Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos
Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life.Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women. According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969-2010.Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 1.64, p = 0.03, non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.02, p = 0.002, and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 3.94, p = 0.01 in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio = 1.79, p = 0.01, non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.77, p = 0.02 schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.02, mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.002, non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.91, p<0.001, and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 5.05, p = 0.01 in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men.Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across adulthood. Our findings may inform the
Wolfe, Joseph D
Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...
Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina
Background Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20)...
Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina
Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) was used for data collection where a cut-off of 7 was considered to ascertain CMD. Majority of the mothers were housewives (89.8%), educated up to primary level (40.9%) and lived in nuclear families (83.0%) with low socioeconomic status (64.4%) and moderate household food insecurity (57.5%). The prevalence of maternal CMD was 46.2%. In bivariate analysis, the associated factors of CMD were higher maternal age ( p = 0.043), lower educational qualification ( p = 0.015), low socioeconomic status ( p = 0.004), household food insecurity ( p food insecurity ( p food insecure household (adjusted OR = 11.6, 95% CI 3.5-38.1), respectively, than food secure one. Underweight mothers had 2.5 times increased odds of experiencing CMD as compared with mothers who were not underweight (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-5.0). The prevalence of maternal CMD was relatively higher than other developing countries studied so far. Household food insecurity and maternal under-nutrition were the associated factors of maternal CMD. Therefore, interventions to improve household food security and maternal nutrition can improve maternal CMD and thus make useful contributions to child growth and development.
Cavalcante-Neto, Jorge Lopes; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre de; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Miranda, Claudio Torres de
The disability associated with maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) is among the possible explanations for the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and CMDs. CMDs may impair the mother's ability to perform her role, particularly in deprived environments. The present study aimed to evaluate whether disability relating to CMDs could be part of the pathway of the association between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs. Cross-sectional study conducted in two institutions: one for malnourished children and another for eutrophic children living in a low-income community in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The cases consisted of 55 malnourished children aged from 12 to 60 months who were attending a nutritional rehabilitation center, with height-for-age z-scores childhood malnutrition was significantly associated with maternal disability relating to CMDs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.02-5.1). The best logistic regression model using chronic childhood malnutrition as the dependent variable included the following independent variables: higher number of people living in the household; absence of the biological father from the household; and maternal disability relating to CMDs. If confirmed, the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and maternal disability relating to CMDs may be useful in helping to identify the causal chain between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs and to indicate environmental risk factors associated with chronic childhood malnutrition.
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
. Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...
Vicki A Nejtek
Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect
This commentary will provide a general overview of the public health considerations of maternal mental illness, both from a global perspective as well as from the South African context. The paper will outline the consequences of maternal mental illness for mothers as well as their offspring, through the life stages from ...
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.
Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott
The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal-child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient's mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother's actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.
Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta
Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Litman, Robert E.
Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…
Bruna Kulik Hassan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.
Vieira Karen F
Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such
Mizukami, K; Naito, Y; Yoshida, M; Nakanishi, T; Koizumi, J
We present here a case with various physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by the administration of carbamazepine. The patient suffering from right ophthalmic neuralgia showed fever, eczema, erythema, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, and various mental disorders which consisted of emotional instability, personality change, delusions of reference and persecution, depressive state, and hyperventilation syndrome during the administration of carbamazepine. The physical symptoms in the present case were conformable to the side effect of carbamazepine. The mental disorders appeared in a few days from the start of carbamazepine administration and disappeared after the discontinuation of the administration of this drug without antipsychotic therapy and have never relapsed until now. The mental disorders and the physical symptoms were in parallel with their clinical course. This kind of mental disorders induced by carbamazepine has not yet been reported.
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Streiner, David L; Cairney, John
..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...
Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas
Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Diab, Safwat Y
Optimal maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is believed to be beneficial for infant well-being and dyadic interaction, but research is scarce in general and among risk populations. Our study involved dyads living in war conditions and examined how traumatic war trauma associates with MFA and which factors mediate that association. It also modeled the role of MFA in predicting newborn health, infant development, mother-infant interaction, and maternal postpartum mental health. Palestinian women from the Gaza Strip (N = 511) participated during their second trimester (T1), and when their infants were 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months. Mothers reported MFA (interaction with, attributions to, and fantasies about the fetus), social support, and prenatal mental health (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) at T1, newborn health at T2, and the postpartum mental health, infant's sensorimotor and language development, and mother-infant interaction (emotional availability) at T3. Results revealed, first, that war trauma was not directly associated with MFA but that it was mediated through a low level of social support and high level of maternal prenatal mental health problems. Second, intensive MFA predicted optimal mother-reported infant's sensorimotor and language development and mother-infant emotional availability but not newborn health or maternal postpartum mental health.
Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders. Other researchers have disputed this claim. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the proposition that misophonia should be classified as a new mental disorder. The clinical and research literature on misophonia was examined and considered in the context of the broader literature on what constitutes a mental disorder. There have been growing concerns that diagnostic systems such as DSM-5 tend to over-pathologize ordinary quirks and eccentricities. Accordingly, solid evidence is required for proposing a new psychiatric disorder. The available evidence suggests that (a) misophonia meets many of the general criteria for a mental disorder and has some evidence of clinical utility as a diagnostic construct, but (b) the nature and boundaries of the syndrome are unclear; for example, in some cases misophonia might be simply one feature of a broader pattern of sensory intolerance, and (c) considerably more research is required, particularly work concerning diagnostic validity, before misophonia, defined as either as a disorder or as a key feature of some broader syndrome of sensory intolerance, should be considered as a diagnostic construct in the psychiatric nomenclature. A research roadmap is proposed for the systematic evaluation as to whether misophonia should be considered for future editions of DSM or ICD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos
This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders...
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
Choi, Myoungje; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Jee Eun; Gim, Minsook
Network medicine considers networks among genes, diseases, and individuals. Networks of mental disorders remain poorly understood, despite their high comorbidity. In this study, a network of mental disorders in Korea was constructed to offer a complementary approach to treatment. Data on the prevalence and morbidity of mental disorders were obtained from the 2006 and 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, including 22 psychiatric disorders. Nodes in the network were disease phenotypes identified by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and the links connected phenotypes showing significant comorbidity. Odds ratios were used to quantify the distance between disease pairs. Network centrality was analyzed with and without weighting of the links between disorders. Degree centrality was correlated with suicidal behaviors and use of mental health services. In 2011 and 2006, degree centrality was highest for major depressive disorder, followed by nicotine dependence and generalized anxiety disorder (2011) or alcohol dependence (2006). Weighted degree centrality was highest in conversion disorder in both years. Therefore, major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence are highly connected to other mental disorders in Korea, indicating their comorbidity and possibility of shared biological mechanisms. The use of networks could enhance the understanding of mental disorders to provide effective mental health services.
Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima
Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in the Social Change Allergy and Asthma in Latin America project. Psychosocial data were collected through a household survey utilising Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale. Socioeconomic and wheezing information was obtained through the questionnaire of the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, and level of allergen-specific IgE was measured to identify atopy. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal mental health, social support and atopic and non-atopic wheezing. Effect modification was evaluated through stratified polytomous regression according to social support level. Maternal mental disorder had the same impact on atopic and non-atopic wheezing, even after adjusting for confounding variables. Affective, material and informational supports had protective effects on non-atopic asthma, and there is some evidence that social supports may act as a buffer for the impact of maternal mental disorder on non-atopic wheezing. Poor maternal mental health is positively associated with wheezing, independent of whether asthma is atopic or non-atopic, but perception of high levels of social support appears to buffer this relationship in non-atopic wheezers only.
Green, Melissa J; Kariuki, Maina; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J
Fetal exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases may influence early childhood developmental functioning, on the path to later mental illness. Here, we investigated the effects of in utero exposure to maternal infection and noninfectious diseases during pregnancy on offspring developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years, in the context of estimated effects for early childhood exposures to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness. We used population data for 66,045 children from an intergenerational record linkage study (the New South Wales Child Development Study), for whom a cross-sectional assessment of five developmental competencies (physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication) was obtained at school entry, using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC). Child and maternal exposures to infectious or noninfectious diseases were determined from the NSW Ministry of Health Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC) and maternal mental illness exposure was derived from both APDC and Mental Health Ambulatory Data collections. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between these physical and mental health exposures and child developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Among the physical disease exposures, maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy and early childhood infection conferred the largest associations with developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years; maternal noninfectious illness during pregnancy also retained small but significant associations with developmental vulnerabilities even when adjusted for other physical and mental illness exposures and covariates known to be associated with early childhood development (e.g., child's sex, socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, prenatal smoking). Among all exposures examined, maternal mental illness first diagnosed prior to childbirth conferred the greatest odds of developmental
Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane
The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and bio...
Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda
Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...
May 1, 2014 ... This study is to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among patients diagnosed ... Key words: Alternative medicine, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, mental disorder ..... Engum A, Mykletun A, Midthjell K, Holen A, Dahl AA. ... or undiagnosed diabetes: A systematic review and meta‑analysis of the.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M
Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.
Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah
Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Birket-Smith, M.; Rasmussen, A.
The objective of the study was to compare the frequency of mental disorders in cardiology outpatients to the number of patients with psychological problems identified by cardiologists. In a cardiology outpatient service, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these 86...... were included and screened for mental disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) psychosis screening, the Clock Drawing Test, and the WHO-5 Well-being Index. The cardiologists were asked to rate the severity of somatic...... and mental problems in each patient on visual analogue scales (VAS-som and VAS-men). The current treatments, including psychiatric and psychological treatments, were noted, and the survival was followed for 3 years. Of the 86 patients included, 34 (40%) had a diagnosis of mental disorder. Eleven (12.8%) had...
Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick
The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…
McCaul, Anthony; Stokes, Jayne
Family Action is a charity that helps more than 45,000 vulnerable families and children across England a year by offering emotional, practical and financial support. A pilot of a perinatal support project in Southwark, London was found to reduce mental health problems in vulnerable women and is now being extended. Such schemes complement the work of health visitors and other health professionals. Commissioners need to be aware of the long-term impact of such low-cost interventions in the early years.
Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques
Cooper, P. J.; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C.
An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...
Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott
Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offsp...
Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta
Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.
Edlow, Andrea G.
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. PMID:27684946
Full Text Available Mental disorder merupakan bentuk gangguan dan kekacauan fungsi mental yang disebabkan oleh kegagalan mereaksinya mekanisme adaptasi dari fungsi-fungsi kejiwaan/ terhadap stimuli eksternal dan ketegangan-ketegangan sehingga muncul gangguan pada struktur kejiwaan. Gangguan mental Merupakan totalitas kesatuan dari ekspresi mental yang patologis terhadap stimuli sosial, yang dikombinasikan dengan factor-faktor sekunder lainnya. Seperti halnya rasa pusing, sesak nafas, demam panas dan nyeri-nyeri pada lambung sebagai pertanda permulaan dari penyakit jasmani, maka mental disorder itu mempunyai pertanda awal antara lain: cemas, ketakutan, pahit hati, dengki, apatis, cemburu, iri, marah secara eksplosif, asosial, ketegangan kronis, dan lain sebagainya. Maka kesehatan mental yang baik itu, berarti mempunyai perasaan positif tentang diri sendiri, mampu menyelesaikan masalah dan tekanan hidup sehari-hari, dan bisa membentuk dan menjaga hubungan baik dengan orang lain. Selama ini kita sudah memahami pentingnya menjaga kesehatan fisik. Tapi menjaga kesehatan mental juga sama pentingnya dengan kesehatan fisik. Kenyataannya, kesehatan mental yang buruk akan mengakibatkan kesehatan fisik yang buruk pula. kata kunci: Mental Disorder, Gangguan Jiwa, Kekalutan Mental. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EARLY PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISORDER. Mental disorder is a form of disruption and chaos mental function that is caused by the failure of mereaksinya adaptation mechanism of psychological functions/ against external stimuli and tensions so that appears on the structure of the disorders psychological disorders. Mental disturbances is the totality of the unity of mental expression pathological culture toward social stimuli, combined with the factor of other secondary factor. Like a sense of dizziness, breathing difficulties, hot Fever and pain in the pain in the stomach as a sign of the beginning of
Samuel, Simcha; Hayton, Barbara; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis
Mothers with mood or anxiety disorders exhibit less optimal interactive behavior. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been linked to more optimal interactive behaviors in mothers without mental illness, and it may play a particularly beneficial role in mothers with mood or anxiety disorders given its antidepressant and anxiolytic functions. We compared the relationship between OT and interactive behavior in mothers with and without mental health problems. Participants included 20 women diagnosed with postpartum mood or anxiety disorders (clinical sample) and 90 women with low levels of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum (community sample). At 2 months' postpartum, blood was drawn to assess maternal OT levels, and mother-infant interaction was coded for maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, remoteness, and depressiveness. Clinical mothers exhibited less sensitive, more intrusive, and more depressive interactive behaviors than did community mothers. The groups did not differ in OT levels. Mothers with higher OT levels were less intrusive with their infants. Higher OT levels were associated with less depressive interactive behavior only in clinical mothers. OT was associated with positive interactive behaviors in both groups. In clinical mothers, the calming and soothing effects of OT may promote more relaxed, energetic, and infant-focused interactive behaviors. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall...
Jacobs, David H.
"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…
... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...
Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.
Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and
Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya
Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)
Objectives I examined the relationship between paid maternity leave and maternal mental health among women returning to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, after 12 weeks, and those returning specifically to full-time work within 12 weeks of giving birth. Methods I used data from 3850 women who worked full-time before childbirth from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. I utilized propensity score matching techniques to address selection bias. Mental health was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale, with high scores indicating greater depressive symptoms. Results Returning to work after giving birth provided psychological benefits to women who used to work full-time before childbirth. The average CESD score of women who returned to work was 0.15 standard deviation (p leave, on the other hand, was associated with adverse effects on mental health. The average CESD score of women who returned within 12 weeks of giving birth was 0.13 standard deviation higher (p leave was associated with an improved mental health outcome. Among all women who returned to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, those women who received some paid leave had a 0.17 standard deviation (p leave.
Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu
Full Text Available Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. Methodology: This is a descriptive clinic-based study. Eligible and consenting mothers are attending the child immunization clinic in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria participated. Consecutive mothers completed the interview questionnaires independently while those who were not literate had the questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Instruments used were a sociodemographic proforma, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Mother and Infant Attachment Scale (MIAS, and the Zung Depression Scale. Results: In total, ninety-eight women were enrolled, 66.3% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and mean age of 30.9 years (±5.1 standard deviation. Most were aged between 26 and 35 years (66.3%. Over 90% had at secondary school education or more. Over a 10 th (13.3% was unemployed and 96% married. The children were aged between 6 weeks and 1 year, males (63.1%, and females (46.9%, and the majority were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (82.7%. A 10 th (10.2% of the women had probable psychiatric morbidity, 14.3% had scores suggestive of postpartum depression, and 18 (16.3% scored below average attachment in interaction with their children on the MIAS. There was an association found between reduced maternal-child attachment interaction and maternal depression (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Emotional disorders, such as depression, in mothers can be associated reduced maternal-child interaction. It is important that integrated mental health
Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.
I. A. Kelmanson
Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.
Quinn, Patrick D; Rickert, Martin E; Weibull, Caroline E; Johansson, Anna L V; Lichtenstein, Paul; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Iliadou, Anastasia N; D'Onofrio, Brian M
Several recent population-based studies have linked exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy to increased risk of severe mental illness in offspring (eg, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). It is not yet clear, however, whether this association results from causal teratogenic effects or from confounding influences shared by smoking and severe mental illness. To examine the association between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured confounding using family-based designs. This study analyzed population register data through December 31, 2013, for a cohort of 1 680 219 individuals born in Sweden from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2001. Associations between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring were estimated with adjustment for measured covariates. Cousins and siblings who were discordant on smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness were then compared, which helped to account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding by design. Maternal self-reported smoking during pregnancy, obtained from antenatal visits. Severe mental illness, with clinical diagnosis obtained from inpatient and outpatient visits and defined using International Classification of Diseases codes for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Of the 1 680 219 offspring included in the analysis, 816 775 (48.61%) were female. At the population level, offspring exposed to moderate and high levels of smoking during pregnancy had greater severe mental illness rates than did unexposed offspring (moderate smoking during pregnancy: hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19-1.30; high smoking during pregnancy: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.44-1.59). These associations decreased in strength with increasing statistical and methodologic controls for familial confounding. In sibling comparisons with within-family covariates, associations were substantially weaker and nonsignificant (moderate
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.
The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0369 TITLE: Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Betty Diamond...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1...to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fetal brain; Autism spectrum disorder ; antibody; B cells; Caspr2 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik
BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...
Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala
Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.
Full Text Available Objective To examine the predictive role of the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale on the mental disorder of new recruits.Methods The present study examined 115 new recruits diagnosed with mental disorder and 115 healthy new recruits.The recruits were tested using the Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale.The discriminant function was built by discriminant analysis method.The current study analyzed the predictive value of 11 factors(family medical record and past medical record(X1,growth experience(X2,introversion(X3,stressor(X4,poor mental defense(X5,social support(X6,psychosis(X7,depression(X8,mania(X9,neurosis(X10,and personality disorder(X11 aside from lie factor on the mental disorder of new recruits.Results The mental disorder group has higher total score and factor score in family medical record and past medical record,introversion,stressor,poor mental defense,social support,psychosis,depression,mania,neurosis,personality disorder,and lie than those of the contrast group(P < 0.01.For the score of growth experience factor,that of the mental disorder group is higher than the score of the contrast group(P < 0.05.All 11 factors except the lie factor in the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale are taken as independent variables by enforced introduction to obtain the Fisher linear discriminant function as follows: The mental disorder group=-7.014-0.278X1+1.556X2+1.563X3+0.878X4+0.183X5-0.845X6-0.562X7-0.353X8+1.246X9-0.505X10+1.029X11.The contrast group=-2.971+0.056X1+2.194X2+0.707X3+0.592X4-0.086X5-0.888X6-0.133X7-0.360X8+0.654X9-0.467X10+0.308X11.The discriminant function has an accuracy rate of 76.5% on the new recruits with mental disorders and 100% on the healthy new recruits.The total accurate discrimination rate is 88.3% and the total inaccurate discrimination rate is 11.7%.Conclusion The Military Mental Disorder Prediction Scale has a high accuracy rate on the prediction of mental disorder of new recruits and is worthy of
Vizzini, L; Popovic, M; Zugna, D; Vitiello, B; Trevisan, M; Pizzi, C; Rusconi, F; Gagliardi, L; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L
Maternal mental disorders have been associated with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Within the context of a mother-child cohort, we examined whether maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with pre-school ADHD symptoms. The study included 3634 singletons from the Italian NINFEA (Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell'Ambiente') cohort. Maternal doctor-diagnosed anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy were assessed from the questionnaires completed during pregnancy and 6 months after delivery. Mothers rated child ADHD symptoms at 4 years of age, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-H), inattentive (ADHD-I) and total ADHD scores were analysed in the models adjusted for child's gender, first-born status, maternal age, education, alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy. The total ADHD score at age 4 was associated with maternal lifetime anxiety (17.1% percentage difference in score compared with never; 95% CI 7.3-27.9%), sleep disorders (35.7%; 95% CI 10.7-66.5%) and depression (17.5%; 95% CI 3.2-33.8%). Similar positive associations were observed also for ADHD-H and ADHD-I traits, with slightly attenuated associations between maternal sleep disorders and child ADHD-I score, and maternal depression and both ADHD scores. All the estimates were enhanced when the disorders were active during pregnancy and attenuated for disorders active only during the pre-pregnancy period. Maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with a relative increase in the number of ADHD-H, ADHD-I and total ADHD symptoms in preschoolers.
Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J
There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C
Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.
Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul
Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…
Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B
To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94
R. I. Ismail
Full Text Available Maternity blues disorder (MB is common, and it is usually undiagnosed. This study to identify several risk factors related to MB. Subjects were pregnant women who had antenatal and delivery at the Persahabatan Hospital (RSP Jakarta from 1 November 1999 to 15 August 2001. Consecutive sampling and was followed-up until two-week postpartum. Those who ever had psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders were excluded. MB and ante partum depression (APD detected by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Husband’s mental status based on Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 respectively. Among 580 subjects, 25% suffering from MB. Compared with those who did not have APD, those who experienced it had more than three-fold increased risk to be MB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.57; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.54;5.03]. Those who had not healthy baby on the first 5 days afterbirth than who had healthy baby had twice increased risk to be MB (aHR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34 ; 3.66. Who had husband with problem in mental health had 1.9 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.36 ; 2.68. Stress during pregnancy had 1.6 increased risk to be MB (aHR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.14 ; 2.25. To control MB, special attention should be paid to women who had APD history, who had unhealthy baby on 5 first days afterbirth, who had husbands’ mental health problems, and who had stress during pregnancy. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:74-80Keywords: ante partum, maternity blues, depression, mental problem
Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.
What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne
For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D
The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders.
