diabetic rats, and that these beneficial effects are reflected in rat sera. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: a cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Power, Kevin G; Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Wrieden, Wendy; Slane, Peter W

    2011-06-23

    Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  12. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  13. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed experime......The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...... experimental diets from the 8(th) day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the offspring were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a specific structured oil, linseed oil or fish oil. In the specific structured oil, a-linolenic acid (18...... fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...

  14. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  15. Dietary alleviation of maternal obesity and diabetes: increased resistance to diet-induced obesity transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Linda; Vigé, Alexandre; Gabory, Anne; Karimi, Moshen; Beauger, Aurore; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Athias, Anne; Gallou-Kabani, Catherine; Gambert, Philippe; Ekstrom, Tomas J; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Junien, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    According to the developmental origins of health and diseases (DOHaD), and in line with the findings of many studies, obesity during pregnancy is clearly a threat to the health and well-being of the offspring, later in adulthood. We previously showed that 20% of male and female inbred mice can cope with the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks after weaning, remaining lean. However the feeding of a control diet (CD) to DIO mice during the periconceptional/gestation/lactation period led to a pronounced sex-specific shift (17% to 43%) from susceptibility to resistance to HFD, in the female offspring only. Our aim in this study was to determine how, in the context of maternal obesity and T2D, a CD could increase resistance on female fetuses. Transcriptional analyses were carried out with a custom-built mouse liver microarray and by quantitative RT-PCR for muscle and adipose tissue. Both global DNA methylation and levels of pertinent histone marks were assessed by LUMA and western blotting, and the expression of 15 relevant genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes was analyzed in tissues presenting global epigenetic changes. Resistance was associated with an enhancement of hepatic pathways protecting against steatosis, the unexpected upregulation of neurotransmission-related genes and the modulation of a vast imprinted gene network. Adipose tissue displayed a pronounced dysregulation of gene expression, with an upregulation of genes involved in lipid storage and adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia in obese mice born to lean and obese mothers, respectively. Global DNA methylation, several histone marks and key epigenetic regulators were also altered. Whether they were themselves lean (resistant) or obese (sensitive), the offspring of lean and obese mice clearly differed in terms of several metabolic features and epigenetic marks suggesting that the effects of a HFD depend on the leanness or obesity of the mother.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibition and dietary short-chain Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  17. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  18. Impact of maternal allergy and use of probiotics during pregnancy on breast milk cytokines and food antibodies and development of allergy in children until 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, Mikael; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Whether breast milk (BM) can protect against allergy has been studied extensively, with conflicting results. Variations in mothers' BM composition may explain some of the conflicting results. Our aim was to assess the impact of maternal allergy and probiotic intervention on BM food antibodies, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(2) and interleukin (IL)-10 and their impact on allergy development in children until the ages of 2 and 5. We measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM), casein, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin (OVA), TGF-β(2) and IL-10 in 364 colostrum samples and 321 BM samples taken at 3 months from mothers participating in a prospective study evaluating the allergy-preventive effect of probiotics in a cohort with an increased risk for allergy. CM, casein and OVA antibodies, TGF-β(2) and IL-10 were detectable in most samples. Maternal allergy was associated with raised levels of IgA to casein (p = 0.04) and lower levels of TGF-β(2) (p = 0.006) in mature BM. Probiotic supplementation was associated with increased IL-10 (p = 0.046) and decreased casein IgA antibodies (p = 0.027) in mature BM. High OVA IgA antibodies in colostrum were associated with the development of atopy by the age of 2, while low levels in mature BM were a significant risk factor for the development of eczema by the age of 2. TGF-β(2) levels in BM constituted a risk for development of allergy by the age of 2. The immunologic composition of BM was only slightly affected by maternal atopy and could be altered by probiotic supplementation. Small effects of BM components on allergy development in children were evident. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether earl...

  20. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  1. Dietary restraint of 5-year-old girls: Associations with internalization of the thin ideal and maternal, media, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; McLean, Siân A; Gregg, Karen J

    2015-12-01

    Understanding socio-cultural factors associated with the development of dieting tendencies is important for preventing future disordered eating. We explored individual and socio-cultural factors associated with weight-focussed dietary restraint tendencies (described as dietary restraint) in 5-year-old girls. Participants were 111 5-year-old girls and 109 of their mothers. Girls were interviewed about their dietary restraint, body image, appearance ideals, positive weight bias (attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures), and peer conversations. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing dietary restraint and appearance ideals, as well as measures reporting on their daughter's media exposure and peer appearance interest. Thirty-four percent of girls reported at least a moderate level of dietary restraint. While most girls were satisfied with their body size, half showed some internalization of the thin ideal. Girls' dietary restraint was correlated with weight bias favoring thinner bodies, and greater internalization of the thin ideal, media exposure, and appearance conversations with peers. Media exposure and appearance conversations were the strongest predictors of dietary restraint. These cross-sectional findings suggest that the socio-cultural environment of young girls may be important in the very early development of unhealthy dieting tendencies. Longitudinal research is necessary to identify whether these are prospective risk factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F; Birkeland, Kåre I; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1-3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6-43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

  3. Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time Swedish mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Bohman, Benjamin; Berglind, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    .03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: -0.06 [95%CI: -0.10; -0.02] P 

  4. Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2018-03-01

    Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.

  5. Consumo dietético de gestantes e ganho ponderal materno após aconselhamento nutricional Dietary intake of pregnant women and maternal weight gain after nutritional counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliener de Souza Fazio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer o consumo dietético de gestantes avaliando a ingestão de macronutrientes e micronutrientes, e verificar o ganho ponderal materno na gravidez. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo do período de junho de 2002 a junho de 2008 com gestantes que receberam orientação nutricional durante pré-natal em hospital universitário, agrupadas de acordo com o estado nutricional antropométrico classificado pelo índice de massa corpórea (IMC pré-gestacional. O consumo dietético foi analisado pelas informações de entrevista de frequência alimentar realizada na primeira avaliação da gestante no serviço de nutrição, para obter os dados do hábito alimentar, calculando-se a ingestão de macronutrientes e micronutrientes. As gestantes receberam aconselhamento nutricional, e foi analisado o ganho ponderal materno na gravidez. RESULTADOS: do total de 187 gestantes que receberam orientação nutricional, 23 (12,2% eram de baixo peso, 84 (45,0%, eutróficas, 37 (19,8% com sobrepeso, e 43 (23,0%, obesas. As gestantes de baixo peso apresentaram menor consumo de lípides quando comparadas ao grupo com eutrofia (101,4 versus 137,3 g; p=0,043. A média do consumo de ferro foi maior nas gestantes eutróficas (14,6 mg/d quando comparadas às com sobrepeso (12,2 mg/d ou obesidade (10,9 mg/d; pPURPOSE: to determine the dietary consumption of pregnant women, by assessing the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, and to verify the maternal weight gain during pregnancy. METHODS: a retrospective study conducted from June 2002 to June 2008 with pregnant women who received nutritional counseling during prenatal care at a university hospital, grouped according to anthropometric nutritional status classified by pregestational body mass index (BMI. The dietary intake was analyzed according to the information obtained in food frequency interviews, performed at the first evaluation of pregnant women in the service of nutrition to obtain data about

  6. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  7. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  8. Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and testicular steroidogenesis-related gene expression of their male kids in Taihang Black Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Duan, Yunli; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yue, Wenbin; Lei, Fulin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on testis development, testosterone level and steroidogenesis-related gene expression in testis of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of Se/kg DM. Thirty days after weaning, testes were collected from the kids. After the morphological development status of testis was examined, tissue samples were collected for analyzing testosterone concentration and histological parameters. Testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR. Localization and quantification of androgen receptor (AR) in testis of goats were determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The results show that Se supplementation in the diet of dams led to higher (p kids. Excessive Se (4.0 mg/kg) can inhibit the development of testis by decreasing testicular weight and volume. The density of spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the Se treatment groups was significantly (p kids by modulating testosterone synthesis in goats. More attention should be given to the potential role of maternal nutrition in improving reproductive performance of their offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the Internationa...

  10. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    deviated from the response observed in the F0 and F2/F3 generations. Importantly, trace amounts of BLG detected in the commercial milk-free diet did not induce oral tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that breeding mice on an antigen-free diet for at least two generations is required to attain animals......Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0...

  11. Effect of probiotic supplemented diet on marine shrimp survival after challenge with Vibrio harveyi Efeito do uso de dieta suplementada com o probiótico sobre a sobrevivência de camarões marinhos após o desafio com Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a Lactobacillus plantarum-supplemented diet on shrimp growth, digestive tract bacterial microbiota, survival, and some hemato-immunological parameters after an experimental challenge with Vibrio harveyi was studied. No difference (P>0.05 was observed in shrimp survival (80±6% and final weight (6.63±0.56g after 60 days feeding trial. Total bacteria count and Vibrio spp. count in the digestive tract were not diferent (P>0.05 until day 40, but they were lower (P0.05 than the control group (39.9±4.4%. Bacterial counts in hemolymph and hepatopancreas was lower (P0.05 in the probiotic-supplemented group after challenge with V. harveyi. Probiotic-supplemented diet modifies shrimp digestive tract bacterial microbiota, increasing resistance to V. harveyi infection.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma dieta suplementada com Lactobacillus plantarum na engorda de Litopenaeus vannamei sobre a microbiota bacteriana do trato digestivo, a sobrevivência e alguns parâmetros hematoimunológicos após desafio com Vibrio harveyi. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência (80±6% e no peso final dos camarões (6,63±0,56g durante a engorda (60 dias. A população de bactérias totais e Vibrio spp. no intestino não diferiu até o 40° dia de cultivo, mas foi inferior nos camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probiótico no 60° dia de cultivo. A população de bactérias lácticas foi superior no intestino de camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos após o 20° dia de cultivo. Dez horas após o desafio, a sobrevivência dos camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probiótico foi superior (65,7±2,9% a dos camarões do controle (39,9±4,4%. Camarões alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos e desafiados com V. harveyi apresentaram menor contagem de bactérias na hemolinfa e hepatopâncreas. A contagem total de hemócitos e a atividade aglutinante da hemolinfa foram superiores nos camar

  12. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

  13. Friday Night Is Pizza Night: A Comparison of Children’s Dietary Intake and Maternal Perceptions and Feeding Goals on Weekdays and Weekends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Hoffmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a serious issue in the U.S. While obesity is the result of a multitude of factors, a great deal of research has focused on children’s dietary intake. While children’s eating patterns vary throughout the week, not much else is known about weekday-weekend differences. Therefore, the current study examined differences in the frequency and portion size of school-age children’s consumption of common foods and beverages, as well as mothers’ perceptions of those items and their child feeding goals, on weekdays and weekends. A total of 192 mothers of children aged 7 to 11 were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Results showed a consistent pattern of more frequent consumption and larger portions of unhealthy foods and beverages on weekends. This aligned with mothers’ perceptions of those foods and beverages as weekend items, as well as their feeding goals of health and price being less important on weekends. It is quite possible that weekends are viewed as having less structure and facilitate schedules that allow children to consume more meals away from home. These findings shed light on additional risk factors in children’s eating patterns and highlight the serious implications that day of the week can have on childhood obesity.

