Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Demmler, Kathrin M; Rischke, Ramona; Qaim, Matin
We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education. However, disaggregation by type of knowledge reveals important differences. Maternal knowledge about food ingredients only has a weak positive association with child HAZ. For maternal knowledge about specific dietary recommendations, no significant association is detected. The strongest positive association with child HAZ is found for maternal knowledge about the health consequences of not following recommended dietary practices. These findings have direct relevance for nutrition and health policies, especially for designing the contents of educational campaigns and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla
The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.
Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.
Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora
In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.
Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen
This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....
Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.
Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W
Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.
Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.
Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge ...
Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.
Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny
Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.
Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA
Full Text Available Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004.The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition in sports coaching. Mthods: The sample was composed of 30 licensed coaches from Montenegro (football, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis. Knowledge of sports nutrition was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge manager on sports nutrition, the ingredients that are necessary in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy to training and competition, the dietary supplements, meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and rehydration during training and competition. The survey was anonymous. The data were analyzed by statistical methods, using the statistical software STATISTICA for WINDOWS. Results: According to the results as a whole, it can be concluded that the trainer's knowledge of sports nutrition at a satisfactory level. Out of 600 responses was achieved 469 correct answers, or 78.1%. However, when looking at individual responses then satisfaction with the relative high percentage loss since the observed large gaps on very important issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing research results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006 that in a sample of 56 coaches basketball and skiing, received 77.8% of correct answers and insight into the results of our study, it is clear that the results of the approximate value of both work, which is an indicator of quality
Background: The progress in key maternal health indicators in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) over the past two decades has been slow. Objective: This paper analyzed available information on nutrition programs and nutrition-specific interventions targeting maternal nutrition in the ESAR and proposes ...
Maternal nutrition is one of the major determinants of pregnancy outcome. It has been suggested that reduced intakes or lack of specific nutrients during pregnancy influences the length of gestation, proper placental and fetal growth during pregnancy. Maternal nutrition, particularly micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B 12 , and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are the major determinants of the one carbon cycle and are suggested to be at the heart of intrauterine programming of diseases in adult life. LCPUFA play a key role in the normal feto-placental development, as well as in the development and functional maturation of the brain and central nervous system and also regulate the levels of neurotrophic factors. These neurotrophic factors are known to regulate the development of the placenta at the materno-fetal interface and act in a paracrine and endocrine manner. Neurotrophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor are proteins involved in angiogenesis and potentiate the placental development. This chapter mainly focuses on micronutrients since they play a main physiological role during pregnancy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh
To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Lowe, Alyssa; Vir, Sheila; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Noznesky, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mason, John B
Inadequate nutrient intake, early and multiple pregnancies, poverty, caste discrimination, and gender inequality contribute to poor maternal nutrition in India. While malnutrition is seen throughout the life cycle, it is most acute during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation. Although nutrition policies are on the books and interventions are in place, child malnutrition and maternal undernutrition persist as severe public health problems. To evaluate the implementation of maternal nutrition programs in India. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a desk review of national and state policies pertinent to maternal nutrition and national-level key informant interviews with respondents who have a working knowledge of relevant organizations and interventions. Phase 2 utilized in-depth interviews and focus group discussions at the state, district, and community levels in eight districts of two states: Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. All data were analyzed thematically. India has a rich portfolio of programs and policies that address maternal health and nutrition; however, systematic weaknesses, logistical gaps, resource scarcity, and poor utilization continue to hamper progress. Elevating the priority given to maternal nutrition in government health programs and implementing strategies to improve women's status will help to address many of the challenges facing India's nutrition programs. Programs can be strengthened by promoting integration of services, ensuring effective procurement mechanisms for micronutrient and food supplements, establishing regional training facilities for improved program implementation, and strengthening program monitoring and evaluation.
Beatriz D. O. MIRANDA DA CRUZ
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ABSTRACT: A review of phenylketonuria (PKU an autosomal recessive genetic desorder discovered and described in 1934 is presented and discussed. Excess phenylalanine is transamined and its presence or metabolites may cause brain damage. Hydroxylation is the most important determinant of phenylalanine homeostasis in humans. It has been shown a great geographic and ethnic variation in the presence of PKU. Neonatal screening is the main method to detect babies with this desorder. Restriction of phenylalanine intake is the most effective PKU treatment. There are several well balanced commercial formulas low in this amino acid. They should be introduced as soon as the positive PKU test is confirmed and be kept for a long time. Present knowledge allows the possibility of pregnancy of PKU girls, under dietary control. Alternative treatments have been proposed for PKU and great advance has lately been achieved on the genetic and nutricional aspects of the disease. KEYWORDS: Phenylketonuria; children; phenylalanine, nutrition PKU.
Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.
Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter
The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.
Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.
The nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary teachers of health and physical education, home economics, science, and social studies were assessed. Of the 518 teachers who completed the survey instruments, 43 percent had never taken a food or nutrition course, and 63 percent had no inservice training in nutrition or food…
Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.
Nutrition knowledge tests were administered to 1,193 adolescents in Oregon prior to instructional units on nutrition in health and home economics classes. Mean scores on the tests were low. Guidelines for nutrition educators of adolescents are presented. (Author/CJB)
The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...
Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique
The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.
Plum, Jane Meacham Jr.
A game with food and nutrition related pictures was developed to provide an opportunity for a classroom teacher to interview preschool children for assessment of nutrition knowledge concepts. Specifically, knowledge of vegetable concepts which included identification of the food, the food group, the source, preparation methods and use by the body was measured. The assessment was administered to five groups of children (ages two and one-half to five years) in preschools and child care center...
Early life nutrition is one of the most substantial environmental factors that shapes future health. This extends from the women’s nutritional status prior to conception and during pregnancy to the offspring’s nutritional conditions during infancy and early childhood. During this critical period,
Under- and over-nutrition during pregnancy has been linked to the later development of diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism by which exposure to an altered intrauterine milieu or metabolic perturbation may influence the phenotype of the organism much later in life. Epigenetic modifications of the genome provide a mechanism that allows the stable propagation of gene expression from one generation of cells to the next. This review highlights our current knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation and the evidence that chromatin remodelling and histone modifications play key roles in adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Epigenetic modifications affecting processes important to glucose regulation and insulin secretion have been described in the pancreatic β-cells and muscle of the intrauterine growth-retarded offspring, characteristics essential to the pathophysiology of type-2 diabetes. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression contributes to both adipocyte determination and differentiation in in vitro models. The contributions of histone acetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation to the process of adipogenesis in vivo remain to be evaluated.
Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and the baby. Midwives are ideally placed to provide nutrition education to pregnant women. There is limited published research evidence of Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence. To investigate Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence in providing nutrition education during pregnancy. Members of the Australian College of Midwives (n=4770) were sent an invitation email to participate in a web-based survey, followed by two reminders. The completion rate was 6.9% (329 of 4770). The majority (86.6% and 75.7%, respectively) highly rated the importance of nutrition during pregnancy and the significance of their role in nutrition education. Midwives' nutrition knowledge was inadequate in several areas such as weight gain, dairy serves and iodine requirements (73.3%, 73.2% and 79.9% incorrect responses, respectively). The level of confidence in discussing general and specific nutrition issues ranged mostly from moderate to low. The majority of the midwives (93%) provided nutrition advice to pregnant women. This advice was mostly described as 'general' and focused on general nutrition topics. Only half of the midwives reported receiving nutrition education during midwifery education (51.1%) or after registration (54.1%). Australian midwives' attitudes towards nutrition during pregnancy and their role in educating pregnant women about it were positive but their knowledge and confidence did not align with these attitudes. This could be due to minimal nutrition education during midwifery education or during practice. Continued education to improve midwives' nutrition knowledge and confidence is essential. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copp, Kathleen; DeFranco, Emily A; Kleiman, Jeanne; Rogers, Lynette K; Morrow, Ardythe L; Valentine, Christina J
Human milk feeding is encouraged for all infants; however, the mammary gland depends on maternal dietary intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and iodine. Nutrition support team knowledge of maternal feeding guidelines for these nutrient sources can therefore impact infant intake. We hypothesized that these key nutrients for lactation in the mother's diet would be less than the dietary guidelines in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of nutrition data collected during a randomized, controlled trial. Dietary records were analyzed from 16 mothers (13 with singleton and 3 with multiple births) completing the study. Mean dietary intakes of selected nutrients were calculated and compared with the current dietary reference intakes. Mean maternal dietary intake for singletons was significantly (P vitamin A (58%), vitamin D (44%), and choline (58%);) DHA comprised only 5% of the current expert recommendation. Based on singleton recommendations, mothers to twins consumed an adequate intake except for DHA. Women providing breast milk for singleton preterm infants did not consume dietary reference intakes for key nutrients. Twin mothers' diets were adequate except for DHA, but these guidelines are based on singleton pregnancies and remain poorly understood for twin needs. The nutrition support team can have a unique role in maternal dietary education to impact human milk nutrient delivery to the infant. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on ... influenced their lifestyle, dietary habit and subsequently their nutritional/health status. Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, nutritional status, diet, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases ...
Rondó, P H C; Rezende, G; Lemos, J O; Pereira, J A
To assess the relationship between maternal stress and distress in pregnancy and 5-8 years postpartum and child nutritional status. Longitudinal cohort study carried out in Jundiai city, Southeast Brazil, involving 409 women followed throughout pregnancy to 5-8 years postpartum, and respective children. Measures of stress and distress were obtained three times in pregnancy (at gestational ages lower than 16 weeks, from 20 to 26 weeks and from 30 to 36 weeks) and 5-8 years postpartum by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI). The nutritional status of the children was assessed by the World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) z-score for age. The relationship between child BMI z-score for age and scores of the PSS, GHQ and STAI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression, controlling for confounding variables. BMI z-score for age of the children was negatively associated with maternal scores of the PSS 5-8 years postpartum and scores of the GHQ in the second trimester of pregnancy. BMI of the children was positively associated with maternal BMI and birthweight (R(2)=0.13). There was -0.04 (confidence interval -0.07 to -0.9 × 10(-2)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the PSS increase, and -0.09 (confidence interval -0.18 to -0.6 × 10(-3)) decrease in child BMI per score unit of the GHQ increase. This study detected a relationship between maternal mental and nutritional status and child nutritional status, implying that if the mother is not physically or mentally well, her capacity for caring for her child may be impaired.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... be due to lack of nutritional knowledge on the health consequences of their eating habits. ... university undergraduates in order to create awareness about nutrition with a view ...
Prado, Elizabeth L; Ashorn, Ulla; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Sadalaki, John; Oaks, Brietta M; Haskell, Marjorie; Allen, Lindsay H; Vosti, Steve A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G
Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet. After delivery, supplementation continued in the MMN and LNS arms, and the IFA control group received placebo until 6 months post-partum, when cognition (n = 712), caregiving behaviour (n = 669), and biomarkers of nutritional status (n = 283) were assessed. In the full group, only one difference was significant: the IFA arm scored 0.22 SD (95% CI [0.01, 0.39], p = .03) higher than the LNS arm in mental rotation. Among subgroups of women with baseline low hemoglobin, poor iron status, or malaria, those who received LNS scored 0.4 to 0.7 SD higher than the IFA arm in verbal fluency. Breastmilk docosahexaenoic acid and Vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with verbal fluency and digit span forward (adjusting for covariates ps < .05). In this population in Malawi, maternal supplementation with MMN or LNS did not positively affect maternal cognition or caregiving. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid and B12 status may be important for post-partum attention and executive function. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C
Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.
A proper understanding of nutritional concepts that are used in primary nutritional education is important in assessing the quality of nutritional knowledge in primary school. It is crucial that nutritional concepts used in different educational stages of primary education are adjusted to specific stage of student´s cognitive development. Purpose of my thesis is to identify how students understand nutritional concepts. Nutritional education has namely a positive impact on children's nutri...
Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H
The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have seen an increased prevalence in recent years in developed as well as developing countries. While it is clear lifestyle choices and habits have contributed to this epidemic, mounting evidence suggests the nutritional milieu during critical stages of development in early life can ‘program’ individuals to develop the metabolic syndrome later in life. Extensive epidemiological data presents an association between maternal obesity and nutrition during pregnancy and offspring obesity, and a number of animal models have been established in order to uncover the underlying mechanisms contributing to the programming of physiological systems. It is hard to distinguish the causal factors due to the complex nature of the maternal-fetal relationship; however, in order to develop adequate prevention strategies it is vital to identify which maternal factor(s – be it the diet, diet-induced obesity or weight gain – and at which time during early development instigate the programmed phenotype. Curtailing the onset of obesity at this early stage in life presents a promising avenue through which to stem the growing epidemic of obesity.
Background: Health care workers in maternity units are exposed to potentially infectious body fluids in the course of their duties. The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of maternity unit staff in Jos Metropolis regarding Universal Precautions (UP) against the background of the high HIV seroprevalence in ...
Conkle, M. Terence; Tishler, Anne G.
This study assessed the sports nutrition knowledge of current and prospective physical educators/coaches (HPEs) to determine the need for improved education in this area and to compare the nutrition knowledge of HPEs with that of foods and nutrition students (FNSs) and general college students (GENs). A researcher-developed 4-point Likert-type…
Kandiah, Jay; Jones, Charlotte
Investigated the effect of a 3-week school-based nutrition education program on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of fifth graders randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Found that the experimental group exhibited a significant increase in nutrition knowledge from pretest to posttest and significant change in compliance in…
Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... On ways of improving the condition/nutrition knowledge of pregnant mothers, the respondents accepted the building of more health
Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Jacobson, Kevan; Hekmatdoost, Azita
Despite the increased emphasis on chronic non-communicable diseases, there are notable deficits about nutrition education in many medicine training programs particularly gastroenterology fellowship programs. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the nutritional knowledge related to clinical nutrition among Iranian gastroenterology fellows. Thirty-six gastroenterology fellows currently enrolled in a gastroenterology fellowship program completed a questionnaire, including two sections. The first of which assessed the gastroenterology fellows experience about nutrition training, nutrition management of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and evaluating perceived nutrition education needs. The second section consisted of multiple choice questions that assessed nutritional knowledge. A total of 32 gastroenterology fellows completed the first section. The majority of gastroenterology fellows failed to partake in any nutrition education during their fellowship training particularly for inpatients despite the availability to participate in the nutrition training especially for the purpose of nutrition support. Mean correct response rates for the second section was 38%. The highest mean score was seen in nutrition assessment (48.1%), followed by scores of 40.5% in nutrition support, 37.0% nutrition in GI disease, and 25.0% in micro and macronutrients. Iranian gastroenterology fellows have serious deficits in their nutrition knowledge. This study paves the way for the development of an education program to improve nutritional knowledge of gastroenterology fellows.
Oluyemisi Folake Folasire
A food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary pattern. Weight, height, waist and hip ... abdominal obesity while 25.5% had high risk of abdominal obesity. Nutrition ..... significant association between nutrition knowledge on.
Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Grundy, Amber M.
This study examined the longitudinal associations among maternal warmth, adolescents' self-disclosure, and maternal knowledge during the transition to adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 131 married mothers and their adolescents. Results from longitudinal analysis using adolescent reports indicated that greater…
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
King, Janet C
Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available There is extensive variation in DNA methylation between individuals and ethnic groups. These differences arise from a combination of genetic and non-genetic influences and potential modifiers include nutritional cues, early life experience, and social and physical environments. Here we compare genome-wide DNA methylation in neonatal cord blood from African American (AA; N = 112 and European American (EA; N = 91 participants of the CANDLE Study (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood. Our goal is to determine if there are replicable ancestry-specific methylation patterns that may implicate risk factors for diseases that have differential prevalence between populations. To identify the most robust ancestry-specific CpG sites, we replicate our results in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Yoruba African and CEPH European panels of HapMap. We also evaluate the influence of maternal nutrition--specifically, plasma levels of vitamin D and folate during pregnancy--on methylation in newborns. We define stable ancestry-dependent methylation of genes that include tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulators (e.g., APC, BRCA1, MCC. Overall, there is lower global methylation in African ancestral groups. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are also considerably lower among AA mothers and about 60% of AA and 40% of EA mothers have concentrations below 20 ng/ml. Using a weighted correlation analysis, we define a network of CpG sites that is jointly modulated by ancestry and maternal vitamin D. Our results show that differences in DNA methylation patterns are remarkably stable and maternal micronutrients can exert an influence on the child epigenome.
Full Text Available Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status.A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers or recumbent length (children were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ, 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ. Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02 and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001 were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007 was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001 and WAZ score (P<0.001. Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04 and HAZ (P = 0.01 score of children.Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.
Full Text Available Background To develop the culture of breastfeeding, it is needed to know the level of maternal knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate maternal knowledge and attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding in six months after birth in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out on mothers who referred to health centers. Four health centers were selected from four geographic areas of Shiraz city; finally, 201 mothers was selected and their demographic information and knowledge and attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding were gathered through a researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. Results 201 mothers who were 18-45 years old were studied. 43% of them were 30-34 years old. 46% of maternal education level was bachelor andMaster of Science or more and 80% of them were housewives. Their level of knowledge was low (69.2%, moderate (11.4% and high (19.4% respectively. Regarding the level of attitude 11.4% of them were low, 15.4% of them were moderate and the others were high. There was a significant relationship between maternal knowledge with parents’ education and infants’ nutrition (breastfeeding (P
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...
Coaches have an important responsibility in the lives of athletes since athletes often use them as a source of advice for various performance-related issues, such as the nutritional regime. This descriptive study set out to identify the nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of coaches from various sport codes, as well as ...
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Background Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. Method General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected duri...
Carrillo, E; Varela, P; Fiszman, S
The present study analyzed the nutritional knowledge of Spanish consumers and its relationship with the correct use of food labels. Consumers were asked about their nutritional knowledge and some functional foods and about their understanding of food labeling and their use of it to select healthy food. A 2-part questionnaire was employed. The 1st part concerned their knowledge of nutritional facts, including their knowledge about macronutrients and perception of certain functional foods, while the 2nd part addressed some questions regarding food labels. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in nutritional knowledge by either age or gender, but a direct relationship with educational level. The association between nutritional knowledge and the perception and understanding of food labeling showed that the nutritional label rarely influenced the food purchases of the group with low nutritional knowledge, who considered that this information was too technical. More than half of the consumers did not consider the calorie or sugar content important for selecting food. In addition, the group with low nutritional knowledge stated that they never or rarely looked at the food labels to check whether it was low-fat food that they were buying. Knowing the status of the consumer's nutritional knowledge allows health campaigns to be designed; considering the influence of cultural factors and the perception of food labeling is very useful for promoting better nutritional information. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
The significance of improving nutrition knowledge in order to have a positive influence on food choices and health should not be underestimated. This study assessed the nutritional status and knowledge of school children attending selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. The study population was purposively ...
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha
Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.
Sunguya, Bruno F; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers' nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers' child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.
Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G
Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status. A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (Pchildren. Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.
Full Text Available Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates. Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring’s adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations.
2Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Abstract: This ... most frequently diagnosed in elderly (>65 years), ..... WHO (2002) Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva ...
Jan 4, 2010 ... are a decreased fibre intake and increased intakes of total protein and animal protein ... has implemented various national nutrition and primary health- .... fish, chicken, dried beans, legumes, peas and soy, 4) the dairy group,.
Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and
Jones, Anna Marie; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To determine barriers to nutrition education, nutrition education resources used, and the relationship between nutrition knowledge and whether public school teachers in California teach nutrition in the classroom. A total of 102 teachers in California participated in a Web-based survey about nutrition education barriers, resources used to plan nutrition lessons, and factors that would encourage inclusion of nutrition. A validated questionnaire was used to assess nutrition knowledge. Analyses included ordinary least-squares regression. Common barriers were lack of instructional time and unrelated subject. Teachers were unaware of many nutrition education resources. Nutrition knowledge was not associated with nutrition lessons but was positively associated with teaching high school (β = 5.13; P Barriers of time and lack of unrelated subject matter are difficult to address but lack of awareness of resources indicates that promotion of existing resources may encourage teachers to provide nutrition education. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this holds true in a broader sample. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carter, R Colin; Senekal, Marjanne; Dodge, Neil C; Bechard, Lori J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Molteno, Christopher D; Duggan, Christopher P; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W
Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among nonpregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk. One hundred and twenty-three heavy drinking Cape Coloured pregnant women and 83 abstaining controls were recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 3 prenatal study visits, each gravida was interviewed about alcohol, smoking, and drug use and weight, height, and arm skinfolds were measured. Dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat, and major micronutrients were assessed from three 24-hour recall interviews. The majority of women gained less than the recommended 0.42 kg/wk during pregnancy. Whereas methamphetamine use was associated with smaller biceps skinfolds, an indicator of body fat, alcohol consumption was not related to any anthropometric indicator. Alcohol was related to higher intake of phosphorus, choline, and vitamins B12 and D. Alcohol, cigarette, and methamphetamine use were related to lower vitamin C intake. Insufficient intake was reported by >85% of women for 10 of 22 key nutrients, and >50% for an additional 3 nutrients. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with meaningful changes in diet or anthropometric measures in this population, suggesting that poor nutrition among drinkers does not confound the extensively reported effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurobehavior. The poor gestational weight gain and high rates of insufficient intake for several nutrients in both the alcohol-exposed and control groups are also of public health importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Background: Delay in the presentation of infants with jaundice at the hospital is a reason for the persistence of the severe forms of jaundice. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of maternal knowledge on newborn jaundice on their care-seeking practices. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, mothers whose ...
Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child deaths. Objectives: To compare maternal knowledge about immunization, use of growth chart and childhood health-seeking behavior in rural and urban areas. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study done in ...
This cross-sectional descriptive study explored knowledge and perceptions of maternal health and awareness of health services among women and men of reproductive age in rural communities in Zaria, Kaduna state Nigeria. Among the sample of 647 respondents, 72.6% of men and only 35.9% of women had received ...
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.
Thatte, N; Mullany, L C; Khatry, S K; Katz, J; Tielsch, J M; Darmstadt, G L
Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.
Obanewa, Olayinka; Newell, Marie-Louise
To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition. Response to childhood vaccination may be associated with fetal and early life environment; evaluation of programs should take this into account.
Full Text Available Although nutrition education for diabetes patients is the responsibility of dieticians and/or nutritionist, nurses have an important role to play. This study measured the knowledge level of nurses’ and associated factors in the nutritional management of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study a sample of 200 nurses completed a 21-item nutritional management of diabetes knowledge test developed based on the ADA and WHO guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes. Using Cronbach's alpha, reliability was 0.62. The nurses (n = 200 had almost a 1:1 male to female ratio (n = 99, 49.5% and n = 101, 50.5% and a mean age of 27.24 ± 3.66 years. Total mean score was 12.13 ± 3.17 (44.9% correct. Over 70% of the nurses said diabetes patients could exclude any of the major nutrients from their meals. Almost 90% (n = 179 of the nurses did not know the recommended daily caloric intake of carbohydrates for diabetes patients. Higher mean scores were found in nurses who have ever had a refresher course in nutrition, ever counseled a diabetes patient and took 2–3 nutrition courses during school. Nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes was poor. It raises questions about the adequacy of nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes.
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don
In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…
Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.
Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J
In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths.
Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...
Karin Sarkis Sedó
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional knowledge of women with breast cancer on the dietdisease interface and its association with nutritional status. Methods: Observational, crosssectional and analytical study, conducted between June and September 2011, with 59 women diagnosed with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment, older than 19, who did not receive prior nutritional counseling. Vegetarian women or those whose treatment had been completed more than two years prior to the study were not included. The patients were treated at a cancer care reference center, in Fortaleza-CE. Clinical and socioeconomic data was collected through direct interview and searching in medical records. The assessment of nutritional knowledge (NK was performed with the Nutrition Knowledge Scale, developed by the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology, validated for Brazil, applied by a trained interviewer. Nutritional status was assessed through body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Data was analyzed statistically by SPSS 16.0. Results: Among 59 patients evaluated, 18 (30.5% women had a limited knowledge of the diet-disease association. The mean BMI was 29 kg/m2 (± 4.4 and 47 (79.7% women presented excessive weight (overweight or obesity. There was no correlation between nutritional knowledge and BMI (p = 0.64. Nutrition knowledge scores were similar among patients with overweight and normal weight (p = 0.89. Conclusion: Women in this study had a limited knowledge of the interface between diet and disease, were overweight, but there was no correlation between their nutritional knowledge and nutritional status.
Lindsay, Karen L; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja
Several studies about humans and animals have separately examined the effects of prenatal nutrition and stress on fetal development, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and subsequent child health and disease risk. Although substantial evidence from non-pregnant literature supports the presence of bidirectional interactions between nutrition and stress at various psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, such interaction effects have not yet been systematically examined in the context of pregnancy. This paper discusses the multifaceted and multilevel relationship between nutrition and stress. It then reviews the currently available observational and experimental evidence in animals and humans regarding the interplay between maternal psychosocial stress, dietary intake, and nutritional state during pregnancy, and implications for maternal and child health-related outcomes. Key Messages: During pregnancy, maternal psychosocial stress, dietary behavior, and nutritional state likely regulate and counter-regulate one another. Emerging evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate maternal psychosocial stress, and that high maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index exacerbates unhealthy dietary behaviors under high-stress conditions. Longitudinal studies are warranted in order to understand the interplay between prenatal psychosocial stress, diet, and stress- and nutrition-related biomarkers to obtain further insight and inform the development and design of future, more effective intervention trials for improved maternal and child health outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter‐sectoral interventions.
Kapheim, Karen M.; Bernal, Sandra P.; Smith, Adam R.; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T.
Developmental maternal effects are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation, but they can be difficult to distinguish from other environmental factors. This is an important distinction within the context of social evolution, because if variation in offspring helping behavior is due to maternal manipulation, social selection may act on maternal phenotypes, as well as those of offspring. Factors correlated with social castes have been linked to variation in developmental nutrition...
Kakinami, Lisa; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; McGrath, Jennifer J
Determine how parental nutrition label use, label literacy, and nutrition knowledge may be associated with cardiovascular health in parents and their children. Cross-sectional analyses of 2006 data from the Healthy Heart Project in Montreal, Canada. Among community recruited families, parents were predominantly mothers (n = 127 [80%]; mean age, 45.0 years) and half of their children were female (44%; mean age, 12.5 years). Blood pressure, lipids, and weight. Nutrition label use, label literacy, and nutrition knowledge among parents were collected using existing scales. Multivariable linear regression models. Among parents, nutrition label use was associated with lower total cholesterol (B[SE] = -.53 [.20]; P = .009), lower low-density lipoprotein (B[SE] = -.57 [.21]; P = .007), and lower total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (B[SE] = -.82 [.30]; P = .008) but was not associated with adiposity. Among children, greater parental nutrition knowledge was associated with lower body mass index percentiles (B[SE] = -3.6 [1.49]; P = .02), lower waist circumference (B[SE] = -1.27 [.55]; P = .02), and lower percent body fat (B[SE] = -1.28 [.47]; P = .008). Parental nutrition label use or nutrition knowledge was not associated with children's lipids. Parents with greater nutrition label use had more favorable lipids, but children's lipids were unaffected. Children of parents with greater nutrition knowledge had lower adiposity. Further research on the correlates of label use and health is needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…
King, Janet C
Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual?s long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring?s growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother?s nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term h...
Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
Macdonald, Amanda B; Rossiter, Melissa D; Jensen, Jan L
The effect of an oral education intervention on nutrition knowledge was evaluated in new paramedic employees. The evaluation involved measuring knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition and shiftwork before and after the directed intervention. A convenience sample of 30 new paramedic shiftworkers attended a 15-minute education session focused on nutrition management strategies. This matched cohort study included three self-administered surveys. Survey 1 was completed before education, survey 2 immediately after education, and survey 3 after one month of concurrent post-education and employment experience. Knowledge and attitude scores were analyzed for differences between all surveys. Participants were primary care paramedics, 59% of whom were male. They reported that previously they had not received this type of information or had received only a brief lecture. Mean knowledge scores increased significantly from survey 1 to survey 2; knowledge retention was identified in survey 3. A significant difference was found between surveys 2 and 3 for attitudes toward meal timing; no other significant differences were found between attitude response scores. The education session was successful in improving shiftwork nutrition knowledge among paramedics. Paramedics' attitudes toward proper nutrition practices were positive before the education intervention.
Abbey, Elizabeth Lea; Wright, Cynthia Joy; Kirkpatrick, Christina M
Participation in collegiate American football is physically demanding and may have long-term health implications, particularly in relation to cardiovascular and neurological health. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) football players are a relatively unstudied population, particularly in terms of their dietary habits and knowledge. The aim of the present study was to descriptively evaluate the dietary intake of DIII football players including a subset of linemen and assess the nutritional knowledge and sources of information of these athletes. The study sample was 88 DIII football players including a subset of nine linemen. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, and a nutritional knowledge questionnaire that included a quiz and questions about their main sources of nutrition information. Heights and body masses were also recorded. The linemen submitted written 3-day diet records for assessment of their dietary intake. Of the 88 participants, >50% reported consuming starches/grains, meat and dairy daily, but football players had dietary habits that may both mitigate and increase their risk of chronic diseases. These athletes have room to improve their nutrition knowledge. Their reliance on athletic team staff for nutrition guidance highlights the importance of nutrition education for both athletes and staff and the potential role of a registered dietitian nutritionist.
Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... to a new report from WHO/Europe. "Good maternal nutrition. The best start in life" was launched under the auspices of the Minister of Health of Latvia during a consultation on maternal nutrition, in Riga on 27–28 June 2016. While the importance of good nutrition in the early development of children has...... – affects not only her child's health as an infant but also the child's risk of obesity and related chronic diseases as an adult. In short, maternal nutrition can truly have an intergenerational impact. Fighting NCDs and obesity through measures to improve maternal nutrition: NCDs are the leading cause...
Dulce M. Zanardi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender.
Allafi, Ahmad R; Alajmi, Fahhad; Al-Haifi, Ahmad
The objective of the present study was to determine whether nutrition knowledge differs between male and female physicians working in Kuwait City, Kuwait. The study employed a cross-sectional analysis of physician’s nutrition knowledge by using a sixteen-item multiple-choice questionnaire. Governmental hospitals in Kuwait City, Kuwait. One hundred Kuwaiti physicians (fifty males; fifty females) working in Kuwait City, Kuwait. A response rate of 73% was achieved (forty males; thirty-three females). The mean percentage of correctly answered questions was 60 %. The male and female physicians averaged 56% and 65% of correct responses, respectively (P50?042). However, only for two questions did male and female physicians’ scores differ significantly (P,0?05). The two age groups (,40 years; $40 years) had equal mean total correct scores (60 %, P50?935). Physicians’ knowledge was greatest for topics that have received a great deal of media coverage in Kuwait. Most (70 %) of the physicians described their nutrition knowledge as ‘moderate’. Physicians in Kuwait gave inaccurate information regarding common problems in Kuwaitis such as obesity, hypertension and osteoporosis. In view of the public’s perception of the role of the physician in providing nutrition advice, it is imperative that nutrition and diet training be part of continuing medical education to bridge these deficiencies in physicians’ knowledge.
Concepcion, P.V.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Marino, A.
Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)
Concepcion, P V; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Marino, A [Centro de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)
Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Grant, Frederick; Goldenberg, Tamar; Zongrone, Amanda; Martorell, Reynaldo
Current understanding of biologic processes indicates that women's nutritional status before and during early pregnancy may play an important role in determining early developmental processes and ensuring successful pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the impact of maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy (health outcomes and included 45 articles (nine intervention trials and 32 observational studies) that were identified through PubMed and EMBASE database searches and examining review articles. Intervention trials and observational studies show that periconceptional (importance of women's nutrition prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, but there is a need for well-designed prospective studies and controlled trials in developing country settings that examine relationships with low birthweight, SGA, PTD, stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. The knowledge gaps that need to be addressed include the evaluation of periconceptional interventions such as food supplements, multivitamin-mineral supplements and/or specific micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B-6 and B-12) as well as the relationship between measures of prepregnancy body size and composition and maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Seid, Abdu Kedir
In Ethiopia, despite some recent improvements, the health and nutritional status of children is very poor. A better understanding of the main socioeconomic determinants of child health and nutrition is essential to address the problem and make appropriate interventions. In the present study, an attempt is made to explore the effect of maternal characteristics on the health and nutritional status of under-five children using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The health and nutritional status of children are measured using the two widely used anthropometric indicators height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). In the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it is observed that maternal characteristics have a significant impact on child health and nutritional status. The magnitudes of the coefficients, however, are found to slightly increase when maternal education is instrumented in the 2SLS estimation. Moreover, in the quantile regression (QR) estimation, the impacts of maternal characteristics are observed to vary between long-term and current child health and nutritional status.
Poh, B K; Kathryn Tham, B L; Wong, S N; Winnie Chee, S S; Tee, E S
Early childhood is a period during which many factors influence the development of lifelong eating habits. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of young children and to determine factors related to eating habits. A total of 992 children aged 5-6 years attending kindergartens that participated in the Bright Start Nutrition programme in the Klang Valley were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index (BMI) calculated. A questionnaire to assess the children's nutrition knowledge was administered through interviews, while their mothers self-administered another set of questionnaires regarding knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition. The mean BMI was 15.7 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 +/- 2.4 kg/m2 in girls. Based on the WHO 2007 growth reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 9.1% and 9.3%, respectively; while the prevalence of thinness and stunting were 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively. Most of the children consumed breakfast (86.4%), lunch (94.1%) and dinner (93.4%) daily. The majority liked fruits (95.1%), snacks (93.8%), Western fast food (93.3%) and milk (90.8%), while less than two-thirds (65.1%) liked vegetables. The mean nutrition knowledge scores for the children and mothers were 73.2 +/- 9.8% and 60.2 +/- 18.8%, respectively. Maternal nutrition knowledge was correlated positively with children's vegetable intake (r=0.111, pobesity than underweight and thinness among the urban young children studied. As mother's nutrition knowledge was found to exert a positive influence on children's eating habits, it is important to provide nutrition education to both mothers and children when conducting intervention programmes.
Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González de Cosío, Teresita
To evaluate the association between maternal employment and breastfeeding (both duration and status) in Mexican mothers using data from three National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1999, 2006 and 2012. We analyzed data from the 1999 National Nutrition Survey, the 2006 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the 2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNS-1999, NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012) on 5,385 mothers aged 12-49 years, with infants under 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between breastfeeding and maternal employment adjusted for maternal and infant's socio-demographic covariates. Maternal formal employment was negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers with infants under 1 year. Formally employed mothers were 20 % less likely to breastfeed compared to non-formally employed mothers and 27 % less likely to breastfeed compared to unemployed mothers. Difference in median duration of breastfeeding between formally employed and unemployed mothers was 5.7 months for NNS-1999, 4.7 months for NNHS-2006 and 6.7 months for NNHS-2012 respectively (p Maternal employment has been negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers of <1 year infants at least for the last 15 years. For Mexicans involved in policy design, implementation or modification, these data might offer robust evidence on this negative association, and can be used confidently as basis for conceiving a more just legislation for working lactating women.
Women of child-bearing age (especially pregnant and lactating women), infants and young children are in the most nutritionally-vulnerable stages of the life cycle. Maternal malnutrition is a major predisposing factor for morbidity and mortality among African women. The causes include inadequate food intake, poor nutritional quality of diets, frequent infections and short inter-pregnancy intervals. Evidence for maternal malnutrition is provided by the fact that between 5 and 20% of African women have a low BMI as a result of chronic hunger. Across the continent the prevalence of anaemia ranges from 21 to 80%, with similarly high values for both vitamin A and Zn deficiency levels. Another challenge is the high rates of HIV infection, which compromise maternal nutritional status. The consequences of poor maternal nutritional status are reflected in low pregnancy weight gain and high infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal infant feeding practices, poor quality of complementary foods, frequent infections and micronutrient deficiencies have largely contributed to the high mortality among infants and young children in the region. Feeding children whose mothers are infected with HIV continues to remain an issue requiring urgent attention. There are successful interventions to improve the nutrition of mothers, infants and young children, which will be addressed. Interventions to improve the nutrition of infants and young children, particularly in relation to the improvement of micronutrient intakes of young children, will be discussed. The recent release by WHO of new international growth standards for assessing the growth and nutritional status of children provides the tool for early detection of growth faltering and for appropriate intervention.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the level of the nutrition knowledge and nutritional habits of the students of Ataturk University and to determine the influential factors. The study was carried out during May-June 2005 and the universe of the study consisted of seventeen thousands students attending their formal education in Ataturk University Campus. The sampling was done via simple randomization method and the sample size was 1120 students. A single class from all grades of each faculty was included in the sample and all of the students in each class were invited to participate to the study. Mean age and body mass index of the students were 21.6 ± 1.9 year and 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2, respectively. Sixty six percent of the students were male and 96.6% of them were single. It was determined that smoking, regular alcohol drinking and performing regular sport were found to effect nutritional habit score, significantly. It was found out that 87.4% of the students passed one meal a day, and the breakfast was the most often passed meal. Mean score of nutritional habit and nutrition knowledge was significantly high in males and females, respectively. Mean nutrition knowledge scores of student who were living in cities were higher, significantly. It was found that marital status, type of family, the residential place didnt significantly affect nutrition knowledge score. There was a significant and positive correlation between body mass index, nutritional habit scores and monthly personal income. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 242-248
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the level of the nutrition knowledge and nutritional habits of the students of Ataturk University and to determine the influential factors. The study was carried out during May-June 2005 and the universe of the study consisted of seventeen thousands students attending their formal education in Ataturk University Campus. The sampling was done via simple randomization method and the sample size was 1120 students. A single class from all grades of each faculty was included in the sample and all of the students in each class were invited to participate to the study. Mean age and body mass index of the students were 21.6 ± 1.9 year and 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2, respectively. Sixty six percent of the students were male and 96.6% of them were single. It was determined that smoking, regular alcohol drinking and performing regular sport were found to effect nutritional habit score, significantly. It was found out that 87.4% of the students passed one meal a day, and the breakfast was the most often passed meal. Mean score of nutritional habit and nutrition knowledge was significantly high in males and females, respectively. Mean nutrition knowledge scores of student who were living in cities were higher, significantly. It was found that marital status, type of family, the residential place didnt significantly affect nutrition knowledge score. There was a significant and positive correlation between body mass index, nutritional habit scores and monthly personal income. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 242-248
Géa-Horta, Tatiane; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Ortiz, Renzo Joel Flores; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were utilized as the regression method. After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR=3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80) and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR=1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42). Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR=1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77). Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.
CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices.
Keywords: attitudes, diabetes knowledge, nutrition education, South Africa, type 2 diabetes ... limited data on diabetes dietary interventions that concurrently ..... exercise. 23 (56.10). 22 (53.66). 0.82. 16 (39.02). 18 (43.90). 0.65. 23 (56.10).
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a nutrition education (NE) programme on diabetes knowledge and attitudes of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Eighty-two adults (40–70 years) with poorly controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and attending two community health centres in Moretele, North West Province ...
Objective: A cross sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 340 medical students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken; nutritional knowledge as well as the food habits were assessed using a well validated semistructured self-reported ...
Odle, Jack; Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1 ) preconception, 2 ) gestation and pregnancy, 3 ) lactation and suckling, and 4 ) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1 ) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2 ) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3 ) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4 ) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations
Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global
Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha
The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.
El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E
Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.
FREIRE, Gabriela Lopes Mesquita; FERRARI, Junia Carolina Linhares; PERCINOTO, Célio
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of maternal breastfeeding time with the introduction of non-nutritive sucking habits in children attending the Baby Clinic at the Araçatuba College of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita.METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the parents/legal guardians of 228 children, with the aim of obtaining information about the period of natural breastfeeding, the presence of non-nutritive sucking habits and the duration of the habit. A desc...
Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspring is determined during gestation.
Full Text Available A commonly reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is inadequate milk production. In response, women across the globe turn to galactagogues – substances used to increase the milk supply. Andean women have traditional knowledge about the medicinal and nutritional properties of plants and animals that are considered good to eat during breastfeeding. This research explores the maintenance and use of galactagogues, and specifically the use of the Andean flicker bird, within the wider framework of breastfeeding and nutrition policies in Peru. To elicit maternal knowledge and use of galactagogues, semi-structured and free-listing interviews were conducted with 33 mothers. Data analysis calculated the frequency and percentage of women reporting each type of galactagogue. In addition, thematic codes and relevant text passages were used in an iterative analytic process to document emerging themes. Identified galactagogues included five plants and six animals. Several galactagogues included protein-rich foods such as lamb meat and the Andean flicker bird. The use of protein-rich galactagogues as solid food is reinforced by public health messages. However, galactagogues in the research communities are usually consumed as soups or drinks, which are less rich in proteins than solid meals. The potential role of liquid galactagogues in the maintenance of appropriate hydration levels during breastfeeding in an environment where safe drinking water is scarce is a new contribution to the existing literature. The results are relevant to the design of maternal and child health policies that comply with intercultural health premises that value and respect the knowledge and practices of Andean Peoples.
Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd
The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .
Full Text Available Objective: To value in which proportion the nutrition knowledge guarantees in keeping with a healthy diet pattern behaviours. Method: Descriptive, transversal study, carried out with 50 second-year students belonging to the career in Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Seville (Spain, all of them females, with mean age of 21.16 years old. The collection of data related to the daily food ingestion was made following the 24-hours-recount technique and using two tables of food composition for the calculation of the contribution. Students have followed matters such as basic nutrition and life cycle, bromatology, nutrition education and dietetics. Results: There is an absolute fast from breakfast till lunch in more than half of the cases, 16% of the students do not eat anything during the evening, either; and in 20% of the cases the daily food consists in breakfast, lunch and dinner. From an energetic point of view, there is an hypocaloric pattern and, concerning macronutrients, an ingestion excess of fats and proteins. Fibre ingestion remains under current recommendations and iron -in an almost 60%-, calcium and folic acid ingestion are also deficient. Conclusions: It seems as if social pressure and feeding fashions had more weight at the time of determining the attitudes and behaviours in front of food than the fact of owning suitable knowledge on the matter. It is not likely that having that knowledge, even as in our sample, at a technical level, can guarantee proper behaviours and therefore a healthful feeding behaviour.
Hsu, Jennifer; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M; Thacher, Tom D
Factors that affect maternal bone mineral density may be related to the risk of nutritional rickets in their offspring. Our aim was to determine the relationship between maternal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and rickets in Nigerian children. Using a case-control design, we measured forearm aBMD in 56 and 135 mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets, respectively. Active rickets was confirmed or excluded in all children radiographically. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of maternal aBMD, adjusted for parity, pregnancy and lactation status, duration of most recent completed lactation, age of menarche, height, body mass index, and maternal age with nutritional rickets. The median (range) age of all mothers was 30years (17-47years), and parity was 4 (1-12). A total of 36 (19%) were pregnant and 55 (29%) were currently breast feeding. Mean (±SD) metaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.321±0.057 and 0.316±0.053g/cm 2 in mothers of children with and without rickets, respectively (P=0.60). Diaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.719±0.071 and 0.715±0.072g/cm 2 , respectively (P=0.69). In an adjusted analysis, maternal forearm aBMD, bone mineral content and bone area at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites were not associated with rickets in the child. In the adjusted analysis, rickets was associated with shorter duration of most recently completed lactation (aOR 0.91 for each additional month; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), older maternal age (aOR 1.07 for each additional year; 1.00-1.14), and less frequent maternal use of lead-containing eye cosmetics (aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05-0.64), without any difference in maternal blood lead levels. Maternal age, parity, age of menarche, height, and body mass index were not associated with having had a child with rickets in multivariate analysis. Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children was not associated with maternal forearm aBMD. Other unidentified maternal characteristics and practices likely contribute to the risk
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…
Irving, Holly Berry
The materials cited in this annotated bibliography focus on maternal and infant health and the critical importance of good nutrition. Audiovisuals and books are listed in 152 citations derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA database. Materials are available from the National Agricultural Library or through interlibrary loan to a local…
Almond, K.; Bikker, P.; Lomax, M.E.; Mostyn, A.
The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One
Alberti, A F
After an introduction on the various factors involved in food habits of humans, the A. is calling the attention on the importance of nutrition education, examining then some of the programs in use. Already in the maternal school the child can learn nutrition with applicative plays. It is compulsory to teach and follow also the in parents. For the compulsory school the nutrition should be taught as such or integrated in other courses as geography, history, mathematics and science. For adults the deep-seated food habits are making more difficult the educational programs. For successful results in nutrition education is essential that the programs are well planned and carried out from well trained personnel not only in nutritional sciences but also in education, cultural anthropology, psicology and sociology.
Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.
Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…
Fetal growth restriction leading to low birthweight is associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and hypertension in later life. Increasingly, it is recognised that cardiovascular risk may also be initiated in early life when the fetus and neonate are exposed to maternal nutritional excess. This review summarises the studies in man and animals that have investigated the potential role of vascular disorders in the aetiology of atherosclerosis and hypertension arising from early life nutritional deprivation or excess. Malfunction of the arterial endothelial cell layer in the offspring has been frequently described in association with both maternal under and overnutritional states and may play a permissive role in the origin of these disorders. Also prevalent is evidence for increased stiffness of the large arteries which may contribute to systolic hypertension. Further investigation is required into the intriguing suggestion that early life nutritional imbalance may adversely influence vascular angiogenesis leading to rarefaction and increased peripheral vascular resistance.
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja
The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional
FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.
Abelson, Herbert; And Others
During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…
Hamzaid, N. H.; Flood, V. M.; Prvan, T.; O'Connor, H. T.
Background: Good nutrition knowledge among carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) living in group homes is essential as they have a primary role in food provision for residents. Research on the nutrition knowledge of carers is limited. Method: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience…
Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E.; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T.
This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge
Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZobesity (BAZ>2). HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height wasmaternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WCmaternal height (maternal BMI and WC. We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.
Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.
Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena
Incorporating nutrition topics in the primary school curricula should support the acquisition of nutrition knowledge in different ways and indirectly the development of healthy eating habits in children and teenagers. In Slovenia, nutrition education is part of all primary school education levels and may take the form of compulsory and/or elective…
Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar
To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.
Silva, Kelly Daiane; Braga, Vilma de Oliveira; Quintaes, Kesia Diego
Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used in the conservation of foods. However, consumers' knowledge about irradiated foods has proved insufficient resulting in low acceptance of such foods. Considering that dietitians and nutritionists are the qualified health professionals to guide patients and consumers towards the ingestion and selection of foods, this study aims to evaluate the knowledge and views about radiated foods of professors of nutrition working in higher education institutions in the city of Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil. A total of 86.4% out of the 66 participants had general knowledge about irradiated foods. However, 71.2% were not familiar with the process, 75.8% were totally unaware of the specific legislation, 21.2% were not sure of the purposes of irradiation, 12.1% considered irradiated foods radioactive, and 31.8% believed that food irradiation results in the reduction of the nutritional value of foods. Irradiated foods would not be rejected by professionals with Ph.D. degree, but they would be rejected by five masters and six experts questioned. The study concluded that the current higher education of future dietitians and nutritionists has been provided without the minimum necessary knowledge regarding irradiated foods corroborating the negative view of consumers about this kind of food. (author)
Wood, Katie; Carragher, John; Davis, Robbie
There has been a decline in the consumption of potatoes in developed countries worldwide due to many factors including the introduction of new foods and meal trends. In turn, this shift in eating patterns has dramatically affected the Australian potato industry which represents the largest horticulture contributor to gross food revenue. Many factors may influence consumers' food preferences, including the individual's nutrition knowledge, lifestyle factors, personal preferences, attitudes and beliefs. The present study aimed to capture an understanding of the consumer's level of nutritional knowledge and what currently drives consumer decision making. Participants aged between 25 and 54 years responded to an online survey which included 52 questions specifically looking at potatoes, nutritional knowledge, views, eating habits and lifestyle factors, preferences and beliefs. Questions in the survey included multiple choice, rank and scale responses and free answers. A total of 1208 males and females (males n = 598, females n = 610) were included in the final analysis. The results show that the majority (88.5%) of the participants consume potatoes (not including hot chips/french fries) 4 times per week or less (41.6% ≤ 1 week; 46.9% 2-4 times/week). Overall, 33% of the participants stated that their potato consumption over the last five years had decreased. The main reasons stated for this decrease were that potatoes were high in carbohydrates (30%) and that starchy vegetables were not a healthy option (23%). Results showed that consumers believe that potatoes are good for all ages, are versatile, convenient, good value for money and delicious. However, the results indicate the majority of people have limited knowledge regarding the nutrient composition of potatoes and associate them negatively with carbohydrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Melissa L; Frongillo, Edward A; Leroy, Jef L; Blake, Christine E
Food assistance programs may alter food choices, but factors determining households' decisions regarding food acquisition, preparation, and consumption in the context of food aid are not well understood. This study aimed to understand how the Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program; PROCOMIDA), a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program in rural Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, altered household food choices. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 63 households in 3 participating (n = 32 households) and 3 control (n = 31) villages. A last-day food recall (without estimating quantities) and food-frequency questionnaire that used food cards assessed dietary choices. Qualitative analysis used thematic a priori and emergent coding; food group consumption frequencies were analyzed by using 2-level, logistic, mixed modeling, and chi-square testing while accounting for community clustering. Compared with control households, PROCOMIDA changed household food choices through a combination of providing food resources (with monthly food rations) and new knowledge and skills related to health and food (in the program's behavior change communication component) while reinforcing existing knowledge and beliefs. PROCOMIDA families consumed rice, red beans, and oil more frequently than did control families (differences of 2.20 (P foods were in the rations. PROCOMIDA families also ate chicken, local plants, and some vegetables more frequently. The importance of these foods was emphasized in the behavioral change communication component; these foods may have been more accessible because provision of food rations freed resources. Our findings suggest that if a program provides food free of cost to rural indigenous families in the context of a maternal and child nutrition and health program, it may be important to include a well-designed behavioral change communication
Eskici, Günay; Ersoy, Gülgün
This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of women paralympic athletes and their nutritional knowledge. Twenty two players of National Wheelchair Women Basketball Team (15-38 years) participated in this study and answered a questionnaire (76 questions) Players were at sport camp during the assessment where their body weight is measured regularly by the team coach. The waist, hip size and the height of the players who are able to stand have been used for the assessment, while the knee height of the players who are not able to stand have been measured for the study. SPSS 15.0 and BEBIS (Nutritional Data System) have been used for statistical assessment. The average age and sport years as a player of the participants are; respectively; 25.5±7.2 years and 3.9±2.8 years. The average daily energy consumption is 2867.8±523.6 kcal/day. The average proportion of energy, converted from carbohydrate, protein, fat are been calculated as, respectively; 42.7% (5.3±1.5 g/kg/day), 13.3% (1.6±0.3 g/kg/day), 44% (2.5±0.8 g/kg/day). It is also found that Vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, iron and fiber have not been consumed enough. The questions about sport nutrition have been mostly answered incorrectly. Athletes have inadequate food consumption and nutrition information. The athletes have to be educated more about nutrition and they should have nutritional counseling support.
Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond
Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.
Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra
It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother’s socio-demographic (age and relationship status and socio-economic features (education and professional status differentiate the child’s nutritional status. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child’s nutritional status, body mass index (BMI z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR, the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC, fat (%ET and proteins (%EP. Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. Results: The results showed that mother’s education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child’s nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05. Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child’s social background (e.g., maternal factors. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:811–821
Brain function depends on a continuous supply of nutrients, including micronutrients and fatty acids. Pregnancy and postpartum (pp) are periods of increased nutrient demands, during which optimal maternal cognition is important to prepare for a healthy birth and care for a young infant. However, few...
Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449
Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.; Fernández-Celemín, Laura
Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using...... a comprehensive instrument covering knowledge of expert recommendations, nutrient content in different food products, and calorie content in different food products. Across six product categories, 27% of shoppers were found to have looked at nutrition information on the label, with guideline daily amount (GDA...... information on food labels is mainly related to nutrition knowledge. Both are in turn affected by demographic variables, but in different ways....
Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.
Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…
Full Text Available Research question: To determine the role of Maternal Education & Occupation in the nutritional status of <3yrs children. Objectives: To assess the role of maternal education & occupation in the nutritional status of <3yrs children. Study design: Cross sectional study. Settings:In the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dehradun. Participants:500 children between 0-3years. Statistical Analysis:Chi Square . Results: Majority of mothers (41.20% were found to be illiterate & of these majority had undernourished children (73.30%. In our study, most (92.20% of the mothers were housewives or were unemployed ,whereas maximum undernutrition (88.46% was found in children whose mothers were unskilled labourer by occupation, whereas children of housewives were found to be only 59.22% undernourished.
Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq
Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...
Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha
This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW pregnancy along with routine obstetric care on gestational weight gain is critical to improve birth outcomes. NCT01665378 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01665378). Copyright © 2015
Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul
This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation. © 2015 APJPH.