Leonidaki, V; Maliori, M
This contribution reviews the international literature about dual diagnosis, meaning patients who have simultaneously mental health problems and substance use disorders and discusses epidemiology, clinical characteristics, but primarily etiopathogenesis and different treatment models and interventions. The epidemiological data coming from large-scale studies in the general population in USA, Australia and UK demonstrate the close relationship between mental health problems and substance use disorders. Also, the results from Greek research projects support this close relationship, but their research designs have significant limitations. Multiple and high risks are common in this population, like violent or suicidal behavior, self-harm, physical problems, while they appear less responsive to treatment. Subsequently, different models for etiopathogenesis of dual diagnosis have been suggested: (a) Causal relationship: secondary substance use disorder is subsequent of primary mental illness (self-medication hypothesis, supersenstivity model) or vice versa (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use trigger or contribute to development of mental illness). (b) Third factor as the cause of both mental and substance use disorders (genetic factor, neuropathology, traumatic experience, personality characteristics, multiple factors). (c) Comorbidty is due to chance. (d) Each disorder mutually exacerbates the other, regardless the cause. Here, the relationship between alcohol and depression is discussed further as example. The ideas and the research-evidence which support each of these models are presented. Also there is an overview of different treatment models: (a) Consecutive treatment: mental health treatment and substance misuse treatment are provided consecutively. (b) Parallel treatments: the patient attends programs of both mental health and substance use services simultaneously. (c) Integrated treatment: the same clinical team addresses both mental health issues and substance
This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and biochemical measurement. Maternal mental and physical health status using questionnaires as well as maternal testosterone and cortisol levels using an enzyme immunoassay were measured four times (birth, 40 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA], and 6 and 12 months [age of infant, corrected age]. General linear models showed that higher testosterone levels were associated with greater depressive symptoms, stress, and poorer physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and at 6 and 12 months. High cortisol levels were associated with greater anxiety at 40 weeks PMA; however, with better mental and physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and 6 and 12 months. Physical activity was associated with lower maternal perceived stress at 12 months. Maternal health did not differ by race, except anxiety, which was higher in White than non-White mothers after birth. As very low birth weight infants grew up, maternal physical health improved but mental health deteriorated. Testosterone and cortisol levels were found to be positively correlated in women but testosterone was more predictive of maternal mental and physical health than cortisol. Indeed testosterone consistently showed its associations with maternal health. Maternal stress might be improved through regular physical exercise.
Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol
Explores the effects of maternal psychiatric symptoms and community functioning on child outcomes in a diverse sample of seriously mentally ill women caring for their teenaged children. In hierarchical multiple regression, for youth depression, we find effects for parenting style and maternal mental health; for youth anxiety and efficacy, effects…
Gosden, Niels Patrick; Kramp, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm
This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses. There was no stati......This study describes associations between mental disorders and charges of violence among remanded adolescents. 100 15–17 year old boys from East Denmark, consecutively remanded during one year, were interviewed with SCAN, K-SADS and SCID-II to obtain past year ICD-10 diagnoses....... There was no statistically significant association between the occurrence of a violent charge and mental disorders in general (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)[0.24; 4.38]). An association was found between violent charge and non-danish ethnicity (OR = 7.58, [1.60; 35.92]). Previously reported association between...... violence and mental disorder among adults were not replicated in this male adolescent remand population. A developmental hypothesis is proposed....
Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro
Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, T.; Koizumi, J.; Shiraishi, H.; Ofuku, K.; Sasaki, M.; Hori, T.; Ishikawa, N.; Anno, I.; Ohkoshi, N.
A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MELAS) with mental disorder is reported. The SPECT study using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and MRI study revealed abnormality in the left parieto-occipital areas without abnormality in the brain CT or brain scintigram. These findings suggest a localized dysfunction of the brain capillary endothelium in association with the cerebral involvement of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (orig.)
Full Text Available Despite abundant research into the neurobiology of mental disorders, to date neurobiological insights have had very little impact on psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. In this review, we contend that the search for neuroimaging biomarkers—neuromarkers—of mental disorders is a highly promising avenue toward improved psychiatric healthcare. However, many of the traditional tools used for psychiatric neuroimaging are inadequate for the identification of neuromarkers. Specifically, we highlight the need for larger samples and for multivariate analysis. Approaches such as machine learning are likely to be beneficial for interrogating high-dimensional neuroimaging data. We suggest that broad, population-based study designs will be important for developing neuromarkers of mental disorders, and will facilitate a move away from a phenomenological definition of mental disorder categories and toward psychiatric nosology based on biological evidence. We provide an outline of how the development of neuromarkers should occur, emphasizing the need for tests of external and construct validity, and for collaborative research efforts. Finally, we highlight some concerns regarding the development, and use of, neuromarkers in psychiatric healthcare.
Eastman, N; Starling, B
Mental disorders and their care present unusual problems within biomedical ethics. The disorders themselves invite an ethical critique, as does society's attitude to them; researching the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders also presents special ethical issues. The current high profile of mental disorder ethics, emphasised by recent political and legal developments, makes this a field of research that is not only important but also highly topical. For these reasons, the Wellcome Trust's biomedical ethics programme convened a meeting, “Investigating Ethics and Mental Disorders”, in order to review some current research, and to stimulate topics and methods of future research in the field. The meeting was attended by policy makers, regulators, research funders, and researchers, including social scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, lawyers, philosophers, criminologists, and others. As well as aiming to inspire a stronger research endeavour, the meeting also sought to stimulate an improved understanding of the methods and interactions that can contribute to “empirical ethics” generally. This paper reports on the meeting by describing contributions from individual speakers and discussion sections of the meeting. At the end we describe and discuss the conclusions of the meeting. As a result, the text is referenced less than would normally be expected in a review. Also, in summarising contributions from named presenters at the meeting it is possible that we have created inaccuracies; however, the definitive version of each paper, as provided directly by the presenter, is available at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc.WTX025116.html. PMID:16446414
Eun, John David; Paksarian, Diana; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries
We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument. We controlled for socio-demographics, parental history of mental disorders, stressful life events, sexual violence, inter-parental conflict, and household composition. We also tested for two-way interactions between parental care and control and adolescent age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, high maternal care was associated with lower odds of depressive, eating, and behavioral disorders, and high maternal control was associated with greater odds of depressive, anxiety, eating, and behavioral disorders. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of social phobia and alcohol abuse/dependence. High paternal control was associated with greater odds of agoraphobia and alcohol abuse/dependence but with lower odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Associations of maternal and paternal control with anxiety disorders and substance abuse/dependence differed by sex. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of anxiety disorders only among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Perceived parental care and control were associated with adolescent mental disorders after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Differential patterns of association were found according to adolescent sex and race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention programs that incorporate familial contextual factors.
Full Text Available Correlations have been reported between behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adolescence and exposure to maternal depression during the first postpartum year, but the effects of timing of maternal depression during subsequent exposure periods have rarely been controlled for. This study aims to methodically investigate the importance of timing of initial exposure to maternal depression with respect to adolescent mental health outcomes.This study used data on 937 children from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a nationally-representative longitudinal survey established in 1994 by Statistics Canada. Ordinal logistic regression was used to confirm associations between adolescent emotional disorder (at 12-13 years and initial exposure to maternal depression during 2-year intervals from birth to adolescence. Following their initial exposure to maternal depression, children were dropped from subsequent cycles. Stressful life events, chronic health conditions, maternal alcohol use, maternal marital status, gender, and SES were included as covariates.The results indicated that adolescents who were initially exposed to maternal depression between the ages of 2-3 years and 4-5 years had a two-fold increase in odds of emotional disorder. No increase in odds was observed in those initially exposed during the first postpartum year or later in childhood.The results demonstrate that a sensitive period of initial exposure to maternal depression may occur between the ages of 2 and 5, and not during the first year of life indicated by previous research. These findings are congruent with the literature on emotional and behavioral development in early childhood.
Most mental pathologies are diagnosed on the sole basis of the symptoms reported by patients, such as "I'm feeling low." The thrust of this paper is the proposal to reconceptualize mental disorders as dysfunctions of brain subsystems. This shift from symptom to organ would bring psychiatry in line with the rest of medicine, and is analogous to the change in status of venereal infections from skin pathologies, such as chancres, to bacterial infections. The proposal in question is part of the reconceptualization of mental processes as brain processes, in line with the materialist conception of the mind as neural. A practical advantage of this conceptual change is that it suggests approaching mental disorders as brain dysfunctions treatable by biological and chemical means, in addition to social measures, such as accommodating mental patients in ordinary hospitals rather than in isolated "madhouses" at the mercy of amateurs or even charlatans. An additional advantage of the "embodiment" of mental diseases is that it suggests reframing some new research projects, such as explaining why the common cold causes mental fogginess, why hypertension can cause irritability, and why nicotine dependence can be even stronger than cocaine addiction. In other words, the present proposal is to complete the so-called "mapping of the mind onto the brain" by including the abnormal mental processes, which used to be treated by shamans at a time when the mind was conceived of as an immaterial entity detachable from the body. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte
To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.......To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children....
Introduction: To comply with its new mental health bill, Ghana needs to integrate mental health within other health and social services. Mental disorders represent 9% of disease burden in Ghana. Women are more affected by common mental disorders, and are underrepresented in treatment settings. This study examines ...
De Oliveira, C; Rahioui, H; Smadja, M; Gorsane, M A; Louppe, F
The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy. This therapeutic model apprehends the borderline personality disorder in all its complexity and is based on two main concepts: Bowlby's attachment theory and the concept of mentalization. The MBT is based on the hypothesis that a deficit of mentalization leads to the development of borderline disorder. The capacity of mentalization, also known as reflexive function, is acquired in infancy through interpersonal relationships, in particular those of attachment, and is the ability to understand the mental state (emotions, needs, thoughts, etc.) of oneself and others which underlies explicit behaviour. This reflexive capacity is of a better quality when the person has a secure attachment style. Indeed, borderline patients have, mainly, a deficit of mentalization capacity associated with an insecure attachment style. Thus, the main objective of the Bateman and Fonagy approach is to develop and reinforce the mentalization capacity through a therapeutic relationship as a secure base, a group therapy and the concept of insight. Classically, MBT is structured over a period of 18 months divided into 3 distinct phases distributed in two therapeutic axes: group and individual therapy. The initial phase aims to engage the patient in the therapy by evaluating attachment style, mentalization's ability, interpersonal functioning; providing psychoeducation about borderline disorder and establishing a therapeutic contract. To evaluate attachment style, the authors strongly recommend the use of the
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
This Ph.D. dissertation critically examines the concept of "video game addiction" and the science behind the proposal that the disorder should be officially recognized as a mental disorder called "Internet gaming disorder." Chapter One gives a short introduction to the history of the word...... "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... researchers' claims of negative effects caused by video game playing are wildly exaggerated. Chapter 3 adds a short review of what is sometimes cited as historical precursors to Internet gaming disorder and argue that these are, in fact, not examples of addictions. Chapter 4 will analyze the diagnostic...
... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION... comments on any other aspects of the proposed listings for mental disorders that we receive during this... our mental disorders listings: Definitions we provide for the terms ``marked'' and ``extreme'' that...
A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions "an important loss of freedom" as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how "an important loss of freedom" should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research.
Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.
Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767
Heidi Michelle Rivera
Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption display impairments in hyperactivity, social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose, hormones (leptin, insulin, and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor. Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavioral are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.
Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M
Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches
Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie
Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ro, Eunyoe; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna
This study examined relations between comprehensive domains of psychosocial disability and mental disorders to determine (1) whether differential patterns of associations exist between psychosocial disability dimensions and commonly diagnosed mental disorders and (2) whether these relations differ between self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial disability domains. Self-reported and interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning measures and an interviewer-rated diagnostic assessment tool were administered to 181 psychiatric outpatients. Internalizing disorders showed the strongest and most pervasive associations with psychosocial impairment across both self-reported and interviewer-rated measures, followed by thought disorder; externalizing showed the weakest associations. More specifically, logistic regression analyses indicated that lower well-being factor score significantly increased the odds of distress-disorder diagnoses, and poor basic functioning increased the odds of PTSD. Results clearly showed differences in the magnitude of associations between three dimensions of psychosocial-disability and commonly diagnosed disorders, and that these differences were similar regardless of rater type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vigod, Simone N; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Ranning, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete; Munk-Olsen, Trine
Little is known about risk of custody loss or out-of-home placement among children whose mothers experience postpartum mental disorders, and whether this risk differs from that of children whose mothers had earlier onset of their mental disorder. National Danish registers comprising 1 868 467 births (1982-2012) were used to determine how the timing of maternal illness onset influences out-of-home placement risk up to age 18 years among children exposed to a maternal mental disorder. Compared to children unexposed to maternal mental illness, risk was higher for children exposed to a maternal mental disorder whose mothers had a first contact for a mental disorder in the 0-12 months of predelivery (8.17/1000 person-years; aIRR 4.56, 95% CI 4.08-5.09), the first 3 months postpartum (4.60/1000 person-years; 3.55, 2.95-4.26) and 4-12 months postpartum (6.49/1000 person-years; 3.93, 3.50-4.41). Risk was even higher for children exposed to a maternal mental disorder when illness onset was more than 1-year predelivery (9.11/1000 person-years; 5.48, 5.32-5.66). Risk of out-home placement in children exposed to mothers with a new-onset postpartum mental disorder is almost as high as in children whose mothers have long-standing illness. A better understanding of the trajectories of these mothers and children is warranted. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. Methods A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. Results 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively. Conclusions Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study
Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev
Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental illness on maternal mental health, foetal wellbeing and childhood growth and development the factors associated with mental illness in a Sub-Saharan setting merit clarification and investigation. A prospective survey design was conducted in Lagos. Self reporting questionnaire 20 items - SRQ20 - assessed the presence of mental illness. The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Questions assessed women's exposure to violence. Numerous variables potentially associated with mental illness including maternal socio-economic factors, maternal characteristics, obstetric variables and the characteristics of previous children were recorded. Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of variables on the likelihood of presence of mental disorder in the population. 189 women were surveyed. 7% met the criteria for experiencing a common mental disorder according to their score on the SRQ-20. Of variables examined only the number of female children and the presence of inter personal violence predicted being a case of mental illness (OR = 3.400; 95%CI = 1.374 - 8.414 and OR = 5.676; 95%CI = 1.251 - 25.757 respectively). Rates of mental disorder found in our study were lower than those previously observed internationally and in Africa, perhaps reflecting stigma about disclosing symptoms. The predictive nature of violence on mental disorder is in keeping with international evidence. Our study demonstrated that exposure to inter personal violence within the last
Eplov, Lene; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Jespersen, Ejgil
The Danish Government Committee on Psychiatry states that recovery-oriented rehabilitation is an important framework and direction in psychiatry. Recovery-oriented rehabilitation means that the intervention is based on best practice. It is also based on four values: self-determination, person inv...... involvement, self-determination/choice and growth potential. A comprehensive national plan of action on how to develop a recovery-oriented rehabilitation to Danish citizens with mental disorders is recommended....
Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François
Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M.-C.; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François
Purpose Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study of 1018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant, to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents’ pathology and psychosocial context. Results Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15%) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: i) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; ii) maternal psychiatric disorder; iii) paternal psychiatric disorder; iv) maternal lack of good relationships with others; v) mother receipt of disability benefits; vi) low social class. Conclusions This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child’s protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period. PMID:22706788
Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto
Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…
Robinson, M; Zubrick, S R; Pennell, C E; Van Lieshout, R J; Jacoby, P; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Stanley, F J; Newnham, J P; Oddy, W H
Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity has been linked with an increased risk for negative emotionality and inattentiveness in offspring in early childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the development of affective problems (dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder) throughout childhood and adolescence. In the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, 2900 women provided data on their pre-pregnancy weight, and height measurements were taken at 18 weeks of gestation. BMI was calculated and categorized using standardized methods. Live-born children (n = 2868) were followed up at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Longitudinal models were applied to assess the relationships between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and affective problems from age 5 through 17. There was a higher risk of affective problems between the ages of 5 and 17 years among children of women who were overweight and obese compared with the offspring of women in the healthy pre-pregnancy weight range (BMI 18.5-24.99) after adjustment for confounders, including paternal BMI. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity may be implicated in the development of affective problems, including depression, in their offspring later in life.
Vigod, Simone N; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Ranning, Anne
comprising 1 868 467 births (1982-2012) were used to determine how the timing of maternal illness onset influences out-of-home placement risk up to age 18 years among children exposed to a maternal mental disorder. RESULTS: Compared to children unexposed to maternal mental illness, risk was higher......OBJECTIVES: Little is known about risk of custody loss or out-of-home placement among children whose mothers experience postpartum mental disorders, and whether this risk differs from that of children whose mothers had earlier onset of their mental disorder. METHODS: National Danish registers.......49/1000 person-years; 3.93, 3.50-4.41). Risk was even higher for children exposed to a maternal mental disorder when illness onset was more than 1-year predelivery (9.11/1000 person-years; 5.48, 5.32-5.66). CONCLUSION: Risk of out-home placement in children exposed to mothers with a new-onset postpartum mental...
This paper sets out Kant's anthropological account of mental disorder. I begin with a discussion of the nature of Kant's 'pragmatic anthropology' and the implications of the fact that his discussion of mental disorder takes place in that context. I then set out Kant's taxonomy of the mind and discuss the various disorders affecting the cognitive faculty and the faculties of feeling and desire. I end with a brief discussion of Kant's views on the causes, preventions, and treatments of mental disorder.
Mental Health Guidelines Committee, Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, ... triple diagnosis (HIV/mental disorder/substance use disorder), or mental .... fatigue or loss of energy .... between 20% and 60% of HIV-positive adults suffer from some form ... patients on complex regimens should be reviewed regularly with a.
Full Text Available Background & aim: According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.
Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Kuittinen, Saija; Qouta, Samir R
Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development. Palestinian women (N = 511) from the Gaza strip participated during pregnancy (T1) and at 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum. They reported PTSD, depressive, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms, as well as pregnancy complications, newborn health risks such as prematurity, and infant sensorimotor and language development. First, exposure to war trauma was associated with high levels of maternal mental health and complications at pregnancy, and with increased postpartum mental health symptoms, but exposure was not directly associated with newborn health risks or problems in infant development. Second, maternal mental health both in pregnancy and postpartum, but not pregnancy complications or newborn health, mediated the negative impact of war trauma on infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months. Interventions to protect early child development in war conditions should be tailored to support maternal mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Lara, Diogo R
Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.
The high economic and social costs associated with the 'common mental disorders', and the need to scale up appropriate care services, are now widely recognized, but responses vary from country to country. In Britain, a current government initiative to promote psychological therapy is driven both by economic pressures and by research on the factors of happiness, or life-satisfaction. This article provides a short critical review of the project. A health policy analysis, with regard to problem definition; objectives; sources of information; criteria for evaluation; impact on existing services, and comparison with alternative strategies. The new programme, Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), aims to expand treatment services by training 3,600 'psychological therapists' in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which they will then apply in the wider community. This service, with an initial budget of 173 million pounds sterling, will provide treatment for depression and chronic anxiety from local centres across the country. The programme is intended to pay for itself by reducing incapacity costs. Closer examination, however, raises questions concerning the project's theoretical basis, logistics and research methodology, and casts doubt on its advantages over alternative approaches. The IAPT project is ill-designed to achieve its objectives and unsuitable as a model for treatment and care of the common mental disorders in other countries. An alternative strategy, based on closer integration of community mental health and primary health care, should be tested and on previous experience seems likely to prove more cost-effective.
Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...
Daquin, Jane C; Daigle, Leah E
There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Using a nationally-representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.
Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…
Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet
Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…
Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder. Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.
Morina, N.; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.
Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen
We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit
We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The evolution of mental disorders, notably the most severe forms such as schizophrenia, is a constant concern in terms of the necessary assessment of treatments and their efficiency, and to the human and economic cost of the 'chronicity' of the disorders. Many patients experience a positive evolution, evaluated in terms of subjective quality of life. However, the concept of recovery does not seem appropriate. The field of representations which the patient and the caregiver form with regard to the disease and its curability is an important element. The co-construction of the patient's future, in an approach centred on the patient, on their freedom and their autonomy, opens up the way towards recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan
Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.