  14. Friday Night Is Pizza Night: A Comparison of Children's Dietary Intake and Maternal Perceptions and Feeding Goals on Weekdays and Weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Debra A; Marx, Jenna M; Burmeister, Jacob M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2018-04-11

    Childhood obesity is a serious issue in the U.S. While obesity is the result of a multitude of factors, a great deal of research has focused on children's dietary intake. While children's eating patterns vary throughout the week, not much else is known about weekday-weekend differences. Therefore, the current study examined differences in the frequency and portion size of school-age children's consumption of common foods and beverages, as well as mothers' perceptions of those items and their child feeding goals, on weekdays and weekends. A total of 192 mothers of children aged 7 to 11 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed a consistent pattern of more frequent consumption and larger portions of unhealthy foods and beverages on weekends. This aligned with mothers' perceptions of those foods and beverages as weekend items, as well as their feeding goals of health and price being less important on weekends. It is quite possible that weekends are viewed as having less structure and facilitate schedules that allow children to consume more meals away from home. These findings shed light on additional risk factors in children's eating patterns and highlight the serious implications that day of the week can have on childhood obesity.

  15. Maternal intake of dietary virgin coconut oil modifies essential fatty acids and causes low body weight and spiky fur in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Renuka; Shaker, Mohammed Rafid; Mohd-Zin, Siti Waheeda; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2017-01-28

    Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID). Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6 weeks revealed that in the first 3 weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6 weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur. Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution.

  16. Impact of maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-acting chemicals on progesterone receptor expression in microdissected hypothalamic medial preoptic areas of rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hironori; Shibutani, Makoto; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Masutomi, Naoya; Fujita, Haruka; Inoue, Kaoru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2005-01-01

    We have previously examined the impact of perinatal exposure to ethinylestradiol (EE), methoxychlor (MXC), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and genistein (GEN) in maternal diet on rat offspring, and found developmental and/or reproductive toxicity with 0.5 ppm EE, 1200 ppm MXC, and 20,000 ppm DINP. Although the toxicological profile with MXC was similar to the EE case, the population changes in pituitary hormone-producing cells totally differed between the two cases, changes being evident from 240 ppm with MXC. In the present study, to assess the impact of these agents on brain sexual differentiation, region-specific mRNA expression of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β, the progesterone receptor (PR), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, steroid receptor coactivators (SRC)-1 and -2, and calbindin-D in microdissected hypothalamic medial preoptic areas (MPOAs) at postnatal day 10 was first analyzed in rats exposed to 0.5 ppm-EE from gestational day 15 by real-time RT-PCR. Sexually dimorphic expression of ERα and PR was noted with predominance in females and males, respectively, EE up-regulating SRC-1 in males and ERβ and PR in females. Next, we similarly examined expression changes of ERα and β, PR, and SRC-1 in animals exposed to MXC at 24, 240, and 1200 ppm, DINP at 4000 and 20,000 ppm, and GEN at 1000 ppm. MXC at 1200 ppm down- and up-regulated PR in males and females, respectively, and DINP at 20,000 ppm down-regulated PR in females, while GEN did not exert any clear effects. The results thus suggest that agents causing developmental and/or reproductive abnormalities in later life may affect hypothalamic PR expression during the exposure period in early life

  17. Mouse breast cancer model-dependent changes in metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes caused by maternal dioxin exposure and dietary fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele; Baston, David S.; Denison, Michael S.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pomp, Daniel; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fat are associated with increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Increased adipose tissue that is caused by high-fat diets (HFD) results in altered storage of lipophilic toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which may further increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Because both TCDD and HFD are associated with increased breast cancer risk, we examined their effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes in three mouse models of breast cancer: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), Tg(MMTV-Neu)202Mul/J (HER2), and TgN(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul/J (PyMT), all on an FVB/N genetic background. Pregnant mice dosed with 1 μg/kg of TCDD or vehicle on gestational day 12.5 were placed on a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) at parturition. Body weights, percent body fat, and fasting blood glucose were measured longitudinally, and triglycerides were measured at study termination. On HFD, all cancer models reached the pubertal growth spurt ahead of FVB controls. Among mice fed HFD, the HER2 model had a greater increase in body weight and adipose tissue from puberty through adulthood compared with the PyMT and DMBA models. However, the DMBA model consistently had higher fasting blood glucose levels than the PyMT and HER2 models. TCDD only impacted serum triglycerides in the PyMT model maintained on HFD. Because the estrogenic activity of the HFD was three times lower than that of the LFD, differential dietary estrogenic activities did not drive the observed phenotypic differences. Rather, the HFD-dependent changes were cancer model dependent. These results show that cancer models can have differential effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes even before cancers arise. PMID:18840765

  18. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus positively influences growth performance, gut morphology, and gut microbiology in rurally reared chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, C; Manuali, E; Abbate, Y; Papa, P; Vieceli, L; Tentellini, M; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Moscati, L

    2018-03-01

    In a market undergoing constant evolution, the production of chicken meat that consumers would perceive as "natural" and "animal friendly" is crucial. The use of probiotics in rurally reared chickens could represent a major opportunity to achieve mutual benefit for both the industry and consumers. A total of 264 male Kabir chicks were randomly distributed to one of 2 dietary treatments: the L group received a commercial feed supplemented with 2.0 g/100 kg of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL, while the C group received the same basal diet without the additive. To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation in the chickens' diet, productive performance was evaluated at d 21 and 42, whereas microbiological analyses of the intestinal content and intestinal histology and morphometry were performed at the end of the trial (d 42). At d 21 and 42, L birds showed better (P D2/CSL (CECT 4529) in rurally reared chicken breeds with positive effects on performance and gut health.

  19. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  20. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  1. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  2. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  3. Low Maternal Microbiota Sharing across Gut, Breast Milk and Vagina, as Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene and Reduced Metagenomic Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Avershina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The maternal microbiota plays an important role in infant gut colonization. In this work we have investigated which bacterial species are shared across the breast milk, vaginal and stool microbiotas of 109 women shortly before and after giving birth using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a novel reduced metagenomic sequencing (RMS approach in a subgroup of 16 women. All the species predicted by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were also detected by RMS analysis and there was good correspondence between their relative abundances estimated by both approaches. Both approaches also demonstrate a low level of maternal microbiota sharing across the population and RMS analysis identified only two species common to most women and in all sample types (Bifidobacterium longum and Enterococcus faecalis. Breast milk was the only sample type that had significantly higher intra- than inter- individual similarity towards both vaginal and stool samples. We also searched our RMS dataset against an in silico generated reference database derived from bacterial isolates in the Human Microbiome Project. The use of this reference-based search enabled further separation of Bifidobacterium longum into Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis. We also detected the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which was used as a probiotic supplement by some women, demonstrating the potential of RMS approach for deeper taxonomic delineation and estimation.

  4. Formulation and Design of Probiotic Supplements for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms with immune-regulatory properties and may be useful for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. The aim of the present study was to formulate L. casei 01 capsules at laboratory scale, and evaluate its effects on the proportion of T-helper type 2 (Th2 anti-inflammatory cytokines to T-helper type 1 (Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines (Th2/Th1, in RA patients. Methods: After blending the probiotic and excipient (maltodextrin based on the relevant calculations, the content uniformity of the mixture was evaluated. Furthermore, viability of the probiotic bacteria was assessed during capsules production and throughout three months of storage. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 46 RA patients were supplemented with either the capsules (containing at least 108 CFU of Lactobacillus. casei 01 or placebo (maltodextrin, for eight weeks; DAS28 (Disease activity score 28 as well as serum inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 were measured at baseline and the end of study. IL-10/IL-1β, IL-10/IL-6, IL-10/IL-12, IL10/TNF-α and IL-10/(IL-1β+ IL-6+ IL-12+ TNF-α were calculated, the latter being expressed as IL-10/total Th1, and compared for the groups. Paired samples t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and ANCOVA tests were applied. Results: Probiotic powder had been uniformly mixed with the excipient and the bacteria had acceptable viability throughout the study course. Supplementation of RA patients with the capsules resulted in a significant decrease in disease activity (DAS28, P=0.039 and increase in IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/IL-12 and IL-10/total Th1 (P=0.039, P=0.012 and P=0.014, respectively. At the end of the study, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IL-10/IL-12 and IL-10/total Th1 (P= 0.038 and P= 0.006, respectively. Conclusion: L. casei 01 supplements may have the expected desired anti-inflammatory effects in RA patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results.

  5. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hani

    2016-05-24

    May 24, 2016 ... breeder genetic, diet type, and feeding program on maternal antibody transfer and development of lymphoid tissues in ... chronic heat stress. ... Dietary modulation of gut microflora in broiler chickens: A review of the role of six.

  7. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  8. Does food insecurity compromise maternal dietary Zinc or energy intake in favor of her child, in rural poor Mexican households? ¿En hogares rurales pobres de México, la inseguridad alimentaria compromete el consumo de zinc y energía de las madres en favor de sus hijos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Moreno-Tamayo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze quantitative indicators of food insecurity (FI, and estimate if FI modifies the association between maternal and child Zinc and energy intake as evidence for maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study (n=2 563, data derived from baseline impact evaluation of the Mexican Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Quantitative indicators of FI were:Household food storage, maize and/or bean production, food expenditure, and spatial access to food markets. We evaluated percentage adequacy of energy (PAE and Zinc (PAZn intake. Multiple linear regression model was fitted to estimate the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. RESULTS: Child PAE and PAZn were positively associated with those of their mothers. None of the FI indicators modified the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child was observed using four quantitative indicators of FI in central-southern rural Mexican househods.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores cuantitativos de inseguridad alimentaria (IA y estimar si IA modifica la asociación del consumo de energía y zinc en madres e hijos como evidencia del compromiso de la dieta materna a favor de su hijo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal,información basal de la evaluación de impacto del Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Indicadores de IA: reserva de alimentos en hogar, autoproducción maíz y/o frijol, porcentaje del gasto en alimentos y acceso físico a mercados de alimentos.Se calculó el porcentaje de adecuación del consumo energético (PAE y Zinc (PAZn (n=2 563 pares. Se estimó un modelo de regresión lineal ajustado por covariables. RESULTADOS: El PAE y PAZn de madres e hijos se asoció positivamente. Ningún indicador de IA modificó la asociación entre PAE y PAZn materno con respecto a sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES: Los indicadores de IA estudiados no modifican la relaci

  9. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  11. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  12. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  14. Maternal first-trimester diet and childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal diet during pregnancy has been suggested to influence bone health in later life. Objective: We assessed the association of maternal first-trimester dietary intake during pregnancy with childhood bone mass. Design: In a prospective cohort study in 2819 mothers and

  15. Nutrition Support Team Guide to Maternal Diet for the Human-Milk-Fed Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Kathleen; DeFranco, Emily A; Kleiman, Jeanne; Rogers, Lynette K; Morrow, Ardythe L; Valentine, Christina J

    2018-03-30

    Human milk feeding is encouraged for all infants; however, the mammary gland depends on maternal dietary intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and iodine. Nutrition support team knowledge of maternal feeding guidelines for these nutrient sources can therefore impact infant intake. We hypothesized that these key nutrients for lactation in the mother's diet would be less than the dietary guidelines in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of nutrition data collected during a randomized, controlled trial. Dietary records were analyzed from 16 mothers (13 with singleton and 3 with multiple births) completing the study. Mean dietary intakes of selected nutrients were calculated and compared with the current dietary reference intakes. Mean maternal dietary intake for singletons was significantly (P vitamin A (58%), vitamin D (44%), and choline (58%);) DHA comprised only 5% of the current expert recommendation. Based on singleton recommendations, mothers to twins consumed an adequate intake except for DHA. Women providing breast milk for singleton preterm infants did not consume dietary reference intakes for key nutrients. Twin mothers' diets were adequate except for DHA, but these guidelines are based on singleton pregnancies and remain poorly understood for twin needs. The nutrition support team can have a unique role in maternal dietary education to impact human milk nutrient delivery to the infant. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Balsevich, G.; Baumann, V.; Uribe, A.; Chen, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used a mouse...