Peñagaricano, Francisco; Wang, Xin; Rosa, Guilherme Jm; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan
Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce significant changes in the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring. These changes could have important implications on food animal production especially if these perturbations impact muscle and adipose tissue development. Here, we evaluated the impact of different maternal isoenergetic diets, alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), and dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat), on the transcriptome of fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep. Prepartum diets were associated with notable gene expression changes in fetal tissues. In longissimus dorsi muscle, a total of 224 and 823 genes showed differential expression (FDR ≤0.05) in fetuses derived from DG vs. CN and HY vs. CN maternal diets, respectively. Several of these significant genes affected myogenesis and muscle differentiation. In subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, 745 and 208 genes were differentially expressed (FDR ≤0.05), respectively, between CN and DG diets. Many of these genes are involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipose tissue development. Pathway analysis revealed that several GO terms and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR ≤0.05) with differentially expressed genes associated with tissue and organ development, chromatin biology, and different metabolic processes. These findings provide evidence that maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter the programming of fetal muscle and fat tissues in sheep. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes, in terms of postnatal growth, body composition, and meat quality of the offspring, warrant future investigation.
Bruna Kulik Hassan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi
Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly divided into two groups (Intervention and control group. Two sessions of approximately 60 minutes including classes on nutrition during pregnancy was held for the intervention group using presentation, booklets, and educational film sex education with similar method was held for the control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyzes. Results: In the intervention group, in the field of knowledge dealing with problems during pregnancy and after the intervention supplements in two stages were significantly higher than the control group (p˂001. Scores in the intervention group in the field of nutritional problems during pregnancy included constipation, heartburn, swollen hands and feet, anemia and urinary tract infections during both stages of the intervention were better than the control group (p˂005. Iron and multivitamin supplementation in the intervention group during two phases after the intervention phase was better than the control group (p˂005. Conclusion: The content of educational package was evaluated as an appropriate policy in promoting nutritional knowledge and behavior among pregnant women. Key words: Education, knowledge behavior, nutritional supplements, pregnancy
Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.
Webb, James L.; And Others
An assessment was made of the extent of nutrition knowledge of physical education teachers and coaches. The investigation addressed three primary questions: (1) Do practicing physical educator/coaches possess nutritional knowledge comparable to that of college students enrolled in a university basic nutrition class?; (2) Do male and female…
Moreno Zegbe, Estephania; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline
To identify coincidences and differences in the identification and prioritization of maternal healthcare service problems in Mexico based on the perspective of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge that may offer evidence that can contribute to attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. Mixed study performed in three stages: 1) systematization of maternal healthcare service problems identified by tacit knowledge (derived from professional experience); 2) identification of maternal healthcare service problems in Latin America addressed by explicit knowledge (scientific publications); 3) comparison between the problems identified by tacit and explicit knowledge. The main problems of maternal health services identified by tacit knowledge are related to poor quality of care, while the predominant problems studied in the scientific literature are related to access barriers to health services. Approximately, 70% of the problems identified by tacit knowledge are also mentioned in the explicit knowledge. Conversely, 70% of the problems identified in the literature are also considered by tacit knowledge. Nevertheless, when looking at the problems taken one by one, no statistically significant similarities were found. The study discovered that the identification of maternal health service problems by tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge is fairly comparable, according to the comparability index used in the study, and highlights the interest of integrating both approaches in order to improve prioritization and decision making towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better
Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Wang, Lijuan; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Borkowski, John G
Maternal history of parentification in the family of origin poses subsequent risk to parenting quality during the transition to parenthood. The present study builds on prior work by evaluating whether the association between maternal parentification history and warm responsiveness is mediated by maternal knowledge of infant development in first time mothers. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on the transition to motherhood, maternal knowledge of infant development and observational codings of warm responsiveness were examined across the first 18 months of parenthood for 374 mothers who also provided retrospective reports of their childhood parentification experiences. Results indicated that maternal retrospective reports of higher engagement in parentified roles in family of origin were associated with poorer knowledge of infant development across the first 18 months of parenthood and, in turn, less warm responsiveness with 18-month-old children. However, maternal parentification history did not significantly influence changes in maternal warm responsiveness across the transition to parenthood. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting maternal knowledge of infant development as early as the prenatal period may be useful for preventing poor warm responsiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R
A U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) unit was studied to determine the characteristics of those who were dietary supplement users, assess their nutrition knowledge, and identify the nutrition information sources they use. SF-qualified (n=119...
Mortensen, Elna Louise Krogh; Wang, Tobias; Malte, H.
. There was no significant effect of maternal nutrition on dry mass of the stomach or ceca. Conclusion: Our study shows that preconceptional nutrition can have important influence on several body features of offspring in mice, including body composition and dimensions of the digestive system....
Wright, O R L
This review examines knowledge and confidence of nutrition and dietetics professionals in nutritional genomics and evaluates the teaching strategies in this field within nutrition and dietetics university programmes and professional development courses internationally. A systematic search of 10 literature databases was conducted from January 2000 to December 2012 to identify original research. Any studies of either nutrition and/or dietetics students or dietitians/nutritionists investigating current levels of knowledge or confidence in nutritional genomics, or strategies to improve learning and/or confidence in this area, were eligible. Eighteen articles (15 separate studies) met the inclusion criteria. Three articles were assessed as negative, eight as neutral and seven as positive according to the American Dietetics Association Quality Criteria Checklist. The overall ranking of evidence was low. Dietitians have low involvement, knowledge and confidence in nutritional genomics, and evidence for educational strategies is limited and methodologically weak. There is a need to develop training pathways and material to up-skill nutrition and/or dietetics students and nutrition and/or dietetics professionals in nutritional genomics through multidisciplinary collaboration with content area experts. There is a paucity of high quality evidence on optimum teaching strategies; however, methods promoting repetitive exposure to nutritional genomics material, problem-solving, collaborative and case-based learning are most promising for university and professional development programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti
The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for intervention. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Grunert, Klaus G; Wills, Josephine; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura
Nutrition knowledge is a prerequisite for processing nutrition-related information when making food choices. Insight into determinants of nutrition knowledge is important both for designing measures aimed at increasing levels of nutrition knowledge and for food industry attempting to position food...... products based on their nutritional properties. Shoppers recruited in the UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland and Hungary (total n = 5967) filled out a questionnaire measuring their nutrition knowledge with regard to dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, and calorie content of food and drink......, suggesting that the history of health policies and nutrition-related initiatives taken by retailers and manufacturers, together with cultural differences, are a major factor affecting how people acquire knowledge about food and health....
Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players ( n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos ( p nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training ( p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah
Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Undernutrition in one form or another affects the majority of women of reproductive age in most developing countries. However, there are few or no effective programmes trying to solve maternal undernutrition problems. The purpose of the paper is to examine global policy and programme guidance mechanisms for nutrition, what their content is with regard to maternal nutrition in particular, as well as how these might be improved. Almost all countries have committed themselves politically to ensuring the right of pregnant and lactating women to good nutrition through the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not endorsed any policy commitments with regard to maternal nutrition. The only policy guidance coming from the various technical departments of WHO relates to the control of maternal anaemia. There is no policy or programme guidance concerning issues of maternal thinness, weight gain during pregnancy and/or low birthweight prevention. Few if any countries have maternal nutrition programmes beyond those for maternal anaemia, and most of those are not effective. The lack of importance given to maternal nutrition is related in part to a weakness of evidence, related to the difficulty of getting ethical clearance, as well as a generalised tendency to downplay the importance of those interventions found to be efficacious. No priority has been given to implementing existing policy and programme guidance for the control of maternal anaemia largely because of a lack of any dedicated funding, linked to a lack of Millennium Development Goals indicator status. This is partly due to the poor evidence base, as well as to the common belief that maternal anaemia programmes were not effective, even if efficacious. The process of providing evidence-based policy and programme guidance to member states is currently being revamped and strengthened by the Department of Nutrition for Health and
Podell, Richard N.; And Others
An assessment of the clinical nutritional knowledge of third- and fourth-year medical students and practicing physicians revealed that overall nutritional knowledge is modest and that knowledge is highest among topics which have received the most publicity in the popular press. Methodology and specific findings are included. (JT)
Full Text Available Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending antenatal care in all the 18 primary health care facilities of the district. The women’s characteristics and their knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STI were collected. Also, physical and gynaecological examination, completed by vaginal, cervix, blood, and stool samplings, were collected. Results. A prevalence of 63.1% was recorded for maternal anaemia. Geophagy rate was 16.3% and vitamin A deficiency 69.3%. In addition, anaemia was independently associated with low education, low brachial perimeter, geophagy, and primigravida. But no statically significant relationship was found between maternal anaemia and infectious diseases or vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion. The magnitude of maternal anaemia was found to be higher in rural Hounde health district and should be addressed by adequate policy including education and the fight against malnutrition.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... prophylaxis iron supplements during pregnancy are key strategies that are used to reduce the ... important reason for non-compliance was nausea (43.6%), with 34.9% of those
This article reviews the maternal and child nutrition situation in Asia in transition and its public health implications. Countries in Asia are facing a double burden of malnutrition. Accessibility to high energy, less nutrient-dense foods or processed foods affects current dietary patterns, whereas industrialization is leading to more sedentary lifestyles both in rural and urban areas. Stunting and wasting among young children persist but have declined in severity, whereas overweight and obesity have risen rapidly. Growth faltering in height during the first 2 years of life has affected muscle mass accretion, but rapid weight gain after 2 years of age has led to more fat accretion, imposing risks of childhood obesity and consequent metabolic disorders. The number of women entering pregnancy with low BMI has decreased, but increasing BMI is noticeable. Prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are important determinants of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, the risk of gestational diabetes and postpartum weight retention, as well as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases in later adulthood. Asia in transition is faced with persistent undernutrition and increasing trends of obesity and metabolic disorders among children and women. The first 1000 days from conception is a critical period, but it is also a window of opportunity for preventing double burden of malnutrition in Asian countries characterized by a nutrition transition.
Hermans, Roel C. J.; van den Broek, Nina; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Otten, Roy; Ruiter, Emilie L. M.; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.
OBJECTIVE: Serious games are a promising venue to increase children's nutritional knowledge in an entertaining format. The aim of this study was to test the short-term effectiveness of the Alien Health Game, a videogame designed to teach elementary school children about nutrition and healthy food
Celeste-Williams, Lyndsey; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Banerjee, Priya; Boyle, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional program on the nutritional knowledge of children and adolescents with visual impairments. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups and that age and vision had no effect on the acquisition of…
Kapheim, Karen M; Bernal, Sandra P; Smith, Adam R; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T
Developmental maternal effects are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation, but they can be difficult to distinguish from other environmental factors. This is an important distinction within the context of social evolution, because if variation in offspring helping behavior is due to maternal manipulation, social selection may act on maternal phenotypes, as well as those of offspring. Factors correlated with social castes have been linked to variation in developmental nutrition, which might provide opportunity for females to manipulate the social behavior of their offspring. Megalopta genalis is a mass-provisioning facultatively eusocial sweat bee for which production of males and females in social and solitary nests is concurrent and asynchronous. Female offspring may become either gynes (reproductive dispersers) or workers (non-reproductive helpers). We predicted that if maternal manipulation plays a role in M. genalis caste determination, investment in daughters should vary more than for sons. The mass and protein content of pollen stores provided to female offspring varied significantly more than those of males, but volume and sugar content did not. Sugar content varied more among female eggs in social nests than in solitary nests. Provisions were larger, with higher nutrient content, for female eggs and in social nests. Adult females and males show different patterns of allometry, and their investment ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.69. Adult body weight varied more for females than males, possibly reflecting increased variation in maternal investment in female offspring. These differences are consistent with a role for maternal manipulation in the social plasticity observed in M. genalis.
Hallström, Lena; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Beghin, Laurent; De Henauw, Stefaan; GRAMMATIKAKI, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Mesana, Maribella; Molnar, Dénes; Dietrich, Sabina; PICCINELLI, Raffaela; Plada, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis; Kersting, Mathilde
Objective: To build up sufficient knowledge of a ‘healthy diet’. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The European multicentre HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted in 2006–2007 in ten cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece (one inland and one island city), Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden. Subjects: A to...
Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all 80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common chronic diseases during training
Marcelo Farías Jofré
Full Text Available The causes of the nutritional transition in our country can be accounted for by the reduction in the number of malnourished people, on the one hand, and the explosive increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity in all age groups, on the other. It comes as no surprise then that more than half of Chilean pregnant women are overweight and obese at their first prenatal visit and thus have an almost inevitable tendency to gain excess gestational weight. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of maternal overweight on women and their offspring, and the potential benefits of nutritional interventions in this area. Multiple population and experimental studies have demonstrated a two to three times greater likelihood of developing maternal and perinatal complications in pregnant women with overweight and obesity compared to women with normal nutritional status. Since the gestational period is critical for the development of an individual, metabolic changes in nutrients, hormones and inflammatory mediators could explain many of the adverse outcomes described in the medium and long term in children of mothers with excess weight during pregnancy. No significant effects on birth weight have been seen after employing various interventional strategies. However, both dietary interventions and those involving controlled physical activity during pregnancy have been found to limit total gestational weight gain. In consequence, it appears to be feasible to further evaluate potentially clinically significant differences, both at the maternal-fetal metabolic injury level during pregnancy, as well as later on in life in mothers and their offspring.
Stage, Virginia C; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Díaz, Sebastián R; Duffrin, Melani W
Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The hypothesized model predicted post-nutrition knowledge (F(437) = 149.4, p mathematics knowledge were predictive of nutrition knowledge indicating use of an integrative science and mathematics curriculum to improve academic knowledge may also simultaneously improve nutrition knowledge among fourth-grade students. Teachers can benefit from integration by meeting multiple academic standards, efficiently using limited classroom time, and increasing nutrition education provided in the classroom. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Peng, Xiaobo; Conley, Dalton
We use the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) in China to investigate the effect of health insurance on maternal nutrition and child health. Given the uneven roll-out of the NCMS across rural counties, we are able to deploy its implementation as a natural experiment in order to obviate problems of adverse selection that typically plague research on the effects of health insurance. We find that, among children, the NCMS has the greatest positive effect on infants between birth and 5 years of age. Also, with respect to female nutritional status, our models show that the NCMS has the greatest effect on women of childbearing age (aged between 16 and 35), indicating that women who benefit from the NCMS benefits may, in turn, give birth to healthier babies. Thus, taken together, our findings indicate that the NCMS plays an important role in health dynamics in rural China.
Alzahraa M. Abdelatty
Full Text Available The global population is expected to increase from 7.6 to 9.6 billion people from 2017 to 2050. Increased demand for livestock production and rising global temperatures have made heat stress (HS a major challenge for the dairy industry. HS been shown to have negative effects on production parameters such as dry matter intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency. In addition to affecting production parameters, HS has also been shown to have negative effects on the reproductive functions of dairy cows. Mitigation of HS effects on dairy cow productivity and fertility necessitate the strategic planning of nutrition, and environmental conditions. The current review will discuss the potential nutriepigenomic strategies to mitigate the effect of HS on bovine embryo. Keywords: Bovine embryo, Dairy cow, Fertility, Heat stress, Maternal nutrition, Oocyst
Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina
Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.
Zaborowicz, Katarzyna; Czarnocińska, Jolanta; Galiński, Grzegorz; Kaźmierczak, Paulina; Górska, Karolina; Durczewski, Paweł
Nutrition is a factor influencing physical and mental fitness. In this study we examine the lifestyle of university students and its impact on nutritional errors. To evaluate the dietary behaviours of students taking into account gender and nutritional knowledge. Using a QEB questionnaire, we were able to evaluate dietary behaviours and nutritional knowledge of respondents. Our analysis was conducted on data obtained from 456 students. We found that nutritional knowledge for women was 34.7% satisfactory and 34.7% good. In contrast, nutritional knowledge for men varied, amounting to 40.2% satisfactory and 25.1% good. The number of meals and their regular consumption did not depend on gender or the nutritional knowledge of students, however, significant differences were recorded for the types of snacks they eat. A greater number of women than men snacked on sweets and biscuits, nuts and seeds, while in the case of salty snacks an opposite trend was observed. A higher level of nutritional knowledge correlated with the number of students snacking on fruit and vegetables instead of salty snacks. Moreover, it was observed that health-promoting behaviours such as not adding sugar to beverages and not adding salt to dishes were more common with women and individuals with a higher level of nutritional knowledge. Women more frequently snack on sweets, biscuits, nuts and seeds. More men snack on salty snacks, add sugar to beverages and add salt to dishes. Individuals with insufficient nutritional knowledge more frequently snack on salty snacks rather than fruit. Students with insufficient nutritional knowledge more often commit nutritional errors.
Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron
Full Text Available The Department of Basic Education (DBE has not given nutrition education the necessary emphasis that it needs, despite its importance in South African schools. Nutrition is included as only one of many topics forming part of the Life Orientation syllabus. Educators are role models for learners in making healthy food choices, however, studies have shown that major gaps exist in the health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of educators.The objective of this research was to undertake a pilot study to determine the impact of a nutrition education programme (NEP on the nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in public schools in South Africa (SA. An exploratory baseline survey, to determine the nutrition education practices in 45 purposively selected public schools, was carried out before the experimental nutrition education intervention study. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was completed by 24 purposively selected educators, representing all nine provinces in SA, before and after a three-day NEP. Pre and post-NEP data were analysed on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for a Windows program version 17.0 for descriptive statistics, version 17.0. Paired t-tests measured statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 before and after the NEP.The knowledge of the respondents improved significantly after the NEP as the mean±s.d. score of correctly answered questions (n = 59 improved from 63.3±30.2% before to 80.6±21.1% after the NEP. The results proved that nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in primary schools is not optimal, but can be improved by NEP.
Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N
Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying
Jones, Anna Marie
The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the…
Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W.
Background: Students may be receiving less than an average of 4?hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. Methods: During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science…
Ares Segura, Susana; Arena Ansótegui, José; Díaz-Gómez, N Marta
Breastmilk is the best food for newborns and infants. The nutritional stores of a lactating woman may be more or less depleted as a result of the pregnancy and the loss of blood during childbirth. Lactation raises nutrient needs, mainly because of the loss of nutrients, first through colostrum and then through breastmilk. Breastmilk volume varies widely. The nutrients present in this milk come from the diet of the mother or from her nutrient reserves. The conversion of nutrients in food to nutrients in breastmilk is not complete. To have good nutritional status the breastfeeding woman has to increase nutrient intake. Human breastmilk has a fairly constant composition, and is only selectively affected by the diet of the mother. The fat content of breastmilk varies somewhat. The carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium and iron contents do not change much, even if the mother is short of these in her diet. A mother whose diet is deficient in thiamine and vitamins A and D, however, produces less of these in her milk. The mother should be given advice on consuming a mixed diet. At each postnatal visit, both the mother and the baby should be examined, and advice on the diets of both mother and infant should be provided. A satisfactory gain in the infant's weight is the best way to judge the adequacy of the diet of the infant. Mothers should not receive less than 1800 calories per day. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary
Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.
Spronk, Inge; Heaney, Susan E; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T
This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (≥ state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and diet quality by an adapted version of the Australian Recommended Food Score (A-ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modeling were used to assess relationships between variables. mean (Standard Deviation). A total of 101 athletes (Males: 37; Females: 64), 18.6 (4.6) years were recruited mainly from team sports (72.0%). Females scored higher than males for both nutrition knowledge (Females: 59.9%; Males: 55.6%; p = .017) and total A-ARFS (Females: 54.2% Males: 49.4%; p = .016). There was no significant influence of age, level of education, athletic caliber or team/individual sport participation on nutrition knowledge or total A-ARFS. However, athletes engaged in previous dietetic consultation had significantly higher nutrition knowledge (61.6% vs. 56.6%; p = .034) but not total A-ARFS (53.6% vs. 52.0%; p = .466). Nutrition knowledge was weakly but positively associated with total A-ARFS (r = .261, p= .008) and A-ARFS vegetable subgroup (r = .252, p = .024) independently explaining 6.8% and 5.1% of the variance respectively. Gender independently explained 5.6% of the variance in nutrition knowledge (p= .017) and 6.7% in total A-ARFS (p = .016). Higher nutrition knowledge and female gender were weakly but positively associated with better diet quality. Given the importance of nutrition to health and optimal sports performance, intervention to improve nutrition knowledge and healthy eating is recommended, especially for young male athletes.
Full Text Available This article compares maternal child health and nutrition programmes in Argentina and Chile, focusing on long-term institutional features and the central neo-liberal trends organizing social reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Objective: To carry out a comparative study of the ransformations of Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes, taking into account three intertwined issues: social policies, institutional capacity, and policy implementation. Methodology: The documentary analysis done in this article is framed in the structural force model of Carmelo Mesa-Lago and the polity-centred structure model of Theda Skocpol. Conclusions: Despite relatively similar policy lines implemented in both countries, the contrasting long-term institutional features (Chilean programmes addressed maternal and child health more efficiently than the Argentines account for most of the variation in the overall process of reform implementation and the performance of maternal and child health policies.
Stage, Virginia C.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Duffrin, Melani W.
Background: Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Methods: Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across…
Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Steyn, Nelia P.; de Villiers, Anniza; Fourie, Jean M.; Hill, Jillian; Lambert, Estelle V.; Draper, Catherine E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate primary school educators' health status, knowledge, perceptions and behaviour regarding nutrition and physical activity. Thus, nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases of 155 educators were assessed in a…
Manore, Melinda M.; Patton-Lopez, Megan M.; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p <...
Duarte, Luciane Simões; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Toriyama, Áurea Tamami Minagawa; Palombo, Claudia Nery Teixeira; Miranda, Patrícia Pereira Lima; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela
Assessing maternal perception of their children's nutritional status and identifying associated factors. A cross-sectional study conducted in a small municipality with 342 children less than 3 years of age treated in Basic Health Units of São Paulo. Nutritional status was classified in percentiles of body mass index for age and maternal perception was assessed using the scale of verbal descriptors (very thin, thin, healthy weight, fat, very fat). Logistic regression was used to identify the associatedfactors. 44.7% of maternal perception was found to beinadequate. Mothers of overweight (OR = 11.8, 95% CI: 6.4-21.7) and underweight (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.9-16.2) children had a higher chance of having inadequate perception, similar to mothers of children over 24 months of age (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-6.0). For effective child care in primary care, healthcare professionals should consider maternal perception and helpmothers to identify the nutritional status of children in childcare consultations and growth monitoring. Avaliar a percepção materna do estado nutricional do filho e identificar os fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em município de pequeno porte com 342 crianças menores de 3anos atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. O estado nutricional foi classificado em percentis do Índice de Massa Corporalpara Idade e a percepção materna foi avaliada com escala de descritores verbais (muito magro, magro, peso adequado, gordo, muito gordo). Utilizou-se de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados. Constatou-se 44,7% de percepção materna inadequada. Mães de crianças com excesso de peso (OR=11,8; IC95%:6,4-21,7) e com baixo peso (OR=5,5; IC95%:1,9-16,2) apresentaram mais chance de percepção inadequada, da mesma forma que mães de crianças com mais de 24 meses de idade (OR=2,9; IC95%:1,4-6,0). Para uma efetiva assistência à criança na atenção básica, profissionais de saúde devem considerar a
Sonia J Moisá
Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef
Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J
In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.
Nguyen, Phuong H; Hoang, Minh V; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Le, Chung H; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul
Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009-2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.
Nguyen, Phuong H.; Hoang, Minh V.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Le, Chung H.; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul
Background Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam. PMID:26328947
Phuong H. Nguyen
Full Text Available Background: Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014, has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective: This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods: Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1, which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results: Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion: A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.
Monika Anna Ameryk
A correlation between the parents’ nutritional knowledge and the frequency of consumption of selected products by their children was observed. Parents with insufficient knowledge less frequently served dark bread and thick groats than those with good and sufficient knowledge. Parents with good and sufficient knowledge less frequently served instant soups, canned meat, energy and isotonic drinks. No impact of the parents’ knowledge was observed with reference to white cheese, vegetable oils and sweets. Nutritional education of the parents of young athletes is necessary regardless of their nutritional knowledge. Improving eating habits can positively affect children’s development and achievements in sports. Keywords: Nutrition; Knowledge; Sport; Young Athletes; Eating habits.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
To outline key statistical considerations and detailed methodologies for the development and evaluation of a valid and reliable nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Literature on questionnaire development in a range of fields was reviewed and a set of evidence-based guidelines specific to the creation of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire have been developed. The recommendations describe key qualitative methods and statistical considerations, and include relevant examples from previous papers and existing nutrition knowledge questionnaires. Where details have been omitted for the sake of brevity, the reader has been directed to suitable references. We recommend an eight-step methodology for nutrition knowledge questionnaire development as follows: (i) definition of the construct and development of a test plan; (ii) generation of the item pool; (iii) choice of the scoring system and response format; (iv) assessment of content validity; (v) assessment of face validity; (vi) purification of the scale using item analysis, including item characteristics, difficulty and discrimination; (vii) evaluation of the scale including its factor structure and internal reliability, or Rasch analysis, including assessment of dimensionality and internal reliability; and (viii) gathering of data to re-examine the questionnaire's properties, assess temporal stability and confirm construct validity. Several of these methods have previously been overlooked. The measurement of nutrition knowledge is an important consideration for individuals working in the nutrition field. Improved methods in the development of nutrition knowledge questionnaires, such as the use of factor analysis or Rasch analysis, will enable more confidence in reported measures of nutrition knowledge.
Stewart, Carly; Schiavon, Laurita Marconi; Bellotto, Maria Luisa
It is acknowledged that knowledge and knowledge bases are an important part of coach and athlete learning and that the coach-athlete relationship is crucial to knowledge created, shared and used. This said knowledge about nutrition as constructed by elite gymnasts would seem particularly important in a culture long associated with weight control…
John B. Mason
Full Text Available Background: From conception to 6 months of age, an infant is entirely dependent for its nutrition on the mother: via the placenta and then ideally via exclusive breastfeeding. This period of 15 months – about 500 days – is the most important and vulnerable in a child's life: it must be protected through policies supporting maternal nutrition and health. Those addressing nutritional status are discussed here. Objective and design: This paper aims to summarize research on policies and programs to protect women's nutrition in order to improve birth outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, based on studies of efficacy from the literature, and on effectiveness, globally and in selected countries involving in-depth data collection in communities in Ethiopia, India and Northern Nigeria. Results of this research have been published in the academic literature (more than 30 papers. The conclusions now need to be advocated to policy-makers. Results: The priority problems addressed are: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, women's anemia, thinness, and stunting. The priority interventions that need to be widely expanded for women before and during pregnancy, are: supplementation with iron–folic acid or multiple micronutrients; expanding coverage of iodine fortification of salt particularly to remote areas and the poorest populations; targeted provision of balanced protein energy supplements when significant resources are available; reducing teenage pregnancies; increasing interpregnancy intervals through family planning programs; and building on conditional cash transfer programs, both to provide resources and as a platform for public education. All these have known efficacy but are of inadequate coverage and resourcing. The next steps are to overcome barriers to wide implementation, without which targets for maternal and child health and nutrition (e.g. by WHO are unlikely to be met, especially in the poorest countries. Conclusions: This
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control. At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS: Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Noznesky, Elizabeth A; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo
Maternal underweight and anemia are highly prevalent in Bihar, especially among adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years. Although numerous programs and platforms exist for delivering efficacious interventions for improving maternal nutrition, the coverage and quality of these interventions are low. To examine existing interventions for reducing maternal undernutrition in Bihar and identify barriers to and opportunities for expanding their coverage and quality. The research was conducted in New Delhi and Bihar between May and August 2010. Forty-eight key informant interviews were conducted with policy makers, program managers, and service providers at multiple levels. Secondary data were collected from survey reports and program documents. All data were analyzed thematically. Barriers to the delivery and uptake of interventions to improve maternal nutrition include the shortage of essential inputs, low prioritization of maternal undernutrition, sterilization bias within the family planning program, weak management systems, poverty, gender inequality, caste discrimination, and flooding. In order to overcome barriers and improve service delivery, the current government and its partners have introduced structural reforms within the public health system, launched new programs for underserved groups, developed innovative approaches, and experimented with new technologies. Since coming to power, the Government of Bihar has achieved impressive increases in the coverage of prioritized health services, such as institutional deliveries and immunization. This success presents it with an excellent opportunity to further reduce maternal and infant mortality by turning its attention to the serious problem of maternal undernutrition and low birthweight.