Joiner, Thomas E; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Chu, Carol
Psychological autopsy studies consistently report that the rate of detected mental disorders among suicide decedents is below 100%. This implies three possibilities: (a) a subset of suicide decedents did not have a mental disorder at the time of death; (b) all suicide decedents suffered from a mental disorder, but some were undetected due to methodological limitations; and/or (c) suicide decedents with an undetected mental disorder displayed significant and perhaps subclinical features of a mental disorder. In this article, we examined these possibilities by evaluating the differences in symptoms and stressors between suicide decedents who were undiagnosed and those diagnosed with a mental disorder at the time of death. We reviewed 130 case studies of community-based suicide decedents originally described in Robins' (1981) psychological autopsy study. Without exception, suicide decedents in Robins' sample suffered either from a clearly diagnosable mental disorder or displayed features indicative of a significant, even if subclinical, presentation of a mental disorder. Undiagnosed and diagnosed suicide decedents did not significantly differ with regards to demographics, violence of suicide method, suicide attempt history, the number and intensity of stressful life events preceding death, and whether their death was a murder-suicide. Although clearly not all who suffer from mental disorders will die by suicide, these findings imply that all who die by suicide appear to exhibit, at minimum, subclinical psychiatric symptoms with the great majority showing prominent clinical symptoms. We conclude with clinical implications and recommendations for future study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A new resolution on mental, neurological and substance use disorders was adopted in January 2012 by the World Health Organization (WHO Executive Board. The resolution urges WHO and Member States to collaborate in the development of a comprehensive mental health action plan, to be submitted for discussion and approval to the WHO World Health Assembly. This commentary aims at rising awareness on the risk that this resolution may not fulfil its potential. Discussion Lack of political awareness and visibility of the resolution is a first major issue. Theoretically, Member States should be aware of the resolution and support its implementation at their respective national level, but in practice political commitment may not be high enough, and technical and financial resources made available may be limited. A second challenge is that the resolution suggests to work with Member States and technical agencies to promote academic exchange through which to contribute to policy-making in mental health. It is not straightforward, however, how such a statement may be effectively translated into action. A third key methodological aspect is how scientific evidence and factors other than scientific evidence will be handled. This seems particularly relevant in the field of mental health, where value-based decisions together with resource and feasibility considerations may be unavoidable. Summary We argue that WHO and Member States should work together to increase the visibility of the resolution, ensuring that Ministries of Health and other relevant components of the health systems are aware of the resolution and its implications. As the resolution urges for academic exchange, WHO should develop a plan for an explicit, inclusive and open call for support and collaboration, so that partners willing to contribute are not kept out from the process. The production of an action plan for mental disorders should be based on scientifically sound
Shame is a self-conscious emotion and mostly experienced in the context of moral and/or normative transgression. Feelings of shame about one's own body and its intimacy must be seen as different from those, which are experienced as a result of negative social evaluations. Feelings of shame have been discussed as being important in the emotional experience of mentally ill persons, although systematic research is missing. A scenario-based self-report questionnaire has been constructed, the "Heidelberger Fragebogen zu Schamgefühlen". It consists of two scales, one measuring shame in situations of bodily experiences and the other one in situations of social competence and achievement. Data have been collected with n=320 patients with various mental disorders and been compared to a control group (cross-sectional study). Additionally correlations between feelings of shame and personality styles have been measured. Feelings of shame in situations connected with bodily experiences are more important than those raising as a result of negative social achievement. Patients with affective and anxiety disorders show the most intensive feelings of shame - with the exception of social phobia. Intensive feelings of shame can be seen as a result of low self-esteem, fear of failure and of punishment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Batts, Kathryn R; Hedden, Sarra L; Spagnola, Kathy; Bose, Jonaki
To examine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorder comorbidity in the adult U.S. household population. Data are from a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian adults aged 18 years or older (n = 5653) who participated in the 2008-2012 Mental Health Surveillance Study. Mental disorders, including substance use disorders, were assessed by clinical interviewers using a semistructured diagnostic instrument. Analyses examined co-occurrence of mental disorders and associations with sociodemographic, functional impairment, and treatment correlates. Approximately one-third of adults (31.1%, or more than 15 million) with a past-year mental disorder had a co-occurring mental disorder. Correlates of comorbidity in adjusted models included being of young age, being of non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, having low family income, and living in a large metropolitan area. Adults with comorbid mental disorders had lower mean levels of functioning and were more likely to report past-year treatment than adults with a single disorder; they also had higher estimates of past-year perceived unmet need for care (21.7% vs. 11.6%, P mental disorder have a co-occurring mental disorder. Elucidating factors associated with co-occurrence may lend clues to shared etiologies, help improve prevention efforts, facilitate early identification, and improve treatment regimens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett
Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…
Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron
The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.
Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Vestergaard, Peter
of abnormal maternal thyroid function was 12.5% in the sub-cohort and significantly higher among cases of ASD (17.9%; aHR = 1.5 [CI 1.1-2.1]), but not among other types of neurodevelopmental disorders (febrile seizures: 12.7%; epilepsy: 13.1%; SDD: 12.6%; and ADHD: 14.0%). However, evaluation of subtypes......: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder......BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS...
Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C
Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child ...
Frick, Paul J.; And Others
In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…
Maria Cristina Verrocchio
Full Text Available Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.
Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Fulcheri, Mario
Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.
Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J
We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Jonge, Peter; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bunting, Brendan; Chatterji, Somnath; Ciutan, Marius; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure. We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478-15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA). A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor. These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…
Objective: This study looks at how the WHO programme Mental Disorders in Primary Care should be adapted for GPs in the South African context in order to positively impact the recognition and management of mental disorders. Design: Participatory action research was used to adapt the WHO programme. There were 3 ...
The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among...... 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four percent were found to have a mental and/or behavioral diagnose. Mental retardation was found among 34%, psychosis among 13%. Mental and behavioral disorders, especially with symptoms of psychosis and mental retardation, are common among people...... with congenital deafblindness. Clinical experience is needed, as well as cross-disciplinary cooperation and specialized diagnostic methods together with a observation and intervention period in order to be able to assess and differentiate mental and behavioral symptoms from sensory deprivation in people...
Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate
Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112
Holmes, Emily A; Mathews, Andrew
Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if" to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fatori, Daniel; Salum, Giovanni; Itria, Alexander; Pan, Pedro; Alvarenga, Pedro; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Manfro, Gisele; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade
Mental disorders are common health problems associated with serious impairment and economic impact. To estimate the costs of clinical and subthreshold mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian children. The High Risk Cohort Study is a community study conducted in two major Brazilian cities. Subjects were 6-14 years old children being registered at school. From an initial pool of 9937 children, two subgroups were further investigated using a random-selection (n = 958) and high-risk group selection procedure (n = 1554), resulting in a sample of 2512 subjects. Mental disorder assessment was made using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Costs for each child were estimated from the following components: mental health and social services use, school problems and parental loss of productivity. Child subthreshold and clinical mental disorders showed lifetime mean total cost of $1750.9 and $3141.2, respectively. National lifetime cost estimate was $9.9 billion for subthreshold mental disorders and $11.6 billion for clinical mental disorders (values in US$ purchasing power parity). This study provides evidence that child mental disorders have a great economic impact on society. There is an urgent need to plan an effective system of care with cost-effective programs of treatment and prevention to reduce economic burden.
Forbush, K T; Watson, D
Co-morbidity patterns in epidemiological studies of mental illness consistently demonstrate that a latent internalizing factor accounts for co-morbidity patterns among unipolar mood and anxiety disorders, whereas a latent externalizing factor underlies the covariation of substance-use disorders and antisocial behaviors. However, this structure needs to be extended to include a broader range of disorders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the structure of co-morbidity using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (n = 16 233). In the best-fitting model, eating and bipolar disorders formed subfactors within internalizing, impulse control disorders were indicators of externalizing, and factor-analytically derived personality disorder scales split between internalizing and externalizing. This was the first large-scale nationally representative study that has included uncommon mental disorders with sufficient power to examine their fit within a structural model of psychopathology. The results of this study have important implications for conceptualizing myriad mental disorders.
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.
Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about
Ferrazzi, Enrico; Stampalija, Tamara; Monasta, Lorenzo; Di Martino, Daniela; Vonck, Sharona; Gyselaers, Wilfried
The classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is based on the time at the onset of hypertension, proteinuria, and other associated complications. Maternal hemodynamic interrogation in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy considers not only the peripheral blood pressure but also the entire cardiovascular system, and it might help to classify the different clinical phenotypes of this syndrome. This study aimed to examine cardiovascular parameters in a cohort of patients affected by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy according to the clinical phenotypes that prioritize fetoplacental characteristics and not the time at onset of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. At the fetal-maternal medicine unit of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg (Genk, Belgium), maternal cardiovascular parameters were obtained through impedance cardiography using a noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor with the patients placed in a standing position. The patients were classified as pregnant women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who delivered appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age fetuses. Normotensive pregnant women with an appropriate-for-gestational-age fetus at delivery were enrolled as the control group. The possible impact of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) on maternal hemodynamics was reassessed in the same groups. Maternal age, parity, body mass index, and blood pressure were not significantly different between the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age groups. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was significantly higher in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age group. The cardiac output and cardiac index were significantly lower in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age group (cardiac output 6.5 L/min, cardiac index 3.6) than in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age group
Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu; Yewande O Oshodi; Elizabeth A Campbell; Mercy Eigbike; Kofoworola A Odeyemi
Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. M...
Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Beeney, Joseph F; Hipwell, Alison E
Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15-to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions.
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Conclusions: There are statistical differences of disability prevalence attributed to mental disorders by people and region in China. Service use in disabled people with mental disorders is insufficient.
Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…
Nomura, Yoko; Gilman, Stephen E; Buka, Stephen L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and lifetime risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to explore possible mechanisms through which MSP may be related to neurobehavioral conditions during infancy and childhood, which could, in turn, lead to increased risk for AUD. A sample of 1,625 individuals was followed from pregnancy for more than 40 years. Capitalizing on the long follow-up time, we used survival analysis to examine lifetime risks of AUD (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) in relation to levels of MSP (none, pregnancy) and child (to improve academic functioning) may reduce the risk for subsequent AUD.
Patel, Vikram; Kleinman, Arthur
A review of English-language journals published since 1990 and three global mental health reports identified 11 community studies on the association between poverty and common mental disorders in six low- and middle-income countries. Most studies showed an association between indicators of poverty and the risk of mental disorders, the most consistent association being with low levels of education. A review of articles exploring the mechanism of the relationship suggested weak evidence to support a specific association with income levels. Factors such as the experience of insecurity and hopelessness, rapid social change and the risks of violence and physical ill-health may explain the greater vulnerability of the poor to common mental disorders. The direct and indirect costs of mental ill-health worsen the economic condition, setting up a vicious cycle of poverty and mental disorder. Common mental disorders need to be placed alongside other diseases associated with poverty by policy-makers and donors. Programmes such as investment in education and provision of microcredit may have unanticipated benefits in reducing the risk of mental disorders. Secondary prevention must focus on strengthening the ability of primary care services to provide effective treatment.
Howard, Louise M; Oram, Sian; Galley, Helen; Trevillion, Kylee; Feder, Gene
Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High
Louise M Howard
Full Text Available Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048. Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013, hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6. Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality.High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic
Shin, Dong-Won; Stein, Mark A
We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to assess corporal punishment. Ninety-one children with ADHD and their mothers were included in this study. Mothers who used corporal punishment showed significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (t = -2.952, df = 89, p corporal punishment in ADHD children (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.102, p corporal punishment with children with ADHD. Assessment and management of the maternal depression should be an important focus of evaluation of children with ADHD.
Nisar, N.; Memon, A.; Sohoo, N.A; Ahmed, M.
To determine the frequency and distribution of different types of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and to determine the impact of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on maternal and fetal outcomes. All the patients who were diagnosed to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy during study period were categorized as group I. One hundred nineteen women delivered during the same period without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were included as group II. The data regarding demographic and obstetrical parameters, associated risk factors, fetal and maternal complications were gathered from available data on medical record files. Total number of deliveries during the same period was obtained. Frequency of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS V11. Pearson's chi square and student's t test was used for comparison of variables in between two groups. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. The frequency of Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was 8.9% in our study. The mean maternal age was 28.57+-5.8 years and 26.56+-5.0 years for group I and II respectively. Forty eight (76.2%) of group I patients were Unbooked for antenatal care, 37(58.7%) belonged to poor socioeconomic status and 82(45.1%) were multipara. Statistically significant difference was found for antenatal booking status (P. 0.04) and socioeconomic status (P. 0.01) and parity (P 0.04) in both groups. Twenty three (36.5%) patients from group I had past history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, while it was reported only by 8(6.7%) of group II patients. It was observed that women with HDP have strong family history of hypertension (P. <0.001). Regarding maternal outcome more patients from group I were shifted to ICU as compared to group II. Maternal mortality was significantly high in group I (P <0.001). The mean gestational age was 35.29+-2.6 weeks and 38.03+-1.3 weeks in group I and II respectively. The mean birth weight of baby was 2
Full Text Available Abstract Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1 will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2. In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3. I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.
Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.
adversities to mood, anxiety, substance use and impulse control disorders in South Africa. Methods. Data were analysed from the South African. Stress and Health study, a population-based study of mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of. 4 351 adults. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the.
Alberta Learning, Edmonton.
This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…
Orchard, Faith; Cooper, Peter J; Phil, D; Creswell, Cathy
Models of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety suggest an important role for parent cognitions: that is, negative expectations of children's coping abilities lead to parenting behaviors that maintain child anxiety. The primary aims of the current study were to (1) compare expectations of child vulnerability and coping among mothers of children with anxiety disorders on the basis of whether or not mothers also had a current anxiety disorder, and (2) examine the degree to which the association between maternal anxiety disorder status and child coping expectations was mediated by how mothers interpreted ambiguous material that referred to their own experience. The association between interpretations of threat, negative emotion, and control was assessed using hypothetical ambiguous scenarios in a sample of 271 anxious and nonanxious mothers of 7- to 12-year-old children with an anxiety disorder. Mothers also rated their expectations when presented with real life challenge tasks. There was a significant association between maternal anxiety disorder status and negative expectations of child coping behaviors. Mothers’ self-referent interpretations were found to mediate this relationship. Responses to ambiguous hypothetical scenarios correlated significantly with responses to real life challenge tasks. Treatments for childhood anxiety disorders in the context of parental anxiety disorders may benefit from the inclusion of a component to directly address parental cognitions. Some inconsistencies were found when comparing maternal expectations in response to hypothetical scenarios with real life challenges. This should be addressed in future research.
Objective: The investigation sought to examine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with mental health problems. Method: A case control design was employed and self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured in a group of women whose children were receiving mental health care, ...
Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela
The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This
Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J
Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily
Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that rarely exists in isolation in affected patients. We examined the association of ulcerative colitis and International Classification of Diseases mental disorder, as well as the temporal comorbidity of three broad International Classification of Diseases groupings of mental disorders in patients with ulcerative colitis to determine if mental disorder is more likely to occur before or after ulcerative colitis. We used physician diagnoses from the regional health zone of Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern in that Calgary health zone (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients age younger than 1 year to age 92 years (2120 males, average age = 47 years; 2993 females, average age = 48 years) with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. The 16-year cumulative prevalence of ulcerative colitis was 0.0058%, or 58 cases per 10,000 persons (95% confidence interval = 56-60 per 10,000). Although the cumulative prevalence of mental disorder in the overall sample was 5390 per 10,000 (53.9%), we found that 4192 patients with ulcerative colitis (82%) also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. By annual rate of ulcerative colitis, patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depressive disorders was most likely to arise before ulcerative colitis (odds ratio = 1.87 for males; 2.24 for females). A temporal association was observed between specific groups of International Classification of Diseases mental disorder and ulcerative colitis, indicating a possible etiologic relationship between the disorders or their treatments, or both.
Sumneangsanor, Tipsuda; Vuthiarpa, Sararud; Somprasert, Chomchueun
Mental health disorders can affect physical and psychological behaviors. The people of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have a high risk of mental health disorders, such as depression, stress, and substance abuse be-cause the people in this region are trafficked for forced sex work and various forms of forced labor. In these situations, vic-tims often endure violence and abuse from trafficking recruiters, employers, and other individuals. The purposes of this study were to identify the elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and sub-stance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. The researcher undertook a comparative analysis of the literature, reviews of epidemiological studies and mental disorder therapies, and overviews of previous research studies, were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental disorder therapeutic modalities. Regarding the search methods, the data from the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Dynamed and ScienceDirect were supplemented with a manual reference search covering relevant studies from 2005 to 2016. Thirty-one papers were included in the review of elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. Nine papers defined characterizing mental health disorders, in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse. Twenty-two papers showed the treatment modalities for mental health disorders that the treatment was effective, these in-cluded pharmacological treatments and psychological treatments, such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, biofeedback, and music therapy. Useful guidance can be provided for the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, and for the care of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The finding of this review confirms the
Brian E Eisinger
Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.
Aghdam, Fatemeh Bakhtari; Ahmadzadeh, Sakineh; Hassanalizadeh, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Sabzmakan, Leila; Javadivala, Zeinab
Background and Objective: Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals’ fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents’ personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child’s personality than other factors. Given the mothers’ role in children’s mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation’s future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal employment on students’ mental health in Maku. Materials and Methods: The present study is descriptive and cross-sectional, and the population of the study encompasses all students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades (n=583) who are studying in 2013-2014 academic year in Maku. General Heath Questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and the SPSS software was used for analyzing the data. Findings: The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the mental health problems, somatic problems, social functioning, anxiety, and depression of the students with employed and non-employed mothers. In other words, the students with non-working mothers experienced greater mental disorders than those with working mothers. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children with working mothers showed a better mental health than non-working mothers’ children. PMID:25716412
Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Ahmadzadeh, Sakineh; HassanAlizadeh, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Sabzmakan, Leila; Javadivala, Zeinab
Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals' fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents' personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child's personality than other factors. Given the mothers' role in children's mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation's future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal employment on students' mental health in Maku. The present study is descriptive and cross-sectional, and the population of the study encompasses all students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades (n=583) who are studying in 2013-2014 academic year in Maku. General Heath Questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and the SPSS software was used for analyzing the data. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the mental health problems, somatic problems, social functioning, anxiety, and depression of the students with employed and non-employed mothers. In other words, the students with non-working mothers experienced greater mental disorders than those with working mothers. According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children with working mothers showed a better mental health than non-working mothers' children.
Full Text Available Background Neonatal mortality comprises a large part of infant mortality, and it depends largely on neonatal birth weight. Besides maternal diseases, it seems that other important factors such as maternal demographic characteristics, mental health and marital satisfaction, affects their infants birth weight. This study conducted aiming to evaluate these affecting factors on neonatal birth weight. Materials and Methods This study was descriptive – correlative, and conducted on all of the mothers and their neonates who were 200 mothers and neonates born during the summer 2015, in Urmia Kosar hospital that lasted 6 months. We used the GHQ (General Health Questionnaire, to evaluate the mental status of mothers and ENRICH for the evaluation of marital satisfaction. Demographic characteristics of mothers collected to special forms. Results In this study, 200 mothers, and 200 neonates born in Kosar Hospital were studied. The mean age of the mothers was 28.06 ± 6.34 years and the duration of pregnancy was 39.14 ± 1.21 months. The amount of obtained was significant for pregnancy duration in predicting neonatal birth weight. In marital status parameters, beta amounts for economic, family and communication was significant in predicting neonatal birth weight. Among parameters of maternal mental health, correlation of depression was significant in predicting neonatal birth weight. Conclusion According to results, in white race low maternal age was a risk factor for bearing low birth weight baby. Marital satisfaction and bearing no stress from husband lets the fetus grow well and reaches normal birth weight.
Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily
To examine the association between mental disorders and work disability in the adult resident population in Singapore. Data are from the Singapore Mental Health Study, which was a household survey of a nationally representative sample. The main instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Employment-related information was collected using the modified employment module of the CIDI. A total of 6,429 respondents were included in the analysis, 71 % (n = 4,594) were employed, 24.5 % (n = 1,522) were economically inactive and 4.5 % (n = 313) were unemployed. Among the employed, 2.3 % had a 12-month prevalence of at least one mental disorder, while 5.3 % of the unemployed had at least one mental disorder. The average number of work loss days (absenteeism) per capita among those with a mental disorder was 0.5 per month that is equivalent to an annualized national projection of approximately 0.3 million productivity days. The average work-cutback days (presenteeism) were 0.4 days among this group. Of the mentally ill in the workforce, a high proportion (86.5 %) did not ever seek help for problems related to mental health. Our findings provide information on the significant consequences of mental disorders on the workforce in terms of lost work productivity, which could pave the way for a more rational allocation of scarce resources.
Rief, Winfried; Glombiewski, Julia A; Gollwitzer, Mario; Schubö, Anna; Schwarting, Rainer; Thorwart, Anna
Expectancies are core features of mental disorders, and change in expectations is therefore one of the core mechanisms of treatment in psychiatry. We aim to improve our understanding of expectancies by summarizing factors that contribute to their development, persistence, and modification. We pay particular attention to the issue of persistence of expectancies despite experiences that contradict them. Based on recent research findings, we propose a new model for expectation persistence and expectation change. When expectations are established, effects are evident in neural and other biological systems, for example, via anticipatory reactions, different biological reactions to expected versus unexpected stimuli, etc. Psychological 'immunization' and 'assimilation', implicit self-confirming processes, and stability of biological processes help us to better understand why expectancies persist even in the presence of expectation violations. Learning theory, attentional processes, social influences, and biological determinants contribute to the development, persistence, and modification of expectancies. Psychological interventions should focus on optimizing expectation violation to achieve optimal treatment outcome and to avoid treatment failures.
Tahhan, Julia; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Leschied, Alan W.; Cook, Steve
Findings are reported regarding maternal experiences of their seriously emotionally disordered child both prior to and following a stay in a residential children's mental health treatment facility. Prior to placement, these parents had exhausted all nonresidential forms of intervention and, increasingly, became concerned not only for their…
Ride, Jemimah; Lorgelly, Paula; Tran, Thach; Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Postnatal maternal mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, entail a significant burden globally, and finding cost-effective preventive solutions is a public policy priority. This paper presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention, What Were We Thinking (WWWT), for the prevention of postnatal maternal mental health problems. The economic evaluation, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres in Victoria, Australia. Participants were English-speaking first-time mothers attending participating Maternal and Child Health Centres. Full data were collected for 175 participants in the control arm and 184 in the intervention arm. WWWT is a psychoeducational intervention targeted at the partner relationship, management of infant behaviour and parental fatigue. The evaluation considered public sector plus participant out-of-pocket costs, while outcomes were expressed in the 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental costs and outcomes were estimated using regression analyses to account for relevant sociodemographic, prognostic and clinical characteristics. The intervention was estimated to cost $A118.16 per participant. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in costs or outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $A36 451 per QALY gained and $A152 per percentage-point reduction in 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders. The estimate lies under the unofficial cost-effectiveness threshold of $A55 000 per QALY; however, there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with a 55% probability that WWWT would be considered cost-effective at that threshold. The results suggest that, although WWWT shows promise as a preventive intervention for postnatal
Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo
Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina
Full Text Available The authors analyze the data available in the literature on sleep disorders and their correction in the population and in patients with mental disorders and give their experience in using zolpidem (sanval to treat insomnia in different mental diseases. The clinical features of sleep disorders are characterized in neurotic and affective disorders, schizophrenia, and organic brain injuries. Indications for the use of sanval both alone and in combination with other psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and antipsychotics with a sedative effect for the therapy of sleep disorders within the framework of mental disorders are discussed. Sanval is shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in 100psychiatric in- and outpatients. No dependence on this drug and withdrawal syndrome permit sanval to be used as long-term courses in patients with chronic permanent insomnia and at an old age.
Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.
Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.
IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly
Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year period...... incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical advances...
Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Scott, Kate M; McGee, Magnus A; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Wells, J Elisabeth
To show the extent and patterning of 12 month mental disorder comorbidity in the New Zealand population, and its association with case severity, suicidality and health service utilization. A nationwide face-to-face household survey was carried out in October 2003 to December 2004 with 12,992 participants aged 16 years and over, achieving a response rate of 73.3%. The measurement of mental disorder was with the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Comorbidity was analysed with hierarchy, consistent with a clinical approach to disorder count. Comorbidity occurred among 37% of 12 month cases. Anxiety and mood disorders were most frequently comorbid. Strong bivariate associations occurred between alcohol and drug use disorders and, to a lesser extent, between substance use disorders and some anxiety and mood disorders. Comorbidity was associated with case severity, with suicidal behaviour (especially suicide attempts) and with health sector use (especially mental health service use). The widespread nature of mental disorder comorbidity has implications for the configuration of mental health services and for clinical practice.
Márcia Pinheiro Schaefer
Full Text Available Mother-infant interactions and their impact on the formation of the psyche are studied by the Attachment Theory, highlighting the maternal mentalizing capacity as a determinant in the formation of a secure attachment. This study aimed to understand how a psychotherapeutic intervention performed with mother-premature baby pairs during hospitalization in NICU affects the maternal mentalizing capacity through a qualitative intervention research, with exploratory and descriptive character, which surveyed multiple cases and assessments before and after the intervention. The research included two mother-premature neonate dyads hospitalized in NICU. Before the intervention, the instruments used were: Socio-Demographic and Clinical Data Sheets and Live History Interview with the mother; after, the instrument used was the Hospitalization History Interview. Data were analyzed according to two themes: a maternal representations of herself; b maternal representations of the baby. There were changes in maternal mentalizing capacity, favoring the mother-baby bond and a possible implementation of interventions aimed at the early relationship mother-premature baby in NICU.
Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.
Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension
for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in general health care settings ... treatment had been adapted for use in the Indian setting, ... GHQ in the Konkani language has been published.6 Those ..... Santiago, Chile: A randomised controlled trial.
Seyede Salehe Mortazavi
Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Saraiva, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Jorge
There are several reasons why a definition for mental disorder is essential. Among these are not only reasons linked to psychiatry itself as a science (nosology, research) but also to ethical, legal, and financial issues. The first formal definition of mental disorder resulted from a deep conceptual analysis led by Robert Spitzer. It emerged to address several challenges that psychiatry faced at the time, namely to serve as the starting point for an atheoretical and evidence-based classification of mental disorders, to justify the removal of homosexuality from classifications, and to counter the arguments of antipsychiatry. This definition has been updated, with some conceptual changes that make it depart from the main assumptions of Spitzer's original definition. In this article, we intend to review the factors that substantiated the emergence of the first formal definition of mental disorder that based all its later versions.
Wright, A G C; Simms, L J
Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.
Balbir S Deswal
Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using
Shlomo, Shirley Ben; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Findler, Liora; Sivan, Eyal; Dolizki, Mordechay
Although becoming a grandmother represents an important transition in a woman's life, it has received scant research attention. This study used the model of growth developed by Schaefer and Moos in an attempt to identify personal and environmental resources that may contribute to a first-time maternal grandmother's mental health and her…
Meyrose, Ann-Katrin; Klasen, Fionna; Otto, Christiane; Gniewosz, Gabriela; Lampert, Thomas; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Mental health problems in children and adolescents are widespread and are a primary public health concern worldwide. During childhood and adolescence different challenges must be met. Whether the corresponding developmental tasks can be mastered successfully and in a psychologically healthy manner depends on the availability of resources. The aim of the current study was to examine the benefits of maternal education on the development of mental health in children and adolescents. Data from 2810 participants (48.7% female, 7- to 19-years old) of the longitudinal BELLA study (mental health module of the representative German KiGGS study) were analyzed from up to four measurement points (2003-2012). Individual growth modeling was employed to estimate the benefits of maternal education (Comparative Analysis of Social Mobility in Industrial Nations, CASMIN) for the trajectories of mental health problems (parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) in children and adolescents. Children of mothers with low education had significantly more mental health problems compared to children of mothers with high education. This difference due to maternal education applied for girls as well as boys and especially for participants who did not live with both biological parents. Further, the difference in mental health problems due to varying maternal education decreased with increasing age of the participants. Prevention programs should focus on children of mothers with lower education who additionally live in single- or step-parent families as a high-risk group. Knowledge of the underlying mechanism between education and mental health is highly important. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the last few decades, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse have become a frequent phenomenon, which features diverse forms and degrees of severity. In addition to being a medical and extremely harmful social phenomenon, substance abuse (commonly known as drug or narcotics abuse is frequently a subject matter of research in many sciences or scientific disciplines, such as medicine, psychology, sociology, legal science, etc. Drug abusers may develop diverse mental disorders, which largely depends on the type of psychoactive substance which is being abused and the method of taking narcotics (including frequency, daily dose, mode of administration, etc.. In this paper, the author provides an overview of different types of mental disorders according to the applicable International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. The disturbance of mental functions due to drug abuse (which may or may not result in the development of a mental disorder changes the perception and behaviour of drug users. The disturbance of mental functions becomes particularly prominent in the circumstances where substance abuse has turned into a drug addiction; the basic characteristic of the dependence syndrome is an irresistible urge (craving or even compulsion to take the substance in order to enjoy its effects again or to avoid/relieve the drug addiction crisis or the abstinence syndrome, which may be extremely painful and agonizing. As a consequence of these mental disturbances and other disorders arising from drug addiction, human behaviour may be disrupted to such an extent that a person may demonstrate some criminal conduct, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly relevant in the field of criminal law. Given the fact that the criminal offender is a drug abuser who may have different forms of mental disorders, there is a need to consider the offender's mental capacity (sanity, which ultimately makes these mental disorders highly
Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N
Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.
burden of mental disorders among low- and middle-income nations, contributing ... from mild to severe mental stress with the female gender developing stress 2.3 times more often. ... that the participant could withdraw from the study at any time. .... lack of family and social support with broken relationships could be key in ...
Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.
Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever
BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of com...
Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; McGrath, John J.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Scott, Kate; ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Zarkov, Zahari; Bruffaerts, Ronny
Background Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. Methods The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1,572) and nonstudents in the same age range (18–22; n = 4,178), including nonstudents who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (4 low/lower-middle income, 5 upper middle-income, 1 lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioural and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders. 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning. PMID:27484622
Auerbach, R P; Alonso, J; Axinn, W G; Cuijpers, P; Ebert, D D; Green, J G; Hwang, I; Kessler, R C; Liu, H; Mortier, P; Nock, M K; Pinder-Amaker, S; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Kiejna, A; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; McGrath, J J; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Scott, K; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Zarkov, Z; Bruffaerts, R
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18-22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
Bennett, Ian M; Schott, Whitney; Krutikova, Sofya; Behrman, Jere R
Extend analyses of maternal mental health and infant growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to children through age eight years, and broaden analyses to cognitive and psychosocial outcomes. Community-based longitudinal cohort study in four LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam). Surveys and anthropometric assessments were carried out when the children were approximately ages 1, 5 and 8 years. Risk of maternal common mental disorders (rCMDs) was assessed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ)-20 (score ≥8). Rural and urban as well as low- and middle-income communities. 7722 mothers and their children. Child stunting and underweight (Z score ≤2 of height and weight for age), and development (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), and the psychosocial outcomes self pride and life satisfaction. A high rate of rCMD, stunting and underweight was seen in the cohorts. After adjusting for confounders, significant associations were found between maternal rCMDs and growth variables in the first year of life, with persistence to age 8 years in India and Vietnam, but not in the other countries. India and Vietnam also showed significant associations between rCMDs and lower cognitive development. After adjustment, rCMD was associated with low life satisfaction in Ethiopia but not in the other cohorts. Associations of maternal rCMD in the first year of life with child outcomes varied across the study cohorts and, in some cases, persisted across the first 8 years of life of the child, and included growth, cognitive development and psychosocial domains. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...
... from mental disorders. 4.126 Section 4.126 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.126 Evaluation of disability from mental disorders. (a) When evaluating a mental disorder, the rating agency shall consider the...
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
Objective To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Study design Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Results Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Conclusions Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. PMID:24952709
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
To determine whether maternal mental health mediates the relationship between eczema or asthma symptoms and mental well-being in children. Analysis of 7250 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Child mental well-being at 8 years was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary outcomes were high 'internalizing' (anxious/depressive) and 'externalizing' (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile). Child rash and wheeze categories were 'none'; 'early onset transient' (infancy/preschool only); 'persistent' (infancy/preschool and at school age); and 'late onset' (school age only). Maternal anxiety and depression were reported during pregnancy and when child was 8 years old. Persistent wheezing symptoms were associated with high externalizing (OR 1.74, 95% CI, 1.41-2.15) and internalizing (1.67, 1.35-2.06) problems compared with never wheeze. Maternal anxiety and depression, and disrupted child sleep, attenuated these associations. Persistent rash (externalizing: 1.74, 1.40-2.15; internalizing: 1.42, 1.16-1.74) and late onset rash (externalizing: 1.62, 1.17-2.25; internalizing: 1.46, 1.07-1.99) symptoms were associated with poorer mental well-being compared with no rash at any age. Maternal anxiety and depression, particularly when child was aged 8 years rather than during pregnancy, accounted for the association with internalizing symptoms and partly for externalizing symptoms. Sleep disruption did not mediate the association. Maternal anxiety and depression may mediate the association between child rash and wheeze and child mental well-being. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard
of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...
Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H
Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.
Elferink, J G
The work of the chroniclers served as a source of information about the occurrence of mental diseases among the Incas. From this source it appears that melancholy was by far the most important disease among mental disorders. The disease did not only affect the common Incas: melancholy was rather frequent among the family of the Inca emperor. Like other diseases, mental diseases were treated by the Incas with a mixture of magic and empirical medicinal products. The latter were mainly of botanical nature, but also some minerals were applied to treat depressive disorders. Some typical syndromes of contemporary folk medicine, such as susto and related ailments, were not mentioned by the chroniclers.
José Luis Jiménez López
Full Text Available High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment of mental disorders and mental health promotion. Unlike the reports of other countries, we get participation of more than 95%, we provide appropriate treatment and follow-up to residents with mental disorder, and there has not been a consummate suicide. We assume that the use of different strategies (scrutiny, adapting models of prevention of suicide as a peer and gatekeeper training, informative sessions of mental health promotion and stigma, interventions targeted at individuals and groups with conflicts has been useful against barriers that do not allow doctors to identify the risk of suicide warning signs, seek help for mental disorder, and seek to improve their mental health.
Wittchen, H.U.; Knappe, S.; Andersson, G.; Araya, R.; Banos Rivera, R.M.; Barkham, M.; Bech, P.; Beckers, T.; Berger, T.; Berking, M.; Berrocal, C.; Botella, C.; Carlbring, P.; Chouinard, G.; Colom, F.; Csillag, C.; Cuijpers, P.; David, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G; Essau, C.A.; Fava, G.A.; Goschke, T.; Hermans, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Lutz, W.; Muris, P.; Ollendick, T.H.; Raes, F.; Rief, W.; Riper, H.; Tossani, E.; van der Oord, S.; Vervliet, B.; Haro, J.M.; Schumann, G.
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may
Mullick, M; Miller, L J; Jacobsen, T
This study examined the relationship between insight into mental illness and current child maltreatment risk among mothers who had a major psychiatric disorder and who had lost custody of a child because of abuse, neglect, or having placed the child at risk of harm. Specifically, a measure of insight was examined in relation to systematically observed parenting behaviors known to be correlated with past child maltreatment and in relation to a comprehensive clinical determination of risk. Forty-four mothers who had a major psychiatric disorder were independently rated for their insight into their illness, the quality of mother-child interaction, and the overall clinical risk of maltreatment. Better insight into mental illness was associated with more sensitive mothering behavior and with lower assessed clinical risk of maltreatment. The association remained when mothers with current psychotic symptoms were excluded from the analyses. Better insight did not appear to be associated with past psychotic symptoms, maternal psychiatric diagnosis, or the mother's level of education. Insight into mental illness may function as a protective factor that influences the risk of child maltreatment in mothers with mental illness. Measures of insight could be usefully incorporated into comprehensive parenting assessments for mothers with psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism which can cause severe damage to the patient or, in the case of maternal phenylketonuria, to the foetus. The maternal phenylketonuria syndrome is caused by high blood phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy and presents with serious foetal anomalies, especially congenital heart disease, microcephaly and mental retardation. Case presentation We report on an affected Albanian woman and her seven children. The mother is affected by phenylketonuria and is a compound heterozygote for two pathogenetic mutations, L48S and P281L. The diagnosis was only made in the context of her children, all of whom have at least one severe organic malformation. The first child, 17 years old, has a double-chambered right ventricle, vertebral malformations and epilepsy. She is also mentally retarded, microcephalic, exhibits facial dysmorphies and small stature. The second child, a girl 15 years of age, has severe mental retardation with microcephaly, small stature and various dysmorphic features. The next sibling, a boy, died of tetralogy of Fallot at the age of three months. He also had multiple vertebral and rib malformations. The subsequent girl, now eleven years old, has mental retardation, microcephaly and epilepsy along with facial dysmorphy, partial deafness and short stature. The eight-year-old child is slightly mentally retarded and microcephalic. A five-year-old boy was a premature, dystrophic baby and exhibits mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly and clinodactyly of the fifth finger on both hands. Following a miscarriage, our index case, the youngest child at two years of age, is microcephalic and mentally retarded and shows minor facial anomalies. All children exhibit features of phenylalanine embryopathy caused by maternal phenylketonuria because the mother had not been diagnosed earlier and, therefore, never received any diet. Conclusion This is
Heidi Michelle Rivera; Kelly J Christiansen; Elinor L Sullivan; Elinor L Sullivan
Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectr...
This paper discusses interrelations between creativity, mental disorders and their treatment. The psychology of creativity is very important for successful psychopharmacotherapy, but our knowledge about creativity is still insufficient. Even that which is known is not within the armamentarium of most practicing psychiatrists. In the first part of this article creativity and possible associations between creativity, mental health, and well-being are described. The second part deals with the intriguing relationship between creativity and mental disorders. The third part emphasizes the role of creativity in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper ends by underlining the importance of a creativity-enhancing oriented, and personal recovery-focused psychopharmacotherapy in helping psychiatric patients achieve fulfilled and purposeful lives.
Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia
To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
manuel torres cubeiro
Full Text Available Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs. Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.
Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M
According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link. In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes. The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we collected data pertaining to the most important positive and negative events in different spheres of life that were present in the last five years, including family life, romantic relationships, social life, academic difficulties, losses and separations, episodes of personal difficulties, financial difficulties as well as
Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems. Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well. Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade. Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.
Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Full Text Available Background and problem statement: Integrated care for mental disorders aims to encompass forms of collaboration between different health care settings for the treatment of mental disorders. To this end, it requires integration at several levels, i.e. integration of psychiatry in medicine, of the psychiatric discourse in the medical discourse; of localization of mental health care and general health care facilities; and of reimbursement systems. Description of policy practice: Steps have been taken in the last decade to meet these requirements, enabling psychiatry to move on towards integrated treatment of mental disorder as such, by development of a collaborative care model that includes structural psychiatric consultation that was found to be applicable and effective in several Dutch health care settings. This collaborative care model is a feasible and effective model for integrated care in several health care settings. The Bio Psycho Social System has been developed as a feasible instrument for assessment in integrated care as well.Discussion: The discipline of Psychiatry has moved from anti-psychiatry in the last century, towards an emancipated medical discipline. This enabled big advances towards integrated care for mental disorder, in collaboration with other medical disciplines, in the last decade.Conclusion: Now is the time to further expand this concept of care towards other mental disorders, and towards integrated care for medical and mental co-morbidity. Integrated care for mental disorder should be readily available to the patient, according to his/her preference, taking somatic co-morbidity into account, and with a focus on rehabilitation of the patient in his or her social roles.
He, W J; Xia, J H; Lv, X; Li, L M
Objective: To investigate the current status of depression and anxiety among female staff in a maternal and child health hospital, and to provide a basis for developing related prevention and intervention measures and promoting the mental health of female staff. Methods: The female staff from a provincial maternal and child health hospital completed a psycho-health questionnaire survey on Internet from June to October, 2016. The questionnaires used in the survey consisted of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) , Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) , and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) . The distribution features of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety were analyzed according to the results: of the questionnaire survey. Results Of all female staff surveyed, 42.04% showed depression symptoms, 28.90% showed anxiety symptoms, and 26.12% showed comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Moderate or severe depression (anxiety) was mainly distributed among the female staff with comorbid symptoms (90.63% and 97.01%, respectively) . There were significant differences in the distribution of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms between the medical staff and nursing staff (χ(2)= 5.81, P =0.05) and between those with intermediate and junior professional titles (χ(2)=7.99, P =0.018) . As for SCL-90 results, the total score, total average score, and scores on factors of somatization, compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and anxiety in the female staff with comorbid symptoms, moderate or severe depression, and moderate or severe anxiety were significantly higher than the national norm ( P staff with comorbid symptoms than in the female staff with a single symptom and asymptomatic female staff (both P staff in the maternal and child health hospital, mainly characterized by comorbid symptoms of moderate or severe depression and anxiety. Comorbidity is accompanied by mental health problems such as interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive compulsion
Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z
The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes.
Angelini, Carina R; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Parpinelli, Mary A; Silveira, Carla; Andreucci, Carla B; Ferreira, Elton C; Santos, Juliana P; Zanardi, Dulce M; Souza, Renato T; Cecatti, Jose G
To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care.
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Mental disorders constitute 13% of the global disease burden. Schizophrenia, major depressive disorders (MDD) and bipolar disorders are among the most disabling disorders. Some of the inflammatory markers such as homocysteine, tumor necrosis alpha (TNF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 have a contribution to influence mental disorder. The serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) wasusedas a nonspecific index of systemic inflammation. Elevated levels of CRP as evidence for an inflammatory etiology of schizophrenia, and as indicators of more severe clinical symptoms and psychopathology of schizophrenia. The inflammatory marker also increases in the depressed patient. Proinflammatory cytokines might inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis which could lead to a reduced hippocampal volume, which is in depression. Anxiety symptoms were correlated to increase cytokine levels. Elevated inflammation in particular found in both men and women with the onset of anxiety disorder later in life.
Torales, Julio; Barrios, Iván; González, Israel
Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. In disorders such as anxiety and depression, the main issue is the loss of interest in self-care, which results in a poor hygiene. The most frequent oral and dental diseases in these patients are dental cavities and periodontal disease. The purpose of this brief review is to provide up-to-date information about the management of oral and dental diseases of patients with mental disorders.
Buchanan, Alec; Zonana, Howard
An offender's punishment can be reduced when a court decides that his mental disorder reduces his responsibility for what he did. Courts have sought to establish whether a mentally disordered offender's responsibility is reduced by asking whether his disorder caused the crime. Acceptance of this "causation by mental disorder" criterion has fluctuated, however. This may be because causal explanations are not the types of explanations we are accustomed to offering for the kinds of acts that bring defendants, and psychiatric witnesses, to court. More often, we offer what philosophers have called "possibility" explanations for these acts. The application of psychiatry to possibility explanations has not been widely explored. It offers the potential for the improved use of psychiatric evidence in criminal proceedings.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690
Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Brent, David A; Apter, Alan
The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders and their socio-demographic and health correlates. Disorders were ascertained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory and verified by child psychiatrists. The prevalence rates were 11.7%, 8.1% and 4.8% for any disorder, internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, respectively. Distinct risk factors were associated with the different types of disorders: internalizing disorders were associated with female gender, chronic medical conditions and being cared for by a welfare agency. Risk factors for externalizing disorders were male gender, having divorced or single parents, being an only child or having only one sibling. Learning disability was associated with both types of disorders. The risk and protective factors related to internalizing and externalizing disorders are interpreted within the framework of family composition in this multicultural society.
Getahun, Darios; Jacobsen, Steven J; Fassett, Michael J; Wing, Deborah A; Xiang, Anny H; Chiu, Vicki Y; Peltier, Morgan R
BackgroundTo determine whether hypothyroidism is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and how this association is influenced by race-ethnicity, sex, and timing of exposure.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted using records from 397,201 children who were delivered from 1991 to 2011 and remained health plan members from 1993 to 2014.ResultsChildren of hypothyroid women had higher ASD rates than children of women without the diagnosis (2.14 vs. 1.62/1,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratios (adj.HR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.53). This occurred in women diagnosed before as well as during pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism was associated with ASD for both boys (3.93 vs. 2.62/1,000 person-years; adj.HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and girls (1.10 vs. 0.61/1,000 person-years; adj.HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10-2.08). Of women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were not associated with an increased risk of ASD in children. Compared with white children, prenatal hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of ASD in children of Hispanics (adj.HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17) and women of other/mixed race-ethnicity (adj.HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16).ConclusionMaternal hypothyroidism is associated with ASD in children in a manner dependent on race-ethnicity. Management of maternal hypothyroidism may ameliorate the risk of ASD.