  17. Dietary intake of B-vitamins in mothers born a child with a congenital heart defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ursem, N.T.C.; Jonge, de R.; Hop, W.C.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional use of multivitamins reduces the risk of a child with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Data on the impact of maternal diet, however, are lacking. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the association between the maternal dietary intake of B-vitamins and having a child with a

  18. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  19. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  20. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  1. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  2. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  3. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  4. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant holstein heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor–mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial...

  5. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  6. Maternal nutrition knowledge and child nutritional outcomes in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Demmler, Kathrin M; Rischke, Ramona; Qaim, Matin

    2017-09-01

    We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education. However, disaggregation by type of knowledge reveals important differences. Maternal knowledge about food ingredients only has a weak positive association with child HAZ. For maternal knowledge about specific dietary recommendations, no significant association is detected. The strongest positive association with child HAZ is found for maternal knowledge about the health consequences of not following recommended dietary practices. These findings have direct relevance for nutrition and health policies, especially for designing the contents of educational campaigns and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  8. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  9. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  10. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Amanuel; Zema, Tona

    2018-05-25

    Pregnancy is the most crucial nutritionally demanding period of every woman's life. The high demand of nutrients to deposit energy in the form of new tissue, growth of existing maternal tissues such as breast and uterus and increased energy requirements for tissue synthesis makes pregnant women more vulnerable to malnutrition. Dietary practice is defined as an observable actions or behavior of dietary habit and can be classified as good dietary practices and poor dietary practices. The incidence of dietary inadequacies as a result of dietary habits and patterns in pregnancy is higher during pregnancy when compared to any other stage of the life cycle. Thus, this study aimed to assess dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016. A total of 616 pregnant women were participated in the study. All eligible pregnant women were identified through house-to-house visit with the help of health extension workers. Cluster sampling was used to select eligible pregnant women. The data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English and translated in to Amharic. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with dietary practices. This study has shown that 39.3% of the study participants had good dietary practices and the rest 60.7% of pregnant women reported poor dietary practices. Concerning dietary knowledge, 61.4% of the study participants had good dietary knowledge while 38.6% had poor dietary knowledge. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease and dietary knowledge were shown to have significant association (P < 0.05) with dietary practices. Dietary practices of pregnant women in the study area was suboptimal. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease

  12. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  13. Effect of dietary probiotic dose and duration on immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, “living organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host”, can contribute to a more sustainable aquaculture. Their administration through the diet or raising water can modulate the host immune status, improving their resistance towards infection. The antioxidant defence system of the organism is strongly related to immune system and previous studies reported enhancement in antioxidant status of shrimps and fish after probiotic administration, contributing to enhanced resistance towards infections. Nevertheless the information on oxidative stress parameters after probiotic administration in fish is still limited. The present work evaluates the effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on innate immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. A standard diet (27.5% CP, 8.2% CL, 19.6MJ.kg-1 DM was supplemented with a commercial multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. at two concentrations: A1 (3 g.kg-1; 9 × 105 CFU.g-1 and A2 (6 g.kg-1; 2 × 106 CFU.g-1 and tested against an unsupplemented diet (A0. Fish (12.8 g were hand-fed the experimental diets (3 tanks/treatment; 20 animals per tank, 3 times a day, until visual satiation for 8 weeks. Animals were reared at 24ºC in a closed recirculating freshwater system. During the experiment, at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, blood, head-kidney and liver were sampled to study the following immunological and oxidative stress parameters: plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activity (expressed as ACH50, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production of head-kidney leucocytes and liver lipid peroxidation (LPO, catalase (CAT, total glutathione (TG, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production in head-kidney leucocytes were not significantly affected by probiotic treatment

  14. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  15. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  18. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  19. Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, Eliana M; Barina, Alexis E; Raju, Sharat; Li, Aihua; Kinney, Hannah C; Commons, Kathryn G; Nattie, Eugene E

    2011-02-01

    Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects postnatal forebrain development; its effect upon brain stem development is less certain. To evaluate the role of tryptophan [critical for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis] on brain stem 5-HT and the development of cardiorespiratory function, we fed dams a diet ∼45% deficient in tryptophan during gestation and early postnatal life and studied cardiorespiratory variables in the developing pups. Deficient pups were of normal weight at postnatal day (P)5 but weighed less than control pups at P15 and P25 (P interactions between nutrition, brain stem physiology, and age that are potentially relevant to understanding 5-HT deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome.

  20. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  1. The Interplay between Maternal Nutrition and Stress during Pregnancy: Issues and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Several studies about humans and animals have separately examined the effects of prenatal nutrition and stress on fetal development, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and subsequent child health and disease risk. Although substantial evidence from non-pregnant literature supports the presence of bidirectional interactions between nutrition and stress at various psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, such interaction effects have not yet been systematically examined in the context of pregnancy. This paper discusses the multifaceted and multilevel relationship between nutrition and stress. It then reviews the currently available observational and experimental evidence in animals and humans regarding the interplay between maternal psychosocial stress, dietary intake, and nutritional state during pregnancy, and implications for maternal and child health-related outcomes. Key Messages: During pregnancy, maternal psychosocial stress, dietary behavior, and nutritional state likely regulate and counter-regulate one another. Emerging evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate maternal psychosocial stress, and that high maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index exacerbates unhealthy dietary behaviors under high-stress conditions. Longitudinal studies are warranted in order to understand the interplay between prenatal psychosocial stress, diet, and stress- and nutrition-related biomarkers to obtain further insight and inform the development and design of future, more effective intervention trials for improved maternal and child health outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  3. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  4. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  5. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  6. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  7. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  8. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  9. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  10. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  11. Severe Eosinophilic Syndrome Associated with the Use of Probiotic Supplements: A New Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian A. Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe eosinophilic syndromes related to the administration or use of unsuspected immunogenic substances have been described previously. Many of these diseases presented initially as clusters or isolated cases. The spanish toxic oil syndrome, the eosinophilia myalgia syndrome, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are examples of such diseases. We describe 2 cases of a severe eosinophilic syndrome characterized by marked peripheral blood eosinophilia (>15,000 cells/ml, mononeuritis multiplex, and necrotizing vasculitis which developed in a close temporal association with the recent onset use of nonprescription probiotics. There was no history of a prior autoimmune disease. Although both cases had prompt response to immunosuppression with rapid resolution of peripheral blood eosinophilia and accompanying constitutional symptoms, they remained with permanent neurological deficits.

  12. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on the Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Chavan

    Full Text Available Sixteen multifarious cows were selected on the basis of average daily milk yield and stage of lactation; they were divided into four groups (four cows in each group with parity within each group. These cows were fed 10gm, 15gm and 20gm probiotics just before evening milk. The multi-strain probiotic used were containing four strains consist of bacteria and fungi namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii and Propionibacterium frendenreichii. It was found that, the use of probiotics proved to be effective in increasing milk production of lactating cows. Milk fat, milk protein and SNF content tended to be higher in cows supplemented with probiotics preparations. The appropriate level of 20 gm probiotic per day per animal was found effective. The economic advantage of probiotics depends on its relative prices and on the levels of milk production of the cows. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 557-561

  13. Performance of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen, fed on probiotic supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Borba Pinto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since probiotics have proved to be a viable alternative to antibiotics as enhancers of animal growth, the performance, uniformity and mortality rates of the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen larvae fed on diets with different probiotics were evaluated. Jundiá larvae, aged four days post hatching, were fed during 21 days with the following diets, in four replicates, namely, CO: control feed, without probiotics; PP: feed with Pichia pastoris; SB: feed with Saccharomyces boulardii; BT: feed with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi. Among the tested probiotic, Bacillus cereus var. toyoi had the best results due to the fact that the larvae were 25% heavier than CO at the end of the first week; the difference increased to 28% by the end of the trial. Further, BT also improved uniformity and Fulton’s condition factor. Larvae fed on Saccharomyces boulardii had the lowest body weight, whereas those fed on Pichia pastoris grew similarly to the control diet. Mortality rate was not affected by treatments. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi improves the performance and uniformity of the larvae, but does not affect mortality rate.

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  18. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudin...

  19. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  20. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  1. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Maternal Diet on Offspring Bone Fracture Risk During Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo

    , including maternal diet and vitamin D status. However, few studies have investigated whether these factors during pregnancy impact offspring bone health in short as well as in the long term. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate epidemiologically whether maternal vitamin D status...... and dietary patterns in two prospective pregnancy cohorts, were associated with offspring risk of bone fractures in childhood. Overall, our studies provided limited support to the hypothesis that fetal bone health is programmed by the maternal vitamin D status and overall diet during pregnancy. However......, there were some indications of an increased risk for fractures when the mother consumed a Western diet and had high consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks. Further, our results indicated that mid-pregnancy use of dietary supplements with high doses of vitamin D increased the risk for offspring...

  3. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  4. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  5. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  6. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  7. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  8. Maternal intake of methyl-group donors affects DNA methylation of metabolic genes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Before and during pregnancy, we evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet and supplementation (folic acid) in relation to gene-specific ( IGF2 DMR, DNMT1 , LEP , RXRA ) buccal epithelial cell DNA methylation in 6 months old infants ( n  = 114) via pyrosequencing. In the early postnatal period, we determined the effect of maternal choline intake during lactation (in mothers who breast-fed for at least 3 months) on gene-specific buccal DNA methylation ( n  = 65). Maternal dietary and supplemental intake of methyl-group donors (folate, betaine, folic acid), only in the periconception period, was associated with buccal cell DNA methylation in genes related to growth ( IGF2 DMR), metabolism ( RXRA ), and appetite control ( LEP ). A negative association was found between maternal folate and folic acid intake before pregnancy and infant LEP (slope = -1.233, 95% CI -2.342; -0.125, p  = 0.0298) and IGF2 DMR methylation (slope = -0.706, 95% CI -1.242; -0.107, p  = 0.0101), respectively. Positive associations were observed for maternal betaine (slope = 0.875, 95% CI 0.118; 1.633, p  = 0.0241) and folate (slope = 0.685, 95% CI 0.245; 1.125, p  = 0.0027) intake before pregnancy and RXRA methylation. Buccal DNMT1 methylation in the infant was negatively associated with maternal methyl-group donor intake in the first and second trimester of pregnancy and negatively in the third trimester. We found no clear association between maternal choline intake

  9. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  11. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  12. Higher Fetal Insulin Resistance in Chinese Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Correlation with Maternal Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measur...