Pierce, Hayley; Heaton, Tim B; Hoffmann, John
Rwanda has made great progress in improving maternal utilization of health care through coordination of external aid and more efficient health policy. Using data from the 2005 and 2010 Rwandan Demographic and Health Surveys, we examine three related questions regarding the impact of expansion of health care in Rwanda. First, did the increased use of health center deliveries apply to women across varying levels of education, economic status, and area of residency? Second, did the benefits associated with being delivered at a health center diminish as utilization became more widespread? Finally, did inequality in child outcomes decline as a result of increased health care utilization? Propensity score matching was used to address the selectivity that arises when choosing to deliver at a hospital. In addition, the regression models include a linear model to predict child nutritional status and Cox regression to predict child survival. The analysis shows that the largest increases in delivery at a health center occur among less educated, less wealthy, and rural Rwandan women. In addition, delivery at a health center is associated with better nutritional status and survival and the benefit is not diminished following the dramatic increase in use of health centers. Finally, educational, economic and residential inequality in child survival and nutrition did not decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei
Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student's t-test. Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01)). Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively). Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting), nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.
Tang, Li; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Chun-Xia; Sun, Xin
Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study started in 2015 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. A sample of 1901 pregnant women at 15-20 weeks of gestation were recruited from four maternal and child health hospitals and are followed prospectively to 12 months post partum. Detailed information on maternal lifestyle and nutritional status, obstetric complications, pregnancy outcomes, infant feeding practices, illnesses of the mother and infant and growth trajectory is collected through personal interviews, anthropometric measures and medical records and local health management system records retrieval. Multilevel mixed regression models, adjusted for clustering, will be applied to investigate the association between various exposure variables of interest and the longitudinal outcomes, taking into account the correlated data structure and the nesting of observations. Kaplan-Meier test and Cox regression analysis will be used to analyse the time-to-event data. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committee of West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Curtin University. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mar 2, 2016 ... lifestyle, diet and lack of adequate exercise which have led to ... may have influenced their lifestyle, dietary habit and subsequently their nutritional/health status. Key words: Hyperlipidemia, nutritional status, diet, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. .... only secondary school education, 5.8% had only primary.
Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A
Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar
Background: Good nutrition bene-fits families, their communities and the world as a whole. Maternal factors are important in maintaining the nutrition of 1-5 year children. Objective: To ascertain the association of maternal factors with nutrition of 1-5 year children. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was carried out in the field practice area of RHTC Naila in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. 30 Cluster sampling technique was ...
Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S
Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380
Mahmoud Al Kalaldeh
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional assessment is a prerequisite for nutritional delivery. Patients in intensive care suffer from under-nutrition and nutritional failure due to poor assessment. Nursing ability to early detect nutritional failure is the key for minimizing imparities in practice and attaining nutritional goals. Aim of this article is to examine the ability of Jordanian ICU nurses to assess the nutritional status of critically ill patients, considering biophysical and biochemical measures.Methods: This cross sectional study recruited nurses from different health sectors in Jordan. ICU nurses from the governmental sector (two hospitals and private sectors (two hospitals were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Nurses' knowledge and responsibility towards nutritional assessment were examined.Results: A total of 220 nurses from both sectors have completed the questionnaire. Nurses were consistent in regard to knowledge, responsibility, and documentation of nutritional assessment. Nurses in the governmental hospitals inappropriately perceived the application of aspiration reduction measures. However, they scored higher in applying physical examination and anthropometric assessment. Although both nurses claimed higher use of biochemical measurements, biophysical measurements were less frequently used. Older nurses with longer clinical experience exhibited better adherence to biophysical measurement than younger nurses.Conclusion: Nursing nutritional assessment is still suboptimal to attain nutritional goals. Assessment of body weight, history of nutrition intake, severity of illness, and function of gastrointestinal tract should be considered over measuring albumin and pre-albumin levels. A well-defined evidence-based protocol as well as a multidisciplinary nutritional team for nutritional assessment is the best to minimize episodes of under-nutrition.
Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue
Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be
Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong
(1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J
Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. © 2013.
Massad, S J; Shier, N W; Koceja, D M; Ellis, N T
Factors influencing nutritional supplement use by high school students were assessed. Comparisons were made between various groups of sports participants and non-sports participants. The Nutritional Supplement Use and Knowledge Scale was administered to 509 students. Mean supplement use score was 10.87 (SEM = 0.50, range 0-57). Mean knowledge score was 13.56 (SEM = 0.16, range 1-21). Significant relationships (p knowledge with use, and supplement use with gender. ANOVA found significant differences between supplement use by gender (p knowledge scores by sports category (p knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, and carbohydrates were best discriminators of sport group membership. Greater knowledge about supplements was associated with less use; hence, education about supplements can be a deterrent to use. This study may help coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, teachers, physicians, and parents identify nutritional misconceptions held by adolescents.
Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents' nutrition knowledge score (Ppregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R (2)) of the variance found between respondents' knowledge scores. Australian pregnant women's knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure improvement in their nutrition knowledge. It is essential that women receive support to achieve optimal and
Bernardes Spexoto, Maria Claudia; Garcia Ferin, Giovana; Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana Alvares
To estimate the concern for a healthy diet and the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate students of a pharmacology and biochemistry program and their associations with the variables of interest. This cross-sectional study administered the Nutrition Knowledge Scale and the How is your diet? questionnaire to 381 students. The associations between concern for a healthy diet and nutrition knowledge and between these two factors and the demographic variables were measured by the chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. The significance level was set at 5%. The mean age of the students was 20.6 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.7) years; 78.2% were female students; their mean body mass index was 22.6 (SD = 3.7) kg/m²; and 73.5% had an appropriate body mass index-related nutritional status. Most students fell within the category "pay attention to your diet" (77.1%) and "moderate nutrition knowledge" (79.7%). Concern for a healthy diet was significantly associated with program year (p = 0.024), socioeconomic class (p = 0.012), and physical activity (p Concern for a healthy diet was not associated with nutrition knowledge (p = 0.808). Physically inactive, first-year students from socioeconomic class B (US$ 1,046 - 1,872) were less concerned with a healthy diet. Such concern was not related to the students' nutrition knowledge. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.
Food is the main source of good nutrition and we eat food to supply us with .... Table 3: Distribution of Respondents on Frequency of Food Consumption. Food Groups. F. (%). Never. F. (%) ..... they alone cannot solve the problem of malnutrition.
Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis
The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K; Osterholm, Erin A
Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy - an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress - significantly affect children's future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (a) the associations between pregnant women's inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients - protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline - as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children's neurocognitive development; and (b) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for 'disentangling' the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories - and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
Perinatal outcomes were compared between 354 twins treated with the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program and 686 untreated twins. After differing distributions of key confounding variables were adjusted for, the twins in the intervention group weighed an average of 80 g more (P less than 0.06) than the nonintervention twins; their low-birth-weight rate was 25% lower (P less than 0.05) and their very-low-birth-weight rate was almost 50% lower (P less than 0.05). Although the rate of preterm delivery was 30% lower in the intervention group (P less than 0.05), the rates of intrauterine growth retardation were similar in the two groups. Fetal mortality was slightly higher (14 vs 12 per 1000, NS), but early neonatal mortality was fivefold lower (3 vs 19 per 1000, P less than 0.06) in the intervention group. Maternal morbidity was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the intervention group. There was a trend towards lower infant morbidity in the intervention group. These results suggest that nutritional intervention can significantly improve twin-pregnancy outcome.
Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy
Brenseke, Bonnie; Prater, M Renee; Bahamonde, Javiera; Gutierrez, J Claudio
Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the metabolic syndrome has been defined in various ways, the ultimate importance of recognizing this combination of disorders is that it helps identify individuals at high risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from observational and experimental studies links adverse exposures in early life, particularly relating to nutrition, to chronic disease susceptibility in adulthood. Such studies provide the foundation and framework for the relatively new field of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Although great strides have been made in identifying the putative concepts and mechanisms relating specific exposures in early life to the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood, a complete picture remains obscure. To date, the main focus of the field has been on perinatal undernutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies; however, the current global health crisis of overweight and obesity demands that perinatal overnutrition and specific nutrient excesses be examined. This paper assembles current thoughts on the concepts and mechanisms behind the DOHaD as they relate to maternal nutrition, and highlights specific contributions made by macro- and micronutrients.
Full Text Available Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the metabolic syndrome has been defined in various ways, the ultimate importance of recognizing this combination of disorders is that it helps identify individuals at high risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from observational and experimental studies links adverse exposures in early life, particularly relating to nutrition, to chronic disease susceptibility in adulthood. Such studies provide the foundation and framework for the relatively new field of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD. Although great strides have been made in identifying the putative concepts and mechanisms relating specific exposures in early life to the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood, a complete picture remains obscure. To date, the main focus of the field has been on perinatal undernutrition and specific nutrient deficiencies; however, the current global health crisis of overweight and obesity demands that perinatal overnutrition and specific nutrient excesses be examined. This paper assembles current thoughts on the concepts and mechanisms behind the DOHaD as they relate to maternal nutrition, and highlights specific contributions made by macro- and micronutrients.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BFP]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status.METHOD: participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test.RESULTS: the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72 and the lowest for control (50.07. Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001 and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits.
Tomedi, Laura E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Newby, P K; Evans, Rhobert W; Luther, James F; Wisner, Katherine L; Bodnar, Lisa M
Pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Poor essential fatty acid (EFA) and micronutrient status during pregnancy may contribute to these associations. We assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and nutritional patterns of maternal micronutrient and EFA status during mid-pregnancy. A cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Women provided non-fasting blood samples at ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation that were assayed for red cell EFA; plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; and serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a-tocopherol, soluble transferrin receptors and carotenoids. These nutritional biomarkers were employed in a factor analysis and three patterns were derived: EFA, Micronutrients and Carotenoids. The Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Study, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pregnant women (n 129). After adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity and age, obese pregnant women were 3.0 (95% CI 1.1, 7.7) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the EFA pattern and 4.5 (95% CI 1.7, 12.3) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the Carotenoid pattern compared with their lean counterparts. We found no association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the Micronutrient pattern after confounder adjustment. Our results suggest that obese pregnant women have diminished EFA and carotenoid concentrations.
Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.
Thomas, DE; Kukuruzovic, R; Martino, B; Chauhan, SS; Elliott, EJ
Objective To survey paediatric dietitians' knowledge and use of evidence-based nutrition (EBN). Design Cross-sectional survey using reply-paid questionnaires. Subjects Paediatric dietitians in Australian teaching hospitals. Main outcome measures Age, sex, appointment, clinical practice, research
Shepherd, R; Towler, G
Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.
Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare
Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.
Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Beghin, Laurent; De Henauw, Stefaan; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Hallström, Lena; Manios, Yannis; Mesana, María I; Molnár, Dénes; Dietrich, Sabine; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Plada, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde
To build up sufficient knowledge of a 'healthy diet'. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe. A cross-sectional study. The European multicentre HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted in 2006-2007 in ten cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece (one inland and one island city), Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden. A total of 3546 adolescents (aged 12·5-17·5 years) completed a validated nutritional knowledge test (NKT). Socio-economic variables and anthropometric data were considered as potential confounders. NKT scores increased with age and girls had higher scores compared with boys (62% v. 59%; P Nutritional knowledge was modest in our sample. Interventions should be focused on the lower SES segments of the population. They should be initiated at a younger age and should be combined with environmental prevention (e.g. healthy meals in school canteens).
Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu
Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs
Jambai, A; MacCormack, C
In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.
Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.
Mairaing, Karicha; Suwannarurk, Komsun; Thaweekul, Yudthadej; Poomtavorn, Yenruedee
To compare the basic knowledge scores, attitudes and acceptability to HPV immunization before and after acknowledge about HPV, cervical cancer and vaccine to study group. An anonymous survey was applied to women attending the outpatient clinic, Thammasat University Hospital from April 2010 to October 2010. Basic knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, attitudes and acceptability to HPV immunization were collected via a self administered questionnaire. A total of 173 mothers completed the survey responses rate of 86.5% (173/200). There is no difference in characteristic and lifestyles of the responders. The basic knowledge scores was higher in the subjects who had higher education level and regular cervical screening history. Most of subjects (> 85%) recognized that HPV is associated with cervical cancer but more than half of them confused about route of transmission. Basic knowledge scores is increased in all acceptability group (strongly agree to strongly disagree) after be informed about HPV and vaccine was observed. Most subjects (78.6%) agree to their daughters' vaccination indicating the high vaccine acceptances. The leading factors to maternal acceptances were free vaccination, negative attitudes such as sexual behavior of daughters and positive attitudes such as vaccine efficacy. HPV vaccine acceptance seems to be depended on cost and efficacy than maternal knowledge. The vaccine is not widely used. The cost-effectiveness analysis should be provided by government. Education and communication in public media are aimed for increasing coverage of vaccination in the future. Maternal acceptances of vaccine depend on high efficacy and low cost.
Yu Qi Lee
Full Text Available The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3, folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2, iron (n = 1, vitamin D (n = 1, total energy (n = 2 and protein (n = 1. Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater.
Lee, Yu Qi; Collins, Clare E.; Gordon, Adrienne; Rae, Kym M.; Pringle, Kirsty G.
The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2), iron (n = 1), vitamin D (n = 1), total energy (n = 2) and protein (n = 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater. PMID:29466283
Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold
Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time
Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M
To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.
Nikolaidis, P. T.; Theodoropoulou, E.
Whereas nutrition has a crucial role on sport performance, it is not clear to what extent nutrition knowledge is associated with physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the current level of nutrition knowledge of soccer players and whether this level is associated with physical fitness. Soccer players (n = 185, aged 21.3 ± 4.9 yr, weight 72.3 ± 8.4 kg, and height 177.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach test, SAR; physical working capacity in...
van Veen, Merel R; Hoedjes, Meeke; Versteegen, Joline J; van de Meulengraaf-Wilhelm, Nienke; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra
To assess what percentage of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insufficient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition and/or physical activity (PA), which characteristics were associated with nurses' perception, and whether the content and information sources differed among those nurses. . A cross-sectional study. . A web-based survey among oncology nurses in the Netherlands. . 355 oncology nurses provided advice on nutrition; of these, 327 provided advice on PA. . From May to July 2013, oncology nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire. Pearson's chi-squared tests and uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. . Oncology nurses' perception of having sufficient or insufficient knowledge to be able to provide advice on nutrition and PA, the content of the advice, and the information sources on which the advice was based. . 43% of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insufficient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition, and 46% perceived insufficient knowledge to provide advice on PA. Factors associated with perceiving insufficient knowledge on nutrition were being aged younger, having lower education, and providing counseling during treatment only. Those nurses were more likely to suggest taking oral nutritional supplements or visiting a dietitian and were less likely to provide information on fluid intake. Nurses perceiving insufficient knowledge about PA used oncology guidelines less often. . Almost half of the oncology nurses providing advice on nutrition and PA perceived themselves as having insufficient knowledge to be able to provide such advice. In particular, younger oncology nurses and oncology nurses with an intermediate vocational education may benefit most from education about these topics. . Educational training for oncology nurses should include nutrition and PA. Oncology nurses should collaborate with dietitians to discuss what information should be provided to patients by
Kim, Hae Won
This study was done to develop a pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and to examine the relationships between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits in pregnant women. With convenient sampling, 189 pregnant women who used community health centers for their ante-natal care were recruited. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire including items on pregnancy nutrition knowledge (18 items) developed by researcher and items on eating habits (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to identify the relationship between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Cronbach's alpha of 18 items was .80. In factor analysis using principal components, 6 factors explained 65% of the total variance. The level of pregnancy nutrition knowledge was not sufficient but correlations between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and some of eating habits were significant. Specifically, pregnancy nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with good eating habits and negatively with bad eating habits. The pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale developed in this study is acceptable for nutrition education led by nurses. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits are considered as major variables for ante-natal nutrition education. In future studies, explorations are needed on dietary intake and physiological indices in pregnant women, comparison of women at risk with those not at risk, and development of nutritional education programs for pregnant women.
Introduction: In order to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, moderate physical activity should be combined with other lifestyle modifications, such as proper nutrition, to have a dramatic impact. This necessitates educational and preventative measures, which should begin in childhood and continue throughout life.
Bjerrum, Merete; Tewes, Marianne; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich
the patients' hospital stay. But putting evidence of nutritional topics into practice is challenging and nutrition care seems to be a low priority nursing task. Aim: to investigate the impact of an educational programme targeted nurses with special responsibilities for nutrition on the nurses' knowledge...... of nutrition, and whether it enhanced their attitude to their responsibility for nutrition care in relation to assessment and management. Methods: An intervention study was conducted with 16 nurses from either medical or surgical wards who participated in a 12-month educational programme. These nurses were...... divided into two groups and interviewed twice before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews were used to gather data about their daily clinical work in relation to nutrition. Deductive content analysis was used to analyse the described data. Results: the educational programme did have...
Doaa Mohammed Youssef
Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients′ scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady
To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Gower, Jared R; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Wilkinson, Robert D; Slater, Hillarie; Jordan, Kristine C
Limited surveys are available to assess the nutrition knowledge of children. The goals of this study were to test the validity and reliability of a computer nutrition knowledge survey for elementary school students and to evaluate the impact of the "Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids" nutrition intervention via the knowledge survey. During survey development, a sample (n=12) of health educators, elementary school teachers, and registered dietitians assessed the survey. The target population consisted of first- through fourth-grade students from Salt Lake City, UT, metropolitan area schools. Participants were divided into reliability (n=68), intervention (n=74), and control groups (n=59). The reliability group took the survey twice (2 weeks apart); the intervention and control groups also took the survey twice, but at pre- and post-intervention (4 weeks later). Only students from the intervention group participated in four weekly nutrition classes. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients for knowledge scores. Results demonstrated appropriate content validity, as indicated by expert peer ratings. Test-retest reliability correlations were found to be significant for the overall survey (r=0.54; PNutrition knowledge was assessed upon program completion with paired samples t tests. Students from the intervention group demonstrated improvement in nutrition knowledge (12.2+/-1.9 to 13.5+/-1.6; Pnutrition survey demonstrated content validity and test-retest reliability for first- through fourth-grade elementary school children. Also, the study results imply that the Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids intervention promoted gains in nutrition knowledge. Overall, the computer survey shows promise as an appealing medium for assessing nutrition knowledge in children. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio
The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.
Hyde, Natalie K; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Bennett, Kathy; Moloney, David J; Pasco, Julie A
Objectives Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an important role in predisposing offspring to the development of chronic disease in adulthood, including osteoporosis. Our aim was to investigate maternal dietary intakes during pregnancy, with a focus on nutrients important for skeletal development in the offspring. Methods In this case-control study, cases were pregnant women recruited for the Vitamin D in Pregnancy Study (n = 350, age 20-40 years) and controls were non-pregnant peers participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (n = 305, age 20-40 years). Dietary intakes of nutrients were quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results Compared to controls, cases consumed more energy [median (interquartile range): 7831 (6506-9461) vs. 7136 (6112-8785) kJ/day]; median intakes for cases were greater for carbohydrates [206.2 (172.5-249.9) vs. 188.2 (147.7-217.5) g/day], fat [77.9 (60.3-96.6) vs. 72.1 (53.3-87.4) g/day], potassium [2860 (2363-3442) vs. 2606 (2166-3442) mg/day] and calcium [1022 (819-1264) vs. 918 (782-1264) mg/day] (all p ≤ 0.05). However, pregnant women were not consuming greater amounts of those nutrients which had an increased demand (protein, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc). Similarly, this translated to the likelihood of achieving national recommendations for corresponding nutrients. Conclusions for Practice Compared to their non-pregnant peers, pregnant women were more likely to meet dietary recommendations for calcium and potassium; however, this was not the pattern observed for protein, magnesium and zinc. Future public health messages should perhaps focus on increasing awareness of the importance of all these nutrients during pregnancy.
Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.
Background Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children’s neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy — an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial distress — significantly affect children’s future neurodevelopment. These prenatal experiences exert their influence in the context of one another and yet, almost uniformly, are studied independently. Scope and Method of Review In this review, we suggest that studying neurocognitive development in children in relation to both prenatal exposures is ecologically most relevant, and methodologically most sound. To support this approach, we selectively review two research topics that demonstrate the need for dual exposure studies, including exemplar findings on (1) the associations between pregnant women’s inadequate maternal intake of key nutrients – protein, fat, iron, zinc, and choline – as well as distress in relation to overlapping effects on children’s neurocognitive development; and (2) cross-talk between the biology of stress and nutrition that can amplify each experience for the mother and fetus,. We also consider obstacles to this kind of study design, such as questions of statistical methods for ‘disentangling’ the exposure effects, and aim to provide some answers. Conclusion Studies that specifically include both exposures in their design can begin to determine the relative and/or synergistic impact of these prenatal experiences on developmental trajectories — and thereby contribute most fully to the understanding of the early origins of health and disease. PMID:23039359
Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.
This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…
Mogre, Victor; Aryee, Paul A.; Stevens, Fred C. J.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A
Background Doctors are in a good position to provide nutrition advice to patients. However, doctors and medical students find their nutrition education to be inadequate. We evaluated nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy in a sample of future doctors. Furthermore, we investigated
Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results: More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65% were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000 of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that
Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H
Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.
Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.
Wong, S; Derry, F; Graham, A; Grimble, G; Forbes, A
A single centre survey. To test: (i) awareness of nutrition screening tools and related care plans and; (ii) nutrition knowledge of doctors, nurses and dietitians working in spinal cord injuries (SCI) centres. The 14-item questionnaire was sent to 102 nurses, 17 doctors and 15 dietitians working in UK SCI centres during January-March 2010. Sixty-two (46.5%) questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis. The present audit demonstrated that awareness of the need for nutritional screening is good: 83% of staff reported that they are aware there is a nutrition screening tool. This audit also demonstrated areas of poor knowledge, such as calorie content of intravenous fluids, indicators of malnutrition, and choice of nutritional support in malnourished patients. All doctors, but only 38% of nurses, knew how to calculate body mass index. Surprisingly, nearly half (49%) of the participants thought that at least 20% weight loss was required to indicate malnutrition. This high-perceived cut-off point suggests that malnutrition is likely to continue to be undetected and unmanaged. The overall scores (median) showed clear differences in nutritional knowledge between groups (median: dietitians 92.8%; doctors 53.5%; nurses 35.7; Pnutrition. This study highlights the need for further education in SCI medicine in order to improve the efficacy of feeding and nutrition therapy for SCI patients.
Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna
Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)
Robertson, Aileen; Sarki, Mahesh; Lobstein, Tim
-conceptual nutrition of parents-to-be will have follow-on benefits for the child, and for their children in turn. Such policies can help EU Member States to decrease the risk of childhood obesity, improve maternal health, and reduce health disparities in the most disadvantaged groups. This life-course approach...... in pregnancy and continuing after birth and those starting after birth but before age 2 years. The first review3 included: prevention of childhood overweight or obesity as an outcome, identifies gaps in current research, and discusses conceptual frameworks and opportunities for future interventions. The review...... that reducing maternal pre-conceptual overweight, gestational weight gain, and healthy infant weight gain by implementing nutrition recommendations shows promise for childhood obesity prevention. Policy interventions on marketing of breast-milk substitutes appear to influence socio-economic differences...
Al-Madani, Khawla M.; Landman, Jacqueline; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1998. Highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.0001) were observed between practitioners and students in relation to knowledge concerning recommended daily allowance. The results…
breast-feeding. Average of maternal knowledge about exclusive breast-feeding was 19/818+4/545 of total score 28 and average of maternal practice was 7/106+2/338 of total score 12. Status of growth infants at 4/8% was very good and in 42/9% was good. There was a significant relationship between maternal practice about Breast-feeding and fathers' education, number of children, status of growth (P
Belski, Regina; Donaldson, Alex; Staley, Kiera; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; Teakel, Steve; Stanley, Sonya; Nicholson, Matthew
This study evaluated the impact of a brief (20-min) nutrition education intervention embedded in an existing mandatory coach education course for coaches of junior (8-12 years old) Australian football teams. A total of 284 coaches (68% of 415 coaching course participants) completed a presession questionnaire, and 110 coaches (27% of coaching course participants) completed an identical postsession questionnaire. The responses to the pre- and postsession surveys were matched for 78 coaches. Coaches' ratings of their own understanding of the nutritional needs of young athletes (6.81, 8.95; p 95%) provided a correct response to six of the 15 nutrition and hydration knowledge questions included in the presession questionnaire. Even with this high level of presession knowledge, there was a significant improvement in the coaches' nutrition and hydration knowledge after the education session across five of the 15 items, compared with before the education session. The results of this study suggest that a simple, short nutrition education intervention, embedded in an existing coach education course, can positively influence the nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy of community-level, volunteer coaches of junior sports participants.
Nikolaidis, P T; Theodoropoulou, E
Whereas nutrition has a crucial role on sport performance, it is not clear to what extent nutrition knowledge is associated with physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the current level of nutrition knowledge of soccer players and whether this level is associated with physical fitness. Soccer players (n = 185, aged 21.3 ± 4.9 yr, weight 72.3 ± 8.4 kg, and height 177.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach test, SAR; physical working capacity in heart rate 170, PWC170; and Wingate anaerobic test, WAnT) and completed an 11-item nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ). Low to moderate Pearson correlations (0.15 Soccer players with high score in NKQ were older (4.4 yr (2.2; 6.6), mean difference (95% confidence intervals)) and heavier (4.5 kg (0.6; 8.3)) with higher FFM (4.0 kg (1.1; 6.8)) and peak power (59 W (2; 116)) than their counterparts with low score. The moderate score in the NKQ suggests that soccer players should be targeted for nutrition education. Although the association between NKQ and physical fitness was low to moderate, there were indications that better nutrition knowledge might result in higher physical fitness and, consequently, soccer performance.
Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo
To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², ppregnancy (27.7 kg/m², ppregnancy (25.3%, ppregnancy (34.3 kg/m², ppregnancy (53.8%, ppregnancy (OR=0.9; CI95% 0.8-0.9, ppregnancy (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.1-11.7, p=0.04). The maternal nutritional status at the end of pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is independently associated with fetal growth, the body mass index during late pregnancy is a protective factor against small for gestational age neonates, and maternal obesity is a risk factor for large for gestational age neonates.
Jared F Duquette
Full Text Available Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans, was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus, their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and
Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Yuan, Jun; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Yong
Kindergarten teachers play an important role in providing kindergarten children with education on nutrition. However, few studies have been published on nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese kindergarten teachers. This study aimed to assess the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. Thus, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured KAP model questionnaire administered to 222 kindergarten teachers, who were senior teachers from 80 kindergartens in 19 districts and 20 counties in Chongqing. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors. Among the participants, 54.2% were familiar with simple nutrition-related knowledge; only 9.9% of them were satisfied with their knowledge of childhood nutrition; and 97.7% of them had a positive attitude to learn nutrition-related knowledge. Only 38.7% of the participants had attended pediatric nutrition knowledge courses or training. Multiple regression analysis confirmed significant independent effects on the nutrition knowledge score (p teachers, behavior of having ever participated in childhood nutrition education knowledge courses or training, and behavior of having ever paid attention to children’s nutrition knowledge. The model indicated that independent variables explained 45.4% (adjusted R2) of the variance found in the knowledge scores of respondents. While there were low levels of nutrition knowledge and training, it was still encouraging to note that there were positive attitudes towards acquiring nutrition-related knowledge among kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. These findings provide some implications that necessary training measures need to be carried out to improve the nutrition-related knowledge level among kindergarten teachers in China. PMID:29597273
Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J
Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrea Horvath Marques
Full Text Available The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of prenatal maternal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood as well as prenatal maternal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early
Tarrant, R C
This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.
Ong Ken K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
L. van Rooy
knowledge have positive effects on eating habits and food selection (Nti, Pecku ... and fast food and take-away outlets (Ma et al., 2003; Shisana et al., 2013). ... healthy and harmful foods and realistic ways to change bad eating habits.
... and barriers in rural Ghana: The case of foods for preventing vitamin A and iron deficiencies. ... of the occurrence of iron deficiency anaemia especially in pregnant women; however, only 8 FGs had knowledge of the causes of anaemia.
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall
Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional knowledge affects nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and society. It is important to know the current level of nutritional knowledge among health-care professionals for successful health promotion. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional knowledge among students of a dental college in Telangana state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among dental students. A standard questionnaire which consisted of questions on awareness of current dietary recommendations, knowledge of food sources and nutrients, and on diet-disease relationships was administered to the students during college hours. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among 400 dental students, majority of them were female (59.75%. The mean age of the participants was 22.29 ± 2.64 years. The nutritional knowledge on dietary recommendations was similar in both females (88.58%, and males (87.63% which was not statistically significant (P = 0.5660 Postgraduates had more nutritional knowledge than undergraduates. Conclusion: It is learnt that males and females had similar nutritional knowledge; however, postgraduate students had more nutritional knowledge compared to undergraduates irrespective of the gender, and there is a need to improve the nutritional knowledge of undergraduate students.
Cassie Maxwell; Kyle Ruth; Carol Friesen
Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete sur...
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players
Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.
Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael
This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.
Full Text Available Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale. Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01. Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.
Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron
Full Text Available The Department of Basic Education (DBE has not given nutrition education the necessary emphasis that it needs, despite its importance in South African schools. Nutrition is included as only one of many topics forming part of the Life Orientation syllabus. Educators are role models for learners in making healthy food choices, however, studies have shown that major gaps exist in the health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of educators. The objective of this research was to undertake a pilot study to determine the impact of a nutrition education programme (NEP on the nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in public schools in South Africa (SA. An exploratory baseline survey, to determine the nutrition education practices in 45 purposively selected public schools, was carried out before the experimental nutrition education intervention study. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was completed by 24 purposively selected educators, representing all nine provinces in SA, before and after a three-day NEP. Pre and post-NEP data were analysed on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for a Windows program version 17.0 for descriptive statistics, version 17.0. Paired t-tests measured statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 before and after the NEP. The knowledge of the respondents improved significantly after the NEP as the mean±s.d. score of correctly answered questions (n = 59 improved from 63.3±30.2% before to 80.6±21.1% after the NEP. The results proved that nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in primary schools is not optimal, but can be improved by NEP. Opsomming Die Departement van Basiese Opvoeding het nog nie die nodige aandag aan voeding voorligting in skole gegee nie ten spyte van die belangrikheid daarvan. Voeding word aangebied as een van vele aspekte in die Lewensoriëntasie sillabusse. Onderwysers is rolmodelle om gesonde voedsel keuses te maak vir kinders, maar studies het bewys dat
Heshmat, Ramin; Salehi, Forouzan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Mahsa; Shafiee, Gita; Ahadi, Zeinab; Khosravi, Shayesteh; Rezvani, Vahab; Sadeghi Ghotbabadi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Abdollahi, Zahra
Background: Improper nutritional knowledge is one of the most important causes of nutritional problems, which can affect practice and cause more complications. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Iranian households with socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: The study population was 14,136 households (57 clusters of 8 individuals in each province) who lived in urban and rural regions of 31 provinces of Iran. The sample size of the study was selected using multistage cluster sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and interview with the qualified person in each family was used to collect data. The questionnaire included demographic, SES and nutritional KAP questions. Using principle component analysis, some variables including household assets, occupation and education level of the heads of the families and respondents and the number of family members were used to construct family SES. The SES was categorized as good, moderate and weak. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Results: The percentage of knowledge about growing up, acquiring energy and being healthy as reasons for eating food was 24.1%, 44.8% and 54.7%, respectively. Only 69.7%, 60.5% and 52.5% of the participants had knowledge of identification of meat and legumes, grain and dairy group, respectively. More than 97% of the participants had a favorable attitude toward importance of nutrition in health. The nutritional knowledge linearly increased with increasing SES. Families with good SES significantly consumed more fruit, vegetable, dairy group, red meat, chicken and poultry, fish and egg while sugar consumption was significantly higher in families with weak SES (pnutritional KAP. Some policies should be considered to increase nutritional KAP especially in lower SES group in the society.
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.
diversity was used as an indicator of dietary practice. ... Cancer is a global concern with an estimated incidence of 12.7 milion and 7.6 million ... shown evidence that caloric restriction slows growth rates for breast cancer . ... critically ill hence incapable of responding to questions. ... knowledge was rated on percentages.
This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing mothers with respect to food restriction during acute diarrhoea in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. This single round cross-sectional study adopted a purposive sampling procedure to select 250 nursing mothers aged between 17 and 45 ...
Yusoff, Hafzan; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Ahmad, Zulkifli
A higher occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is present in rural Malaysia than urban Malaysia due to a lower socio-economic status of rural residents. This study was conducted in Tanah Merah, a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective was to investigate the impact of nutrition education alone, daily iron, folate and vitamin C supplementation or both on knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin status of adolescent students. Two hundred eighty fourth year secondary students were each assigned by school to 1 of 4 different treatment groups. Each intervention was carried out for 3 months followed by 3 months without treatment. A validated self-reported knowledge and attitude questionnaire was administered; hemoglobin levels were measured before and after intervention. At baseline, no significant difference in hemoglobin was noted among the 4 groups (p = 0.06). The changes in hemoglobin levels at 3 months were 11, 4.6, 3.9 and -3.7% for the supplementation, nutrition education, combination and control groups, respectively. The changes at 6 months were 1.0, 6.8, 3.7 and -14.8%, respectively. Significant improvements in knowledge and attitude were evidenced in both the nutritional education and combination groups. The supplementation and control groups had no improvement in knowledge or attitudes. This study suggests nutritional education increases knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin levels among Malaysian secondary school adolescents.
Letlape, S V; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O
The objective of this study was to ascertain the knowledge of students on the composition of a healthy diet, daily nutritional requirements and the importance of regular exercise. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions to assess students 'knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise was conducted. The study group were students of Tswaing High School in Pretoria, South Africa, who were in attendance on a particular day when the study was conducted and who consented to participate in the study Only 500 students of the school participated in the study Results showed that 77% of the students do not have adequate knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise while 23% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge. Approximately 26% and 16% of the students reported that they participated in rigorous and moderate exercise respectively The study also showed that the majority of the students were however not engaged in physical activities. Students at Tswaing High School do not have adequate knowledge on nutrition, diet and exercise. Their views on what exercise entails were found not to be satisfactory. Programmes/ information or seminars that could assist to inform students on the importance of diet and exercise are therefore suggested.
Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi
The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Bergmans, Rachel S; Berger, Lawrence M; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen
Previous studies have observed an association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and depression, which is contrary to SNAP's potential to alleviate food insecurity and financial strain. This study investigated the impact of change in SNAP participation status on maternal depression, and whether perceptions of government assistance moderate this association. Data were from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Logistic regression models with individual-specific fixed-effects, were fit to SNAP-eligible mothers who changed SNAP participation and depression status (N = 256) during waves 2 to 4. Perceptions of government assistance were defined as feelings of humiliation or loss of freedom and tested for interactions with SNAP participation. Perceptions of government assistance moderated the association between SNAP participation and depression (p-interaction = 0.0208). Those with positive perceptions of welfare had 0.27 (95% CI = 0.08 to 0.89) times lower odds of depression when enrolled vs. not enrolled in SNAP. Among those with negative perceptions of welfare, SNAP enrollment was not associated with depression (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.51). Evidence suggests that SNAP mental health benefits may be context specific. SNAP's capacity to improve mental health may depend on individual perceptions of government assistance. More research is needed to determine whether interventions aimed at mitigating negative perceptions of programs like SNAP could ameliorate poor mental health among program participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maxwell, Cassie; Ruth, Kyle; Friesen, Carol
Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended.
Okello, Julius J.; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan; Shikuku, Kelvin M.
The problem of hidden hunger has emerged as one of the major development issues alongside food security. This problem highlights the likelihood of households having access to inadequate amount of key micronutrients in a diet despite having access to adequate quantities of food. , This paper uses a recent detailed household consumption data to investigate households’ nutritional knowledge, the diversity of diets consumed, and the micronutrient uptake, focusing specifically on Vitamin A. The st...
Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen
Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for microbiota in host metabolism and energy harvest, providing novel tools for obesity prevention and management. The maternal environment, including nutrition and microbes, influences the likelihood of developing childhood diseases, which may persist and be exacerbated in adulthood. Maternal obesity and weight gain also influence microbiota composition and activity during pregnancy and lactation. They affect microbial diversity in the gut and breast milk. Such microbial changes may be transferred to the offspring during delivery and also during lactation, affecting infant microbial colonisation and immune system maturation. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the peri-natal period may provide a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our infants using targeted strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota during early life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy.Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity. Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9% reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity.The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women's levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy.
Young, Sera; Murray, Katherine; Mwesigwa, Julia; Natureeba, Paul; Osterbauer, Beth; Achan, Jane; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Clark, Tamara; Ades, Veronica; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah
Objective Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda. Design Prospective cohort. Methods HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Results Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW) (19.6%), preterm delivery (17.7%), fetal death (3.9%), stunting (21.1%), small-for-gestational age (15.1%), and head-sparing growth restriction (26%). No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031 PMID:22879899
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.
McClelland, Jacquelyn W.; Jayaratne, K.S.U.; Bird, Carolyn L.
A prospective, controlled, randomized, crossover design was used to examine a nutrition education curriculum's effects on knowledge and behavior of 463 limited-resource older adults in 13 counties. Counties were randomized to begin with the treatment or control curriculum and then the remaining curriculum. Participants completed a pre-test…
Methodology: Data were collected from engineering and computer science students using semi-structured questionnaire. Analysis was by frequency, percentage and SPSS version 20 statistical soft-ware. Results: Students generally had fair nutrition knowledge (59.7%). Further, 10.1% of engineering and 3.2% of computer ...
The study assessed the knowledge of nutrition and body weight control among civil servants in Osun State of Nigeria. The study is informed by the increase in the number of men and women the world over with overweight and obesity problems. A total of 400 randomly selected civil servants (250 men and 150 women) in ...
Veen, van Merel R.; Hoedjes, Meeke; Versteegen, Joline J.; Meulengraaf-Wilhelm, van de Nienke; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra
Purpose/Objectives: To assess what percentage of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insuffcient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition and/or physical activity (PA), which characteristics were associated with nurses' perception, and whether the content and information sources
Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling
Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
Murimi, Mary W.; Guthrie, Joanne; Landry, Danielle; Paun, Mihaela M.
Objective: To assess nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors of seventh graders in nine randomly selected middle schools in Louisiana. Methods: This descriptive study used personal data assistants (PDAs) to administer a pre-validated questionnaire developed from national instruments to 127 seventh grade students from nine randomly-selected…
Werkhoven, Thea; Cotton, Wayne; Dudley, Dean
Objectives: To synthesize and review pedagogically informed interventions that increase nutrition knowledge and decrease weight prejudice among practicing and pre-service health and education professionals. These factors have been addressed as separate entities in intervention-based research and this represents a gap in current literature. The…
Veen, M.R. van; Hoedjes, M.; Versteegen, J.J.; Meulengraaf-Wilhelm, N. van de; Kampman, E.; Beijer, S.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To assess what percentage of oncology nurses perceived themselves as having insufficient knowledge to provide advice on nutrition and/or physical activity (PA), which characteristics were associated with nurses' perception, and whether the content and information sources differed
Fraser-Abder, Pamela; Doria, John A.; Yang, Ji-Sup; De Jesus, Angela
The concept of funds of knowledge, as applied to an ethnically popular fruit, is the focus of this module. Teachers can use this concept to create contextually meaningful experiments that can contribute to a culturally relevant and more fully developed educational unit focusing on the science of nutrition and reflecting content Standards A and C.…
P. T. Nikolaidis
Full Text Available Whereas nutrition has a crucial role on sport performance, it is not clear to what extent nutrition knowledge is associated with physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the current level of nutrition knowledge of soccer players and whether this level is associated with physical fitness. Soccer players (n=185, aged 21.3±4.9 yr, weight 72.3±8.4 kg, and height 177.5±6.4 cm performed a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach test, SAR; physical working capacity in heart rate 170, PWC170; and Wingate anaerobic test, WAnT and completed an 11-item nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ. Low to moderate Pearson correlations (0.15
Pacce, Sol; Saure, Carola; Mazza, Carmen S; Garcia, Silvia; Tomzig, Rita G; Lopez, Ana P; Ribarola, Lucio; Krochick, Gabriela A
The existence of early factors which, acting during critical periods of intrauterine or immediate postnatal development, determine long-term health has become increasingly recognized. Both high and low birth weight have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. Therefore, body composition at birth rather than birth weight may be a marker to predict future diseases. Maternal weight previous to and gained during pregnancy is associated with intrauterine fetal growth. To evaluate the correlation between maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy and neonatal body composition. We studied consecutive mother-child pairs at delivery at an Argentinean public hospital during 5 months period, evaluating maternal and neonatal anthropometry before 24h of life as well as the history of the mother before and during pregnancy. Neonatal body composition was calculated according to a mathematical formula based on skinfold thickness measurement validated in newborns. Mothers of newborns with high body fat mass were more frequently obese (72.7% versus 35.1%, p 0.005), and more frequently showed weight gain above 18kg during pregnancy (76.4% versus 31%, p 0.03). Our findings confirm the hypothesis that maternal obesity before pregnancy is highly correlated with neonatal fat mass in the first hours of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W
Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case
Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.
Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case
Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)
Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy
Johnson, Lida Catherine
KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Morales-Ruan, Carmen; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
To examine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and risk of childhood stunting and to determine whether this association is modified by maternal-child overweight/obesity. Observational cross-sectional study. Data come from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey ( ENSANUT 2012 by its initials in Spanish), representative of rural and urban areas. Our study sample included 5087 mother-preschool child pairs and 7181 mother-schoolchild pairs. Differences in the prevalence (95% CI) of each HFI category by socioeconomic characteristics and maternal-child nutritional status were estimated. A logistic regression model was conducted for stunting and overweight among preschool children and for stunting and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren, adjusting for pertinent covariates. HFI was measured according to the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA by its initials in Spanish). Weight and recumbent lenght or height measures were obtained from children. Overweight and obesity in women were determined according to the WHO Growth Reference Charts. The following covariates were included: sex of the child. urbanicity (urban/rural), region of residence and maternal education. Benefiting from food assistance programmes and socioeconomic status index were also included. Results were expressed as adjusted ORs. Stunting proved more prevalent in preschool children with moderate or severe HFI (16.2% and 16.8%, respectively) (p=0.036 and p=0.007, respectively) than in their counterparts with mild or no HFI (13.2% and 10.7%, respectively). Furthermore, the interaction between HFI and maternal obesity had a significant impact on stunting in preschool children (p<0.05). Severe HFI increased risk of stunting in children with non-obese mothers but not in those with obese mothers. We have discovered a new relationship between HFI and maternal obesity on the one hand and risk of childhood stunting on the other hand. This may reflect a shared
Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG, and hemoglobin concentration (Hb among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda.Prospective cohort.HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis.Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW (19.6%, preterm delivery (17.7%, fetal death (3.9%, stunting (21.1%, small-for-gestational age (15.1%, and head-sparing growth restriction (26%. No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining <0.1 kg/week was associated with LBW, preterm delivery, and a composite adverse obstetric/fetal outcome. Maternal weight at 7 months gestation predicted LBW. For each g/dL higher mean Hb, the odds of small-for-gestational age decreased by 52%.In our cohort of HIV-infected women initiating cART during pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031.
Hurtado, Ghaffar Ali
The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of knowledge transfer. The setting is a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research question was how is Knowledge Transfer being implemented in Extension, specifically Educational Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program? A case study,…
Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol
Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased in their…
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete’s eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete’s eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.
Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…
Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…
Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh
The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet
Kulkarni, Smita R; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Niranjan V; Lubree, Himangi G; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Pasarkar, Rashmi V; Bhat, Dattatray S; Naik, Sadanand S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
To study determinants of incident hyperglycemia in rural Indian mothers 6 years after delivery. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study collected information in six villages near Pune on prepregnant characteristics and nutrition, physical activity, and glucose tolerance during pregnancy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was repeated 6 years after delivery. A total of 597 mothers had an OGTT at 28 weeks' gestation; 3 had gestational diabetes (by World Health Organization 1999 criteria). Six years later, 42 of 509 originally normal glucose-tolerant mothers were hyperglycemic (8 diabetic, 20 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 with impaired fasting glucose). The hyperglycemic women had shorter legs and thicker skinfolds before pregnancy (P predispose to hyperglycemia in young rural Indian women. International cut points of diabetes risk factors are largely irrelevant in these women.
Melinda M. Manore
Full Text Available For adolescent athletes (14–18 years, data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP participants (80% Latino completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition. The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01. Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0.047 and race/ethnicity (33% lower in Latinos; p < 0.001. Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50% than males (60%; p < 0.001; NSLP-participants ate breakfast less (47% than non-NSLP (62%; p < 0.001. Supplement use was 46%, with Latinos using more supplements than Whites do (p = 0.016. Overall, 30% used protein shakes, with females using less than males (p = 0.02, while use was twice as likely in Latino vs. White (p = 0.03. Overall, 45% reported their nutrient requirements were different from non-athlete peers. Latinos were less likely (p = 0.03 to report that their diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p < 0.001. Adolescent athletes, especially females and Latinos, would benefit from sport nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
Lomperis, A M
The determinants of the severity of childhood malnutrition among a low income population in Cali, Colombia in 1974-76 were examined. Sections are devoted to the welfare maximization and household production model and methodology, the data set, the empirical results, the policy implications, and conclusions. The nutritional health of each preschooler is produced within the household with goods and time inputs (food, environmental sanitation, medical care, time invested in child care, and breastfeeding), and is conditioned by the state of household production technology (mother's literacy as a dummy variable -- version 1, and mother's level of schooling -- version 2) as well as by each child's sex, birth order, age, household size, and sociocultural setting. Constraints are total available income and time available (dummy variable). Reinhardt's version of the translog function is used to represent the production process. Household survey data were made available from a pilot study of a maternal and child health program (PRIMOPS) and includes 421 preschool children and 280 households, and food expenditure data for 197 children and 123 households. The main finding is that teaching Third World mothers to read holds the greatest promise of permanently improving the nutritional status of preschool children. The linear regression results show that the determinants of short-term nutritional status as reflected in weight for age (w/a) are the duration of breastfeeding, literacy, 1-3 years of schooling, and the available food in the household. The levels of significance are higher for version 2, but significance is achieved only with the lower levels of schooling. Birth order is statistically significant but weak and negative; i.e., higher birth orders are at higher risk of malnutrition. Long-term nutritional status is statistically significantly influenced by educational level, birth order, and food available, where older preschoolers are likely to experience stunting but
Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou
The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.
Kullen, Charina J; Farrugia, Jamie-Lee; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T
A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. This study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. A convenience sample of male military personnel (n 211) including Army soldiers and officers completed a validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) and FFQ. The GNKQ assessed knowledge of dietary guidelines (Section A), sources of nutrients (Section B), choosing everyday foods (Section C) and diet-disease relationships (Section D). The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was used to assess diet quality from FFQ data. Statistical analyses included the χ 2 test, Spearman's correlation test, t test, median test, ANCOVA and ordinal logistic regression. The mean total GNKQ score was 52·7 %. Participants performed best on Section A (58·5 %) followed by Sections B (57·3 %) and C (57·0 %) and worst on Section D (31·0 %). Overall, officers scored significantly higher than soldiers (58·7 v. 51·9 %, P=0·001). Age was weakly but positively correlated with GNKQ total scores (r 0·307; Pdiet quality are recommended in this population, especially in soldiers.
Jeffery, R W; Pirie, P L; Rosenthal, B S; Gerber, W M; Murray, D M
Although much evidence links dietary patterns with coronary heart disease, effective and economical methods for inducing dietary change in nonclinical populations are needed to influence public health. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of conducting effective nutrition education campaigns in supermarket settings. Eight supermarkets from a supermarket chain in the Twin Cities area participated. Four were assigned to an experimental condition in which educational materials consisting of posters, recipes, and brochures were placed in the dairy section during a 6-month period. Four other stores were assigned to a control condition and received no educational materials. Shoppers in experimental and control stores completed a nutrition survey pre- and post-intervention. In addition, sales data for 25 dairy products were collected during a 10-month period. A significant increase in knowledge on the nutrition survey between pre- and posttests occurred among shoppers in all stores. There was no significant knowledge or product sales effect due to the education campaign. Study results suggest that, overall, shopper knowledge of food selections for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is high and improving. Unfortunately, knowledge is often not reflected in food purchase patterns.
Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia
To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.
Julvez, Jordi; Guxens, Monica; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Forns, Joan; Mendez, Michelle; Turner, Michelle C; Sunyer, Jordi
This study investigated whether duration of full breastfeeding is associated with child neuropsychological development and whether this association is explained by social, psychological, and nutritional factors within families. Participants in this study were a population-based birth cohort in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain). Females were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy between July 2004 and July 2006. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained through questionnaires. Full breastfeeding was categorized as never, short term (≤4mo), long term (4-6mo), or very long term (>6mo). A trained psychologist assessed the neuropsychological development of children at 4 years of age (n=434) using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Full breastfeeding showed an independent association with child general MSCA scores after adjusting for a range of social, psychological, and nutritional factors (>6mo, coefficient=7.4 [95% confidence interval=2.8-12.0], p=0.011). Maternal social class, education level, and IQ were also associated with child neuropsychological scores, but did not explain breastfeeding associations. Omega-3 (n3) fatty acid levels were not associated with child neuropsychological scores. Very long-term full breastfeeding was independently associated with neuropsychological functions of children at 4 years of age. Maternal indicators of intelligence, psychopathology, and colostrum n3 fatty acids did not explain this association. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Full Text Available Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN, and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average. In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP – Public Health Journal from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical “Revista de Saúde Pública” and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil.
Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A
Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.
Ryu, Han Uk; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Heung-Dong
There has been little research on whether the knowledge that adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) or their family have about the condition reduces their perception of stigma. In this study we determine the relation between AWE's perceived stigma of, and knowledge about, epilepsy and maternal perception of stigma. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study involving AWE and their mothers from 25 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. The level of knowledge about epilepsy was assessed using 34 medical items of the Epilepsy Knowledge Profile-General (EKP-M). Additional questionnaires included the Child Stigma Scale, Parent Stigma Scale, and the Maternal Disclosure Management Scale. A total of 243 AWE and their mothers were included. The mean EKP-M score was 20.7 (range, 12-31) for AWE and 22.0 (range, 11-31) for their mothers. AWE and mothers had a neutral perception of stigma on average, but the maternal concealment behavior was high. Multiple linear regression indicated that AWE's knowledge about epilepsy was significantly related to their perception of stigma. Unexpectedly, AWE with a low level of knowledge reported a higher perception of stigma than those with a very low level of knowledge (β=0.280, p=0.040). In addition, higher maternal concealment behavior (β=0.070, p=0.002) and receiving polytherapy (β=0.240, p=0.046) were independent factors predicting higher perception of stigma in AWE. The knowledge that the AWE had about their epilepsy, maternal concealment behavior, and receiving polytherapy were significantly related to the AWE's perception of stigma. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nowadays the concept of social capital is one of the most popular concepts in sociological studies. Some experts believe that social capital is among the most important factors with a significant part in individuals’ success in achieving their goals. So, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes. For this purpose, the theoretical framework and hypotheses of the research are set based on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory. The statistical population of the research includes 2300 athletes in the 2014 Sports Championship held at Shahid Beheshti University; 310 persons were selected by means of Morgan’s table and the stratified sampling method. The survey method and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes.
Rasnake, Crystal Michelle
The purpose of this study was to determine food safety knowledge and practices of older adult participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP) in Virginia. One hundred and sixty-five FSNEP participants were assigned to two possible intervention groups, group one received the food safety lesson from the Healthy Futures Series currently used in FSNEP, while group two received the food safety lesson plus an additional food safety video. FSNEP participants completed food safet...
Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo Gonçalves da; Aires, Luísa
It is well known the influence that parents and peers have in children and adolescent choices and behaviors, including eating habits and physical activity practice. No work has been done yet about parents and peers influence in nutrition knowledge. This work aims to study the relation between adolescents’ perception of parents and peers food habits, physical activity practice, stimulus to the adolescent to follow a healthy diet and be physically active and adolescents Nut...
Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Herzman-Harari, Sarit; Peles, Einat
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weight was studied. Patients were screened for knowledge about nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Those with a low knowledge score or a BMI ≥26 (n=89) were randomly divided into either intervention (two lectures on healthy nutrition followed by weight monitoring over 6weeks), or controls (weighed at baseline, post-lectures and at study closure). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), eating behavior rating, and nutrition knowledge questionnaires were used. Knowledge and food habit scores improved in the intervention group (28.4±4.3, 37.2±3.1, 32.5±3.9 pre-, post- and 6-weeks post-lectures, respectively), with no change in the controls (28.6±3.4, 28.2±4.9, 28.1±5.3, repeated measured p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.001, p(interaction)=0.001); food habit (intervention: 35.0±7.0, 38.4±5.2, 37.5±5.3, controls: 34.0±6.9, 34.7±6.9, 34.6±7.4, p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.04, p(interaction)=0.06). BMI scores however did not change and were similar in both groups (p=0.9). Of all patients, 10.1% met the criteria of food addiction according to the YFAS, 40.4% lost weight and 28% gained weight, with no group differences. There were more symptoms of food addiction among the patients who gained weight vs. those who lost weight (3.7±2.0 vs. 2.6±1.8, respectively, p=0.04). We concluded that although weight loss was not observed, intervention is recommended for improving knowledge about nutrition and for fostering healthy eating habits with the aim of reducing diet-related morbidity among all MMT patients. Longitudinal program combined with physical activity is needed to study if may lead to weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fallah, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi
Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 100) attending urban health centers in Ilam city (western Iran) during the year 2011 for prenatal care. A nutritional education program containing two to four lessons was undertaken for small groups of between six to ten women. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before intervention (pretest) and followed by two posttests within three weeks interval. The awareness level of pregnant women about healthy nutrition was significantly increased from 3% before intervention to 31% after the nutritional education intervention (P nutritional education intervention will have a positive effect on nutritional awareness of pregnant women.
Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey
This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.
The first national nutrition survey of Thailand in 1960 revealed that malnutrition among children and women in this rice-exporting country was highly prevalent. Malnutrition received national-level attention in the 1970s, when a national multisectoral nutrition plan was included in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1977-81), followed by effective implementation through Thailand's primary healthcare system and poverty alleviation plan in the 1982-87 NESDP. Nutrition was embedded into primary healthcare, and a community-based nutrition program was successfully implemented through community participation via manpower mobilization and capacity-building, financing, and organization. Growth-monitoring, promotion of infant and young child feeding, and joint financing (government and community) of a nutrition fund were implemented. The poverty alleviation plan made it possible to streamline resource allocations at the national level down to priority poverty areas, which also facilitated microlevel planning. Effective, integrated actions were undertaken using the basic minimum needs approach, wherein community people identified problems and participated in actions with inputs from government personnel. This effective process took about 5 years to put in place. In response, child undernutrition declined significantly. Severe malnutrition was practically eradicated, and it remains resilient despite social and economic challenges, such as the Asian economic crisis in 1977. Currently, stunting and subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain, while overweight and obesity among children are rising rapidly. A different paradigm and strategy will be essential to address the nation's current nutrition challenges.
Gerrish, Kate; Laker, Sara; Taylor, Carolyn; Kennedy, Fiona; McDonnell, Ann
The aim of this study was to report a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention to facilitate use of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and innovation in nutritional care for patients at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients is a widespread problem leading to adverse health outcomes. Despite evidence of the benefits of malnutrition screening and recommendations for achieving good nutrition, shortfalls in practice continue. A mixed method integrated knowledge translation study. The knowledge translation intervention comprised nutrition champions supported by knowledge translation facilitators and an action planning process. Data collection was undertaken over 18 months between 2011-2012 in a hospital in England. Data comprised observation of mealtimes, audit of patient records, survey of nurses and semi-structured interviews with nutrition champions, knowledge translation facilitators, senior ward nurses and nurse managers. Statistically significant relationships (Chi Square) were observed between self-reported confidence of nurses (a) to assess patients using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, (b) to teach colleagues how to use the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and (c) to ensure that patients were assessed within 24 hours of admission. Ward-based nutrition champions facilitated successful innovation in nutrition support. Contextual factors operating at micro (ward), meso (organization) and macro (healthcare system) levels acted as barriers and enablers for change. Nutrition champions were successful in increasing the timely assessment of patients at risk of malnutrition and promoting innovation in nutritional care. Support from knowledge translation facilitators helped nutrition champions develop their role and work collaboratively with senior ward nurses to implement action plans for improving nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Choy, Courtney C; Desai, Mayur M; Park, Jennifer J; Frame, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Avery A; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Duckham, Rachel L; Deziel, Nicole C; Hawley, Nicola L
Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, Pobesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group. The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.
Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.
Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…
Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…
Banos, R. M.; Cebolla, A.; Oliver, E.; Alcaniz, M.; Botella, C.
Possessing sufficient nutritional knowledge is a necessary component in the prevention and treatment of obesity. A solid understanding of nutrition can help people make appropriate food selections and can also help correct irrational ideas or myths people may believe about food. It is a challenge to provide this information to children in ways…
Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony
To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. Two global themes and several organising themes were identified. The first global theme, 'structural curriculum-based problems', emerged from three organising themes of: inconsistencies in provided food education programs at schools in Australia; insufficient coverage of food-related skills and food systems topics in school curricula; and the lack of trained school teachers. The second global theme, 'insufficient levels of school-leavers knowledge of N&FS ', was generated from four organising themes, which together described Australian school-leavers' poor knowledge of N&FS more broadly and knowledge translation problem for everyday practices. Study findings identified key problems relating to current school-based N&FS education programs in Australia and reported knowledge gaps in relation to N&FS among Australian school-leavers. These findings provide important guidance for N&FS curriculum development, to clearly articulate broadly-based N&FS knowledge acquisition in curriculum policy and education documents for Australian schools. © 2017 The Authors.
Wyon, Matthew A; Hutchings, Kate M; Wells, Abigail; Nevill, Alan M
It is recognized that there is a high esthetic demand in ballet, and this has implications on dancers' body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI, eating attitudes, and nutritional knowledge of elite student and professional ballet dancers. Observational design. Institutional. One hundred eighty-nine participants from an elite full-time dance school (M = 53, F = 86) and from an elite ballet company (M = 16, F = 25) volunteered for the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data (height and mass), General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were collected from each participant. Univariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in gender and group for BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Regression analyses were applied to examine interactions between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Professional dancers had significantly greater BMI than student dancers (P < 0.001), and males had significantly higher BMI scores than females (P < 0.05). Food knowledge increased with age (P < 0.001) with no gender difference. Student dancers had a significant interaction between year group and gender because of significantly higher EAT-26 scores for females in years 10 and 12. Regression analysis of the subcategories (gender and group) reported a number of significant relationships between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. The findings suggest that dancers with disordered eating also display lower levels of nutritional knowledge, and this may have an impact on BMI. Female students' eating attitudes and BMI should especially be monitored during periods of adolescent development.
Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M
Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.
McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio
Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon E; Gurzo, Klara; Meza, Martha; Rosen, Nila J; Ritchie, Lorrene D
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) differs from other federal nutrition programs in that nutrition education is a required component. WIC programs traditionally provide in-person education, but recently some WIC sites have started offering online education. Education focused on reducing salt intake is an important topic for WIC participants because a high-sodium diet has been associated with high blood pressure, and low-income populations are at increased risk. Our aim was to examine the impacts of traditional in-person and online nutrition education on changes in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to reducing salt intake in low-income women enrolled in WIC. Although a comparison of groups was not the primary focus, a randomized trial examining the impact of online and in-person nutrition education on participant knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to salt intake was conducted. Five hundred fourteen WIC participants from three Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics received either in-person (n=257) or online (n=257) education. Questionnaires assessing salt-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors were administered at baseline and 2 to 4 months and 9 months later from November 2014 through October 2015. Positive changes in knowledge and self-efficacy were retained 2 to 4 months and 9 months later for both groups (Peducation resulted in improvements during a 9-month period in knowledge, self-efficacy, and reported behaviors associated with reducing salt intake in a low-income population. Offering an online education option for WIC participants could broaden the reach of nutrition education and lead to long-term positive dietary changes. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bibi Leila Hoseini
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5. Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P
Alaofè, Halimatou; Zhu, Min; Burney, Jennifer; Naylor, Rosamond; Douglas, Taren
Evidence on effectiveness of women's empowerment (WE) to reduce undernutrition is limited in sub-Sahara Africa, and few studies incorporate multidimensional measures of WE. To examine whether a WE status, in sum and across leadership, decision-making, mobility, economic security, male involvement in housework, and nonfamily group domains, is associated with women and their children nutritional status in Kalalé district of northern Benin. Data were obtained from the 2014 Solar Market Garden baseline study: 767 paired reproductive-age women aged 15 to 49 years and children 6 to 59 months old. Exploratory principal component (cross-validate with confirmatory) factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure of empowerment. Then, using a new survey-based index, regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between WE measures and maternal dietary diversity score (DDS) and body mass index (BMI), as well as their child's DDS, height-for-age z score (HAZ), weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Positive associations were observed between women's composite empowerment, leadership, maternal DDS and BMI, and female child's DDS. However, opposite signs were found between economic security and child's DDS. Mobility was positively associated with female children's WHZ and male children's HAZ and WAZ, while decision-making was correlated with male child's WHZ and female children's WAZ. Women's empowerment can be associated with undernutrition. Efforts to improve nutrition may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's self-confidence and decision-making in Benin. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research may enhance understanding of WE in the present area.
C. B. Santos-Rebouças
Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes encoding folate metabolizing enzymes have been linked to an increased risk of maternal chromosomal nondisjunction in several populations. With the purpose of evaluating this relationship, we compared the frequencies of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR and 66A>G in the methionine synthase reductase gene (MTRR between 103 young mothers of Down syndrome (DS individuals and 108 control mothers, whose offspring was karyotypically normal, correlating it with an estimative of folate and – related micronutrients levels intake. Maternal and paternal transmission frequencies of MTHFR 677T allele were also examined to access potential parent-of-origin effects. PCR-RFLP for genomic DNA was accomplished and allele/genotype frequencies differences were determined using the x2 test, whereas pattern of transmission of the MTHFR 677 allele was analyzed by transmission disequilibrium test. None of the polymorphisms seemed to be more frequent in case mothers than in controls, either individually or combined. The estimative of nutritional intake revealed that folate consumption median was inadequate in both groups, whereas methionine and zinc consumption medians were significantly greater in control mothers. It suggests that such interaction between genetic profile and environment could predispose this sub group of women to have a DS child. Additional studies focusing the interaction between nutritional intakes, biochemical data and folate pathway polymorphisms are needed to confirm the present results. The possibility of neutralize the biochemical negative effects of folate-related polymorphisms through oral supplementation could provide new targets for DS prevention.
Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas
To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.
Nabhani-Zeidan, Maya; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara
Socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated to be a major predictor of dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in adults. To date, very few studies have addressed this effect among adolescents. To explore differences in nutrient intake and nutrition-related knowledge among adolescents of contrasting SES in Lebanon. In a cross-sectional survey, 209 males and females, aged 17 to 19 years, were recruited from a private university with high tuition and a free public university in Beirut. The participants completed a multicomponent, self-administered questionnaire that inquired about demographic characteristics and nutrition-related knowledge. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained through interviews. Energy-adjusted means of dietary intake and age-adjusted nutrition-related knowledge were compared between groups using a general linear model. Adolescents in the high-SES group consumed more vegetables, meats, and fats and oils (p Nutritional knowledge, although high among all participants, was higher in the high-SES group (p nutrition-related knowledge, SES significantly affected dietary intake in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This warrants consideration of other factors, such as cost and environment, that may modulate eating behavior among adolescents from different socioeconomic strata.
Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh
Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother′s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother′s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child′s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.
Wrottesley, S V; Lamper, C; Pisa, P T
Maternal nutritional status (MNS) is a strong predictor of growth and development in the first 1000 days of life and may influence susceptibility to non-communicable diseases in adulthood. However, the role of nutrition during this window of developmental plasticity in Africa is unclear. This paper reviews published data to address whether maternal nutrition during the first 1000 days is important for Africa, with a focus on MNS and its associations with fetal growth and birth, neonatal and infant outcomes. A systematic approach was used to search the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciSearch and Cochrane Library. In all, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria for the specific objectives. MNS in Africa showed features typical of the epidemiological transition: higher prevalences of maternal overweight and obesity and lower underweight, poor diet quality 1 and high anaemia prevalence. Maternal body mass index and greater gestational weight gain (GWG) were positively associated with birth weight; however, maternal overweight and obesity were associated with increased risk of macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Maternal anaemia was associated with lower birth weight. Macro- and micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy were associated with improvements in GWG, birth weight and mortality risk. Data suggest poor MNS in Africa and confirms the importance of the first 1000 days as a critical period for nutritional intervention to improve growth, birth outcomes and potential future health risk. However, there is a lack of data beyond birth and a need for longitudinal data through infancy to 2 years of age.
Taslimi Taleghani M
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence (10-19 years is one of the most challenging periods in human development. A second period of rapid growth occurs during the teen years. Not much information is available on the effect of the socio-economic status on the outcome of nutrition education in teenage girls. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio- economic status on the efficacy of nutrition education in promoting the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice in first-grade guidance school girls in Tehran. Material & Methods: A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple sampling and divided into three groups: 1- guide-book, 2- group discussion, 3- control. The knowledge and attitude data were collected using pre-test and post-test questionnaires and the personal-socioeconomic data were collected using general questionnaires. The students in group 1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group was given nothing to study or to do. Results: Nutrition education did not have a significant effect on the increase in the attitude score in the students whose grade-point average and their mother’s education level were high. (p= 0.13, p=0.29. Only mother’s education level independently from the type of education was associated with the difference of knowledge score means (p =0.07.There was interaction between nutritional education and monthly pocket- money with regard to the increase in the knowledge score (p =0.03. Conclusion: Overall, exception of monthly pocket money, the effect of education on the nutritional knowledge and attitude was independent from other variables. Only mother’s education associate with the difference of knowledge score means.
Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth
This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.
Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Dadgari, Ali
To determine the effects of educational instructions on hemodialysis patients' knowledge and quality of life (QOL), we studied 99 patients randomly assigned to control and experimental groups after participation in a pretest exam. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic composition. The instrument used in this study was a questionnaire regarding patients' knowledge and the standard questionnaire to assess QOL for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Then, intervention (nutritional education) was conducted in the experimental group lasting for 12 weeks. After 16 weeks, a post test regarding subjects' knowledge on dietary instructions and their QOL were as conducted. There was no significant difference in QOL score and knowledge score before and after intervention in the control group, but there was a significant difference in the experimental group. In addition, after the intervention, the difference in knowledge and QOL score persisted between the two groups. The results of this study supported the positive effects of educational program on patients' knowledge and QOL among ESRD patients. It is recommended that dietary instruction be included in all educational programs to improve ESRD patients' QOL.
In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...
Pieters, B.J.; Liess, M.
Abstract Daphnia populations in the field suffer periodic natural stress conditions such as low food levels. It is known that at low nutritional supply, Daphnia produces fewer but larger offspring, which are acutely less sensitive to chemical stress. We hypothesized that the change in the
Upadhyay, S; Kumar, A R; Raghuvanshi, R S; Singh, B B
This study aimed to examine the impact of the use of single vs. combination of media on nutritional knowledge and haemoglobin status of women in a rural hill area in Uttarakhand State, India. Women from three villages were selected randomly and divided into three groups namely, print media group (n = 59), multimedia group (n = 53) and control group (n = 111). The print media group was exposed to nutrition education through the use of calendars on anaemia for 60 days; the multimedia group was given nutrition education through a combination of media including calendars, video films, and group discussions for 60 days. At pre-exposure stage, 62.7% of the women in the print media group, 67.9% of the multimedia group, and 66.7% of the control group had a low nutrition knowledge level. After exposure, the print media group and the multimedia group showed a significant rise in nutrition knowledge, with the multimedia group scoring significantly higher than the print media group. Overall, 69.1% of the women were anaemic with mean haemoglobin concentration of 10.74 +/- 0.86 g/dl. A non-significant rise in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the experimental groups was found at post-exposure stage. Calendars and video films are effective in increasing nutrition knowledge of illiterate hill women. Use of mass media programmes of longer duration should be encouraged to combat the nutritional problems of rural communities.
Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assessthe amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women.
Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women
Narendra K Arora
Full Text Available In India, research prioritization in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN themes has traditionally involved only a handful of experts mostly from major cities. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR-INCLEN collaboration undertook a nationwide exercise engaging faculty from 256 institutions to identify top research priorities in the MNCHN themes for 2016-2025. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method of priority setting was adapted. The context of the exercise was defined by a National Steering Group (NSG and guided by four Thematic Research Subcommittees. Research ideas were pooled from 498 experts located in different parts of India, iteratively consolidated into research options, scored by 893 experts against five pre-defined criteria (answerability, relevance, equity, investment and innovation and weighed by a larger reference group. Ranked lists of priorities were generated for each of the four themes at national and three subnational (regional levels [Empowered Action Group & North-Eastern States, Southern and Western States, & Northern States (including West Bengal]. Research priorities differed between regions and from overall national priorities. Delivery domain of research which included implementation research constituted about 70 per cent of the top ten research options under all four themes. The results were endorsed in the NSG meeting. There was unanimity that the research priorities should be considered by different governmental and non-governmental agencies for investment with prioritization on implementation research and issues cutting across themes.
Violet L. van den Berg
Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires. Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives. Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.
Baños, R M; Cebolla, A; Oliver, E; Alcañiz, M; Botella, C
Possessing sufficient nutritional knowledge is a necessary component in the prevention and treatment of obesity. A solid understanding of nutrition can help people make appropriate food selections and can also help correct irrational ideas or myths people may believe about food. It is a challenge to provide this information to children in ways that are exciting. Thus, we propose an online video game platform to deliver the information. The objective of this study was to study the efficacy and acceptability of an online game called 'ETIOBE Mates' that was designed to improve children's nutritional knowledge; furthermore, we compare it with the traditional paper-pencil mode of information delivery. A sample of 228 children participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (who used ETIOBE Mates) and a control group (who were given a pamphlet). Both groups increased their scores for nutritional knowledge. The interaction between group × time was also statistically significant; it indicated that acquisition of nutritional knowledge was superior in the experimental group. The children considered the serious games platform to be a useful medium for improving their nutritional knowledge. Online games can be an effective method of delivery for preventive and treatment tasks that are otherwise tedious for children.
Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the
Baskaran, Vikraman; Davis, Kim; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini
Electronic Patient Records have improved vastly the quality and efficiency of care delivered. However, the formation of single demographic database and the ease of electronic information sharing give rise to many concerns including issues of consent, by whom and how data are accessed and used. This paper examines the organizational and socio-technical issues related to privacy, confidentiality and security when employing electronic records within a maternity service hospital in England. A preliminary questionnaire was administered (n = 52), in total, 24 responses were received. Sixteen responses were from personnel in the information technology department, 5 from health information department and 3 from midwifery managers. This was followed by a semi-structured interview with representatives from the clinical and technological side. A number of issues related to information governance (IG) have been identified, especially breaches on sharing personal information without consent from the patients have been identified as one immediate challenge that needs to be fixed. There is an immediate need for more robust, realistic, built-in accountability both locally and nationally on data sharing. A culture of ownership and strict adherence to IG principles is paramount. Focused training in the area of data, information and knowledge sharing will bring in a balance of legitimate usage against the individual's rights to confidentiality and privacy.
Sakamaki, Ruka; Toyama, Kenji; Amamoto, Rie; Liu, Chuan-Jun; Shinfuku, Naotaka
We have previously shown that irregular lifestyle of young Japanese female students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we examined the nutritional knowledge and food habits of Chinese university students and compared them with those of other Asian populations. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to 540 students, ranging in age from 19-24 years. Medical students from Beijing University (135 men and 150 women) in Northern China and Kunming Medical College in southern China (95 men and 160 women) participated in this study. The parametric variables were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Chi-square analyses were conducted for non-parametric variables. Our results showed that 80.5% of students had a normal BMI and 16.6 % of students were underweight with the prevalence of BMI>30 obesity being very low in this study sample. Young Chinese female students had a greater desire to be thinner (62.0%) than males (47.4%). Habits involving regular eating patterns and vegetable intake were reported and represent practices that ought to be encouraged. The university and college arenas represent the final opportunity for the health and nutritional education of a large number of students from the educator's perspective. Our findings suggest the need for strategies designed to improve competence in the area of nutrition.
de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey
Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh
The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly ( p nutrition behaviors.
Sacco, Sandra M; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J; Ward, Wendy E
Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0.5% HSP + 0.25% NAR diet (HSP + NAR, n = 8) for 5 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, were weaned and fed CON until 6 months of age. In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) measured tibia BMD and structure at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Ex vivo µCT measured femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV) structure at age 6 months. Ex vivo BMD (femur, LV) and biomechanical strength (femur and tibia midpoint, femur neck) were assessed at age 6 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and strength testing, respectively. At all ages, HSP + NAR offspring had greater (p structure compared to CON offspring. At age 4 months, proximal tibia trabecular structure was greater (p structure were greater (p structure at the proximal tibia in male CD-1 offspring that persisted to 6 months of age. Thus, maternal programming of offspring BMD and bone structure from consumption of HSP + NAR occurred as a sex-specific response.
Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P
Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the knowledge in the field of trans fatty acids (TFAs and nutritional recommendations related to fats among students at the University of Life Sciences in Warsaw (SGGW and Wageningen (WUR. The research was done using a questionnaire composed of 16 questions among 194 students from SGGW and WUR in 2012.In Poland 96% and in Holland 89% of students had heard the name “trans fat”. More than half of the questionnaire respondents knew industrial sources of TFAs. After comparing the results of the research, in which students succeeded, it was concluded that differences in the level of knowledge were statistically not significant (p<0.05. Eating habits for fatty pastry products representing a potential source of TFAs were similar. WUR students’ purchase of pastry products was dependent on price, whereas that of Polish students depended on information and ingredients listed on the package.
Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Darney, Blair G; Orozco-Nuñez, Emanuel
Strategic priority setting and implementation of strategies to reduce maternal mortality are key to the post Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2015 agenda. This article highlights the feasibility and the advantages of using a systematized tacit knowledge approach, using data from maternal health program personnel, to identify local challenges to implementing policies and programs to inform the post MDG era. Communities of practice, conceived as groups of people sharing professional interests, experiences and knowledge, were formed with diverse health personnel implementing maternal health programs in Mexico and Nicaragua. Participants attended several workshops and developed different online activities aiming to strengthen their capacities to acquire, analyze, adapt and apply research results and to systematize their experience and knowledge of the actual implementation of these programs. Concept mapping, a general method designed to organize and depict the ideas of a group on a particular topic, was used to manage, discuss and systematize their tacit knowledge about implementation problems of the programs they work in. Using a special online concept mapping platform, participants prioritized implementation problems by sorting them in conceptual clusters and rating their importance and feasibility of solution. Two hundred and thirty-one participants from three communities of practice in each country registered on the online concept mapping platform and 200 people satisfactorily completed the sorting and rating activities. Participants further discussed these results to prioritize the implementation problems of maternal health programs. Our main finding was a great similarity between the Mexican and the Nicaraguan general results highlighting the importance and the feasibility of solution of implementation problems related to the quality of healthcare. The use of rigorously organized tacit knowledge of health personnel proved to be a feasible and useful tool for
El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic
Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.
Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…
... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...
Full Text Available Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt, control knockout (C_KO, obese wild type (Ob_wt, and obese knockout (Ob_KO. At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system.
Al-Yateem, Nabeel; Rossiter, Rachel
Good nutritional knowledge and behaviour among adolescents is important to avoid health problems that can continue into adulthood. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide baseline data on nutritional knowledge and eating habits of adolescents in Sharjah. Data were collected from 300 adolescents aged 9-13 years attending 4 private schools using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Most students (86%) had poor nutritional knowledge, especially in key areas: nutritional terms, what constitutes healthy snacks and foods, daily nutritional requirements and components of food (e.g. fibre, fat, sugar). Only 34% of the students had healthy eating behaviour: 33% had eaten none or 1 vegetable only in the previous week, 25% had eaten unhealthy snacks 3 or more times, 19% had eaten frequently or daily at fast food outlets, and 36% had skipped breakfast frequently or daily. Culturally-specific, school-based educational interventions are warranted to build sound nutritional knowledge among adolescents and motivate the diet and behaviour changes needed to promote health throughout the lifespan.
Full Text Available Aim: Failure to daily supplementary feeding in according with the growing needs, economic impossibilities, nutritional imbalances caused by false beliefs, wrong practices in food preparartion and safekeeping are the basic causes of the feding problems during pregnancy in our country. In our study are investigated the factors affecting the behaviors and the level of knowledge about nutrition during pregnancy. Material and Method: Our study is a descriptive study whose universe is costituted of 409 pregnant women in 4 month period. The questionnare consist of 3 parts. The first part aimed to identify the demographic characteristics of the participants,the second part aimed to determine information about nutrition during pregnancy and the third part aimed to identify attitudes and behaviors. Scores of knowledge of the pregnant women about nutrition were calculated out of 100 and were compared to demographic data. Results: The average age was 27.39±4.57, the age of first birth was 23.80±3.43, the age at first marriage was 22.02±3.11. 75.8% of the pregnant women were housewives and 78.2% of the pregnant women were high school graduatesand over. The levels of knowledge of nutrition in pregnant women were calculated as 69.10±14.37. The levels of knowledge of nutrition in primery school graduates according to high school and higher graduates were found statistically significantly lower (p
McCaughtry, Nate; Fahlman, Mariane; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Shen, Bo
Background: Health professionals are looking to nutrition-based youth health interventions in K-12 schools to combat the growing obesity crisis; however, none have explored the influences of interventions guided by constructivist learning theory. Purpose: This study examined the influences of a constructivist-oriented nutrition education program…
Bloom, S S; Tsui, A O; Plotkin, M; Bassett, S
Women in India suffer from a high incidence of reproductive disease, disability and death. Very little work has been done on men, but a much higher incidence of sexual experience outside marriage and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among males than previously expected for this population is now being documented. In north India, women are dependent on their husbands and other family members for health-related decisions. Therefore, the behaviour, knowledge and attitudes of men are integral to the reproductive health status of couples there. This study explores knowledge about three distinct areas of reproductive health among 6549 married men in five districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Factors contributing to men's knowledge in the areas of fertility, maternal health and STDs were investigated. Results showed that very few men had basic knowledge in any of these areas. The likelihood of reporting knowledge was associated with a set of determinants that differed in their magnitude and effect across the areas of reproductive health explored. In particular, men's belief about the ability of an individual to prevent pregnancy demonstrated an independent association with men's knowledge. After controlling for factors such as age, parity and educational and economic status, men who believed it not possible to prevent a pregnancy were less likely to know when during the menstrual cycle women would become pregnant and certain facts about STDs, but they were more likely to be able to name two or more symptoms of serious maternal health conditions. Possible explanations for this trend are discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: The first five years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother's knowledge, practice ability and maternal confidence of infant (0-6 months growth and development. Method: A quasy eksperimental pre-post with control group design was used. The intervention given was health education with modelling approach related to lactation management and infant growth development stimulation. The research was conducted in Maros Regency wiht 81 samples (41 in the treatment group and 40 in the control group. Result: The wilcoxon test reveals that there was a signi fi cant difference between treatment and control group, accordingly, knowledge (p = 0.00, p = 0.01, practice ability (p = 0.00, p = 0,006 and maternal confidence (p = 0.03, p = 0.03. In addition, from mann whitney test, between the two group, the data obtained are: knowledge (p = 0,950, practice ability (p = 0.00 and maternal con fi dence (p = 0,061. Discussion: Health education with modelling approach conducting by nurse was effective in increasing knowledge, practice ability, maternal confidence breastfeeding and baby stimulation, which was in turn can optimize baby growth and development. That is why, community health nurses role should be increase by making community health nursing program as one of primary public health centre program.