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
This study examined the mediator role of mothers' mental health in the relationship among maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and offspring's psychopathology, and explored whether mediational pathways were moderated by children's sex. Participants were 327 Spanish outpatient children, 8 to 17 years old, and their mothers. Mothers' global psychological distress and depressive symptoms mediated the associations between mothers' violence history and children's externalizing problems. However, only depressive symptoms fully mediated these relationships. Children's sex did not have a moderating role in adjusted paths. Mothers' depressive symptoms are an important mechanism by which maternal violence experiences could affect externalizing problems in Spanish children.
Lyall, Kristen; Munger, Kassandra L; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Santangelo, Susan L; Ascherio, Alberto
Our goal in this study was to determine whether maternal fat intake before or during pregnancy was associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Our primary analysis included 317 mothers who reported a child with ASD and 17,728 comparison mothers from the Nurses' Health Study II (index births in 1991-2007). Dietary information was collected prospectively through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Maternal intake of linoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk in offspring, corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk in the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. Mothers in the lowest 5% of ω-3 fatty acid intake had a significant increase in offspring ASD risk as compared with the remaining distribution (risk ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.32); this association was also seen in the subgroup of women (86 cases and 5,798 noncases) for whom dietary information during pregnancy was available (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 4.91). Thus, variations in intake of polyunsaturated fats within the range commonly observed among US women could affect fetal brain development and ASD risk. Because the number of women with diet assessed during pregnancy was small, however, these results should be interpreted cautiously.
Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Bio, Danielle Soares; Petresco, Sandra; Petresco, Denise; Gutt, Elisa Kijner; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly incapacitating disease typically associated with high rates of familial dysfunction. Despite recent literature suggesting that maternal care is an important environmental factor in the development of behavioral disorders, it is unclear how much maternal care is dysfunctional in BD subjects. The objective of this study was to characterize maternal care in DSM-IV/SCID diagnosed BD type I subjects compared to healthy controls with (PD) and without (NPD) other psychiatric diagnoses. Thirty-four BD mothers and 106 controls underwent an interview about family planning and maternal care, obstetrical complications, and mother-child interactions. K-SADS-PL questions about violence exposure were used to ascertain domestic violence and physical/sexual abuse. BD mothers were less likely to have stable unions (45.5%; pmothers. Due to BD mothers' symptoms, 33.3% of offspring suffered physical and/or psychological abuse. Post hoc analysis, and the use of questions as a surrogate of symptoms as opposed to validated instruments. This is one of few reports confirming that maternal care given by BD women is dysfunctional. BD psychopathology can lead to poor maternal care and both should be considered important environmental risk factors in BD, suggesting that BD psychoeducation should include maternal care orientation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zvereva M. V.
Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R
Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The European migrant crisis is one of the 21st century’s biggest challenges so far. Forced migration touches millions of peoples’ life. Some societies have sent many immigrants abroad, some have received or hosted, and still others have been in transit along paths of migration. Refugee mental health is a psychiatric challenge of the century. The demand for mental healthcare among people fleeing war and persecution can only grow further.
Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J
Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.
Sadler, Melody S; Meagor, Elizabeth L; Kaye, Kimberly E
Theoretical models of public stigma toward mental illness have focused on factors that perpetuate stigma toward the general label of "mental illness" or toward a handful of specific illnesses, used more or less interchangeably. The current work used the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) to examine how one facet of public stigma--stereotype content--differs as a function of specific mental illnesses. Participants were recruited online from across the U.S. Study 1 demonstrated that the overarching category of people with mental illness was perceived as relatively incompetent, but not very hostile (i.e., relatively warm). Study 2 found that when the general label of mental illness was separated into thirteen individual disorders, distinct stereotype content toward four clusters of illnesses emerged. One cluster, typified by illnesses with psychotic features (e.g., schizophrenia), was perceived to be hostile and incompetent. A second cluster, comprised of mood and anxiety disorders, was perceived as average on both competence and warmth. A third cluster of illnesses with neuro-cognitive deficits was thought to be warm but incompetent. The fourth cluster included groups with sociopathic tendencies and was viewed as hostile but relatively competent. The results clearly demonstrate that the stereotype content that underlies public stigma toward individual mental illnesses is not the same for all disorders. Harnessing knowledge of differing stereotype content toward clusters of mental illnesses may improve the efficacy of interventions to counteract public stigma. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Svahn, M F; Hargreave, M; Nielsen, T S S; Plessen, K J; Jensen, S M; Kjaer, S K; Jensen, A
Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders in children born to women with fertility problems. Few studies have investigated the risk of mental disorders in children born after fertility treatment and although some studies have pointed to an increased risk, others found no association. The inconsistent results may be due to methodological constraints in many previous studies, including small sample size and short follow-up, resulting in imprecise risk estimates and lack of information on risk patterns of mental disorders in adulthood. This nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study included all 2 412 721 children born in Denmark between 1969 and 2006. All children were followed from date of birth until date of hospital contact for a mental disorder, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. Information concerning maternal fertility status for all children in the cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort, which contains data on nearly all women with fertility problems in Denmark since 1963. A total of 124 269 (5%) children were born to women with fertility problems and 2 288 452 (95%) to women without fertility problems. To identify children hospitalized for a mental disorder, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal fertility status and the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for various groups of mental disorders, including any mental disorder and all 11 main discharge diagnostic groups, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases
Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.
Reiter, Melanie; Bock, Astrid; Althoff, Marie-Luise; Taubner, Svenja; Sevecke, Kathrin
Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder This paper will give a short overview on the theoretical concept of mentalization and its specific characteristics in adolescence. A previous study on Mentalization based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) demonstrated the effectiveness of MBT-A for the treatment of adolescents with symptoms of deliberate self-harm (Rossouw u. Fonagy, 2012). Based on the results of this study Taubner, Gablonski, Sevecke, and Volkert (in preparation) developed a manual for mentalization based treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders (MBT-CD). This manual represents the foundation for a future study on the efficacy of the MBT-A for this specific disorder in young people. The present case report demonstrates the application of specific MBT interventions, as well as the therapeutic course over one year in a 16-year old girl who fulfilled all criteria of a conduct disorder. During the course of treatment, the de-escalating relationship-oriented therapeutic approach can be considered as a great strength of MBT-A, especially for patients with conduct disorders. The clinical picture, as well as the psychological assessment, showed a positive progress over the course of treatment. Despite frequent escalations, forced placements due to acute endangerment of self and others, and a precarious situation with the patient's place of residence towards the end of therapy, MBT-A treatment enabled the patient to continually use the evolved mentalizing capabilities as a resource.
Araya, Ricardo; Montgomery, Alan; Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Solis, Jaime; Signorelli, Andres; Lewis, Glyn
There is growing research interest in the influence of the built environment on mental disorders. To estimate the variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders attributable to individuals and the built environment of geographical sectors where they live. A sample of 3870 adults (response rate 90%) clustered in 248 geographical sectors participated in a household cross-sectional survey in Santiago, Chile. Independently rated contextual measures of the built environment were obtained. The Clinical Interview Schedule was used to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders. There was a significant association between the quality of the built environment of small geographical sectors and the presence of common mental disorders among its residents. The better the quality of the built environment, the lower the scores for psychiatric symptoms; however, only a small proportion of the variation in common mental disorder existed at sector level, after adjusting for individual factors. Findings from our study, using a contextual assessment of the quality of the built environment and multilevel modelling in the analysis, suggest these associations may be more marked in non-Western settings with more homogeneous geographical sectors.
Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina
The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.
Cabrera Mateos, J L; Touriño González, R; Núñez González, E
Despite its high prevalence, mental disorders are often underdiagnosed. To determine the magnitude of the underdiagnosis mental disorders and its associated characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study performed in Lanzarote (2011) on 310 patients selected by cluster random sampling. A self-completed questionnaire was used that contained the General Health Questionnaire-28, as well as structured interview using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to confirm the diagnosis of mental disorder. The current diagnosis registered in the DRAGO-AP electronic medical record was also recorded. Of the 75 patients detected with the interview, 14 (18.67%) had a diagnosis recorded in the medical record (sensitivity=0.19; IC 95% CI; 0.09-28). The positive predictive value of being in the medical record was 0.56. With respect to sensitivity, only the "number of visits made to the health centre in the last 3 months" was significantly higher in the group of patients also with a diagnosis of any mental disorder in the medical record (5 vs. 2.77; p=.002). There is an important underdiagnosis of the mental disorders in our environment. More visits to the health centre are associated with this diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin
Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R
Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen
provided, in a randomized controlled design, a psychiatric examination giving feedback to the individuals, primary care, and rehabilitation officers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation. Half of individuals who just had passed eight weeks of continuous sickness absence had a mental disorder of which......Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...
Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as Currarino syndrome, sacral defect with anterior meningocele, Jarcho-Levin syndrome (spondylo-costal dysostosis, lateral meningocele syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, and hyperthermia. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
K. I. Kleban
Full Text Available In the general-somatic network there is a steady increase in the number of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Problems of providing adequate psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to this category of patients are related to the motivation of patients to participate in psychological measures and the readiness of the medical system to provide comprehensive care on the basis of the biopsychosocial approach. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. Mental factors are involved both in the occurrence and course of a metabolic syndrome in the form of a patient's lifestyle and behavior patterns of healthy functioning, and is a consequence of somatic pathology. So mental disorders of metabolic syndrome are manifested in the form of psychosocial maladaptation, neurotic, affective, personality, and organic disorders. Desynchronosis which is a factor of the development of a metabolic syndrome and characterizes the complex chronobiological component of the regulation of psychophysiological functions in norm and under the influence of stress, deserves special attention. Addressing the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with metabolic syndrome is precisely aimed at determining chronobiological disorders of psychosomatic integrated areas and is supposed to improve diagnostic and treatment process and to shorten the treatment of these disorders.
Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Alvarez-García, Raquel; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; López-Castromán, Jorge; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique
The aim of this study was to determine the role that birth order, sibship size and family structure have as risk factors in the development of common childhood mental disorders. A case-control study design was conducted (N = 16,823). The group under study consisted of all those subjects who had consulted with a psychiatrist/psychologist and had received a clinical diagnosis at public mental health centres within the Region of Madrid (Spain), between 1980 and 2008. A multiple logistic regression was used to explore the independent association with each diagnosis: emotional disorders (ED) with onset specific to childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), mental retardation (MR), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Birth order and family structure significantly predicted the risk of being diagnosed with ED or ADHD. In addition, sibship size and sex predicted the risk of being diagnosed with a childhood mental disorder. We concluded that being the middle child and living with both biological parents appear to be protective factors against the development of ED or ADHD. Living in large families appears to increase the risk of receiving a CD, MR, or PDD diagnosis. Further research is warranted.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Kieling, R R; Szobot, C M; Matte, B; Coelho, R S; Kieling, C; Pechansky, F; Rohde, L A
Low and middle-income countries experience an expressive growth in the number of circulating motorcycles, paralleled by an increasing number of traffic accidents. Delivery motorcycles drivers ("motoboys") are generally perceived as accountable for this scenario. Although traffic accidents have a multivariate etiology, mental disorders, such as substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are often involved. This paper aims at investigating the prevalence of ADHD, SUD and other mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian motoboys, and additionally, to evaluate the association between psychiatric diagnoses, motorcycle accidents and traffic violation tickets. A convenient sample of subjects was invited to participate in a cross-sectional assessment including an inventory of traffic accidents and violations. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on semi-structured and clinical interviews. A sample of 101 motoboys was assessed. Overall, 75% of subjects had a positive lifetime history of at least one psychiatric disorder. SUD was the most frequent diagnosis (43.6% for alcohol, 39.6% for cannabis). ADHD was associated with a higher number of traffic accidents (p=0.002), and antisocial personality disorder (APD) was associated with a greater number of traffic violations (p=0.007). The prevalence of mental disorders was much higher in our sample than in the general population. ADHD and APD, but not SUD, were associated with negative traffic outcomes. These findings have implications for public mental health planning since mental disorders can be both prevented and treated, improving driving behavior and increasing road safety. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo
The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...... from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen
Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...
Thisted, Cecilie Nørby; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Bjerrum, Merete
on the synthesized findings, we recommended that the employer is involved in the rehabilitation process, and that rehabilitation professionals seek to strengthen the employee’s ability to manage work-related stress. In addition, rehabilitation professionals should provide individualized and active support and ensure......Purpose The aim was to aggregate knowledge about the opportunities, challenges and need for support employees with common mental disorders experience in relation to work participation in order to develop recommendations for practice. Methods A meta-synthesis was conducted using a meta...... findings. One synthesized finding indicates that a strong work identity and negative perceptions regarding mental disorders can impede work participation, creating an essential need for a supportive work environment. The other reveals that the diffuse nature of the symptoms of mental disorders causes...
Paananen, Reija; Ristikari, Tiina; Merikukka, Marko; Gissler, Mika
Most mental disorders start in childhood and adolescence. Risk factors are prenatal and perinatal, genetic as well as environmental and family related. Research evidence is, however, insufficient to explain the life-course development of mental disorders. This study aims to provide evidence on factors affecting mental health in childhood and adolescence. The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort covers all children born in Finland in 1987 (N=59 476) who were followed up until the age of 21 years. The study covers detailed health, social welfare and sociodemographic data of the cohort members and their parents from Finnish registers. Altogether, 7578 (12.7%) cohort members had had a diagnosed mental disorder. Several prenatal, perinatal and family-related risk factors for mental disorders were found, with sex differences. The main risk factors for mental disorders were having a young mother (OR 1.30 (1.16 to 1.47)), parents' divorce (OR 1.33 (1.26 to 1.41)), death of a parent (OR 1.27 (1.16 to 1.38)), parents' short education (OR 1.23(1.09 to 1.38)), childhood family receiving social assistance (OR 1.61 (1.52 to 1.71)) or having a parent treated at specialised psychiatric care (OR 1.47 (1.39 to 1.55)). Perinatal problem (OR 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22)) and prenatal smoking (OR 1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)) were risk factors for mental disorders, even after controlling for background factors. Elevated risk was seen if the cohort member had only basic education (OR 3.37 (3.14 to 3.62)) or had received social assistance (OR 2.45 (2.30 to 2.60)). Mental disorders had many social risk factors which are interlinked. Although family difficulties increased the risk for mental disorders, they were clearly determined by the cohort member's low education and financial hardship. This study provides evidence for comprehensive preventative and supporting efforts. Families with social adversities and with parental mental health problems should be supported to secure children's development.
De Block, Andreas
Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as well as on the harm that attends the disruption. The arguments advanced here are partially based on the view that a core feature of Darwinism is that it stresses the environmental relativity of functions and dysfunctions. These arguments show a very close empirical connection between social judgments (values) and dysfunctions (psychopathology), which is of interest for psychiatric theory. Philosophically, they lead to the conclusion that the concept of mental disorder is identical to the concept of mental dysfunction. Consequently, it is both misleading and redundant to conceptualize mental disorders as 'harmful dysfunctions', and not simply as 'mental dysfunctions'.
Radesky, Jenny; Leung, Christy; Appugliese, Danielle; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Qualities of the parent-child relationship have not been explored as predictors of parent mobile device use during parent-child activities. In 195 mother-child dyads enrolled in an ongoing cohort study, maternal mental representations of their child (ability to reflect on their child's characteristics, emotional state, and their parenting role) were evaluated through the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), a validated semistructured interview. WMCI scale scores were examined as predictors of active maternal mobile device use during parent-child eating encounters (videotaped home mealtimes and a structured laboratory-based protocol) in multivariate logistic regression models. Children were aged 5.9 years (SD: 0.7), mothers were aged 31.5 years (SD: 7.4), and 73.3% of mothers were of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. During the family mealtime, 47 (24.1%) mothers actively used a mobile device at least once, whereas during the structured eating protocol, 44 (22.6%) mothers used a device. Controlling for maternal race/ethnicity, education level, and child's sex, WMCI subscales were associated with device use during home mealtimes (higher Child Difficulty) and the eating protocol (higher Child Difficulty and lower Richness of Perceptions and Caregiving Sensitivity). Maternal mental representations of their child were significantly associated with using mobile devices during eating encounters. More research studies are needed to understand directionality and longer-term associations between mobile device use and parent-child relationship characteristics.
Laura Helena Andrade
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion
Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen
Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the
Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak
Full Text Available In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity in different areas of law, and address the question of whether this interdisciplinary institute.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the knowledge about the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, to analyze the content of this institution in various areas of law, and to conclude that the cross-sectoral character.The author uses formal-legal, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the fault of persons with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, concluding that the criminal law of guilt people with a mental disorder, not excluding sanity, the most developed and taken into account as a circumstance affecting the punishment. In other areas of the law said institution worked shallow.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in the industrial discipline "Criminal Law" and the general theoretical discipline "Theory of State and Law"; in science - by picking up information about the features of the Institute of guilt, and in practice - said the work can be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, in order to understand the meaning and importance of the category of guilt, including - the guilt of persons
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Neikrug, Shimshon; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav
We believe that holistic medicine can be used for patient's with mental health disorders. With holistic psychiatry, it is possible to help the mentally ill patient to heal existentially. As in holistic medicine, the methods are love or intense care, winning the trust of the patient, getting permission to give support and holding, and daring to be fully at the patient's service. Our clinical experiences have led us to believe that mental health patient's can heal if only you can make him or he...
Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.
Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…
Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.
This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…
Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among impulsivity, mental disorder, and suicide with a sample of rural young Chinese. Subjects were 392 consecutively recruited male and female suicides aged 15-34 years and 416 community male and female controls of the same age range sampled in rural China. The case-control data were obtained using psychological autopsy with structured and semi-structured instruments. Dysfunctional impulsivity was a significant risk factor regardless of mental disorder in rural China. Dysfunctional impulsivity is a potential area for further study of suicidal behavior. The suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity.
Full Text Available Abstract Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings. In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts. The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well. The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1. It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child
Sachdev, Perminder S; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the changes in DSM-5 relative to earlier versions.• Evaluate the implications of the DSM-5 for practicing geriatric psychiatrists. About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, prompting considerable commentary, debate, and criticism. This article briefly describes the process leading up to DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. The changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders have been many, but the majority of them are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders, however, has seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison to DSM-IV; of special note is the introduction of "mild and major neurocognitive disorders," the latter equated with dementia. A common language has also been introduced for the criteria for the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field.
Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.
About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215
Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of
Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F.; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo
This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. PMID:25792339
Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo
This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya
HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fanny Helena Martins Salles,1 Pedro San Martin Soares,1 Carolina David Wiener,1 Thaise Campos Mondin,1 Paula Moraes da Silva,1 Karen Jansen,1–3 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,1 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,1 Jean Pierre Oses1–3 1Translational Science on Brain Disorders, Department of Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Translational Psychiatry Program, 3Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth Medical School, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic
Higgins, Agnes; Tuohy, Teresa; Murphy, Rebecca; Begley, Cecily
to explore the views and experiences of women with mental health difficulties, in the Republic of Ireland, accessing and receiving care from publicly-funded maternity care services during pregnancy, childbirth and immediate postnatal period in hospital. in total 20 women with a range of mental health problems were recruited. The women had given birth within maternity services with and without specialist perinatal mental health services. a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth face to face interviews was used to explore women׳s experience. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic process. the study offers valuable insights into the maternity care experiences of women with mental health problems, and highlights the deficits and fragmentation of care in maternity units that do not have a specialist mental health service. Even when the women voluntarily disclosed their difficulties, midwives appeared to lack the knowledge and skills to respond sensitively and responsively. there is a need to expand perinatal mental health services in the Republic of Ireland, so that quality service provision is not dependent on geography. In addition, there is a need for education to address the lack of knowledge and understanding of perinatal mental health problems amongst maternity care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waters, Allison M; Forrest, Kylee; Peters, Rosie-Mae; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin
Children of parents with emotional disorders have an increased risk for developing anxiety and depressive disorders. Yet the mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk are poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine attention biases in children as a function of maternal lifetime emotional disorders and maternal attention biases. There were 134 participants, including 38 high-risk children, and their mothers who had lifetime emotional disorders; and 29 low-risk children, and their mothers without lifetime emotional disorders. Mothers and children completed a visual probe task with emotional face pairs presented for 500 ms. Attention bias in children did not significantly differ solely as a function of whether or not their mothers had lifetime emotional disorders. However, attention bias in high-risk children was significantly related to their mothers' attention bias. Specifically, children of mothers with lifetime emotional disorders showed a greater negative attention bias if their mothers had a greater tendency to direct attention away from positive information. This study was cross-sectional in nature, and therefore unable to assess long-term predictive effects. Also, just one exposure duration of 500 ms was utilised. Attention bias for negative information is greater in offspring of mothers who have lifetime emotional disorders and a reduced positive bias, which could be a risk marker for the development of emotional disorders in children.