  13. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  14. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  15. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Is maternal education level associated with diet in 10-year-old children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Jones, Louise R; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andrew R; Emmett, Pauline M

    2011-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children. Three-day diet diaries (child completed with parental help) were collected. Height and weight were measured in research clinics. Maternal education level was derived from a questionnaire completed during pregnancy and classified into low, medium or high. One-way ANOVA was undertaken to compare maternal education groups for nutrient intakes and the Kruskal-Wallis test used for food consumption. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. Children (n 7474) who provided dietary data at age 10 years. A large proportion (60 %) of the sample was classified as plausible reporters, with under-reporting accounting for 36 %. No clear differences were found for intakes of energy or macronutrients between maternal education groups for plausible reporters. However, there were marked differences in micronutrient intakes especially for vitamin C, retinol equivalents and folate, highlighting lower diet quality with lower maternal education level. Intakes of fruit and vegetables showed a positive gradient with increasing maternal education (57 % v. 79 % consumed fresh fruit in low and high educational groups, respectively). A trend towards higher intake in the lower educated group was shown for less healthy foods (meat pies P children's diet at 10 years was related to maternal education level. Lower maternal education was associated with less healthy food choices that could be detrimental to health. Further research is needed to establish if these associations can be explained by other socio-economic factors.

  17. Prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and associations with child language at five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Alexander, Jan; Lundh, Thomas; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2018-01-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxin and evidence suggests that also low level exposure may affect prenatal neurodevelopment. Uncertainty exists as to whether the maternal MeHg burden in Norway might affect child neurodevelopment. To evaluate the association between prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and child language and communication skills at age five. The study sample comprised 38,581 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal mercury blood concentration in gestational week 17 was analysed in a sub-sample of 2239 women. Prenatal mercury exposure from maternal diet was calculated from a validated FFQ answered in mid-pregnancy. Mothers reported children's language and communications skills at age five by a questionnaire including questions from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), the Speech and Language Assessment Scale (SLAS) and the Twenty Statements about Language-Related Difficulties (language 20). We performed linear regression analyses adjusting for maternal characteristics, nutritional status and socioeconomic factors. Median maternal blood mercury concentration was 1.03μg/L, dietary mercury exposure was 0.15μg/kgbw/wk, and seafood intake was 217g/wk. Blood mercury concentrations were not associated with any language and communication scales. Increased dietary mercury exposure was significantly associated with improved SLAS scores when mothers had a seafood intake below 400g/wk in the adjusted analysis. Sibling matched analysis showed a small significant adverse association between those above the 90th percentile dietary mercury exposure and the SLAS scores. Maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was positively associated with the language and communication scales. Low levels of prenatal mercury exposure were positively associated with language and communication skills at five years. However, the matched sibling analyses suggested an adverse association between mercury and child

  18. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  19. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother–newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006–2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) ® bioassay, 32 P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  20. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: mpedersen@creal.cat [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: lur@ssi.dk [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: ha@mil.au.dk [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: Bram.Brouwer@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: Harrie.Besselink@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: stl@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: liek@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  1. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  2. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  3. "We never ate like that, not fast food, or junk foods": accounts of changing maternal diet in a tourist community in rural Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Allison; Peña, Jenny; Himmelgreen, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines maternal diet in rural Costa Rica in the context of recent political economic changes. Results show that increased availability of non-local food items, (i.e., pizza and processed foods) has influenced maternal dietary choices. Information pathways, which have traditionally provided women with knowledge about maternal diet from family members, are also shifting. Younger women turn to the local clinic and the media for information about maternal diet, and traditional practices, such as cuarentena (40-day postpartum period), are no longer being observed. Changing practices may be linked with shifting information pathways, as well as self-reported weight gain among women.

  4. A longitudinal investigation of nutrition and dietary patterns in children of mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-07-01

    To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  7. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  8. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  9. Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum. METHODS: We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary...... activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum. RESULTS: Women's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure......-time exercise, less sedentary behavior, and longer duration of breastfeeding on average gained 1.66 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40; 1.91] with a significantly reduced odds [OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.64)] of gaining >5 kg from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum compared to women with none or one...

  10. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Offspring neuroimmune consequences of maternal malnutrition: Potential mechanism for behavioral impairments that underlie metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B L; Reyes, T M

    2017-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward. Neuroimmune pathways and microglial interactions in these specific brain circuits, either in early development or later in adulthood, could directly contribute to the maternal malnutrition-induced behavioral phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms will help advance treatment strategies for metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially noninvasive dietary supplementation interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  15. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  16. Maternal first-trimester diet and childhood bone mass: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppe, Denise H M; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-07-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy has been suggested to influence bone health in later life. We assessed the association of maternal first-trimester dietary intake during pregnancy with childhood bone mass. In a prospective cohort study in 2819 mothers and their children, we measured first-trimester daily energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intakes by using a food-frequency questionnaire and homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations in venous blood. We measured childhood total body bone mass by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6.0 y. Higher first-trimester maternal protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes and vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with higher childhood bone mass, whereas carbohydrate intake and homocysteine concentrations were associated with lower childhood bone mass (all P-trend childhood bone mass. In the fully adjusted regression model that included all dietary factors significantly associated with childhood bone mass, maternal phosphorus intake and homocysteine concentrations most-strongly predicted childhood bone mineral content (BMC) [β = 2.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.5) and β = -1.8 (95% CI: -3.6, 0.1) g per SD increase, respectively], whereas maternal protein intake and vitamin B-12 concentrations most strongly predicted BMC adjusted for bone area [β = 2.1 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.5) and β = 1.8 (95% CI: 0.4, 3.2) g per SD increase, respectively]. Maternal first-trimester dietary factors are associated with childhood bone mass, suggesting that fetal nutritional exposures may permanently influence bone development.

  17. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  18. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  19. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  20. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  1. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  2. Is maternal nutrition knowledge more strongly associated with the diets of mothers or their school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-08-01

    Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.

  3. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  4. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  5. N-carbamylglutamate and L-arginine improved maternal and placental development in underfed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Ziyu; Deng, Mingtian; Nie, Haitao; Zhang, Guomin; Ma, Tiewei; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected L-arginine (RP-Arg) in nutrient-restricted pregnant Hu sheep would affect (1) maternal endocrine status; (2) maternal, fetal, and placental antioxidation capability; and (3) placental development. From day 35 to day 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin fetuses were allocated randomly into four groups: 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations, 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20g/day RP-Arg, and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5g/day NCG product. The results showed that in maternal and fetal plasma and placentomes, the activities of total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase were increased (Pewes. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 was increased (Pewes than in 100% NRC ewes, and had no effect (P>0.05) in both NCG- and RP-Arg-treated underfed ewes. A supplement of RP-Arg and NCG reduced (Pewes. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of NCG and RP-Arg in underfed ewes could influence maternal endocrine status, improve the maternal-fetal-placental antioxidation capability, and promote fetal and placental development during early-to-late gestation. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  6. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  7. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Grieger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW, and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby.

  9. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  10. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  11. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  12. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  13. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  14. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  15. Dietary pattern and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nan Lv,1 Lan Xiao,1 Jun Ma1,2 1Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute, 2Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The literature on the relationship between diet and asthma has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting results. People consume a combination of foods from various groups that form a dietary pattern. Studying the role of dietary patterns in asthma is an emerging area of research. The purpose of this study was to systematically review dietary patterns and asthma outcomes in adults and children, to review maternal diet and child asthma, and to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between asthma prevalence and dietary patterns in adults. Methods: We searched Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge up to January 2014. Two researchers independently reviewed studies meeting the inclusion criteria using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria. A linear mixed model was used to derive the pooled effect size (95% confidence interval for each of three dietary pattern categories (healthy, unhealthy, and neutral. Results: Thirty-one studies were identified (16 cross-sectional, one case-control, 13 cohort, and one randomized controlled trial, including 12 in adults, 13 in children, five in pregnant woman–child pairs, and one in both children and pregnant woman–child pairs. Six of the 12 adult studies reported significant associations between dietary patterns and asthma outcomes (eg, ever asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second. Seven of ten studies examining the Mediterranean diet showed protective effects on child asthma and/or wheeze. Four of the six studies in mother-child pairs showed that maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy were not associated with child asthma or wheeze. The meta-analysis including six adult studies, the primary outcome of which was the prevalence of current or ever asthma, showed no association with healthy

  16. Dietary Habits and Supplement Use in Relation to National Pregnancy Recommendations: Data from the EuroPrevall Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, E. M.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Keil, T.; McBride, D.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Ragnarsdottir, H. S.; Trendelenburg, V.; Emmanouil, E.; Reche, M.; Fiocchi, A.; Fiandor, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Wilczynski, J.; Busacca, M.; Sigurdardottir, S. T.; Dubakiene, R.; Rudzeviciene, O.; Vlaxos, G. D.; Beyer, K.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing maternal dietary habits across Europe during pregnancy in relation to their national pregnancy recommendations. A collaborative, multi-centre, birth cohort study in nine European countries was conducted as part of European Union funded EuroPrevall project. Standardised baseline

  17. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  18. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  19. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  20. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  1. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  2. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  3. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Association between maternal diet quality and offspring diet quality assessed at age 14 years: longitudinal study in a large contemporary cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    -pregnancy BMI, level of education, and maternal smoking. Interpretation  This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine associations between maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and offspring dietary habits during adolescent years in a large contemporary cohort. Diet quality during pregnancy......Background  Emerging evidence suggests that exposures in fetal life may have an impact many years later on the individual's susceptibility to diseases. Study of diet–disease associations over long time-spans is a major methodological challenge. We examined whether overall diet quality during...... pregnancy was associated with adolescent diet quality 15 years later in a prospective cohort representing a typical high-income population. Methods  Dietary intake assessed with a 360-item food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (1996–2003) was matched with offspring dietary intake assessed...

  5. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  6. Macro- and Micronutrients of Human Milk Composition: Are They Related to Maternal Diet? A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Mojtaba; Bahreynian, Maryam; Saleki, Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at systematically reviewing the observational and interventional studies on the association of maternal macro- and micronutrient intake with breast milk content. We systematically searched the Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge till October 2016 with the following search strategy: ("human milk" OR "breast milk" OR "breast milk composition" OR "human breast milk composition" OR "composition breast milk" OR "mother milk" OR "human breast milk") AND ("maternal diet" OR "maternal nutrition"). We also searched Google scholar for increasing the sensitivity of our search. The search was not limited to title and abstract due to the possibility that the desired outcome might have been considered a secondary aim. We excluded conference papers, editorials, letters, commentary, short survey, and notes. The search was refined to English language, and we did not consider any time limitation. To increase the sensitivity and to select more studies, the reference list of the published studies was checked as well. This review included 59 observational and 43 interventional studies on maternal diet related to breast milk composition. Different studies determined the associations and effects of some maternal dietary intake of micro and macronutrients and its reflection in human milk. Maternal dietary intake, particularly fatty acids, and some micronutrients, including fat soluble vitamins, vitamin B 1 , and vitamin C, was related to their content in breast milk composition.

  7. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  8. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Horan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI, remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142 and intervention group (n = 138, who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  9. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  10. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  11. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  12. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  13. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  14. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  15. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  16. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  17. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to GUIDELINES over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  18. Using a cultural-ecological framework to explore dietary beliefs and practices during pregnancy and lactation among women in Adivasi communities in the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Hope C; Jeyanthi, R; Pelto, Gretel; Willford, Andrew C; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2018-01-01

    This article explores maternal dietary beliefs and practices gathered through interviews with mothers of infants and young children in Adivasi communities in the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, India. Guided by focused ethnographic study methods, interviews were conducted with 33 key informants. We used a cultural-ecological framework to analyze and interpret the texts that were elicited from women about dietary beliefs and eating patterns during pregnancy and lactation. We identify differences between what women were advised to eat, felt they should eat, and reported consuming. The findings offer guidance for interventions to improve maternal diets in this vulnerable population.