Wilson César de ABREU
Full Text Available This study assessed the nutritional status, feeding practices and knowledge of nutrition of school students enrolled at high schools of the public and private teaching schools of the town of Formiga/MG. To evaluate the nutritional status, percentile Body Mass Index was utilized, adopting the cutting scores proposed by the World Health Organization. The information about feeding practices and knowledge in nutrition was obtained by utilizing self-administered standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight was 11.8% and was significantly higher in the public schools and in males. The low weight was found in only 1.9% of studied population. Little more than a half of the participants indicated correctly the foods rich in fibers and in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Most of the adolescents (65.5% do not eat fruit and vegetables daily. The daily consumption of milk and dairy products was also low and was significantly higher in the private school network and in the male gender. Overall the results indicate poor eating habits that increase the risk of nutritional disorders.
Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M
the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should......Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery...... and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs...
Lam, Maggie Yee Yan; Wong, Eddie Chi Ming; Law, Chi Wai; Lee, Helena Hui Ling; McPherson, Bradley
To facilitate early diagnosis of infants with hearing loss, a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHS) has been implemented in Hong Kong's public hospitals for over a decade. However, there have been no known studies investigating parent attitudes to, and satisfaction with, UNHS since its launch in Hong Kong. The present study aimed to investigate knowledge of UNHS as well as infant hearing development, and attitudes and satisfaction with UNHS, in Hong Kong mothers with newborns. The study was designed to help evaluate and improve an established UNHS public hospital program, based on the perspectives of service users. A researcher-developed questionnaire was administered to 102 mothers whose newborn had received UNHS in the postnatal wards of a large public hospital in Hong Kong. The questionnaire considered parental knowledge of UNHS and infant hearing development, attitudes and satisfaction toward public hospital UNHS. In the knowledge dimension, parents' preferred time and location for pre-test information delivery, interpretation of screening results, and knowledge of hearing developmental milestones were surveyed. In addition, maternal attitudes to and satisfaction with UNHS screening services, the potential impact of UNHS on parent emotions and parent-baby bonding, attitudes toward informed consent, and willingness to comply with diagnostic assessment referral were also be surveyed. Mean participant scores on knowledge of infant hearing development were relatively low (M = 2.59/6.0, SD = 0.90). Many mothers also underestimated the potential ongoing risks of hearing impairment in babies. Around 80% of mothers thought an infant could not have hearing impairment after passing the screening. In addition, one-third of mothers thought a baby could not later develop hearing impairment in infancy or childhood. In terms of attitudes and satisfaction, participants gave somewhat negative ratings for questions regarding receiving sufficient information
Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A
This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP - Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical "Revista de Saúde Pública" and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil. RESUMO Este trabalho descreve e comenta os artigos na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, publicados na Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP) de 1967 a 2016. Foi realizada busca na base de dados PubMed restrita ao periódico "Revista de Saúde Pública" e utilizando termos relacionados com temáticas chaves da área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. Foram recuperados 742 artigos e, após as exclusões dos artigos repetidos e daqueles não relacionados com a temática, foram analisados 441 artigos, agrupados segundo o tema: cárie dental, anemia, hipovitaminose A, macro/micronutrientes, desnutrição, avaliação do estado nutricional, sobrepeso/obesidade, consumo de alimentos, baixo peso ao nascer, e aleitamento materno. Observou-se incremento significativo no número de artigos publicados e a diversificação dos temas tratados ao longo destes 50 anos, retratando o consistente desenvolvimento do campo científico da Nutrição no Brasil. Desde seu início, a
Nevin, Alexandra C; Parshuram, Christopher; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne
Background Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world that is a human teratogen whose use among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. It is also probable that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is under diagnosed by physicians. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2) to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns. Methods and Participants A multiple choice anonymous questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected group of family physicians in the Metropolitan Toronto area. Results There was a 73% (75/103) total response rate; Overall, 6/75 (8%) of family physicians reported that they had actually diagnosed a child with FAS. 17.9% had suspicions but did not make a diagnosis and 12.7% reported making a referral to confirm the diagnosis. Physician rated confidence in the ability to diagnosis FAS was low, with 49% feeling they had very little confidence. 75% reported counselling pregnant women and 60.8% reported counselling childbearing women in general on the use of alcohol. When asked what screening test they used to detect the use of alcohol, 75% described frequency/quantity. Not a single respondent identified using the current accepted screening method for alcohol use (TWEAK) which is recommended by The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Conclusions Family physicians do not feel confident about diagnosing FAS. None of the physicians were aware of the current screening methods to accurately gage alcohol use in pregnant and childbearing women PMID:11860607
Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dissertations and theses produced by graduate programs in nutrition in Brazil from 2003 to 2012. We sought to identify: a The number of studies produced per year b the scientific approach (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed, and c the area of knowledge in the scientific field of nutrition. Methods: This is a descriptive study. We investigated seven graduate programs linked to the area of nutrition of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel, which had the web pages listing the studies. The analysis procedures included reading the titles, identifying the advisor's lines of research, reading the summaries, and reading the methods section. Results: In the study period 758 dissertations and 204 theses were defended, signifying an increase of 229.0% for the all programs. The hegemony of the quantitative approach shows the influence of the philosophical trends linked to positivism and the biological sciences, attracting interest from 92.5% of researchers. The qualitative and mixed approaches contributed only to 7.3% of the studies, expressing the influence of the social sciences and humanities and of the philosophical trends' dialectics and phenomenology about a small group of researchers. Conclusion: The distribution of dissertations and theses in the six areas of knowledge reaffirms the complexity, breadth, epistemological, and methodological heterogeneity; and the configuration of the field of knowledge production in food and nutrition, requiring the construction of collective political projects, seeking the interdisciplinarity of the different areas that structure the field.
Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony
Background: The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts’ views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems. Methods: In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. Results: The experts’ suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Conclusions: Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely. PMID:27857832
Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony
The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts' views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems. In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. The experts' suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely.
Shiyko, Mariya; Hallinan, Sean; Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Subramanian, Shree; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
Obesity and weight gain is a critical public health concern. Serious digital games are gaining popularity in the context of health interventions. They use persuasive and fun design features to engage users in health-related behaviors in a non-game context. As a young field, research about effectiveness and acceptability of such games for weight loss is sparse. The goal of this study was to evaluate real-world play patterns of SpaPlay and its impact on body mass index (BMI) and nutritional knowledge. SpaPlay is a computer game designed to help women adopt healthier dietary and exercise behaviors, developed based on Self-Determination theory and the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) model. Progress in the game is tied to real-life activities (e.g., eating a healthy snack, taking a flight of stairs). We recruited 47 women to partake in a within-subject 90-day longitudinal study, with assessments taken at baseline, 1-, 2-, and 3- months. Women were on average, 29.8 years old (±7.3), highly educated (80.9% had BA or higher), 39% non-White, baseline BMI 26.98 (±5.6), who reported at least contemplating making changes in their diet and exercise routine based on the Stages of Change Model. We computed 9 indices from game utilization data to evaluate game play. We used general linear models to examine inter-individual differences between levels of play, and multilevel models to assess temporal changes in BMI and nutritional knowledge. Patterns of game play were mixed. Participants who reported being in the preparation or action stages of behavior change exhibited more days of play and more play regularity compared to those who were in the contemplation stage. Additionally, women who reported playing video games 1-2 hours per session demonstrated more sparse game play. Brief activities, such as one-time actions related to physical activity or healthy food, were preferred over activities that require a longer commitment (e.g., taking stairs every day for a week
Conclusion: Education through lecture and asking/answering questions can significantly increase adolescents’ awareness and to some extent, their nutritional performance, although more effective methods are advised to promote the situation.
Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D
There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris
Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.
Vergères, Guy; Bogicevic, Biljana; Buri, Caroline; Carrara, Sandro; Chollet, Magali; Corbino-Giunta, Linda; Egger, Lotti; Gille, Doreen; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin; Laederach, Kurt; Portmann, Reto; Ramadan, Qasem; Ramsden, Jeremy; Schwander, Flurina; Silacci, Paolo; Walther, Barbara; Gijs, Martin
Advances in food transformation have dramatically increased the diversity of products on the market and, consequently, exposed consumers to a complex spectrum of bioactive nutrients whose potential risks and benefits have mostly not been confidently demonstrated. Therefore, tools are needed to efficiently screen products for selected physiological properties before they enter the market. NutriChip is an interdisciplinary modular project funded by the Swiss programme Nano-Tera, which groups scientists from several areas of research with the aim of developing analytical strategies that will enable functional screening of foods. The project focuses on postprandial inflammatory stress, which potentially contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The first module of the NutriChip project is composed of three in vitro biochemical steps that mimic the digestion process, intestinal absorption, and subsequent modulation of immune cells by the bioavailable nutrients. The second module is a miniaturised form of the first module (gut-on-a-chip) that integrates a microfluidic-based cell co-culture system and super-resolution imaging technologies to provide a physiologically relevant fluid flow environment and allows sensitive real-time analysis of the products screened in vitro. The third module aims at validating the in vitro screening model by assessing the nutritional properties of selected food products in humans. Because of the immunomodulatory properties of milk as well as its amenability to technological transformation, dairy products have been selected as model foods. The NutriChip project reflects the opening of food and nutrition sciences to state-of-the-art technologies, a key step in the translation of transdisciplinary knowledge into nutritional advice.
Full Text Available Understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of hospital staff is needed to improve care activities that support the detection/prevention/treatment of malnutrition, yet quality measures are lacking. The purpose was to develop (study 1 and assess the administration and discriminative potential (study 2 of using such a KAP measure in acute care. In study 1, a 27-question KAP questionnaire was developed, face validated (n = 5, and tested for reliability (n = 35. Kappa and Intraclass Correlation (ICC were determined. In study 2, the questionnaire was sent to staff at five diverse hospitals (n = 189. Administration challenges were noted and analyses completed to determine differences across sites, professions, and years of practice. Study 1 results demonstrate that the knowledge/attitude (KA and the practice (P subscales are reliable (KA: ICC = 0.69 95% CI 0.45–0.84, F = 5.54, p < 0.0001; P: ICC = 0.84 95% CI 0.68−0.92, F = 11.12, p < 0.0001. Completion rate of individual questions in study 2 was high and suggestions to improve administration were identified. The KAP mean score was 93.6/128 (range 51–124 with higher scores indicating more knowledge, better attitudes and positive practices. Profession and years of practice were associated with KAP scores. The KAP questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure that can be used in needs assessments to inform improvements to nutrition care in hospital.
Full Text Available Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK was carried out in six phases as follows: (1 item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2 pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3 measurement of the internal consistency; (4 reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5 concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6 construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.
Królak, Maria; Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Sajdakowska, Marta; Gębski, Jerzy
The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber. The data were collected in 2014 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey that was performed under the Bioproduct project among a group of 1013 Polish adults. The associations between variables were investigated using multiple regression analysis. The respondents' general knowledge on nutrition influenced their knowledge on fiber intake (correlation coefficient r = 0.30). Respondents with a greater knowledge perceived higher benefits of consuming cereal products that were fortified with fiber ( r = 0.78), and attached greater importance to the information on the label ( r = 0.39) as well. The nutrition knowledge determined the familiarity with fiber-enriched bread and the consumption of this product ( r = 0.40) to a greater degree than the frequency of wholemeal bread consumption ( r = -0.10). The respondents' perception of dietary fiber was observed to play a partial mediation role between the knowledge on nutrition and the consumption of both kinds of breads, suggesting that it can be an important predictor of bread consumption. To increase the consumption of bread that is rich in fiber, emphasis should be laid on specific information on fiber, referring to food products as well as on individual's perception of those products. The said information should be reinforced along with overall communication regarding nutrition to influence the bread-related decisions.
Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J
This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.
Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; Di Marrazzo, Jessica Scotto; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Greiner, Birgit A; Perry, Ivan J
Evidence on effective workplace dietary interventions is limited. The comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification and an educational intervention both alone and in combination was assessed versus a control workplace on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status. In the Food Choice at Work cluster controlled trial, four large, purposively selected manufacturing workplaces in Ireland were allocated to control (N=111), nutrition education (Education) (N=226), environmental dietary modification (Environment) (N=113) and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification (Combined) (N=400) in 2013. Nutrition education included group presentations, individual consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification included menu modification, fruit price discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. Data on dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status were obtained at baseline and follow-up at 7-9months. Multivariate analysis of covariance compared changes across the four groups with adjustment for age, gender, educational status and other baseline characteristics. Follow-up data at 7-9months were obtained for 541 employees (64% of 850 recruited) aged 18-64years: control: 70 (63%), Education: 113 (50%), 74 (65%) and Combined: 284 (71%). There were significant positive changes in intakes of saturated fat (p=0.013), salt (p=0.010) and nutrition knowledge (p=0.034) between baseline and follow-up in the combined intervention versus the control. Small but significant changes in BMI (-1.2kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.385, -0.018, p=0.047) were observed in the combined intervention. Effects in the education and environment alone workplaces were smaller and generally non-significant. Combining nutrition education and environmental dietary modification may be an effective approach for promoting a healthy diet and weight loss at work. Copyright © 2016
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Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews-Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) "How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?"; ii) "How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings?"; and iii) "How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?". Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of
Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia
To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and to determine social factors, nutritional knowledge and attention to packaging features related to such patterns. Cross-sectional. Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability of three simple FOP labels (the 'Green Tick', the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Programme (PNNS logo) and 'simple traffic lights' (STL)) and two detailed formats ('multiple traffic lights' (MTL) and the 'colour range' logo (CR)). Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics were examined using χ2 tests. Data from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. A total of 38,763 adults. Four perception patterns emerged. Poorly educated individuals were most often found in groups favouring simple formats. The 'favourable to CR' group had a high rate of men and older persons. Poor nutritional knowledge was more frequent in the 'favourable to STL' group, while individuals with substantial knowledge were proportionally more numerous in the 'favourable to MTL' group. The 'favourable to STL' group more frequently self-reported noting price and marketing characteristics during purchasing, while the 'favourable to MTL' and 'favourable to CR' groups declared more interest in nutritional information. The 'favourable to Green Tick and PNNS logo' group self-reported paying closer attention to claims and quality guarantee labels. The 'favourable to MTL' cluster was most frequently represented in our survey. However, simple FOP formats may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among targeted groups with poor nutritional knowledge and little interest in the nutritional quality of packaged foods.
Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.
The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)
Paez Valery, M C; Eden Yepez, C; Sanchez Jaeger, A; Pontiles Colina, M; Llovera, D; Teran, D [Unidad de Investigaciones en Nutricion, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela)
The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author) 21 refs, 1 tab
The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers
The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on `Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition` held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers Refs, figs, tabs, graphs
Lindsay, K L
Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted.
Ciemon Frank Caballes
Full Text Available Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites produced bigger larvae with larger stomachs and had a higher frequency of normal larvae that reached the late bipinnaria / early brachiolaria stage compared to starved starfish. Females on Acropora diet also produced a higher proportion of larvae that progressed to more advanced stages faster compared to Porites-fed starfish, which progressed faster than starved starfish. These results suggest that maternal provisioning can have important consequences for the quality and quantity of progeny. Because food quality (coral community structure and quantity (coral abundance varies widely among reef locations and habitats, local variation in maternal nutrition of A. planci is likely to moderate reproductive success and may explain temporal and spatial fluctuations in abundance of this species.
Caballes, Ciemon Frank; Pratchett, Morgan S; Kerr, Alexander M; Rivera-Posada, Jairo A
Variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. Previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. To examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in A. planci, we pre-conditioned females for 60 days on alternative diets of preferred coral prey (Acropora abrotanoides) versus non-preferred coral prey (Porites rus) and compared resulting gametes and progeny to those produced by females that were starved over the same period. Females fed ad libitum with Acropora increased in weight, produced heavier gonads and produced larger oocytes compared to Porites-fed and starved females. Fed starfish (regardless of whether it was Acropora or Porites) produced bigger larvae with larger stomachs and had a higher frequency of normal larvae that reached the late bipinnaria / early brachiolaria stage compared to starved starfish. Females on Acropora diet also produced a higher proportion of larvae that progressed to more advanced stages faster compared to Porites-fed starfish, which progressed faster than starved starfish. These results suggest that maternal provisioning can have important consequences for the quality and quantity of progeny. Because food quality (coral community structure) and quantity (coral abundance) varies widely among reef locations and habitats, local variation in maternal nutrition of A. planci is likely to moderate reproductive success and may explain temporal and spatial fluctuations in abundance of this species.
Alejandro, Bielli; Pérez, Raquel; Pedrana, Graciela; Milton, John T B; Lopez, Alvaro; Blackberry, Margaret A; Duncombe, Gregory; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martin, Graeme B
The nutritional status of females during pregnancy can play a critical role in the postnatal growth and development of the offspring, often leading to permanent changes ('fetal programming'). The Sertoli cells are a strong candidate for fetal programming of future performance because the number of Sertoli cells is highly correlated with adult testicular size and the maximum rate of sperm production. For Merino ewes, we imposed different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) intake (LowME: 70% of requirements for maintenance of ewe body mass and normal growth of conceptus (n = 13); HighME: 110% of those requirements (n = 12)) from Week 10 of pregnancy until parturition and then tested for effects on testicular histology in newborn males. Pregnant ewes were weighed weekly and lambs were weighed at birth and 2 days later. Blood was sampled at the same times. LowME ewes did not gain weight, whereas HighME ewes gained 17% over their pretreatment weight. Birthweights were higher in HighME lambs than in LowME lambs. Paired testes tended to be heavier in the HighME group than in the LowME group (P=0.08). The diameter of the testicular cords did not differ. The absolute volume of testicular cords (0.36 +/- 0.02 v. 0.30 +/- 0.02 mL for HighME v. LowME, respectively; P=0.03) and the number of Sertoli cells (43.0 +/- 2.5 v. 34.5 +/- 2.0 x 10(8) for HighME v. LowME, respectively; P=0.018) per testis were both greater in the HighME than in the LowME group. Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations were not significantly affected at birth or 2 days later. We conclude that undernutrition during pregnancy can reduce testicular development in the newborn. Depending on the ability of the Sertoli cell population to recover between birth and puberty, this may limit the ultimate number of Sertoli cells and, hence, the future capacity for sperm production and fertility.
Chalcarz, W; Klemczak, L; Krajewski, P
Nutritional habits and nutritional status of 142 pupils of a Gastronomic School Complex were examined from the standpoint of the year of school, school marks and place of residence. It was found that the year of school and place of residence exerted an effect on the nutritional habits of pupils. These young people failed to prefer dishes and food products recommended in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases. In all subjects the levels of total lipids and beta-lipoproteins exceeded the upper range of the norm. Hemoglobin concentration fluctuated within the lower range of the norm, and that of glucose--within the upper range of the norm. When completing school, the pupils displayed a lowered protein level and elevated glucose level. Pupils inhabiting the school boarding house ought to take part in the decisions on the menu and on food purchases. Recommendations concerning nutrition in the prophylaxis of civilization diseases ought to be as soon as possible introduced into the teaching program of the Gastronomic School Complex.
Wang, Huan; Song, Zhenfeng; Ba, Yanhui; Zhu, Lin; Wen, Ying
To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of type 2 diabetics in Yakeshi City and to assess the effect of implementation of nutritional and eating education in enhancing knowledge and practices regarding a healthy diet. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 162 diabetics to determine their nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices; fifty-four participants received nutritional and eating education for 6 months. Diabetes-related nutrition knowledge, awareness, practice accuracy, dietary intake and glycaemic control were assessed before and after education. Yakeshi, a remote city in northern China. A total of 162 type 2 diabetics recruited from three hospitals, fifty-four of whom were selected randomly to receive education. Among the 162 respondents, most diabetics (75%) considered that controlling diet was important in the methods of controlling blood glucose. Scores for knowledge, practices and overall KAP (knowledge-attitude-practice) were low, but scores for attitude were high. Participants with diabetes education experiences, practice duration over 1 year or high education level all had higher scores for KAP (P nutrition knowledge, awareness and practice accuracy improved significantly (P nutrition knowledge and practices. Nutritional and eating education was effective in improving diabetics' nutrition knowledge and practices, and this optimal practice helped them control blood glucose effectively.
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…
Karimen Andrea León-Flández
Full Text Available Introduction: Describe knowledge, comprehension level, perception and use of traffic light labelling in consumers of Madrid.Material and Methods: A two phases, cross-sectional study design, carried out in Madrid, in 2012. Our sample was recruited randomly, and interviewed using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Consumers of 7 stores of main supermarket chains in Madrid were questioned. Information about knowledge, comprehension, perception and use of traffic light labelling (TLL was collected. Analyses examined the frequency of the variables of interest. Differences were tested using the χ2 test.Results: The response rate was 80.6% (first phase and 97.8% (second phase. Consumers that knew the TLL and understood its color-coding system were 41.4% and 18.6% respectively. From the participants that knew the TLL system, 61.5% thought it was very useful (80% among those >65 years and 90% among those with primary studies; p>0.05. Just 31.4% of consumers habitually used TLL to buy their products (70% among those with primary studies; p=0.04. This percentage was higher in consumers that understood the color-coding system (second phase (66.6%; p<0.01.Conclusions: The level of TLL’s knowledge and comprehension was low. Consumers that know TLL, consider it a useful nutrition instrument. Those who understand, use it habitually to buy their products, especially consumers older than 65 years old and with primary studies. A widespread introduction of this system in Spain might contribute to improve food and eating habits, especially elderly people and less educated.
Walters, Amber; Long, Marilee
Objective: To determine whether differences in nutrition knowledge affected how women (a high-involvement group) interpreted intrinsic cues (ingredient list) and extrinsic cues ("all natural" label) on food labels. Methods: A 2 (intrinsic cue) x 2 (extrinsic cue) x 2 (nutrition knowledge expert vs novice) within-subject factorial design…
Mirmiran, Parvin; Nazeri, Pantea; Amiri, Parisa; Mehran, Ladan; Shakeri, Nezhat; Azizi, Fereidoun
To evaluate the association of iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women after 2 decades without updating public education. Cross-sectional study. Eight health care centers from 4 district areas of Tehran. A total of 383 women aged ≥ 19 years, randomly selected. Iodine concentration of 24-hour urine samples, iodine content of household salts, and knowledge, attitude, and practice scores regarding iodine nutrition and iodized salt. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the association of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) women with high knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 26%, 26%, and 14%, respectively. Practice score was significantly different between females with UIC 100 μg/L (P = .001). Risk of UIC women of childbearing age (19-45 years) after adjustment of education level, region of residence, and iodine content of salt was significantly associated with intermediate practice score (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.2). Marginally suboptimal iodine status in women of childbearing age can be attributed to inappropriate practices, but not to knowledge and attitude. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Pre- and postsurvey data were collected (N = 2255) during the 2012-2013 academic year from 14 New York City public high schools. An 18-item knowledge questionnaire addressed 3 domains; 26 behavioral items were analyzed by factor analysis to identify 6 behavior domains, breakfast being a seventh 1-item domain. We examined the effects stratified by sex, applying mixed-effects models to take into account clustering effects of schools and participants adjusted for age. The HealthCorps program significantly increased all 3 knowledge domains (p mental health, and physical activity. It also improved several key behavioral domains, which are targets of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to address obesity in youth. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Erdenebileg, Zolzaya; Park, So Hyun; Chang, Kyung Ja
College students are in transition from adolescence to adulthood, and it has been reported that they show poor dietary habits. This study was conducted to compare body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, dietary habits, and health-related lifestyles between Korean college students (KCS) and Mongolian college students (MCS). Subjects were 314 KCS and 280 MCS. The data includes results of self-administered questionnaires; statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 23.0 program. With regards to body image perception, KCS perceived themselves to be fatter on current body image than ideal body image compared to MCS; 64.0% of KCS and 34.6% of MCS desired to be thinner. Total score of nutrition knowledge in KCS (17.0) was significantly higher compared to MCS (8.4) ( P correlation with dietary attitudes in MCS ( P mobile phone usage ( P < 0.001), compared to MCS. This study suggests that development of nutrition education program which is effective and proper is required to improve healthy dietary habits among college students of both countries. Essential contents should include acquirement of nutrition knowledge and a motivation for its application to actual life for KCS, and improvement of healthy dietary habits for MCS.
Laird, Eamon; Thurston, Sally W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Watson, Gene E; McSorley, Emeir M; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J
Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OH)D concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S). This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples ( n = 202) taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OH)D and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children's average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34-218 nmol/L) and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L). Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health) that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure.
Full Text Available Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OHD concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S. This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples (n = 202 taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OHD and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children’s average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34–218 nmol/L and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OHD concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure.
Edwards, Roger A; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G; Shealy, Katherine R; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M
A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4-6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement.
Lindsay, K L; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M
Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Islam, Mohidul; Rahman, Shahinur; Kamruzzaman; Islam, Mominul; Samad, Abdus
Introduction The aim of this study was to address the current scenario of LBW and infant nutritional and to analyze the effect of maternal status and pattern of their breast feeding practices on perinatal and postnatal infant development. Methods Cross-sectional study design with structured questionnaires was used among 510 mother-infant pair to collect data. Maternal anthropometric, socio-economic and demographic characteristics and breast feeding practice were used as independent variable and birth weight and infant growth status as dependent variable. Descriptive and crosstab analysis were used to analyze the effect. Results The study revealed that about 29.4% infants were born with low birth weight (LBW). Mother with no education and from low income family were more likely (OR: 3.484, 95%CI: 1.993-6.089 and OR: 2.078, 95% CI: 1.274-3.387) to have LBW infant compared with mother with higher education and from higher income family. Similarly, lower maternal height, weight and MUAC (breastfeeding was found among 45% mother. Postnatal growth and development of infant was not found significantly different (P > 0.05) among those who breast feed exclusively and non-exclusively. Conclusion The study confirms that lower level of maternal education; family income and anthropometric measurement significantly increase the risk of LBW. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was not found satisfactory. PMID:24847401
Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L
The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Onubogu, Chinyere U; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Okolo, Selina N; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Nwaru, Bright I
Inadequate breastfeeding practices contribute to malnutrition in young children. This study examined changes in breastfeeding practices and the nutritional status of children (0-35 months, n = 37154) using data from the nationally-representative Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys for 1990-2008. The study estimated the relative changes in the proportion of children meeting recommended breastfeeding practices and the anthropometric indices of the children during the study period, by region, place of residence, maternal education and maternal occupation. In each study year, over 97% of the children were ever breastfed. The proportion of infants breastfed within 1 hour and 1 day of birth increased from 34% to 45.8%, and from 63.8% to 82.3%, respectively. Overall, breastfeeding for ≥ 12 months changed from 88.9% to 95.2%, an increase of 7%; however, an increase of 14% was observed in the northern region (from 86.1% to 97.8%) while a decline of 7% was observed in the southern region (from 97.1% to 89.9%). Over the study period, the prevalence of all the assessed indicators of malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) increased in the northern region while the southern region experienced a decline in all except severe wasting. In both urban and rural areas, stunting and wasting increased, while underweight declined. Children of non-formally educated and unemployed mothers were more malnourished in all the study years. Improvement in some breastfeeding practices did not result in improvement in the nutritional status of Nigerian children during 1990-2008, particularly in northern Nigeria and among socially disadvantaged mothers. Improving maternal education and employment, and integrating messages on techniques and benefits of optimal infant feeding with other maternal and child healthcare services could be beneficial.
Ickes, Scott B; Hurst, Taylor E; Flax, Valerie L
Understanding maternal factors that influence child feeding is necessary to inform intervention planning in settings in which mothers experience substantial social vulnerabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess maternal sociodemographic factors that may constrain women's caring capabilities and subsequent child nutrition in Uganda. We analyzed data from the 2006 and 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys to model the associations between maternal sociodemographic factors, child feeding practices, and anthropometry with multivariate logistic regression models. The proportion of children fed according to recommended guidelines declined in Uganda from 2006 to 2011. Mothers who lacked literacy skills were less likely to achieve recommended complementary feeding indicators; however, literacy was not associated with breastfeeding practices. Mothers in the upper 60% wealth percentile were more likely to meet minimum meal frequency, diversity, and adequacy indicators. Mothers who gave birth at health facilities (2006 OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.91; P education, and infant and young child feeding practices. Women with a formal education had children with lower stunting and underweight probabilities in both time periods (OR range: 0.43-0.74). Women who delivered in childbirth facilities were less likely to have a child with low weight-for-age, length-for-age, or weight-for-length z scores (OR range: 0.59-0.82). Marital status, the age at first child birth, not accepting domestic violence, freedom to travel away from home, and involvement in household and reproductive decisions were not associated with child anthropometry in either time period. Mothers with low literacy skills, who deliver their children at home, and who lack formal education are particularly at risk of poor child feeding and represent a group that may benefit from enhanced interventions that address their particular vulnerabilities. Factors that contribute to improved maternal feeding
Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Homamodin; Pour, Zabihollah Gharli; Tavassoli, Elahe
Background: Undoubtedly, proper nutrition has important role in safeguarding the individual from many diseases, especially chronic ones, and increasing ones physical and intellectual efficiency. Considering the importance of nutrition education to school-age kids, this research was done with the purpose of determining the effect of nutrition education on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of female students at primary school about junk food consumption. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental intervention study in Shahr-e-kord city about the reduction of junk foods consumption in 2011. Seventy-two primary girl students were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental (36) and controls (36). Before of the educational program, self-administrative questionnaire and FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) questionnaire were filled out for both the groups. The self-administrative questionnaire was completed 3 times (before, immediately, and 2 months after education), and FFQ questionnaire was completed 2 times (before and 2 months after education) by students. After pre-test, 4 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 computer software. Results: Demographic variables of the studied population in 2 groups were similar. Before intervention, there were no significant differences regarding the knowledge, attitude, and performance in 2 groups (P > 0/05). After intervention, there were significant differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and performance between experimental and control groups (P effective on increasing or improving the knowledge, attitude, and performance of the students. PMID:26430680
Chien, Tzu-Yun; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun
A higher sugar intake in infancy might result in a predisposition to a higher sugar intake in later childhood. In Taiwan, many commercial infant and toddler foods with nutrition claims have high sugar content. This study explored the influence of mothers' knowledge and attitudes on their purchase intention for infant food with nutrition claims. This study was a cross-sectional survey. An online survey was distributed to 940 mothers who had a child aged between 4 months and 3 years; 40% of mothers tend to misunderstand that "no added sugar" (NAS) indicates no sugar or less sugar content and, thus, that NAS infant cereal is healthy. Approximately 50-70% of mothers believe that NAS infant cereal is more natural, healthier, and contains less sugar. Attitude toward the NAS claim was found to be a mediating variable between sugar-related knowledge and purchase intention. The lower the level of sugar-related knowledge was, the more positive the attitude toward NAS infant cereal and the higher the purchase intention for NAS infant cereal were. In the future, regulation of no added sugar is needed to avoid the misleading information and mothers' sugar-related knowledge need to be improved through nutrition education.
Eshete, Hiwot; Abebe, Yewelsew; Loha, Eskindir; Gebru, Teklemichael; Tesheme, Tesfalem
Childhood malnutrition remains common in many parts of the world; the magnitude of worldwide stunting, underweight and wasting in children under five years of age were 24.7 %, 15.1 % and 7.8 %, respectively. More than 150 million children under the age of five years in the developing world are malnourished. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, 44.4% and 9.7% of children under-five years old were stunted and wasted, respectively. This study was aimed to assess nutritional status and effect of maternal employment among children aged 6-59 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding and healthcare seeking practice of mothers, and child's anthropometric status were assessed. Probability proportional to size sampling approach was used to select a sample of 316 mothers having children aged 6-59 months. The study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Health Science College, Hawasa University. The overall result revealed that the prevalence of stunting was 22.2%, of which 21.8% and 22.6% were in children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. Low-weight-for age was 10.8% for children of employed mothers and 13.4% for children of unemployed mothers. Wasting was 8.8% and 10.8% for children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between maternal employment and nutritional status of their children. However, chronic malnutrition (stunting) was influenced by being educated mother (OR: 0.37) child age group of 24-59 months (OR: 0.36) and households' fifth wealth quintile (OR: 0.28). Low prevalence of stunting was observed. Stunting is a public health concern in the study area. Furthermore, stunting is significantly influenced by mothers' education, household wealth and child age. However, maternal employment was not statistically
Negash, Canaan; Belachew, Tefera; Henry, Carol J; Kebebu, Afework; Abegaz, Kebede; Whiting, Susan J
Nutritious complementary foods are needed in countries where undernutrition and stunting are major problems, but mothers may be reluctant to change from traditional gruels. To test whether a recipe-based complementary feeding education intervention would improve knowledge and practice of mothers with young children in Hula, Ethiopia. A baseline survey of 200 eligible, randomly selected mother-child pairs gathered data on sociodemographic characteristics, food security status, knowledge and practices concerning complementary feeding, food group intakes of children aged 6 to 23 months by 24-hour recalls, and children's anthropometric measurements. Twice a month for 6 months, women in the intervention group received an education session consisting of eight specific messages using Alive and Thrive posters and a demonstration and tasting of a local barley and maize porridge recipe containing 30% broad beans. The control group lived in a different area and had no intervention. At 6 months, knowledge and practice scores regarding complementary feeding were significantly improved (p nutrition education over 6 months that included demonstration of a local porridge recipe with broad beans added improved the complementary feeding practices of caregivers and the nutritional status of their young children.
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMFin the first 6 months of infant life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 190 mothers who referring to Yazd health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5. Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 10.14±2.00 (out of 14 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 10.12±2.015 (out of 14. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 72.9%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (24.5% and good growth (55.3%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude and maternal knowledge towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive knowledge and attitude towards exclusive BMF (P
Amamoto Rie; Toyama Kenji; Sakamaki Ruka; Liu Chuan-Jun; Shinfuku Naotaka
Abstract Background We have previously shown that irregular lifestyle of young Japanese female students are significantly related to their desire to be thinner. In the present study, we examined the nutritional knowledge and food habits of Chinese university students and compared them with those of other Asian populations. Methods A self-reported questionnaire was administered to 540 students, ranging in age from 19-24 years. Medical students from Beijing University (135 men and 150 women) in...
Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Homamodin; Pour, Zabihollah Gharli; Tavassoli, Elahe
Undoubtedly, proper nutrition has important role in safeguarding the individual from many diseases, especially chronic ones, and increasing ones physical and intellectual efficiency. Considering the importance of nutrition education to school-age kids, this research was done with the purpose of determining the effect of nutrition education on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of female students at primary school about junk food consumption. This is an experimental intervention study in Shahr-e-kord city about the reduction of junk foods consumption in 2011. Seventy-two primary girl students were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental (36) and controls (36). Before of the educational program, self-administrative questionnaire and FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) questionnaire were filled out for both the groups. The self-administrative questionnaire was completed 3 times (before, immediately, and 2 months after education), and FFQ questionnaire was completed 2 times (before and 2 months after education) by students. After pre-test, 4 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 computer software. Demographic variables of the studied population in 2 groups were similar. Before intervention, there were no significant differences regarding the knowledge, attitude, and performance in 2 groups (P > 0/05). After intervention, there were significant differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and performance between experimental and control groups (P < 0.001). According to the results, intervention has positive impact on pattern of nutrition, and it can be concluded that intervention is effective on increasing or improving the knowledge, attitude, and performance of the students.
Albert, David; Barracks, Sharifa Z; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela
Poor oral health knowledge is thought to significantly contribute to the incidence of early childhood caries, the most common childhood disease in the U.S. This study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based educational program in increasing oral health and caries transmission knowledge, attitudes and planned behavior among mothers and primary caregivers. Study participants were recruited from subscribers to an online health information newsletter distributed by a national dental insurance company and from visitors to a health information website sponsored by the same company. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention surveys and viewed a brief educational program. Results were analyzed for pre- to post-test changes in knowledge and attitudes. Planned behavior change was also assessed. 459 participants completed pre-and post-test surveys. The sample was typically more insured (91.3 %), and college educated (76.9 %), than the general population. At baseline, respondents were knowledgeable about caries and its prevention; however, their specific knowledge about caries transmission was limited. There was a significant increase in caries knowledge from baseline to follow-up, particularly regarding caries transmission. At baseline less than half of the participants (48.8 %) knew that mothers/primary caregivers play a large role in passing cavity causing germs to children and 43.1 % knew that there is a defined period of time when the risk of transmission of cariogenic bacteria is greatest; however in post-testing 99.6 % and 98.3 % answered these question correctly respectively (p education to primary caregivers can be an effective and low cost strategy for promoting maternal and infant oral health.
Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz; Jurek, Paweł; Jankowska, Anna M; Pawlicka, Paulina
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status. We observed that girls presented healthier eating habits than boys; however, overfat boys had better nutritional knowledge. Children’s body-fat percentage (%BF) was found to be linked with eating behaviours such as low satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness in girls as well as low emotional undereating and increased emotional overeating in boys. Our results revealed that overfat mothers, who were more prone to use the encouragement feeding style, rarely had daughters with increased %BF. Parents of overfat girls, however, were less likely to apply encouragement and instrumental feeding styles. Contrary to popular belief and previous studies, overfat women do not necessarily transmit unhealthy eating patterns to their children. Parents’ greater emphasis on managing the weight and eating habits of daughters (rather than sons) probably results from their awareness of standards of female physical attractiveness.
Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather
Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.
Jane L. Tarry-Adkins
Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by
Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L
Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cassady, Diana L.
Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999
Sesia, P M
Physiological and anatomical concepts about reproduction held by traditional midwives in Southern Oaxaca differ considerably from those of biomedicine. Government training courses for traditional midwives disregard these deep-seated differences, and also the underlying conceptual rationale of ethno-obstetrics. These courses constantly reinforce and actively promote the biomedical model of care. But rural midwives, despite these training courses, do not substantially change their obstetrical vision and ways. The strength of their own authoritative knowledge, fully shared by the women and men of their communities, allows them to continue their traditional style of care, despite pressures to conform to biomedical values, beliefs, and practices. Suggestions for a mutual accommodation of biomedical and midwifery approaches to prenatal care include training medical personnel in ethno-obstetric techniques and rationales, teaching midwives basic medical interventions, addressing in intervention programs all social actors participating in reproductive decision making, and adopting an interdisciplinary approach that includes nonmedical aspects of maternal care.
Chang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu; Hsu, Yu-Yun; Liu, Yi; Wang, Tsu-Nai
Many studies have shown that providing health education before surgery may significantly increase health knowledge and decrease anxiety in both patients and their family members. However, few studies have compared the effects on pediatric outpatient surgery outcomes of different health education instruction modes. This study compares the effects of two health education delivery modes on maternal knowledge and anxiety, the number of unexpected early hospital follow-up visits, and the time spent by nurses on health education. A quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest was used to compare the effect on the outcomes of pediatric circumcision of a multimedia compact disc (CD) and a printed material.Seventy mothers of children who underwent Plastibell circumcision participated in this study. Both the printed material and the multimedia CD significantly increased the knowledge and reduced the anxiety levels of the participants. However, no significant differences in unscheduled early hospital follow-up visits postsurgery were found between the two modes of instruction. Furthermore, we found that significantly fewer hours were spent by nurses on health education for the multimedia CD group in comparison with the printed material group. In the current clinical environment of common staffing shortages, information tools may be used to cost-effectively assist and simplify nursing work. The findings of this study may provide a reference to medical centers that are working to reduce the time spent by nurses on health education for outpatient surgery patients. Furthermore, audiovisual health education tools are recommended to increase nursing effectiveness and save nursing time.
Amarelis Rodríguez Fuentes
Full Text Available Background: low birth weight is multifactorial and is commonly attributed to maternal, fetal and environmental causes. Dietary habits linked to inadequate maternal nutritional factors are decisive. Objective: to identify maternal nutritional factors related to low birth weight in patients of the consultation Area # I in Cienfuegos. Methods: an analytical, retrospective and case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2008. We studied 50 mothers of low birth weight infants (cases and 100 mothers of normal weight children (controls at a rate of 2 per case. They were selected out of birth records in the health area. Obstetric medical records were reviewed and an interview was applied to each patient in order to assess their nutritional habits according to meals frequency and more widely consumed food groups. The data processing was performed using SPSS version 15,0. The results are presented in tables with absolute frequencies, percentages and results of the statistical techniques used. Results: maternal age, nutritional status in early pregnancy, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin in the third quarter emerged as risk factors. Women with unstable and insufficient eating habits were 33 times more likely to have low birth weight infants and women who reported unhealthy diets according to more widely consumed food groups were estimated to be nine times more exposed to risk. Conclusions: maternal nutritional factors influenced the incidence of low birth weight, primarily in the cases of inadequate eating habits.Fundamento: el bajo peso al nacer es multifactorial y se atribuye a causas maternas, fetales y ambientales. Los hábitos alimentarios inadecuados unidos a otros factores nutricionales maternos son determinantes. Objetivo: identificar los factores nutricionales maternos relacionados con el bajo peso al nacer en pacientes del Área I del municipio Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico, retrospectivo, de
Marjan Manouchehri Naeeni
Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.
Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can affect embryonic survival, but the mechanisms that cause embryonic mortality are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on peripheral and uterine lumina...
Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can result in differential embryonic development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on estrus expression, interval to estrus, and day 6 embryo recovery, developme...
Beckhaus, A A; Garcia-Marcos, L; Forno, E; Pacheco-Gonzalez, R M; Celedón, J C; Castro-Rodriguez, J A
Epidemiologic studies suggest a relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the occurrence of asthma and atopic conditions during childhood. However, individual study results are conflicting. The objective of this meta-analysis was to critically examine the current evidence for an association between nutrition (dietary patterns, food groups, vitamins, or oligo-elements) ingestion during pregnancy and asthma, wheeze, or atopic conditions in childhood. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) systematic recording of diet during the gestational period and (ii) documentation of asthma, wheezing, eczema, or other atopic disease in the offspring. The primary outcomes were prevalence of asthma or wheeze among the offspring during childhood; and secondary outcomes were prevalence of eczema, allergic rhinitis, or other atopic conditions. We found 120 titles, abstracts, and citations, and 32 studies (29 cohorts) were included in this analysis. Data on vitamins, oligo-elements, food groups, and dietary patterns during pregnancy were collected. A meta-analysis revealed that higher maternal intake of vitamin D [odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38-0.88], vitamin E (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.46-0.78), and zinc (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40-0.97) was associated with lower odds of wheeze during childhood. However, none of these or other nutrients was consistently associated with asthma per se or other atopic conditions. Current evidence suggests a protective effect of maternal intake of each of three vitamins or nutrients (vitamin D, vitamin E, and zinc) against childhood wheeze but is inconclusive for an effect on asthma or other atopic conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Dearden, P K; Duncan, E J
The mammary gland is a complex tissue consisting of multiple cell types which, over the lifetime of an animal, go through repeated cycles of development associated with pregnancy, lactation and involution. The mammary gland is also known to be sensitive to maternal programming by environmental stimuli such as nutrition. The molecular basis of these adaptations is of significant interest, but requires robust methods to measure gene expression. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is currently the method of choice for validating genome-wide expression studies. RT-qPCR requires the selection of reference genes that are stably expressed over physiological states and treatments. In this study we identify suitable reference genes to normalize RT-qPCR data for the ovine mammary gland in two physiological states; late pregnancy and lactation. Biopsies were collected from offspring of ewes that had been subjected to different nutritional paradigms during pregnancy to examine effects of maternal programming on the mammary gland of the offspring. We evaluated eight candidate reference genes and found that two reference genes (PRPF3 and CUL1) are required for normalising RT-qPCR data from pooled RNA samples, but five reference genes are required for analyzing gene expression in individual animals (SENP2, EIF6, MRPL39, ATP1A1, CUL1). Using these stable reference genes, we showed that TET1, a key regulator of DNA methylation, is responsive to maternal programming and physiological state. The identification of these novel reference genes will be of utility to future studies of gene expression in the ovine mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…
Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue
Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…
House, Simon H
In order to generate healthy brains, the earlier in life that children develop a healthy lifestyle the better. At home and at school, with a good diet and physical activity, children need to experience and to understand the value of healthy metabolism. Continuous education is needed in lifecycle health, with awareness that the most vulnerable phase relates to reproduction. This is the way that most people can become parents of healthy children. Nutrient deficits, toxins, or uro-genital disease, often unnoticed, affect quality of sperm or ovum, and subsequent development. Early errors can have the most pronounced effect. Gene-switches are being set early in life. Any early flaw can be magnified by growth. Moreover children's habits become set and young couples are too busy to learn and adapt. Many are liable to unintended pregnancy. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle at a young age is the most reliable route to producing healthy babies. The mother's state throughout pregnancy, emotions/hormones included, naturally continues to powerfully affect her child's development, therefore future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. There has recently been a serious increase in babies conceived by schoolchildren, as well as a shift by working women towards childbearing in their late thirties or more. A return towards childbearing in the twenties and early thirties can reduce risks for the child. The mother needs to build her appropriate body-stores--vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and other essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)--to ensure optimal development of her child. Replenishment of reserves is important for maternal health and before bearing another child. A restorative time of three years is desirable. Governments and school teachers need to guide and encourage parents in this health education and practice, and to use their authority to achieve it in schools. Empowerment with knowledge is the
Keirle, Kathleen; Thomas, Malcolm
A comparative investigation was conducted involving two school situations; one identified as being health promoting and having a comprehensive policy and a defined programme of health education, and the other not health promoting, having no policy and an unstructured programme of health education. A total of 367 students from two secondary and four primary schools participated in the study. The factors used to categorise schools are highlighted. A self-completion questionnaire was employed to assess students' knowledge and behaviour with regard to nutrition and health. Students' dietary intake was monitored by employing a frequency of consumption tick sheet. The results revealed that students from the more health promoting secondary school (School 1(H)) were more knowledgeable of what constitutes a healthy diet and the benefits and risks to health. The implications of these results are considered within the context of the many factors that could influence students' knowledge and behaviour.
Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.
Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weani...
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5. Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P
Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H
Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.
Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Karp, Celia; Lutter, Chessa; Stewart, Christine; Iannotti, Lora
Food-based interventions can reduce the prevalence of undernutrition and improve household food security, but nutritious and accessible foods may be underutilized. In Ecuador, eggs are inexpensive and widely available, but while they are a valuable source of essential nutrients for infants and young children, medical advice and community-based information have limited their inclusion in infants' diets. A qualitative component was conducted to understand local perceptions, knowledge, and practices to complement a randomized control trial that studied the effect of introducing eggs on nutritional status and growth in infants from 6 to 9 months in rural communities in the highland province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador. The qualitative inquiry consisted of key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and structured observations in order to understand perceptions, knowledge, and practices related to household egg consumption and to the introduction of eggs in infants' diets. The two principal findings were that: (i) eggs are an available and culturally acceptable food source although they are not always a part of the diet; and (ii) perceptions and practices related to household consumption and the introduction of eggs into the diet of infants are shaped by local knowledge and practices, which are shaped by biomedical information and advice provided by public health professionals. Through an effective food-based intervention that includes qualitative research and a social marketing component, the behaviors of mothers and other caregivers can be modified, enabling children to realize the nutritional advantages of early introduction of eggs into their diet.
Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead
The North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report on dietary reference intakes (DRI) for Ca and vitamin D. The DRI committee's deliberations underpinning this most comprehensive report on vitamin D nutrition to date benefited hugely from a much expanded knowledge base in vitamin D over the last decade or more. However, since their release, the vitamin D DRI have been the subject of intense controversy, which is largely due to the persistence of fundamental knowledge gaps in vitamin D. These can be identified at the levels of exposure, metabolism, storage, status, dose-response, function and beneficial or adverse health effects, as well as safe and effective application of intake recommendations at the population level through sustainable food-based approaches. The present review provides a brief overview of the approach used by the IOM committee to revise the DRI for vitamin D and to collate from a number of authoritative sources key knowledge gaps in vitamin D nutrition from the public health perspective. A number of research topics are outlined and data requirements within these are identified and mapped to the risk assessment framework used by the DRI committee. While not intended as an exhaustive list, it provides a basis for organising and prioritising research efforts in the area of vitamin D, which may offer a perspective on the major areas in need of attention. It is intended to be of use to researchers, national policy makers, the public health community, industry groups and other relevant stakeholders including funding institutions.
Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.
Chigozie Jesse Uneke
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge translation (KT is a process that ensures that research evidence gets translated into policy and practice. In Nigeria, reports indicate that research evidence rarely gets into policy making process. A major factor responsible for this is lack of KT capacity enhancement mechanisms. The objective of this study was to improve KT competence of an implementation research team (IRT, policymakers and stakeholders in maternal and child health to enhance evidence-informed policy making. Methods: This study employed a "before and after" design, modified as an intervention study. The study was conducted in Bauchi, north-eastern Nigeria. A three-day KT training workshop was organized and 15 modules were covered including integrated and end-of-grant KT; KT models,measures, tools and strategies; priority setting; managing political interference; advocacy and consensus building/negotiations; inter-sectoral collaboration; policy analysis, contextualization and legislation. A 4-point Likert scale pre-/post-workshop questionnaires were administered to evaluate the impact of the training, it was designed in terms of extent of adequacy; with "grossly inadequate" representing 1 point, and "very adequate" representing 4 points.Results: A total of 45 participants attended the workshop. There was a noteworthy improvement in the participants’ understanding of KT processes and strategies. The range of the praiseworthiness of participants knowledge of modules taught was from 2.04-2.94, the range for the post workshop mean was from 3.10–3.70 on the 4-point Likert scale. The range of percentage increase in mean for participants’ knowledge at the end of the workshop was from 13.3%–55.2%.Conclusion: The outcome of this study suggests that using a KT capacity building programme e.g., workshop, health researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders can acquire capacity and skill that will facilitate evidence-to-policy link.
Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.
Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…
The prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age suffer chronic energy deficiency (BMI<18.5), nearly half of infants are born with a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and about
Walters, Amber; Long, Marilee
To determine whether differences in nutrition knowledge affected how women (a high-involvement group) interpreted intrinsic cues (ingredient list) and extrinsic cues ("all natural" label) on food labels. A 2 (intrinsic cue) × 2 (extrinsic cue) × 2 (nutrition knowledge expert vs novice) within-subject factorial design was used. Participants were 106 female college students (61 experts, 45 novices). Dependent variables were perception of product quality and purchase intention. As predicted by the elaboration likelihood model, experts used central route processing to scrutinize intrinsic cues and make judgments about food products. Novices used peripheral route processing to make simple inferences about the extrinsic cues in labels. Consumers' levels of nutrition knowledge influenced their ability to process food labels. The United States Food and Drug Administration should regulate the "all natural" food label, because this claim is likely to mislead most consumers. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gazmararian, Julie A; Orenstein, Walter; Prill, Mila; Hitzhusen, Hannah B; Coleman, Margaret S; Pazol, Karen; Oster, Natalia V
To explore the knowledge and attitudes of mothers of school-aged children toward influenza vaccination and assess what methods of communication about vaccination and its delivery work best among this audience. The authors conducted focus groups with mothers of school-aged children. Prior to the focus groups, investigators agreed on key themes and discussion points. They independently reviewed transcripts using systematic content analysis and came to an agreement on outcome themes. Many study participants had misunderstandings about influenza vaccines and the definition of influenza. A common perception was that flu is a catch-all term for a variety of undefined illnesses, ranging from a severe cold to stomach upset. Few participants saw a societal benefit in vaccinating children to protect other populations (eg, the elderly). This study represents a first step in understanding how mothers perceive influenza vaccination and for crafting effective communication to increase vaccination among school-aged children.
Martin, Louise; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Ball, Lauren E
Nutrition is important for the management of chronic diseases. While practice nurses have numerous roles in primary care, the expectations on practice nurses to provide nutrition care for chronic disease management are increasing. The self-perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of practice nurses in providing nutrition care has not been widely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perceptions of Australian practice nurses on the provision of nutrition care for chronic disease management, including specific nutrition-related activities. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 181 Australian practice nurses in 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on each survey item. The survey sample was tested for representation of the Australian practice nurse workforce, and associations between respondents' demographic characteristics and responses to survey items were explored. Almost all practice nurses (89%) felt it was important