  19. Maternal diet quality in pregnancy and neonatal adiposity: the Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A L B; Kaar, J L; Crume, T L; Starling, A P; Siega-Riz, A M; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Norris, J M; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Dabelea, D

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal diet in pregnancy can influence fetal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal diet quality during pregnancy would increase neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass (%FM)) at birth by increasing the fat mass (FM) component of neonatal body composition. Our analysis was conducted using a prebirth observational cohort of 1079 mother-offspring pairs. Pregnancy diet was assessed via repeated Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recalls, from which Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated for each mother. HEI-2010 was dichotomized into scores of ⩽57 and >57, with low scores representing poorer diet quality. Neonatal %FM was assessed within 72 h after birth with air displacement plethysmography. Using univariate and multivariate linear models, we analyzed the relationship between maternal diet quality and neonatal %FM, FM, and fat-free mass (FFM) while adjusting for prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity, maternal age, smoking, energy intake, preeclampsia, hypertension, infant sex and gestational age. Total HEI-2010 score ranged between 18.2 and 89.5 (mean: 54.2, s.d.: 13.6). An HEI-2010 score of ⩽57 was significantly associated with higher neonatal %FM (β=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-1.1, Pdiet quality during pregnancy increases neonatal adiposity independent of maternal prepregnancy BMI and total caloric intake. This further implicates maternal diet as a potentially important exposure for fetal adiposity.

  20. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  1. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  2. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  5. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  6. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C

    2006-08-01

    Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.

  7. Associations of maternal stress with children's weight-related behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S G; Maher, J P; Belcher, B R; Leventhal, A M; Margolin, G; Shonkoff, E T; Dunton, G F

    2017-05-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviours (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) among US children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children's obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behaviour (i.e. healthy diet [n = 3], unhealthy diet [n = 6], physical activity [n = 7] and sedentary behaviour [n = 9]). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children's healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children's lower physical activity and higher sedentary behaviour. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high-resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Associations of maternal stress with children’s weight-related behaviors: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057

  9. Dietary acid load in early life and bone health in childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Audry H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy; de Jonge, Ester A L; Gordillo, Noelia G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-12-01

    Dietary contribution to acid-base balance in early life may influence subsequent bone mineralization. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. We examined the associations of dietary acid load in early life with bone health in childhood. In a prospective, multiethnic, population-based cohort study of 2850 children, we estimated dietary acid load as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), based on dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and protein, and as a protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 y of age and in a subgroup at 2 y of age : Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC, and bone area were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6 y. Data were analyzed by using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for relevant maternal and child factors, dietary acid load estimated as either dPRAL or Pro:K ratio was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. Only in those children with high protein intake in our population (i.e., >42 g/d), a 1-unit increase in dPRAL (mEq/d) was inversely associated with BMC (difference: -0.32 g; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01 g). Dietary acid load in early life was not consistently associated with bone health in childhood. Further research is needed to explore the extent to which dietary acid load in later childhood may affect current and future bone health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  11. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  12. Mothers’ Self-Efficacy Regarding Dietary Behaviour and Physical Activity of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kokolaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity constitutes a crucial health issue during preschool period and has an impact on children regardless their ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-efficacy perceptions of mothers and potential differences and correlations with dietary behaviour and physical activity of their preschool children in Finland. Materials and Methods: The sample for this study consisted of 154 mothers from nine private nurseries who lived in greater Helsinki and have Finnish or other nationality. There were 7 categories of geographical regions from which mothers came from, according to the nationality they declared. For the data collection the "Parental Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" was used, which evaluates the self-efficacy of parents regarding the dietary behaviour and physical activity of their children.   Results: The age range of the children was between 3 up to 6 years of age (Mean=5.08 + 0.96, while the age range of mothers was between 25 up to 54 years of age (Mean=37.7+ 4.85. Positive correlations were found between maternal self-efficacy and children’s physical activity as well as between maternal self-efficacy and dietary behaviour. As it occurs from the analysis of the results from Pearson correlations: dietary behaviour had a positive correlation with physical activity r=0.583, p Conclusion: Despite the non-statistically significant differences on these two factors, the results also showed high mean score values on maternal self-efficacy so in physical activity, as in dietary behaviour. Mothers who living in the same country which offers well structured guidelines about integrating nutrition and physical activity to help prevent lifestyle related diseases, possibly explains the fact that there are no differences related to ethnicity.

  13. Influences on the quality of young children's diets: the importance of maternal food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Catherine M; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    It is recognised that eating habits established in early childhood may track into adult life. Developing effective interventions to promote healthier patterns of eating throughout the life course requires a greater understanding of the diets of young children and the factors that influence early dietary patterns. In a longitudinal UK cohort study, we assessed the diets of 1640 children at age 3 years using an interviewer-administered FFQ and examined the influence of maternal and family factors on the quality of the children's diets. To describe dietary quality, we used a principal components analysis-defined pattern of foods that is consistent with healthy eating recommendations. This was termed a 'prudent' diet pattern and was characterised by high intakes of fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread, but by low intakes of white bread, confectionery, chips and roast potatoes. The key influence on the quality of the children's diets was the quality of their mother's diets; alone it accounted for almost a third of the variance in child's dietary quality. Mothers who had better-quality diets, which complied with dietary recommendations, were more likely to have children with comparable diets. This relationship remained strong even after adjustment for all other factors considered, including maternal educational attainment, BMI and smoking, and the child's birth order and the time spent watching television. Our data provide strong evidence of shared family patterns of diet and suggest that interventions to improve the quality of young women's diets could be effective in improving the quality of their children's diets.

  14. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  15. Are concentrations of alkaline earth elements in maternal hair associated with risk of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Huo, Wenhua; Liu, Yingying; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-12-31

    The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). The concentrations of four AEEs (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) in maternal hair sections that grew during early pregnancy were analyzed. Information on the dietary habits of the mothers was also collected by questionnaire. Higher concentrations of the four AEEs in hair had protective effects against the risk of total NTDs, with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (comparing groups separated by each median level) of 0.44 (0.28-0.68) for Mg, 0.56 (0.36-0.87) for Ca, 0.45 (0.28-0.70) for Sr, and 0.41 (0.26-0.65) for Ba. Significant negative dose-response trends were identified for the relationships between the four AEE concentrations in maternal hair and the risks of anencephaly and spina bifida, but not for encephalocele. The frequencies of maternal consumption of fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and meat or fish were positively correlated with the concentrations of AEEs in hair. We concluded that the maternal intake of AEEs may play an important role in preventing NTD formation in offspring, and that this intake is related to maternal dietary habits of consuming fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and fish or meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  17. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  18. ROLE OF DIETARY DIVERSITY IN ENSURING ADEQUATE HAEMATOLOGICAL STATUS DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka, Abdulai Abdul Rauf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though nutrition is a key input to blood formation, little is known about the extent maternal dietary quality contributes to the haematological status of pregnant women in Northern Region of Ghana. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the independent contribution of dietary diversity to haematological status of pregnant women whilst controlling for potential confounding factors including malarial infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample of 307 pregnant women in their third trimester. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and dietary data related to anaemia. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the dietary diversity score. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was measured using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of anaemia were estimated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The mean Hb was 10.8±1.4 g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl was 46.3 %. High dietary diversity score [Beta coefficient (β, = 0.141 p < 0.001], multi-gravidity (β=0.205 and high composite score for ANC content (β= 0.201 were associated with a decreased risk of anaemia in the third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: The findings suggest the need to strengthen interventions that focus on improving the consumption of diversified foods particularly during pregnancy.

  19. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  20. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  2. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  3. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  4. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status are related to dietary patterns at age 5 in the Amsterdam born children and their development (ABCD) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Viyan; Engberink, Marielle F; van Eijsden, Manon; Nicolaou, Mary; Dekker, Louise H; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Weijs, Peter J M

    2018-01-08

    Health inequalities are already present at young age and tend to vary with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Diet is a major determinant of overweight, and studying dietary patterns as a whole in relation to overweight rather than single nutrients or foods has been suggested. We derived dietary patterns at age 5 and determined whether ethnicity and SES were both related to these dietary patterns. We analysed 2769 validated Food Frequency Questionnaires filled in by mothers of children (5.7 ± 0.5y) in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort. Food items were reduced to 41 food groups. Energy adjusted intake per food group (g/d) was used to derive dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis and children were given a pattern score for each dietary pattern. We defined 5 ethnic groups (Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other ethnicities) and 3 SES groups (low, middle, high, based on maternal education). Multivariate ANOVA, with adjustment for age, gender and maternal age, was used to test potential associations between ethnicity or SES and dietary pattern scores. Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine differences between groups. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 dietary patterns: a snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy dietary pattern, explaining 21% of the variation in dietary intake. Ethnicity was related to the dietary pattern scores (p pattern, whereas Turkish children scored high on full-fat and Surinamese children on the meat pattern. SES was related to the snacking, full-fat and meat patterns (p pattern and low on the full-fat pattern. This study indicates that both ethnicity and SES are relevant for dietary patterns at age 5 and may enable more specific nutrition education to specific ethnic and low socioeconomic status target groups.

  5. Effect of maternal nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation from mid to late gestation on vascular reactivity of maternal and fetal placental arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P; Lemley, C O; Dubey, N; Meyer, A M; O'Rourke, S T; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction and decreased scotophase concentrations of melatonin have been associated with severely compromised pregnancies. We hypothesized that melatonin supplementation in a compromised pregnancy enhances the bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxations of placental arteries thereby ensuring sufficient umbilical blood flow to the developing fetus. Pregnant ewes (n = 31) were fed an adequate (ADQ) or nutrient restricted (RES) diet supplemented with 5 mg of melatonin (MEL) or without melatonin (CON) from day 50 to 130 of gestation. On day 130 of gestation, the maternal (caruncular; CAR) and fetal (cotyledonary; COT) placental arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. There were no treatment or dietary effects on CAR arteries for any vasoactive agent. However, in COT arteries, MEL ewes were more sensitive (P melatonin by nutritional level interaction (P melatonin by nutritional interaction (P = 0.04) for responsiveness to norepinephrine. The sensitivity of the COT arteries to norepinephrine in CON-RES ewes was decreased compared to CON-ADQ. Melatonin supplementation, regardless of maternal dietary intake, resulted in COT arteries having similar responsiveness to CON-RES ewes. An increase in placental vessel sensitivity to bradykinin-induced relaxation may contribute to melatonin-induced increases in umbilical artery blood flow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  7. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  8. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  9. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  10. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  11. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function) were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, Pinsulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019), in the pregnant women with GDM. Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  12. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin modulate inflammatory responsiveness and TLR-related gene expression in the fetal human gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguli, K.; Collado, M.C.; Rautava, J.; Lu, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.; Isolauri, E.; Salminen, S.; Walker, W.A.; Rautava, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial contact in utero modulates fetal and neonatal immune responses. Maternal probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of immune-mediated disease in the infant. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin in human

  14. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  15. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  16. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  17. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  18. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style

  19. Effect of simple, targeted diet in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors on maternal and fetal outcomes (ESTEEM): study protocol for a pragmatic multicentre randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Wattar, Bassel H.; Dodds, Julie; Placzek, Anna; Spyreli, Eleni; Moore, Amanda; Hooper, Richard; Beresford, Lee; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Hitman, Graham; Khan, Khalid S.; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-01-01

    Women with metabolic risk factors are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mediterranean-based dietary interventions have the potential to minimise these risks. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple, targeted intervention modelled on Mediterranean diet in preventing maternal and

  20. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  1. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  2. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  3. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  4. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  5. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  6. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  7. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  9. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  10. Interactive relations among maternal depressive symptomatology, nutrition, and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.

  11. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  12. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16–41 years included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice”, “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese”, and “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood”. GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation <24 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (AOR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for GDM, after controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP. All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14% had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4–17.0 for “high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice” pattern, 7.5 (1.8–32.3 for “high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese” pattern, and 22.3 (3.9–127.4 for “high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood” pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational

  13. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r 2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  14. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  15. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  16. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    live births. Causes and determinants of maternal mortal- ity. Global causes of maternal mortality. Across the globe the causes of maternal deaths are strik- ..... at home”. Findings from Thyolo, Mangochi and Chik- wawa were similar". Perceived qua/ity of care. Like anywhere in the world, the perceived quality of care in ...

  17. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  18. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  19. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  20. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2017-06-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  1. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  2. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  3. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  4. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  5. Associations of maternal iron intake and hemoglobin in pregnancy with offspring vascular phenotypes and adiposity at age 10: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A Alwan

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

  6. Australian Pregnant Women’s Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlood Bookari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women’s knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N=326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2% or obese (23.6%; and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P<0.000. Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM’s GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese.

  7. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  8. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  9. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  10. Effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women at increased risk for gestational diabetes - a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Puhkala, Jatta; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Aittasalo, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing and GDM might be prevented by improving diet. Few interventions have assessed the effects of dietary counselling on dietary intake of pregnant women. This study examined the effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women as secondary outcomes of a trial primarily aiming at preventing GDM. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 municipalities in Finland, including 399 pregnant women at increased risk for developing GDM. The intervention consisted of dietary counselling focusing on dietary fat, fibre and saccharose intake at four routine maternity clinic visits. Usual counselling practices were continued in the usual care municipalities. A validated 181-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess changes in diet from baseline to 26-28 and 36-37 weeks gestation. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. By 36-37 weeks gestation, the intervention had beneficial effects on total intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (coefficient for between-group difference in change 61.6 g day(-1), 95% confidence interval 25.7-97.6), the proportions of high-fibre bread of all bread (7.2% units, 2.5-11.9), low-fat cheeses of all cheeses (10.7% units, 2.6-18.9) and vegetable fats of all dietary fats (6.1% -units, 2.0-10.3), and the intake of saturated fatty acids (-0.67 energy-%-units, -1.16 to -0.19), polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.38 energy-%-units, 0.18-0.58), linoleic acid (764 mg day(-1), 173-1354) and fibre (2.07 g day(-1) , 0.39-3.75). The intervention improved diet towards the recommendations in pregnant women at increased risk for GDM suggesting the counselling methods could be implemented in maternity care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Maternal undernutrition and cardiometabolic disease: a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Sotomayor-Rubio, Aristides; Mantilla-Garcia, Daniel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose

    2015-03-02

    The current epidemic of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases in developing countries is described as being driven by socioeconomic inequalities. These populations have a greater vulnerability to cardiometabolic diseases due to the discrepancy between the maternal undernutrition and its consequence, low-birth weight progeny, and the subsequent modern lifestyles which are associated with socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Maternal undernutrition can generate epigenetic modifications, with potential long-term consequences. Throughout life, people are faced with the challenge of adapting to changes in their environment, such as excessive intake of high energy density foods and sedentary behavior. However, a mismatch between conditions experienced during fetal programming and current environmental conditions will make adaptation difficult for them, and will increase their susceptibility to obesity and cardiovascular diseases. It is important to conduct research in the Latin American context, in order to define the best strategies to prevent the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases in the region.

  12. Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Christopher G.; Lyons, Kady; Blasius, Mary E.; Winkler, Chuck; O’Sullivan, John B.; Lowe, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear. PMID:23646154

  13. Trophic and maternal transfer of selenium in brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A; Staub, Brandon P; Baionno, Jennifer A; Jackson, Brian P; Roe, John H; Ford, Neil B

    2004-07-01

    Excessive concentrations of dietary Se are toxic to oviparous vertebrates (i.e., fish and birds) but little is known about its accumulation and effects in reptiles. We exposed female brown house snakes, Lamprophis fuliginosus, to 10 and 20 microg/g Se by injecting seleno-D,L-methionine into their prey items and compared the snakes to individuals receiving background levels of approximately 1 microg/g dietary Se. Snakes were fed meals equaling 25% of their body mass 2-3 times a month for 10 months. Snakes exposed to excessive Se accumulated significant concentrations of Se in kidney, liver, and ovarian tissue, but accumulation had no effect on female survival, food consumption, growth, or body condition. Fewer females exposed to excessive Se reproduced than females exposed to 1 microg/g Se (67% vs. 91%, respectively), but the reduction in reproductive activity was not statistically significant. Total reproductive output of females did not differ among the three dietary treatments. However, snakes exposed to 10 and 20 microg/g Se transferred significant concentrations of Se to their eggs. In the 20 microg/g treatment, maternal transfer resulted in Se concentrations in eggs that surpassed all suggested reproductive toxicity thresholds for birds and fish. Further studies are needed to more rigorously determine whether maternal transfer of Se in this snake species affects the viability of developing embryos or the health of offspring.

  14. Association between maternal education and diet of children at 9 months is partially explained by mothers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    Infants of mothers of low educational background display consistently poorer outcomes, including suboptimal weaning diets. Less is known about the different causal pathways that relate maternal education to infants' diet. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal education and infants' diet is mediated by mothers' diet. The analyses included 421 mother-infant pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program. Dietary intakes were collected from mothers when infants were aged 3 months, using a validated food frequency questionnaire relating to the past year, and in infants aged 9 months using 3 × 24-h recalls. Principal component analysis was used to derive dietary pattern scores, based on frequencies of 55 food groups in mothers, and intakes of 23 food groups in infants. Associations were assessed with multivariable linear regression. We tested the product 'ab' to address the mediation hypothesis, where 'a' refers to the relationship between the predictor variable (education) and the mediator variable (mothers' diet), and 'b' refers to the association between the mediator variable and the outcome variable (infants' diet), controlling for the predictor variable. Maternal scores on the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern partially mediated the relationships between maternal education and two infant dietary patterns, namely 'Balanced weaning diet' [ab = 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04; 0.18] and 'Formula' (ab = -0.08; 95%CI: -0.15; -0.02). These findings suggest that targeting pregnant mothers of low education level with the aim of improving their own diet may also promote better weaning diets in their infants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  16. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  17. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  18. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  19. Dietary quality in children and the role of the local food environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet is a modifiable contributor to many chronic diseases including childhood obesity. The local food environment may influence children's diet but this area of research is understudied. This study explores if distance to and the number of supermarkets and convenience stores in the local area around households are associated with dietary quality in nine year olds whilst controlling for household level socio-economic factors. This is a secondary analysis of Wave 1 (2007/2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI Child Cohort Study, a sample of 8568 nine year olds from the Republic of Ireland. Dietary intake was assessed using a short, 20-item parent reported food frequency questionnaire and was used to create a dietary quality score (DQS whereby a higher score indicated a higher diet quality. Socio-economic status was measured using household class, household income, and maternal education. Food availability was measured as road network distance to and the number of supermarkets and convenience stores around households. Separate fixed effects regression models assessed the association between local area food availability and dietary quality, stratified by sex. The DQS ranged from −5 to 25 (mean 9.4, SD 4.2. Mean DQS was higher in those who lived furthest (distance in quintiles from their nearest supermarket (p<0.001, and in those who lived furthest from their nearest convenience store (p<0.001. After controlling for socio-economic characteristics of the household, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that distance to the nearest supermarket or convenience store was associated with dietary quality in girls or boys. The number of supermarkets or convenience stores within 1000 m of the household was not associated with dietary quality. Food availability had a limited effect on dietary quality in this study. Issues associated with conceptualising and measuring the food environment may explain the findings of the current study. Keywords: Diet

  20. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-24

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n -3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC) was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  2. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Cecilie Braarud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3 is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  3. Clustering of dietary intake and sedentary behavior in 2-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Sanne I; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2009-08-01

    To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Cross-sectional data originated from the Child, Parent and Health: Lifestyle and Genetic Constitution (KOALA) Birth Cohort Study. Parents of 2578 2-year-old children completed a questionnaire. Correlation analyses, principal component analyses, and linear regression analyses were performed to examine clustering of EBRBs. We found modest but consistent correlations in EBRBs. Two clusters emerged: a "sedentary-snacking cluster" and a "fiber cluster." Television viewing clustered with computer use and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Children who frequently consumed vegetables also consumed fruit and brown bread more often and white bread less often. Lower maternal education and maternal obesity were associated with high scores on the sedentary-snacking cluster, whereas higher educational level was associated with high fiber cluster scores. Obesity-prone behavioral clusters are already visible in 2-year-old children and are related to maternal characteristics. The findings suggest that obesity prevention should apply an integrated approach to physical activity and dietary intake in early childhood.

  4. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  5. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  6. Dietary Diversity is a Predictor of Acute Malnutrition in Rural but Not in Urban Settings: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Lartey, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To document the relationships between child dietary diversity and acute malnutrition (wasting) in urban and rural Ghana, controlling for maternal, child and household socio-demographic characteristics. Study Design: Cross sectional survey Place and Duration of Study: Urban and rural Ghana, between September and November 2008. Methodology: The analysis uses data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Data on children aged 6-36 months (n = 1,187) and their...

  7. Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Reproductive Functions in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of dairy cattle for higher milk yield, without considering important non-production traits, has decreased reproductive efficiency. Thus, low reproductive performance is a major problem in high yielding dairy cattle. Previous studies showed that dietary manipulation to improve fertility holds much promise and dietary fats have positive effects on reproductive functions in high yielding dairy cattle. Positive effects of fats on reproductive performance due to the fatty acids, which are the precursors of progesterone and prostaglandins. Progesterone and prostaglandins hormones are most important factors that play a role on the control of reproductive functions. The amount of linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fattty acids in ration can be increase or decrease progesterone and prostaglandins synthesis especially PGF2α from ovary and uterus, respectively. Also fatty acids can be influence follicular development, ovulation, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy. This review focuses on the relationships between dietary fatty acids and reproductive functions such as hormone profiles, ovarian function and follicular development, oocyte quality, embryo development, embryonic implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy in dairy cattle.

  8. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  9. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  11. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  12. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  14. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  15. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  16. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  17. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  18. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  19. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  20. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  1. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  2. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  3. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  5. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  6. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  7. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  11. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2016-01-01

    composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  12. Dietary enrichment with alpha-linolenic acid during pregnancy attenuates insulin resistance in adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, K S; Tempel Brami, C; Konikoff, F M; Fainaru, M; Leikin-Frenkel, A

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to test the contribution of dietary enrichment in essential or saturated fatty acids, in normocaloric diets, on the lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in the adult offspring in a C57Bl6/J mice model. Pregnant mothers were fed normocaloric diets containing 6% fat enriched in essential fatty acids (EFA): alpha-linolenic (ALA-18:3, n-3), linoleic (LA-18:2, n-6), or saturated fatty acids (SFA). After a washing-out period with regular diet, the offspring received a high-fat diet before euthanization. Adult mice fed maternal ALA showed lower body weight gain and lower liver fat accumulation, lower HOMA index and lower stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) activity than those fed maternal SFA. The results observed using this novel model suggest that ALA in maternal diet may have the potential to inhibit insulin resistance in adult offspring.

  13. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  14. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Maternal Depression and Parent Management Training Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.

  16. Maternal burn-out: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R; Leboullenger, A; Callahan, S

    2018-02-21

    Maternal burn-out is a psychological, emotional and physiological condition resulting from the accumulation of various stressors characterised by a moderate but also a chronic and repetitive dimension. Little research has focused on this syndrome. The current study aims to assess maternal burn-out rate and to identify factors associated with this state of exhaustion. 263 French mothers aged between 20 and 49 years answered five scales quantifying maternal burn-out, perceived social support, parental stress, depression and anxiety symptoms and history of postnatal depression. About 20% of mothers were affected by maternal burn-out. The main factors related to maternal burn-out were having a child perceived as difficult, history of postnatal depression, anxiety, satisfaction of a balance between professional and personal life and parental stress. This research shows the need for further work on maternal burn-out to better understand and prevent this syndrome.

  17. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  18. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Artificial sweeteners are widely replacing caloric sweeteners. Data on long-term impact of artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption during pregnancy on offspring obesity risk are lacking. We prospectively investigated intake of ASBs and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during...... pregnancy in relation to offspring growth through age 7 years among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes. Methods: In a prospective study of 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, maternal dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire...

  19. Development, reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women adherent to the Mediterranean dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Tatiana; Hout, Hala; Sibai, Darine; Helou, Nour; Younes, Hassan; El Osta, Nada; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-12-01

    Accurate dietary assessment tools are required to ensure that maternal diet supplies all the nutrients needed for fetal development. However, no dietary method could accurately estimate food intake during gestation. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), frequently used in epidemiological studies, estimate long term nutritional status of the target population. However, it is recommended to create and validate a FFQ compatible with the dietary habits of the studied population, to avoid cultural and social discrepancies. This study aimed to develop and test the reproducibility and the validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ compatible with the diet of Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern population, in a sample of Lebanese pregnant women. 128 women participated in the validation study, while 38 took part in the reproducibility phase, which was repeated in a time frame of 21 days. The FFQ was validated against a 24 h dietary recall (DR). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.935 for calcium to 0.984 for vitamin D (p value food items was culture specific and assessed the nutrient intake of our population. Administering this tool in future researches will help monitor the nutritional status of pregnant women, aiming at improving maternal and newborn health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.

  1. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria; Pedersen, Marie; Besselink, Harrie; Mendez, Michelle A; Fleming, Sarah; Hardie, Laura J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Wright, John; Agramunt, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Brunborg, Gunnar; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sarri, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Merlo, Domenico F; Kleinjans, Jos C; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-15

    Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi S. Kalewad; Trupti Nadkarni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Purpose of this study is to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcome in advanced maternal age women. As numbers of pregnancies in advanced maternal age continue to grow, obstetric care provider would benefit from up to date outcome data to enhance their preconceptional and antenatal counseling. Methods: It is observational prospective analytic study, conducted in Nowrosjee Wadia maternity hospital, Parel, Mumbai. Total 100 patients were included in study, fulfilling inclusion cr...

  3. Association between maternal social capital and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Jane; Seo, Eunkyo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i.e., community group membership, having emotional/economic support from individuals, and citizenship activities) and cognitive social capital (i.e., trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging) in the past 12 months. Infant's dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-7), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum meal frequency (MMF) were assessed using a 24-hr dietary recall. Multivariable ordinal/binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Having support from two or more individuals was associated with higher DDS (OR = 1.84) and meeting a minimum level of dietary diversity (MDD: OR = 5.20) but not with MMF, compared to those having no support. Having two or more group memberships was associated with higher DDS (OR = 2.2) but not with MDD or MMF, compared to those without group membership. Citizenship activities showed mixed associations with MMF and no association with DDS or MDD. Cognitive social capital showed no association with DDS or MDD and lower odds of meeting MMF (OR = 0.56). These mixed results call for further studies to examine other potential pathways (e.g., hygiene and caring behaviours) in which social capital could improve child nutritional status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  5. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). CONCLUSION......: This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification...

  6. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in placenta and umbilical cord blood and dietary intake for women in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wong, Minghong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Placenta and umbilical cord blood are important media for investigating maternal–fetal exposure to environmental pollutants. Historically hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were once widely-used in China. In this study, residues of HCHs were measured in placenta and umbilical cord blood samples for 40 women from Beijing. The measured median values of HCHs were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g fat in placenta and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural group due to enhanced consumption of fish, meat, and milk. Residues of HCHs in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age, and could be predicted using the parameters dependent upon ingestion of meat and milk. The transplacental exposure of fetuses to HCHs was revealed by a close association between the residual levels in the paired placenta and the paired umbilical cord blood samples. -- Highlights: •Medians of HCH in placenta and umbilical cord blood of 40 puerperal women from Beijing were 62.0 and 68.8 ng/g⋅fat. •HCHs in placenta and umbilical cord blood of urban cohort were higher than those of rural one. •HCH residues in placenta were significantly correlated with total food consumption, daily dietary intake, and maternal age. •The transplacental exposure of fetus to HCHs was revealed. -- HCHs in placenta of women in Beijing were significantly correlated with total food consumption, dietary intake, and maternal age

  7. Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2015-11-12

    Maternal dietary patterns before and during pregnancy play important roles in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy that are associated with GDM risk in pregnant U.S. women. From a 24 h dietary recall of 253 pregnant women (16-41 years) included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, food items were aggregated into 28 food groups based on Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Three dietary patterns were identified by reduced rank regression with responses including prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary fiber, and ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid: "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice", "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese", and "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood". GDM was diagnosed using fasting plasma glucose levels ≥5.1 mmol/L for gestation education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake, physical activity, and log-transformed C-reactive protein (CRP). All statistical analyses accounted for the appropriate survey design and sample weights of the NHANES. Of 249 pregnant women, 34 pregnant women (14%) had GDM. Multivariable AOR (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons between the highest vs. lowest tertiles were 4.9 (1.4-17.0) for "high refined grains, fats, oils and fruit juice" pattern, 7.5 (1.8-32.3) for "high nuts, seeds, fat and soybean; low milk and cheese" pattern, and 22.3 (3.9-127.4) for "high added sugar and organ meats; low fruits, vegetables and seafood" pattern after controlling for maternal sociodemographic variables, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, energy intake and log-transformed CRP. These findings suggest that dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with risk of GDM after controlling for potential confounders. The observed connection between a high

  8. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  9. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  10. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  11. Technology-supported dietary and lifestyle interventions in healthy pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, O A; McCarthy, M; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the actuality of delivering effective lifestyle interventions in clinical practice is hampered by a high demand for resources. The use of technology to assist lifestyle interventions needs to be explored as a valid method of reducing strain on resources, and enhancing the effectiveness and population reach of interventions. The aim was to systematically review the literature on the use of technology-supported lifestyle interventions for healthy pregnant women and their impact on maternal outcomes. Online databases and registries were searched in March 2013. Primary outcomes of selected English language studies were fasting maternal glucose, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes were intervention uptake and acceptance, and dietary or physical activity modification. Studies whose subjects were diagnosed with GDM prior to intervention were excluded. The minimal number of eligible studies and varying outcomes precluded formal meta-analysis of the data. Initially, 203 articles were identified and screened. Seven articles, including five randomised controlled trials, met inclusion criteria for the current review. Results demonstrate several potential benefits associated with technology-supported interventions in pregnancy, despite minimal search results. Although communication technology holds potential as a safe therapeutic tool for the support of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy, there is a paucity of data on its effectiveness. Further RCTs examining the effectiveness of communication technology are required, particularly among those most likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions, such as overweight and obese pregnant women.

  12. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-01-01

    responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  13. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  14. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  15. Maternal mortality: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choolani, M; Ratnam, S S

    1995-02-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries is possible through elimination of unsafe abortion, active management of labor, appropriate management of pregnancy complications, and availability of adequate facilities. Prevention and early recognition are key factors in preventing maternal deaths due to ruptured uteri. A well equipped hospital is the appropriate place for delivery of mothers with a history of previous cesarean sections, a grossly contracted pelvis, previous myomectomies, previous multiple births, and previous abnormal births or complications during delivery. Complicated procedures, use of oxytocins, and administration of anesthesia should be performed with experienced, trained medical personnel. Surveillance of and correction for anemia should occur during the course of the pregnancy. Infections can be controlled with tetanus toxoid immunization and use of chest X-rays. The health care system should be tiered with primary health care services located in suburbs and rural districts. Services should be situated to account for population distribution, extent of maternal mortality in the region, transportation facilities, and the nearest secondary hospital. Birthing homes with sanitary facilities are an option for rural districts. A two-way referral system should be established between the primary, secondary, and tertiary level hospitals. Audits should be conducted as a means of checking for needed improvements in the system. Planning that includes proper roads, transportation, and communication facilities is important. Funding can come in the form of money, materials, and manpower. Safe motherhood requires the commitment of local people and local governments. The first step in a safe motherhood program is creating awareness among the political and economic elite. Governments are encouraged to shift resources from the military to housing, transportation, communications, education, and health during peace-times. Local professional associations

  16. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  17. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  18. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dietary and reproductive determinants of plasma organochlorine levels in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcinelli, P.N.; Pereira, A.C.S.; Esquita, S.A.; Oliveira-Silva, J.J.; Meyer, Armando; Menezes, M.A.C.; Alves, R.; Mattos, R.C.O.C.; Moreira, J.C.; Wolff, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Organo chlorine (OC) plasma levels and their dietary and reproductive determinants were investigated in 64 pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Prenatal exposure of newborns was evaluated in a subset of these womens in which umbilical cord blood was analyzed. To assess the influence of dietary factors on OC levels, a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire as completed by participants. Non dietary determinants were investigated through a general questionnaire that addressed reproductive history, lifestyle, and social-demographic characteristics. Both women and their newborns had detectable but low levels of OCs. The most frequently detected compound was p,p'-DDE, the main metabolite of p,p'-DDT. This compound was found in 97% of the women who participated in the study and in 67% of the umbilical cord blood samples, with levels ranging from 0.161 to 8.03 ppb and from 0.320 to 1.06 ppb, respectively. Among the OCs detected, only p,p'-DDE showed any correlation with dietary and non dietary factors. There was a positive correlation between maternal p,p'-DDE and the consumption of fish Pearson r=0.38,P=0.002) and chicken (Pearson r=0.26, P=0.042). The correlation between pork consumption and p,p'-DDE exhibited an inverse relationship (Pearson r=-0.25,P=0.052). Parity was the only non dietary factor hat showed a significant correlation (Pearson r=-0.36,P=0.004). The main determinants of p,p'-DDE levels in this group of women were fish consumption and parity, together explaining 28% of the variance (P<001), in a multivariate model

  20. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  1. Multidimensionality of the relationship between social status and dietary patterns in early childhood: longitudinal results from the French EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soumaïla; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline; Botton, Jérémie; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Forhan, Anne; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Lioret, Sandrine

    2015-09-24

    The association between socioeconomic position and diet in early childhood has mainly been addressed based on maternal education and household income. We aimed to assess the influence of a variety of social factors from different socio-ecological levels (parents, household and child-care) on multi-time point dietary patterns identified from 2 to 5 y. This study included 974 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Two multi-time point dietary patterns were derived in a previous study: they correspond to consistent exposures to either core- or non-core foods across 2, 3 and 5 y and were labelled "Guidelines" and "Processed, fast-foods". The associations of various social factors collected during pregnancy (age, education level) or at 2-y follow-up (mother's single status, occupation, work commitments, household financial disadvantage, presence of older siblings and child-care arrangements) with each of the two dietary patterns, were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. The adherence to a diet close to "Guidelines" was positively and independently associated with both maternal and paternal education levels. The adherence to a diet consistently composed of processed and fast-foods was essentially linked with maternal variables (younger age and lower education level), household financial disadvantage, the presence of older sibling (s) and being cared for at home by someone other than the mother. Multiple social factors operating at different levels (parents, household, and child-care) were found to be associated with the diet of young children. Different independent predictors were found for each of the two longitudinal dietary patterns, suggesting distinct pathways of influence. Our findings further suggest that interventions promoting healthier dietary choices for young children should involve both parents and take into account not only household financial disadvantage but also maternal age, family size and options for child-care.

  2. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  4. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  5. Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to Maternal Deaths ... transcripts were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal ...

  6. Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa ... spacing are cri cal to maternal and child health programming. It is ... APHRC is the only African ins tu on ... Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Birth Weight—a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte K.R. Kjøllesdal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Being born with low birth weight (LBW is recognized as a disadvantage due to risk of early growth retardation, fast catch up growth, infectious disease, developmental delay, and death during infancy and childhood, as well as development of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs later in life. LBW is an indicator of fetal response to a limiting intrauterine environment, which may imply developmental changes in organs and tissue. Numerous studies have explored the effect of maternal intake of various nutrients and specific food items on birth weight (BW. Taking into account that people have diets consisting of many different food items, extraction of dietary patterns has emerged as a common way to describe diets and explore the effects on health outcomes. The present article aims to review studies investigating the associations between dietary patterns derived from a posteriori analysis and BW, or being small for gestational age (SGA. A PubMed search was conducted with the Mesh terms “pregnancy” OR “fetal growth retardation” OR “fetal development” OR “infant, small for gestational age” OR “birth weight” OR “infant, birth weight, low” AND “diet” OR “food habits”. Final number of articles included was seven, all which assessed diet by use of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Five studies explored dietary patterns using principal component analyses (PCA, while one study used cluster analyses and one study logistic regression. The studies reported between one and seven dietary patterns. Those patterns positively associated with BW were labeled “nutrient dense”, “protein rich”, “health conscious”, and “Mediterranean”. Those negatively associated with BW were labeled “Western”, “processed”, “vegetarian”, “transitional”, and “wheat products”. The dietary patterns “Western” and “wheat products” were also associated with higher risk of SGA babies, whereas a

  8. Dietary Inflammatory Potential during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Fetal Growth and Breastfeeding Failure: Results from Project Viva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Gold, Diane R; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. There is limited information available on the contribution of maternal diet to systemic inflammation and pregnancy health. The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal prenatal dietary inflammatory index (DII), a composite measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with markers of maternal systemic inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. We studied 1808 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We calculated the DII from first- and second-trimester food-frequency questionnaires by standardizing the dietary intakes of participants to global means, which were multiplied by the inflammatory effect score and summed. We examined associations of DII with maternal plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in the second trimester and the following perinatal outcomes: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, length of gestation, fetal growth, mode of delivery, and duration of breastfeeding. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze the strength of these associations. Maternal age was (mean ± SD) 32.2 ± 5.0 y, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) was 24.9 ± 5.2, and DII was -2.56 ± 1.42 units with a range of -5.4 to 3.7. DII was positively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (Pearson'sr= 0.13,Pincrease in maternal DII; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14) and lower birth weight for gestational agezscore in infants born to obese mothers (β: -0.10zscore per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.02). Higher DII scores were associated with lower odds of breastfeeding for at least 1 mo (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98). A proinflammatory diet during pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation and may be associated with impaired fetal growth and breastfeeding failure. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  10. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

  11. Maternal Anaemia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Deswanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether maternal anaemia would affect birth outcome – birth weight and length – of the baby and compare this with that of non-anaemicmothers. We used secondary data from Puskesmas Kecamatan Ciracas medical records. Alldelivery records from October – November 2012 were collected and analysed; samples weredivided into two group: Group 1 included anaemic pregnant women and Group 2 non-anaemicpregnant women. Inclusion criteria was all pregnant women 16 years and older and a singletonpregnancy with a complete medical record. All women with a past history of preterm delivery,obstetrical complications or any medical illness, except anaemia, were excluded from the study inorder to control for the confounding factors. Out of one hundred and one records, 79 non anaemicsubjects and 22 anaemic subjects, were included for the analysis. No significant difference wasfound in both groups in terms of baby’s birth weight and birth length.Keywords: maternity anaemia, birth weight, birth length

  12. Commentary Improving child outcomes through maternal mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This commentary will provide a general overview of the public health considerations of maternal mental illness, both from a global perspective as well as from the South African context. The paper will outline the consequences of maternal mental illness for mothers as well as their offspring, through the life stages from ...

  13. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  14. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  15. Autism Symptom Topography and Maternal Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…

  16. Maternal Employment and Early Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…

  17. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  18. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...

  19. Determinants of Maternal Healthcare Utilization in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive healthcare has remained a point of concern in sub-Saharan Africa due to the prevailing high maternal mortality rate. Despite the fact that the utilization of maternal healthcare services is a curbing solution, the records of utilization still remains low. This paper examined the determinants of the decision to use ...

  20. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  1. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  2. Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... that maternal immunisation with the Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccine is safe. Indeed, maternal vaccination is now recommended to prevent pertussis infection in vulnerable young infants. In the USA and UK, the immunisation of pregnant women with a Tdap or dTaP/IPV (diphtheria, ...

  3. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Schutte, J.; Poeran, J.; Roosmalen, J. van; Bonsel, G.; Steegers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: de Graaf J, Schutte J, Poeran J, van Roosmalen J, Bonsel G, Steegers E. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality. BJOG 2012;119:582-588. Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of

  4. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

  5. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  6. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  7. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...

  8. Maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F.A. Simões

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of vitamin D [25(OHD3] in children, adolescents and adults, but it remains unclear whether maternal adiposity influences maternal and foetal concentrations of this vitamin. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between maternal adiposity and maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. It involved 101 mother–newborn pairs from a public maternity in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data, as well as anthropometry, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, were investigated. Maternal adiposity was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two multiple linear regression models that included maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations as outcomes and maternal adiposity as independent variable were used. No association was observed between maternal adiposity and maternal or cord blood concentrations of vitamin D. Maternal vitamin D concentration was associated with race, physical activity and vitamin D supplementation (adj. R2 = 0.74. Cord blood vitamin D concentration was associated with maternal vitamin D concentration (adj. R2 = 0.24. Although fat mass quantification is important to understand vitamin D status during all stages of life, this may not be true in pregnancy as race, vitamin D supplementation and physical activity appeared to be more relevant to vitamin D status. Understanding vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy may elucidate how or if adiposity influences maternal vitamin D status and how it impacts vitamin D transport to the foetus.

  9. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  10. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  11. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  13. Association of maternal diabetes and child asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Meghan B; Becker, Allan B; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal programming is an emerging theory for the fetal origins of chronic disease. Maternal asthma and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are two of the best-known triggers for the perinatal programming of asthma, while the potential role of maternal diabetes has not been widely studied. To determine if maternal diabetes is associated with child asthma, and if so, whether it modifies the effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. We studied 3,574 Canadian children, aged 7-8 years, enrolled in a population-based birth cohort. Standardized questionnaires were completed by the children's parents, and data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Asthma was reported in 442 children (12.4%). Compared to those without asthma, asthmatic children were more likely to have mothers (P = 0.003), but not fathers (P = 0.89), with diabetes. Among children without maternal history of diabetes, the likelihood of child asthma was 1.4-fold higher in those exposed to ETS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73), and 3.6-fold higher in those with maternal asthma (3.59; 2.71-4.76). Among children born to diabetic mothers, these risks were amplified to 5.7-fold (5.68; 1.18-27.37) and 11.3-fold (11.30; 2.26-56.38), respectively. In the absence of maternal asthma or ETS, maternal diabetes was not associated with child asthma (0.65, 0.16-2.56). Our findings suggest that maternal diabetes may contribute to the perinatal programming of child asthma by amplifying the detrimental effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchscherer Margret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 13, low (LP, 6.5%; n = 15, or high (HP, 30%; n = 14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P P P P + cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P P = 0.09 and HP (P P  Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

  15. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    and drinking-water disinfection by-products, mainly trihalomethanes (THMs), were available for a large proportion of the study population. RESULTS: Greek and Spanish neonates had higher adduct levels than the northern European neonates [median, 12.1 (n = 179) vs. 6.8 (n = 332) adducts per 108 nucleotides, p...... with higher adduct levels in adjusted models. Exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was associated with significantly higher adducts in the Danish subsample only. Overall, the pooled results for THMs in water show no evidence of association with adduct levels; however, there are country...

  16. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    months. Therefore, the promotion of healthy complementary feeding might be beneficial for the prevention of health implications, such as obesity, later in life for these infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.258....

  17. [A Survey of Maternal Dietary Behavior Based on Theory of Reasoned Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Luo, Bi-ru

    2015-05-01

    To detect the diet behavior and influencing factors of related behavior at different stages among pregnant women. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), literature review, expert evaluation and preliminary investigation, we designed and finalized three questionnaires. Diet behaviors among women in early term, medium term and late term were investigated by using the questionnaires. 624 early term, 619 medium term and 738 late term valid questionnaires were returned. Participants ranged from 18 to 45 years of age. 74% pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range. More than 43% care taking was provided by the mother, followed by the husband. The participants had a good eating behavior on the whole. At 3 stages, carbohydrate intake, protein intake and fat intake were no significant difference when compared with that of recommended value (P> 0. 05). The pregnant women intaked insufficient cereal, beans, dairy and aquatic products, while fruit and nuts were more than needed (Preasonable combination of a variety of food. Subjective norms influenced their behavior attitude and behavioral intention. The mother had the strongest influence on the pregnant woman's diet attitude and behavioral intention among all those had direct contact with the pregnant woman.

  18. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  19. Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130 ± 1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller's grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.

  20. Maternal diet during pregnancy induces gene expression and DNA methylation changes in fetal tissues in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong eLan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from d 67 ± 3 of gestation until necropsy (d 130 ± 1, they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber, corn (CN; starch, or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat. A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methylatransferase (DNMTs genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.