Misri, Shaila; Swift, Elena
Comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in perinatal women is often under-diagnosed, resulting in suboptimal treatment and leading to significant maternal dysfunction. We describe a prospective, longitudinal study of the course, treatment outcomes, and quality of life (QoL) in pregnant and postpartum women with MDD and anxiety disorders. Two separate cohorts of women were recruited through the Reproductive Mental Health Program, Women's and Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, for pharmacotherapy of depressed mood. One cohort was recruited during pregnancy and followed to one month postpartum; the other cohort was recruited postpartum and followed for 12 weeks. All women met the DSM-5 criteria for MDD and anxiety disorders. This non-lactating perinatal population completed measures of depression, anxiety, worry symptoms, and QoL at multiple study visits. Depressed women with GAD or excessive worry were compared to those without GAD in each cohort. Analysis revealed that despite the majority of women with MDD having remission of symptoms with treatment, those with postpartum GAD displayed a poorer quality of life, with persistent worry symptoms, and their illness was slower to remit. Pregnant depressed women with uncontrollable worry (a GAD indicator) showed a lower probability of achieving remission of symptoms with treatment than those without uncontrollable worry. All pregnant and postpartum women with GAD and MDD responded to pharmacotherapy, and the majority attained complete remission of MDD. However, their GAD symptoms persisted, and their QoL was compromised. Given the chronic debilitating course of concomitant MDD and GAD in the perinatal population, it is essential to focus on adjunctive therapies to aim for full recovery.
Dawson, John B
How should the mental element be defined in the legal standards governing a person's 'sectioning' or placement under the Mental Health Act (MHA)? This article considers how this mental element is defined in many MHAs in Australasia: via a statutory list of disorders of mental function said to 'characterise' the necessary state of mind. This article assesses the assumptions behind the adoption of this approach. It discusses the views of several English law reform committees that have explored how the mental element should be defined. It examines the philosophy of psychiatry, expounded clearly by Aubrey Lewis, that lies behind the Australasian approach, one that emphasises the need to identify mental disturbance by reference to disorders of 'part-function of the mind', not by reference to behaviour alone. It considers how the Australasian statutes address the question of personality disorder's covered by the Act. In conclusion, it endorses cautiously the Australasian approach, principally on the ground that it may contribute positively to the conduct of review proceedings for compulsory patients under the Act. It may concentrate the attention of tribunals on particular features of the patient's mental state, on how those features are linked to associated dangers or risks, and on how the presence of those features may justify placing decisions about the patient's treatment in others' hands. Throughout, comparisons are made with the manner in which the mental element has been defined in mental health legislation for England and Wales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Claudia S Lopes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8, being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7 when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8, and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0 compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6. The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years. We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Birmaher, Boris; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Hunt, Jeffrey; Ryan, Neal; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Leonard, Henrietta; Sindelar, Holly; Keller, Martin
Objective: To examine the association between youth comorbid psychiatric disorders, maternal mood disorder, and perceptions of family cohesion and conflict among youth diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method: Three hundred eighty-nine bipolar youths and their parents completed a diagnostic interview and instruments assessing family…
Borges, Guilherme; Medina Mora-Icaza, María Elena; Benjet, Corina; Lee, Sing; Lane, Michael; Breslau, Joshua
To study the impact of mental disorders on failure in educational attainment in Mexico. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 16 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-reports with the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) during fieldwork in 2001-2002. Survival analysis was used to examine associations between early onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent school dropout or failure to reach educational milestones. More than one of two Mexicans did not complete secondary education. More than one-third of those who finished secondary education did not enter college, and one of four students who entered college did not graduate. Impulse control disorders and substance use disorders were associated with higher risk for school dropout, secondary school dropout and to a lesser degree failure to enter college. Anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk for school dropout, especially secondary school dropout and, to a lesser degree, primary school dropout. The heterogeneity of results found in Mexico may be due to the effect of mental disorders being diminished or masked by the much greater effect of economic hardship and low cultural expectations for educational achievement. Future research should inquire deeper into possible reasons for the better performance of students with anxiety disorders in developing countries.
Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert
To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…
Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…
Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.
To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a
Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Mikami, Masashi; Inoue, Eisuke; Mori, Rintaro; Ota, Erika; Koizumi, Tomoe; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko
Previous work has suggested that maternal developmental disorder traits related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are significantly associated with child maltreatment. However, there may be other important maternal characteristics that contribute to child maltreatment. We hypothesized that maternal impulse control disability may also affect child maltreatment in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits. We aimed to test this hypothesis via a cohort study performed in Tokyo (n = 1,260). Linear regression analyses using the Behavioural Inhibition/Behavioural Activation Scales, the self-administered short version of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, the short form of the Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale, and the Child Maltreatment Scale, revealed that excessive inhibition of behaviour and affect, which is impulse control disability, is significantly associated with child maltreatment (b = 0.031, p = 0.018) in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits (ASD: b = 0.052, p = 0.004; ADHD: b = 0.178, p child maltreatment, while ADHD was associated (AOR = 1.034, p = 0.022) with severe child maltreatment. These maternal characteristics may inform the best means for prevention and management of child maltreatment cases.
The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...
Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun
Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base...
Objective: To provide estimates of the prevalence of selected mental disorders in the Western Cape, based on the consensus achieved by a working group established for this purpose. Method: An expert working group was established to provide technical expertise for the project. Potential risk factors likely to influence local ...
CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.
ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…
Smith, David T.
This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…
Sep 3, 2017 ... Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Science, Jimma University, Ethiopia. 2. Laska Meles ... Cite as: Kerebih H, Ajaeb M, Hailesilassie H. Common mental disorders among medical students in Jimma University, SouthWest Ethiopia. Afri ..... Edméa FC, Margleice MR, Ana Teresa RS, Enaldo VM,.
Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge
Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...
mental disorders may increase HIV risk (e.g. by impairing risk perception and impulse control), ... analysis of the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study, a nationally ... taking more care over things touched; (iv) avoiding certain ... individually to assess potential differences between appropriate .... Gender (%). Male.
The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is on its way and will most likely be published in 2013. The chair of the task force of this significant project, Dr David Kupfer, was in the Netherlands at a national psychiatry conference to give an update on its progress.
Sugai, Yuuichi; Nakayama, Hirosi; Tatemichi, Nobuhiro
Computed tomography (CT) was employed to follow up 28 patients with senile mental disorders (52 to 84 years of age) over a period of one to six and a half years after the first presentation. The first CT scans showed ventricular enlargement in many instances, which made it difficult to distinguish functional from degenerative diseases. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was, therefore, obtained on sequential CT scannings. The yearly rate of ventricular enlargement was high, which was associated with progression of the disease in the group with Alzheimer's disease. In the group with functional diseases, however, ventricular enlargement and progression were independent of each other. Both the yearly rate of ventricular enlargement and mental function significantly correlated with decreased adaptation of daily life. Periodical CT scanning and clinical observation over a certain period may offer useful information on the differential diagnosis and prognosis of senile mental disorders. (Namekawa, K.)
Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães Barbosa
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to understand the ways of living and thinking about sexuality of people with mental disorders. Open interviews were conducted with men and women in public mental health services in Brazil. Transcrips were examined based on the proposal of sexual scripts. Major imbalances coming from conceptions of masculinity and femininity in society were identified in the sexual scripts experienced by these men and women. Interviewees have little pleasure in their sexual lives, with recurrent complaints of sexual abuse, even by steady partners; prejudice; and lack of affection in their relationships. Additionally, they were found to have few self-care skills concerning sexual health, in a context marked by social exclusion. The results showed the need to promote sexual health as a human right, and fight gender stereotypes, which cause so much damage to the sexual health of people with mental disorders.
Olajide, Kike; Tyrer, Peter; Singh, Swaran P; Burns, Tom; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Thana, Lavanya; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Crawford, Mike J
The UK guidelines on the treatment of personality disorder recommend avoiding compulsory treatment except in extreme situations. Little is known about how often patients with personality disorder are detained or how this compares with the treatment of other mental disorders. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that people with personality disorder are infrequently detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA) and that risk factors associated with detention are the same as those for people with other mental disorders. We used a retrospective, quantitative study of MHA assessments. Of the 2 087 assessments undertaken, 204 (9.8%) patients had a diagnosis of personality disorder; 40.7% of assessments in the personality disorder group resulted in detention, as did 69.7% of patients with other mental disorders. A higher proportion of people with personality disorder received no intervention following assessment compared with those with other mental disorders (20.6% vs. 4.7%, p mental disorders. Detention rates in patients with personality disorder are lower than those for other disorders but are still substantial. Risk factors for detention in patients with personality disorder differ from those with other mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric...
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome, Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum, Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XX-agonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.......Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up....
Pawlby, S; Fernyhough, C; Meins, E; Pariante, C M; Seneviratne, G; Bentall, R P
Previous cross-diagnosis studies of interaction between mothers with severe mental illness and their babies have concluded that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in interaction, but these studies have not included healthy controls. In-patients on a mother and baby unit, with diagnoses of schizophrenia (n=15), depressive mood disorders with or without psychosis (n=23), or mood disorders where mania was the predominant feature, with or without psychosis (n=12), were observed interacting with their infants on admission and discharge. Mothers' mind-mindedness and other measures of the quality of maternal and infant behaviour were coded. Findings from this sample were compared with those from healthy mothers and their infants (n=49). Compared with healthy controls, on admission depressed mothers were marginally less likely to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states. Both the depressed and mania groups were more likely to touch their babies and engage in attention-seeking behaviours. Interactional behaviours of mothers in the schizophrenia group were not markedly different from healthy controls. On discharge there were fewer differences between the clinical and healthy groups, although the depressed group continued to engage in more attention-seeking and touching behaviour and the mania group continued to touch their infants more. Only mothers in the schizophrenia group showed changes in interactional behaviours between admission and discharge, talking more to their infants. The findings challenge previous conclusions that mothers with schizophrenia have deficits in their interactions with their babies, and demonstrate that mothers with severe mental illness are able to respond appropriately to their infants' cues.
Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental
Ueno, Rie; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
Mothers with mental illness have positive self-recognition of maternal role (PM), and it is important for parenting. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial factors related to the PM. We recruited a total of 74 women diagnosed as having schizophrenia or mood disorders according to the DSM-IV-TR and who had minor children. Participant completed devaluation-discrimination measure, The social support questionnaire, self-efficacy for community life scale (SECL), parenting stress-short form scale (PS-SF), and Acceptance of maternal role scale. To identify factors predicting the PM, we utilized hierarchical regression analysis. The variables in all blocks explained 53% of the variance in the PM. In the final model, 'hard' living conditions (β = -0.31, P < 0.05), SECL (β = 0.34, P < 0.01) and PS-SF (β = -0.45, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of the PM. Our result indicates that psychosocial approach could enhance the PM.
Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847
Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
Harrowell, Ian; Hollén, Linda; Lingam, Raghu; Emond, Alan
To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Logistic and linear regressions assessed the associations between DCD and mental health, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Adjustments were made for socio-economic status, IQ, and social communication difficulties. Adolescents with DCD (n=168) had an increased risk of mental health difficulties (total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score) than their peers (n=3750) (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.83, adjusted for socio-economic status and IQ). This was, in part, mediated through poor social communication skills. Adolescent females with DCD (n=59) were more prone to mental health difficulties than males. Greater mental well-being was associated with better self-esteem (β 0.82, pcommunication skills and self-esteem. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.
Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Background: High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Methods: Data were used from 4482
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...
Chilvers, R; Macdonald, G M; Hayes, A A
There has been a significant reduction in the number of people with severe mental illness who spend extended periods in long-stay hospitals. District health authorities, local authorities, housing associations and voluntary organisations are jointly expected to provide support for people with severe mental disorder/s. This 'support' may well involve some kind of special housing. To determine the effects of supported housing schemes compared with outreach support schemes or 'standard care' for people with severe mental disorder/s living in the community. For the 2006 update we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2006) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2006 Issue 2). We included all relevant randomised, or quasi-randomised, trials dealing with people with 'severe mental disorder/s' allocated to supported housing, compared with outreach support schemes or standard care. We focused on outcomes of service utilisation, mental state, satisfaction with care, social functioning, quality of life and economic data. We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and undertook data extraction. For dichotomous data, we would have estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we would have calculated the number needed to treat statistic (NNT). We would have carried out analysis by intention-to-treat and would have summated normal continuous data using the weighted mean difference (WMD). We would have presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality and undertaken tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. Although 139 citations were acquired from the searches, no study met the inclusion criteria. Dedicated schemes whereby people with severe mental illness are located within one site or building with assistance from professional workers have potential for great benefit as they provide a 'safe haven' for people in need of stability and
Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua E; Hastings, Paul D; Gibb, Brandon E
Family environment plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD), but less is known about how day-to-day mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with a history of MDD. Disruptions in mother-child synchrony, the dynamic and convergent exchange of physiological and behavioral cues during interactions, may be one important risk factor. Although maternal MDD is associated with a lack of mother-child synchrony at the behavioral level, no studies have examined the impact of maternal MDD on physiological synchrony. Therefore, this study examined whether maternal history of MDD moderates mother-child physiological synchrony [measured via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)] during positive and negative discussions. Children aged 7-11 years and mothers with either a history of MDD during the child's lifetime (n = 44) or no lifetime diagnosis of any mood disorder (n = 50) completed positive and negative discussion tasks while RSA was continuously recorded for both child and mother. Results indicated significant between-dyad and within-dyad group differences in physiological synchrony during positive and negative discussions. Between-dyad analyses revealed evidence of synchrony only among never depressed dyads, among whom higher average mother RSA during both discussions was associated with higher average child RSA. Within-dyad analyses revealed that never depressed dyads displayed positive synchrony (RSA concordance), whereas dyads with a history of maternal MDD displayed negative synchrony (RSA discordance) during the negative discussion and that the degree of negative synchrony exhibited during the negative discussion was associated with mothers' and children's levels of sadness. These results provide preliminary evidence that physiological synchrony is disrupted in families with a history of maternal MDD and may be a potential risk factor for the intergenerational transmission of depression. © 2016
Jacqueline G Uriyo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although poor maternal mental health is a major public health problem, with detrimental effects on the individual, her children and society, information on its correlates in low-income countries is sparse. AIMS: This study investigates the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD among at-risk mothers, and explores its associations with sociodemographic factors. METHODS: This population-based survey of mothers of children aged 0-36 months used the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ. Mothers whose response was "yes" to 8 or more items on the scale were defined as "at risk of CMD." RESULTS: Of the 1,922 mothers (15-48 years, 28.8% were at risk of CMD. Risk of CMD was associated with verbal abuse, physical abuse, a partner who did not help with the care of the child, being in a polygamous relationship, a partner with low levels of education, and a partner who smoked cigarettes. Cohabiting appeared to be protective. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate the significance of the quality of relations with one's partner in shaping maternal mental health. The high proportion of mothers who are at risk of CMD emphasizes the importance of developing evidence-based mental health programmes as part of the care package aimed at improving maternal well-being in Tanzania and other similar settings.
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For... benefits and mental health or substance use disorder benefits must comply with paragraph (b)(2), (b)(3), or...
... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... published a final rule document extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the...) extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings...
... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in... need to evaluate mental disorders at step three of the sequential evaluation processes for initial...
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For... benefits and mental health or substance use disorder benefits must comply with paragraph (b)(2), (b)(3), or...
Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs.
Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
To gain insight into (1) the prevalence and incidence of common mental disorders (CMD) and low work ability among bricklayers and construction supervisors; (2) the impact of CMD on current work ability and work ability 1 year later and (3) the added value of job-specific questions about work ability
Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L
Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL
Süheyla DODAN BULUT
Full Text Available Compulsive hoarding is a problem characterized with excessive collection and accumulation, failure to discard the excess amount of collected items. Although it is considered to be a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder in DSMIV- TR (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition text revision, it is thought that compulsive hoarding and OCD may have different biological, cognitive and behavioral mechanisms and compulsive hoarding may be associated with many other psychological illnesses. For these reasons, in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition hoarding disorder diagnosis is located under the classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. In this case report, three cases classified in different diagnostic categories according to DSM-IV-TR will be mentioned and hoarding disorder will be discussed.
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma
Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.
Hu, You-Ping; Chen, Yong; Xing, Lin; Niu, Bai-Lu; Zhu, Feng-Juan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yu; Bian, Wei; Liu, Cong-Sheng; Wei, Li; Du, Yuan-Hao
Dominant disease menu of mental and behavioral disorder of acupuncture therapy was summarized and obtained in this article. Literatures on clinical treatment of mental and behavioral disorder with acupuncture were picked up from CBMdisc and CNKI during 1978 to 2007. Types of mental and behavioral disorder and report frequency of each disease treated with acupuncture were counted. And dominant diseases which were favorable to be treated with acupuncture were acquired through analysis and inductive method. Twenty-nine diseases of mental and behavioral disorder are favorable to be treated with acupuncture which were mentioned in totally 1967 related documents. It is found that the number of reports of sleep disorder, depression, hysteria aphronesia, dementia and sexual disorder are ranked as the top five. It is concluded that the preponderant diseases of mental and behavioral disorder treated by acupuncture are dementia, withdrawal syndrome, mental retardation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorder, gastrointestinal neurosis (gastrointestinal disorders), depression, alcoholism and globus hystericus.
Meier, S M; Plessen, K J; Verhulst, F
Background Maternal smoking has consistently been associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing disorders. In contrast the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and internalizing (anxiety and depressive) disorders in offspring has received less...... investigation. Method We conducted a nationwide cohort study including 957635 individuals born in Denmark between 1991 and 2007. Data on MSDP and diagnoses of depression or anxiety disorders were derived from national registers and patients were followed up from the age of 5 years to the end of 2012. Hazard...... severe depression [HRR 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.36] and severe anxiety disorders (HRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.20-1.32) even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. However, there was no association between MSDP and internalizing disorders when controlling for the mother's propensity...
Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of
Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan
Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415
Fursland, Anthea; Watson, Hunna J
Eating disorders are common but underdiagnosed illnesses. Help-seeking for co-occurring issues, such as anxiety and depression, are common. To identify the prevalence of eating problems, using the SCOFF, and eating disorders when screening positive on the SCOFF (i.e., ≥2), among patients seeking help for anxiety and depression at a community-based mental health service. Patients (N = 260) consecutively referred and assessed for anxiety and depression treatment were administered the SCOFF screening questionnaire and a semi-structured standardized diagnostic interview during routine intake. 18.5% (48/260) scored ≥2 on the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Of these, 41% (19/48) met criteria for an eating disorder. Thus, overall, 7.3% (19/260) of the sample met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder. Those scoring ≥2 on the SCOFF were more likely to: be female (p = 0.001), younger (p = 0.003), and have a history of self-harm (p eating disorders are a hidden phenomenon in general outpatient mental health. By using a standardized diagnostic interview to establish diagnosis rather than self- or staff-report, the study builds on limited previous findings. The naturalistic study setting shows that screening for eating disorders can be easily built into routine intake practice, and successfully identifies treatment need. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…
Canetta, Sarah E; Bao, Yuanyuan; Co, Mary Dawn T; Ennis, Francis A; Cruz, John; Terajima, Masanori; Shen, Ling; Kellendonk, Christoph; Schaefer, Catherine A; Brown, Alan S
The authors examined whether serologically confirmed maternal exposure to influenza was associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorder in the offspring and with subtypes of bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. The study used a nested case-control design in the Child Health and Development Study birth cohort. In all, 85 individuals with bipolar disorder were identified following extensive ascertainment and diagnostic assessment and matched to 170 comparison subjects in the analysis. Serological documentation of maternal exposure to influenza was determined using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. No association was observed between serologically documented maternal exposure to influenza and bipolar disorder in offspring. However, maternal serological influenza exposure was related to a significant fivefold greater risk of bipolar disorder with psychotic features. The results suggest that maternal influenza exposure may increase the risk for offspring to develop bipolar disorder with psychotic features. Taken together with earlier associations between prenatal influenza exposure and schizophrenia, these results may suggest that prenatal influenza is a risk factor for psychosis rather than for a specific psychotic disorder diagnosis.
Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of -11.62 points; 95% CI -23.01 to -0.22) and antenatal CMD (-4.80 points; 95% CI: -9.40 to -0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.
Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of −11.62 points; 95% CI −23.01 to −0.22) and antenatal CMD (−4.80 points; 95% CI: −9.40 to −0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries. PMID:24086390
Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization (Ds-like human malformations, isolated hemihyper-plasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multi facto rial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:131-140
May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Adnams, Colleen M
To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70, p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J; Gustavsson, A; Svensson, M; Jönsson, B; Olesen, J; Allgulander, C; Alonso, J; Faravelli, C; Fratiglioni, L; Jennum, P; Lieb, R; Maercker, A; van Os, J; Preisig, M; Salvador-Carulla, L; Simon, R; Steinhausen, H-C
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU. Stepwise multi-method approach, consisting of systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of existing data sets, national surveys and expert consultations. Studies and data from all member states of the European Union (EU-27) plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway were included. Supplementary information about neurological disorders is provided, although methodological constraints prohibited the derivation of overall prevalence estimates for mental and neurological disorders. Disease burden was measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY). Prevalence: It is estimated that each year 38.2% of the EU population suffers from a mental disorder. Adjusted for age and comorbidity, this corresponds to 164.8million persons affected. Compared to 2005 (27.4%) this higher estimate is entirely due to the inclusion of 14 new disorders also covering childhood/adolescence as well as the elderly. The estimated higher number of persons affected (2011: 165m vs. 2005: 82m) is due to coverage of childhood and old age populations, new disorders and of new EU membership states. The most frequent disorders are anxiety disorders (14.0%), insomnia (7.0%), major depression (6.9%), somatoform (6.3%), alcohol and drug dependence (>4%), ADHD (5%) in the young, and dementia (1-30%, depending on age). Except for substance use disorders and mental retardation, there were no substantial cultural or country variations. Although many sources, including national health insurance programs, reveal increases in sick leave
Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.
Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J
Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Álvaro Machado Dias
Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.
Yelland, Chris; Girke, Teresa; Tottman, Charlotte; Williams, Anne Sved
To describe the clinical population of women admitted to a Mother-Baby Unit in Adelaide, South Australia and to evaluate changes during admission in both Axes I and II diagnoses of maternal mental health, and in mother-infant relationships. Both clinical and self-report assessments of maternal mental health were made at admission and discharge, and self-report comparisons of the mother-infant relationship. Depressive illnesses (46.2%) were found to be the most prevalent conditions leading to admission, with rates of psychosis (10.3%) and bipolar disorder (3.4%) being lower. A high incidence of borderline personality disorder (23.1%) was found clinically, with almost half the admitted women showing features of borderline personality disorder on a self-report measure at admission. Significant improvements in maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship were found at the time of discharge. Admission to this Mother-Baby Unit on mothers' self-report scales showed improvement in mothers' mental health and the relationship that they have with their infant. Given the high prevalence of borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation identified within the population, treatment implications and possible consequences for the infant are discussed for this client group. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw
Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan
Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality
Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H
Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.
Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.
Wolford, Elina; Lahti, Marius; Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari; Savolainen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Villa, Pia M; Laivuori, Hannele; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Räikkönen, Katri
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with child behavioural symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early childhood. However, it remains unclear if depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain times, and if maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy add to or mediate any prenatal effects. 1,779 mother-child dyads participated in the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study. Mothers filled in the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly from 12+0-13+6 to 38+0-39+6 weeks+days of gestation or delivery, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Conners' Hyperactivity Index at the child's age of 3 to 6 years (mean 3.8 years, standard deviation [SD] 0.5). Maternal depressive symptoms were highly stable throughout pregnancy, and children of mothers with consistently high depressive symptoms showed higher average levels (mean difference = 0.46 SD units, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.36, 0.56, p maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy, which both added to and partially mediated the prenatal effects. Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with increased ADHD symptomatology in young children. Maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy add to, but only partially mediate, the prenatal effects. Preventive interventions suited for the pregnancy period may benefit both maternal and offspring mental health.
Full Text Available To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development assessed during the kindergarten year.Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI which measures vulnerability across five domains of development. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between timing, recurrence and severity of MDAD and child outcomes. Health at Birth (preterm, low birth weight, neonatal intensive care stay and long birth hospitalization, Family Context (teen mother, lone parent, socio-economic status (SES, child age and child sex were covariates.MDAD had a modest negative association with child EDI scores across all models tested, particularly for social, emotional and physical development. Prenatal MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than other time periods; however, recurrent MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than any specific time period or MDAD severity. The influence of MDAD was mediated by Family Context, which had a strong, negative association with outcomes, particularly language and cognitive development.The number of time periods a child was exposed to MDAD in early childhood was more negatively associated with five areas of child development than timing or severity. Prenatal exposure may be more sensitive to MDAD than other time periods. The familial context (teen mother, lone parenthood and low SES had a stronger influence on child outcomes than MDAD. Findings can be used to inform interventions which address maternal mental health from the prenatal period onward, and to support disadvantaged families to encourage
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever
Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD). A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05). The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%), 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8%) and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4%) respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC): 7.8%). Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.
Casey, Patricia; Oates, Margaret; Jones, Ian; Cantwell, Roch
The finding that induced abortion is a risk factor for subsequent psychiatric disorder in some women raises important clinical and training issues for psychiatrists. It also highlights the necessity for developing evidence-based interventions for these women. P.C. / Evidence suggesting a modest increase in mental health problems after abortion does not support the prominence of psychiatric issues in the abortion debate, which is primarily moral and ethical not psychiatric or scientific. M.O. et al.
Echeburúa, Enrique; J. Amor, Pedro; de Corral, Paz
The aims of this theoretical paper are to analyze the mental disorders and the most relevant psychological deficits of intimate partner violent men, as well as to identify different types of batterers according to the classifications of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) and of Fernandez- Montalvo and Echeburúa (1997). A review of multiple theoretical and empirical papers has been carried out with this purpose. The main results show that the aggressors usually show psychological deficits –la...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD. A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05. The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%, 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8% and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4% respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC: 7.8%. CONCLUSION: Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.
Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond
Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...
Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.; Hartman, Catharina; Veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke
Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting
de Jonge, P; Wardenaar, K J; Hoenders, H R; Evans-Lacko, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bromet, E J; Bruffaerts, R; Bunting, B; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Dinolova, R V; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E G; Karam, G; Lee, S; Lépine, J-P; Levinson, D; Makanjuola, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Tachimori, H; Williams, D; Wojtyniak, B; Kessler, R C; Thornicroft, G
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders. In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18-100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction. An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6-17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both. CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental
Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 41:253-266, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yiend, Jenny; Freestone, Mark; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Holland, Josephine; Burns, Tom
High-risk mentally disordered offenders present a diverse array of clinical characteristics. To contain and effectively treat this heterogeneous population requires a full understanding of the group's clinical profile. This study aimed to identify and validate clusters of clinically coherent profiles within one high-risk mentally disordered population in the UK. Latent class analysis (a statistical technique to identify clustering of variance from a set of categorical variables) was applied to 174 cases using clinical diagnostic information to identify the most parsimonious model of best fit. Validity analyses were performed. Three identified classes were a 'delinquent' group (n = 119) characterised by poor educational history, strong criminal careers and high recidivism risk; a 'primary psychopathy' group (n = 38) characterised by good educational profiles and homicide offences and an 'expressive psychopathy' group (n = 17) presenting the lowest risk and characterised by more special educational needs and sexual offences. Individuals classed as high-risk mentally disordered offenders can be loosely segregated into three discrete subtypes: 'delinquent', 'psychopathic' or 'expressive psychopathic', respectively. These groups represent different levels of risk to society and reflect differing treatment needs.
Sattar, A.; Salih, M.; Jafri, W.
Objective: To assess the frequency of common mental disorders among diagnosed functional dyspepsia patients. Methods: A case-control study with 150 cases of functional dyspepsia (FD) and 150 healthy controls were recruited from Gastroenterology Clinic at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from 1, March 2009 through 31, August 2009. Urdu version of WHO-developed Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was administered to diagnose patients of FD and healthy controls. A cut off score of 8 on SRQ was used to confirm cases of Common mental disorders (CMD). Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS version 16.0. Result: There was significant difference in CMD i.e. 107 (71.33%) versus 23 (15.33%) in cases and controls respectively (p- <0.001). Among cases CMD was more common in females i.e. in 57 (80.3%) as compared 50 (63.3%) in males (p- 0.022). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Common mental disorders among patients with functional dyspepsia and this needs to be addressed while treating patients. (author)
Oxburgh, Laura; Gabbert, Fiona; Milne, Rebecca; Cherryman, Julie
Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maher, Jaclyn P; Ra, Chaelin; OʼConnor, Sydney G; Belcher, Britni R; Leventhal, Adam; Margolin, Gayla; Dunton, Genevieve F
This study assessed whether aspects of maternal mental health and well-being were associated with objective monitor-based measures of child's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) and the extent to which household structure (i.e., single- vs multigenerational/dual-parent) and maternal employment (i.e., full-time vs not full-time) moderated those associations. Dyads (N = 191) of mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children participated in the baseline wave of the Mother's and Their Children's Health study. Mothers (Mage = 40.9 yr [SD = 6.1]; 49% Hispanic) completed a battery of questionnaires to assess maternal mental health and well-being (i.e., self-esteem, life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, anxiety, perceived stress, parenting stress, financial stress, and life events stress). Children (Mage = 9.6 yr [SD = 0.9]; 54% Hispanic; 51% girls) wore an accelerometer across 1 week during waking hours to objectively measure moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB. In single-parent families (n = 47), but not multigenerational/dual-parent families, mothers' parenting stress was negatively associated with child's MVPA (β = -.34, p = .02). In corrected analyses, all other aspects of maternal mental health and well-being were not related to children's activity patterns. Parenting stress was the only maternal mental health variable associated with objective monitor-based measures of child's PA after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results indicated weaker associations between maternal mental health and well-being and child's MVPA and SB than previously identified using subjective measures of behavior. Study findings support the need to use objective measurements of child's activity patterns to minimize potential confounding because of maternal report in evaluating child's PA and SB.
Abstract in English Background: Mental health and physical health are substantially associated with each other. The early recognition of co-occurring mental-physical conditions, as well as the early recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms, might be of special relevance for a better understanding of early phases of disorder development and hence prevention. Aim: To examine associations between symptoms of mental disorders (depressive symptoms and gambli...
Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E
This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.
Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Quiles, C; Masson, M
Psychiatry as a discipline should no longer be grounded in the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders. This non-dualistic position refusing the partition along functional versus organic lines is in line with Jean Delay, and with Robert Spitzer who wanted to include in the definition of mental disorder discussed by the DSM-III task force the statement that "mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders". However, it is interesting to note that Spitzer and colleagues ingeniously introduced the definition of "mental disorder" in the DSM-III in the following statement: "there is no satisfactory definition that specifies precise boundaries for the concept "mental disorder" (also true for such concepts as physical disorder and mental and physical health)". Indeed, as for "mental disorders", it is as difficult to define what they are as it is to define what constitutes a "physical disorder". The problem is not the words "mental" or "organic" but the word "disorder". In this line, Wakefield has proposed a useful "harmful dysfunction" analysis of mental disorder. They raise the issue of the dualistic opposition between organic and mental disorders, and situate the debate rather between the biological/physiological and the social. The paper provides a brief analysis of this shift on the question of what is a mental disorder, and demonstrates that a mental disorder is not more "organic" than any other medical condition. While establishing a dichotomy between organic and psychiatry is no longer intellectually tenable, the solution is not to reduce psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders to the level of "organic disorders" but rather to continue to adopt both a critical and clinically pertinent approach to what constitutes a "disorder" in medicine. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628
Rapsey, Charlene M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.M.; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Murphy, Sam; Ono, Yutaka; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; ten Have, Margreet; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Scott, Kate M.
Objectives COPD and mental disorder comorbidity is commonly reported, although findings are limited by substantive weaknesses. Moreover, few studies investigate mental disorder as a risk for COPD onset. This research aims to investigate associations between current (12-month) DSM-IV mental disorders and COPD, associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis, and cumulative effect of multiple mental disorders. Methods Data were collected using population surveys of 19 countries (n = 52,095). COPD diagnosis was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to retrospectively assess lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV disorders. Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, education, and country, survival analysis estimated associations between first onset of mental disorder and subsequent COPD diagnosis. Results COPD and several mental disorders were concurrently associated across the 12-month period (ORs 1.5–3.8). When examining associations between temporally prior disorders and COPD, all but two mental disorders were associated with COPD diagnosis (ORs 1.7–3.5). After comorbidity adjustment, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with COPD (ORs 1.6–1.8). There was a substantive cumulative risk of COPD diagnosis following multiple mental disorders experienced over the lifetime. Conclusions: Mental disorder prevalence is higher in those with COPD than those without COPD. Over time, mental disorders are associated with subsequent diagnosis of COPD; further, the risk is cumulative for multiple diagnoses. Attention should be given to the role of mental disorders in the pathogenesis of COPD using prospective study designs. PMID:26526305
Gleason, W J
Prevalence of mental disorders in 62 battered women receiving services from a Florida battered woman agency was identified by means of a structured interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of the total sample of battered women, 30 were in a shelter operated by the agency and 32 were living in their own homes and receiving assistance from the agency. Resultant diagnoses met diagnostic criteria developed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd. ed.) of the American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule is a 263 item structured interview used in the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area program carried out in the early 1980s. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule permits the use of 10,953 females in the epidemiological study as a comparison group of normal women. Scoring of the interviews was done by a computer diagnostic program with absolute decision rules. Extremely high prevalence was found for psychosexual dysfunction, major depression, post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These diagnoses appear to reflect the major components of the battered woman syndrome developed by Lenore Walker and the study approximates Walker's request for improved methodology in the research into the psychology of the battered woman.
Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn
(RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40). Maternal tea consumption ≥8 cups/d at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with increased risk of anxiety-depressive disorders (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09-1.52) and any psychiatric disorder (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11-1.40). An increased risk of hyperactivity-inattention disorder...
Sugimoto, Masako; Yokoyama, Yoshie
Stepfamilies remain poorly understood in Japanese society, and the support needs of stepfamily mothers are unclear. This study aimed to identify characteristics of stepfamilies and maternal mental health as compared with non-stepfamilies in Japan to utilize as a primary resource for providing effective support through community-based health care for stepfamilies. From December 2011 to July 2012, we conducted this questionnaire survey with mothers at 3- and 4-month checkups for infants. The response rate was 75.1%. The sample for analysis included responses of 2246 mothers, excluding single mothers. Respondents comprised 47 (2.1%) stepfamilies and 2199 (97.9%) non-stepfamilies. There were significantly higher rates of parents with not more than a high school education and ≥3 children among stepfamilies compared with non-stepfamilies. Stepfamily mothers had significantly higher rates of feeling a lack of economic resources, absence of participation in childbirth education classes, smoking during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Furthermore, they also had significantly higher rates of depression and a lack of confidence in the parent role. Maternal depression was associated with factors such as maternal age, self-perceived health, stress level, confidence in breastfeeding, confidence in the parent role, and number of children. These findings suggest that stepfamilies exhibit many characteristics related to social disadvantage and problems with community-based health care in Japan. Healthcare providers should be aware of stepfamily mothers' support needs and should put in place a support system for stepfamilies. Moreover, compared with non-stepfamily mothers, stepfamily mothers have a significantly higher prevalence of depression. However, stepfamily composition does not necessarily increase the risk of maternal depression. Therefore, healthcare providers should put in place a system for obtaining more thorough information about stepfamilies and conduct an early
Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M
Research on the links between abortion and mental health has been limited by design problems and relatively weak evidence. To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes and mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. After adjustment for confounding, abortion was associated with a small increase in the risk of mental disorders; women who had had abortions had rates of mental disorder that were about 30% higher. There were no consistent associations between other pregnancy outcomes and mental health. Estimates of attributable risk indicated that exposure to abortion accounted for 1.5% to 5.5% of the overall rate of mental disorders. The evidence is consistent with the view that abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental disorders. Other pregnancy outcomes were not related to increased risk of mental health problems.
Creswell, Cathy; Cruddace, Susan; Gerry, Stephen; Gitau, Rachel; McIntosh, Emma; Mollison, Jill; Murray, Lynne; Shafran, Rosamund; Stein, Alan; Violato, Mara; Voysey, Merryn; Willetts, Lucy; Williams, Nicola; Yu, Ly-Mee; Cooper, Peter J
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety disorders is associated with modest outcomes in the context of parental anxiety disorder. This study evaluated whether or not the outcome of CBT for children with anxiety disorders in the context of maternal anxiety disorders is improved by the addition of (i) treatment of maternal anxiety disorders, or (ii) treatment focused on maternal responses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of the additional treatments was also evaluated. Participants were randomised to receive (i) child cognitive-behavioural therapy (CCBT); (ii) CCBT with CBT to target maternal anxiety disorders [CCBT + maternal cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT)]; or (iii) CCBT with an intervention to target mother-child interactions (MCIs) (CCBT + MCI). A NHS university clinic in Berkshire, UK. Two hundred and eleven children with a primary anxiety disorder, whose mothers also had an anxiety disorder. All families received eight sessions of individual CCBT. Mothers in the CCBT + MCBT arm also received eight sessions of CBT targeting their own anxiety disorders. Mothers in the MCI arm received 10 sessions targeting maternal parenting cognitions and behaviours. Non-specific interventions were delivered to balance groups for therapist contact. Primary clinical outcomes were the child's primary anxiety disorder status and degree of improvement at the end of treatment. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 and 12 months. Outcomes in the economic analyses were identified and measured using estimated quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). QALYS were combined with treatment, health and social care costs and presented within an incremental cost-utility analysis framework with associated uncertainty. MCBT was associated with significant short-term improvement in maternal anxiety; however, after children had received CCBT, group differences were no longer apparent. CCBT + MCI was associated with a reduction in maternal overinvolvement
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo
Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995-2007 period who had a first-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event. The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first childbirth were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.7 to 4.2) before delivery and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.4 to 7.0) post partum. The relative risk of a psychiatric contact did not differ significantly after abortion as compared with before abortion (P = 0.19) but did increase after childbirth as compared with before childbirth (P abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.
Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M
Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…
... professional that an individual's previous emotional, mental, or personality disorder is cured, under control... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a...
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader ran...... of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU....
Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.
Babbitt, Kriste E; Bailey, Kala J; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Pregnant women with major mental disorders present obstetricians with a range of clinical challenges, which are magnified when a psychotic or agitated patient presents in labor and there is limited time for decision making. This article provides the obstetrician with an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making with these patients. We searched for articles related to the intrapartum management of pregnant patients with major mental disorders, using 3 main search components: pregnancy, chronic mental illness, and ethics. No articles were found that addressed the clinical ethical challenges of decision making during the intrapartum period with these patients. We therefore developed an ethical framework with 4 components: the concept of the fetus as a patient; the presumption of decision-making capacity; the concept of assent; and beneficence-based clinical judgment. On the basis of this framework we propose an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making that asks 5 questions: (1) Does the patient have the capacity to consent to treatment?; (2) Is there time to attempt restoration of capacity?; (3) Is there an opportunity for substituted judgment?; (4) Is the patient accepting treatment?; (5) Is there an opportunity for active assent?; and (6) coerced clinical management as the least worst alternative. The algorithm is designed to support a deliberative, clinically comprehensive, preventive-ethics approach to guide obstetricians in decision making with this challenging population of patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceusters, Werner; Jensen, Mark; Diehl, Alexander D
At the heart of the Research Domain Criteria for Mental Disorders is a matrix in which functional aspects of behavior are related to genotypic and (endo-)phenotypic research findings, and the various techniques through which they can been observed. The matrix is work in progress. As such it currently suffers from several shortcomings, the resolution of which, we contend, are essential to success of NIMH's goal of fostering translational science on mental disorders. Using well-established criteria for assessing the terminological and ontological quality of biomedical representations we identified the major problems to be (1) the abundant presence of terms that lack face value, (2) the absence of what the exact nature of the represented relationships are, and (3) referential imprecision with respect to the intended granularity of what the terms denote. We propose to eliminate these shortcomings by resorting to definitions and formal representations under the umbrella of Ontological Realism as they already have been developed in the areas of mental health, anatomy and biological functions.
McDonald, Scott D; Mickens, Melody N; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Mutchler, Brian J; Ellwood, Michael S; Castillo, Teodoro A
Depression and other mental disorders are more prevalent among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in the community at large, and have a strong association with quality of life. Yet little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among U.S. military Veterans living with SCI. The primary aim of this study was to present an estimate of mental disorder point prevalence in this population. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of mental disorders to demographics, injury characteristics, and other clinically relevant features such as impairment from mental health problems and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional. A SCI & Disorders Center at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Administrative and medical records of 280 Veterans who attended annual comprehensive SCI evaluations were evaluated. Demographics, injury characteristics, self-reported mental and emotional functioning (i.e. SF-8 Health Survey), and clinician-determined mental disorder diagnoses were attained. Overall, 40% of patients received at least one mental disorder diagnosis, most commonly depressive disorders (19%), posttraumatic stress disorder (12%), and substance or alcohol use disorders (11%). Several patient characteristics predicted mental disorders, including age, racial minority identity, non-traumatic SCI etiology, and incomplete (i.e. AIS D) vs. complete injury. Mental disorders were associated with greater impairment from health and mental health-related problems and less satisfaction with life. Mental disorders are common among outpatients receiving VA specialty care for SCI. These findings highlight the importance of having adequate and effective available mental health services available for Veterans with SCI.
Adrian P Mundt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.
Ball Cooper, Ericka; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) affects 0.9%-3.2% of adolescents, and more than 20% of inpatient adolescents. Life stress has been linked to BPD across the lifespan, and previous research in adults has linked BPD to dependent stress (i.e., stress induced by the individual). However, prior research has not examined dependent stress alongside BPD in adolescents. Additionally, the potential protective effect of maternal care has not been considered in this relation. This study tested a moderation model expecting that (1) BPD would be positively associated with dependent life stress, (2) maternal care would be negatively associated with BPD, and (3) maternal care would moderate the relation between BPD and dependent life stress. The sample consisted of 184 adolescents recruited from an inpatient psychiatric facility serving a diverse population in the Southwestern United States. Dependent life stress, BPD, and maternal care were measured using the UCLA Life Stress Interview, DSM-IV Childhood Interview for BPD, and Kerns Security Scale, respectively. Results supported the first two hypotheses; BPD diagnosis was significantly, positively associated with dependent life stress, and negatively associated with maternal availability and dependability. Contrary to the third hypothesis, no significant evidence that maternal care acts as a buffer in the relation between BPD and dependent life stress was found. Although maternal care was not found to moderate the association between BPD and dependent life stress, results supported previously found relations between BPD, dependent life stress, and maternal care, and did so within a diverse inpatient adolescent sample.
Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wittich, Julia; Einsle, Franziska; Höfler, Michael; Martini, Julia
To prospectively examine relations between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders and excessive infant crying. Based on the prospective longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development Study, n=306 expectant mothers were enrolled during early pregnancy and repeatedly interviewed until 16 months post partum. Lifetime and prospective information on maternal anxiety and depressive disorders was assessed via standardised diagnostic interviews (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women). Excessive crying (crying for ≥3 h per day on ≥3 days per week for ≥3 weeks) was assessed via Baby-DIPS. During the first 16 months after delivery, n=286 mother-infant dyads were available and included in the analyses. Excessive crying was reported by n=29 mothers (10.1%). Infants of mothers with anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy were at higher risk for excessive crying than infants of mothers without any anxiety disorder prior to pregnancy (OR=2.54, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.78, p=0.027). Risk was even increased when considering additionally incident anxiety disorders until delivery (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.25 to 7.32, p=0.014) and until 16 months post partum (OR=2.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 7.28, p=0.027). Associations remained stable when adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal covariates. Maternal depressive disorders prior to pregnancy were not significantly associated with excessive crying in this sample. Maternal lifetime and incident anxiety disorders revealed to be a robust predictor for excessive crying. Thus, early identification and monitoring of women with anxiety disorders is important to identify mother-infant dyads at risk for excessive crying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J
To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.
Wittchen, H U; Jacobi, F; Rehm, J
To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader ran...
Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Maria Haro, Josep; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context: Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men
Restrepo, Paula Andrea
Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment
Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan
Mental disorders represent a major contributor to disease burden worldwide. We sought to quantify the national economic burden of mental disorders in China. We used a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach to estimate the economic costs of mental disorders in 2005-2013 in China. Prevalence data were derived from a national survey. Cost data were derived from the electronic health records of two psychiatric hospitals that consisted of 25,289 outpatients (10%) and inpatients (90%) who were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Cost items included direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs. The total annual costs of mental disorders in China increased from $1,094.8 in 2005 to $3,665.4 in 2013 for individual patients, and from $21.0 billion to $88.8 billion for the whole society. The total costs of mental disorders in 2013 accounted for more than 15% of the total health expenditure in China, and 1.1% of China's gross domestic product. If the needs of the professional care for all patients with mental illnesses were fully met, the potential economic costs would have been almost five times higher than the actual estimated costs. Mental disorders imposed a huge economic burden on individuals and the society in China. A nation-wide strategic action plan for preventing mental disorders and promoting mental health and well-being is in urgent need to reduce the individual and societal costs of mental illnesses.
Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie
Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.
, depression, brain damage or other mental, neurological or psychosocial problems by imitating the practice of craft’s apprenticeship. Older and more advanced students are being assigned to show these students how they should study medicine, law or arts and thereby give them a better chance of being included......The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B
Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...
Tsuchiya, Kenji; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo
of a conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 947 subjects with bipolar disorder and 47,350 controls, those having experienced the parental suicide were significantly associated with an increased risk for BPD (incidence rate ratios: 1.83 [95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 3.12] for paternal suicide......, 3.44 [1.97 to 6.00] for maternal suicide), whereas the non-suicidal death of parents showed no such association. Those having experienced maternal suicide at some point before reaching 10 years of age were seven times as likely to develop bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: The cohort members were...
Bogusz, Renata; Humeniuk, Ewa
Every mental disorder may cause a number of negative consequences in the personal lives of the patients and their families as well as in their social relations. Acceptance of the disease is a crucial factor in the process of coping with the problems resulting from it. Acceptance of the disease may significantly influence the reduction of negative emotional reactions it causes. Consequently, it may contribute to better adaptation of the patients and hence may facilitate the process of recovery. The study attempts to define the socio-psychological conditioning of the degree of disease acceptance among patients treated for psychical disorders. Opinion surveys were carried out in 2013 among a group of 240 patients treated in Mental Health Clinic in Chełm, eastern Poland. The study applied Acceptance Illness Scale - AIS B. Felton, T. A. Revenson, G.A. Hinrichsen, adapted in Poland by Z. Juczyński, as well as a socio-demographic questionnaire. The analysis of the obtained results revealed a similar level of acceptance of such diseases as anxiety disorders (24.41±8.52), depression (22.80±7.51) and personality disorders (23.89±7.89). The medical records of all patients fitted among the low average. The greatest problem in the researched group related to the social consequences of the psychical disorders. Those questioned were afraid of the negative reactions of others and of being a burden to their families. The level of acceptance was not correlated with independent variables (age, gender, education, place of residence, general well-being).
Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory
The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…
Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt
This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…
Kuipers, G.S.; van Loenhout, Z.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.
Objective: To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. Method: We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder
Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A
disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental......OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato
Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.
Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Wade, C; D'Esposito, F; Nicholson, J M
Maternal postnatal mental health difficulties have been associated with poor outcomes for children. One mechanism by which parent mental health can impact on children's outcomes is via its effects on parenting behaviour. The longitudinal relationships between maternal postnatal distress, parenting warmth, hostility and child well-being at age seven were examined for 2200 families participating in a population-based longitudinal study of Australian children. The relationship between postnatal distress and children's later emotional-behavioural development was mediated by parenting hostility, but not parenting warmth, even after accounting for concurrent maternal mental health. Postnatal distress was more strongly associated with lower parenting warmth for mothers without a past history of depression compared with mothers with a past history of depression. These findings underscore the contribution of early maternal well-being to later parenting and child outcomes, highlighting the importance of mental health and parenting support in the early parenting years. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.
Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Widman, Linnea; Arver, Stefan; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gardner, Renee M
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and boys are two to three times more likely to develop ADHD. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common metabolic disorder associated with excess circulating androgens, has been associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS increases the risk for ADHD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case-control study using health and population data registers for all children born in Sweden from 1984 to 2008. Maternal PCOS was defined by ICD-coded register diagnosis. The outcome of ADHD was defined as an ICD-coded register diagnosis of ADHD and/or registered prescription of medications to treat ADHD. A total of 58,912 ADHD cases (68.8% male) were identified and matched to 499,998 unaffected controls by sex and birth month and year. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of offspring ADHD by 42% after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.58). Exclusion of ADHD cases with comorbid autism spectrum disorder attenuated but did not explain the relationship (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.52). The risk was somewhat elevated for ADHD with comorbid autism spectrum disorder (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.37-2.26). The risk for ADHD was higher among obese mothers with PCOS (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31-2.17) and was highest among obese mothers with PCOS and other features of metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.02-6.58). This study provides evidence that maternal PCOS may subtly influence the neurodevelopment of the offspring, resulting in increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Kate M.; Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Carmen Viana, Maria; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Hu, Chiyi; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Khalaf, Mohammad Salih; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Recent research demonstrating concurrent associations between mental disorders and peptic ulcers has renewed interest in links between psychological factors and ulcers. However, little is known about associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Nor
Gravenhorst, Franz; Muaremi, Amir; Bardram, Jakob
Mental disorders can have a significant, negative impact on sufferers’ lives, as well as on their friends and family, healthcare systems and other parts of society. Approximately 25 % of all people in Europe and the USA experience a mental disorder at least once in their lifetime. Currently......, monitoring mental disorders relies on subjective clinical self-reporting rating scales, which were developed more than 50 years ago. In this paper, we discuss how mobile phones can support the treatment of mental disorders by (1) implementing human–computer interfaces to support therapy and (2) collecting...... relevant data from patients’ daily lives to monitor the current state and development of their mental disorders. Concerning the first point, we review various systems that utilize mobile phones for the treatment of mental disorders. We also evaluate how their core design features and dimensions can...
Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak
In the theory of law as a key cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary institutions is the Institute of guilt. At the present stage of development of the law, in a convergence of many of its branches, it is important to investigate exhaustively the institution with the general legal position, both in general and in particular - the situation of the guilt of persons with mental disorder, not excluding sanity.The purpose of this study - to investigate the situation of the fault of persons with a m...
Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Argeu, Adriana; Miguel, Euripides Constantino; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy
Addressing impaired foetal growth is recognized as a public health priority. Certain risk factors for this condition, such as poor nutritional status at birth, have been found to be highly correlated with poverty. However, the role of psychosocial factors, specifically the mother's mental health and exposure to violence during pregnancy, have yet to be further explored. Our objective was to determine if there is a measurable association between combined psychosocial factors, specifically domestic violence and mental disorders, and birth outcomes, specifically birth nutritional status and preterm delivery. We followed 775 women from an underserved, urban area, beginning their 28th week of gestation. Diagnostic interviews were performed to determine if any of the mothers had any of the following disorders: mood disorder, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), substance dependence, psychotic disorder, or anti-social personality disorder. Physical, psychological, and sexual domestic violence were also assessed. Domestic violence and mental disorders were highly correlated in our sample. About 27.15% of the women in our study experienced domestic violence, and about 38.24% of them were diagnosed with mental disorders. The main association we found between combined psychosocial factors and neonate outcomes was between anxiety (IRR = 1.83; 95%CI = 1.06-3.17)/physical violence (IRR = 1.95; 95%CI = 1.11-3.42) and the rate of small-for-gestational age (SGA) in new-borns. More specifically, the combination of anxiety (beta = -0.48; 95%CI = -0.85/-0.10) and sexual violence (beta = -1.58; 95%CI = -2.61/-0.54) was also associated with birth length. Maternal risk behaviours such as smoking, drinking, inadequate prenatal care, and inadequate weight gain could not sufficiently explain these associations, suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be influencing underlying biological mechanisms. Domestic violence against women and mental disorders amongst
Zabala-Baños, M C; Segura, A; Maestre-Miquel, C; Martínez-Lorca, M; Rodríguez-Martín, B; Romero, D; Rodríguez, M
To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI). Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5%) and psychotic disorders (34.2%). Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7%) was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%), and mood disorder state (13%). A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.
Full Text Available Aims: To determine the lifetime and monthly prevalence of people with mental disorders and its association with sociodemographic factors and criminal risk in three Spanish prisons (Ocaña, Madrid I, II and VI. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview. Mental disorders were assessed with the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: Life prevalence of mental disorders was 90.2%. The most common mental disorders and substance abuse or dependence was 72.3%, followed by mood disorder (38.5% and psychotic disorders (34.2%. Moreover, the prevalence of any mental disorder in the last month was 52.2%. The main psychotic disorder (20.7% was followed by substance abuse or dependence (18.5%, and mood disorder state (13%. A socio-demographic profile as a risk for each disorder was found. Discussion: The prevalence of people with mental disorders is very high in Spanish prisons, and is associated with a distinct demographic profile. It is essential to continue researching this reality, translating the results into therapeutic and preventive action adapted to the status of inmates to reduce social inequalities in this high priority public health situation.
Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S
The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5.
Baxter, Joanne; Kingi, Te Kani; Tapsell, Rees; Durie, Mason; McGee, Magnus A
To describe the prevalence of mental disorders (period prevalence across aggregated disorders, 12 month and lifetime prevalence) among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken between 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including 2,595 Māori. Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 New Zealand census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. This paper presents selected findings for the level and pattern of mental disorder prevalence among Māori. Māori lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 50.7%, 12 month prevalence 29.5% and 1 month prevalence 18.3%. The most common 12 month disorders were anxiety (19.4%), mood (11.4%) and substance (8.6%) disorders and the most common lifetime disorders were anxiety (31.3%), substance (26.5%) and mood (24.3%) disorders. Levels of lifetime comorbidity were high with 12 month prevalence showing 16.4% of Māori with one disorder, 7.6% with two disorders and 5.5% with three or more disorders. Twelve-month disorders were more common in Māori females than in males (33.6%vs 24.8%) and in younger age groups: 16-24 years, 33.2%; 25-44 years, 32.9%; 45-64 years, 23.7%; and 65 years and over, 7.9%. Disorder prevalence was greatest among Māori with the lowest equivalized household income and least education. However, differences by urbanicity and region were not significant. Of Māori with any 12 month disorder, 29.6% had serious, 42.6% had moderate and 27.8% had mild disorders. Mental disorders overall and specific disorder groups (anxiety, mood and substance) are common among Māori and measures of severity indicate that disorders
Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.
The aim of this work is to provide empirical evidence regarding types and increasing prevalence of mental disorders affecting Polish working population in the years 2014-2016. The research questions concerned the specific characteristics of the types of mental disorders and their prevalence as well as the differences between males and females. Types of mental disorders were investigated using a clinical method, a structured interview, as well as medical record data gathered in the years 2014-2016 in one mental health treatment center. The study was conducted in the population of 1578 working individuals aged 18-64 years old, in various forms of employment, including flexible employment (self-employment, task assignment agreement) and contract employment. The research population consisted of 998 females and 580 males, aged 18-64 years old. The study aimed at investigating types and the prevalence rate of mental disorders developed in the examined working Poles, also with reference to the sex of the study participants as well as the age at which they started seeking treatment. The prevailing disorders include neurotic disorders; diagnosed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) classification as a range of anxiety disorders, mixed anxiety-depressive disorders, stress-related and somatoform disorders; as well as personality disorders. The prevalence rate of the aforementioned disorders was found to be higher among working females than in the group of working males. The overall study conclusions based on the research data analysis point to the fact that the prevalence rate of various types of mental disorders displayed by the examined working males and females increased significantly in the years 2014-2016. Med Pr 2018;69(1):13-28. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Eplov, Lene Falgaard
. Without this control, PTSL significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we control for unobserved characteristics, this effect decreases, and for employees with mental disorders the effect vanishes entirely. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS: The lack of an effect of PTSL...... instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for employees on sick leave in general. This is the first published article to document how PTSL affects sick leave durations for employees with mental disorders. AIM: The aim is to estimate the effect of PTSL...... on the duration until returning to regular working hours for employees with mental disorders. We compare this effect to that of PTSL for employees with non-mental disorders ('other disorders'). METHODS: We use combined survey and register data about 226 employees on long-term sick leave with mental disorders...
Ola, Bola; Crabb, Jim; Tayo, Adetokunbo; Gleadow Ware, Selena H; Dhar, Arup; Krishnadas, Rajeev
Abstract Background Maternal mental illness is likely to have a profound impact in less developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental illness in a low income setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring which can have grave consequences in an environment where poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnutrition, tropical diseases and a lack of appropriate medical services may be pronounced. Given the profound consequences of antenatal and postnatal mental i...
Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Felton, Julia W; MacPherson, Laura; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude; Lejuez, C W; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Mothers with elevated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms demonstrate parenting deficits, as well as difficulties in emotion regulation (ER), which may further impact their ability to effectively parent. However, no empirical research has examined potential mediators that explain the relations between maternal ADHD symptoms and parenting. This prospective longitudinal study examined difficulties with ER as a mediator of the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and parenting among 234 mothers of adolescents recruited from the community when they were between the ages of nine to twelve. Maternal ratings of adult ADHD symptoms, difficulties with ER, and parenting responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotions were collected over the course of three years. We found that maternal ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with positive parenting responses to adolescents' negative emotions, and positively associated with harsh parenting and maternal distress reactions. Moreover, maternal ER mediated the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and harsh parenting responses, while controlling for adolescent ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. However, maternal ER did not mediate the relation between ADHD symptoms and positive or distressed parental responses. Thus, it appears that ER is one mechanism by which maternal ADHD symptoms are associated with harsh responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotion. These findings may have downstream implications for adolescent adjustment.
Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla
Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity.
Full Text Available The study of perinatal mental health (mental health during pregnancy and postpartum is a complex field of study that is of major importance both for the mental and physical health of new mothers and for the neurobehavioral development and long-term functioning of the children they bear. In this review, we cover the most recent additions to this rapidly evolving field. Notable advances include further illumination of the epidemiological patterns and clinical manifestations of perinatal mood disruption; new efficacy data on treatment and prevention; clarifications of the respective contributions of maternal mental illness and psychotropic medication to outcomes of pregnancy, birth, and child development; and updated expert guidelines for screening.
Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M
Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lukat, J.; Becker, E.S.; Lavallee, K.L.; Veld, W.M. van der; Margraf, J.
An understanding of etiological and maintaining factors of mental disorders is essential for the treatment of mental disorders, as well as mental health promotion and protection. The present study examines predictors of the incidence, remission and relapse of a wide range of Axis I mental disorders,
Mehta, N; Mehta, S
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been included as a separate diagnostic entity in the chapter of 'Depressive Disorders' of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The antecedent, concurrent, and predictive diagnostic validators of premenstrual dysphoric disorder have been reviewed by a sub-workgroup of the DSM-5 Mood Disorders Work Group, which includes a panel of experts on women's mental health. Contributions from the Asian continent have been mainly in the form of prevalence studies. Genetic and neurobiological domains of premenstrual dysphoric disorder largely remain untouched in Asia and offer a potential area for investigation.
Ribas-Siñol, Maria; Del Prado-Sanchez, Noemi; Claramunt-Mendoza, Jaume; Civit-Ramirez, Monica; Canalias-Perez, Oriol; Ochoa, Susana
Many studies indicate the high prevalence of juvenile substance abuse. There is increasingly more dual diagnosis and mental illnesses in adolescents and many juvenile offenses are related to drug abuse. This is a descriptive study about the relationship between drug abuse and clinical, demographic and criminal characteristics in a sample of 144 youths seen in the Therapeutic Juvenile Justice Unit (UTJJ) of the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu. A total of 65.3% of the sample had a disorder on Axis I, 22.2% of which were related with the psychotic spectrum and 18.1% ADHD. Personality disorder occurred in 42.4%, the most frequent ones being antisocial disorder (16%), and borderline personality disorder (6.9%). Of the sample, 78.5% were drug consumers and 51.4% of the total only consumed 1 substance. There is a tendency among psychotic teenagers to consume cannabis and ADHD patients to consume cannabis and cocaine. A significant relationship is found between nationality and inhalants drugs, social and economic level and sedative drugs and alcohol, and parental death and alcohol (p<0.05-0.005). The level of drug use/abuse in juvenile justice is very high. Although there is no evidence about the relationship between the substance they consume and the profile of the young offender, some tendencies are observed.
Shi, Zhenrong; MacBeth, Angus
Presenting with common mental health difficulties, particularly depression and anxiety, there is also preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) including mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and integrated mindfulness yoga practices may also be effective in reducing common mental health difficulties during pregnancy. We systematically reviewed and synthesized the current literature on the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing severity of perinatal anxiety and depression. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, IndMED and PsychoInfo were searched for relevant studies. Manual searches were conducted in relevant articles and Google Scholar. Seventeen cohorts representing 18 studies were included. Pre-post effect sizes were reported for both treatment and control groups. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two non-randomized controlled trials and nine treatment evaluations were included. Maternal participation in an MBI was associated with reductions in perinatal anxiety of moderate to large magnitude. Results for the effect of MBIs on depression were less consistent, with pre-post treatment reductions of moderate magnitude, but no significant differences in depression scores when MBI was compared with a control group. There was some evidence that MBIs were associated with increased mindfulness. Risk of bias in studies was variable. Our review offers preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing perinatal anxiety, with more equivocal findings with regard to perinatal depressive symptoms. Further methodologically rigorous evaluation using RCTs and longer follow-up periods are recommended.
van Ditzhuijzen, J.M.
In the last decade there has been renewed interest in the question whether termination of an unwanted pregnancy is linked to subsequent mental health disorders. Most research in this field is characterized by methodological limitations, and conclusions often remain disputable. To offer insight in the mental health of women who have abortions, both before and after the pregnancy termination, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, the “Dutch Abortion and Mental Health Study” (DA...
Fisher, J; Tran, T; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, H; Tran, T D
Common mental disorders (CMD) and adverse social circumstances are widespread among mothers of infants and toddlers in resource-constrained settings. These can undermine early childhood development through compromised caregiving and insufficient access to essential resources. The aim was to examine the effect of maternal CMD and social adversity in the post-partum year on toddler's length-for-age index in a rural low-income setting. A population-based prospective cohort study of women in Ha Nam province, Vietnam who completed baseline assessments in either late pregnancy or 4-6 weeks post partum and were followed up, with their toddlers, 15 months later. CMD were assessed at both points by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Diagnoses. Anthropometric indices were calculated from toddler's age, sex, weight and length using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Social adversities were assessed by study-specific questions and locally validated psychometric instruments. The hypothesized model of factors governing toddler's length-for-age Z score (LAZ) was tested using path analysis. In total, 211/234 (90.1%) mother-toddler pairs provided complete data. Baseline prevalence of CMD among women was 33.6% and follow-up was 18.5%. The mean LAZ among toddlers was -1.03 and stunting prevalence (LAZ toddler LAZ via maternal CMD at follow-up (regression coefficient = -0.05, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01). Maternal CMD at follow-up was associated significantly with toddler LAZ (regression coefficient = -0.15, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.05). Poorer quality of marital relationship, mothers' experiences of childhood abuse and toddler LAZ via maternal CMD. Maternal post-natal CMD are associated with child growth measured by LAZ in this resource-constrained setting. Social adversities affect child growth indirectly through increasing the risk of maternal CMD. Interventions to reduce stunting in
Aline Raquel de Sousa Ibiapina
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the therapeutic workshops and the social changes in people with mental disorders from the point of view of the experience of the workers of a Center of Psychosocial Attention. Method: A descriptive, qualitative study developed with seven professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. The data production was performed through a semi-structured interview and analyzed by the Descending Hierarchical Classification, after processing in the IRaMuTeQ software. Results: Were presented in two segments: the first one portrays the reality of the work of the professionals in the Center for Psychosocial Care, while segment two emphasizes the professionals' perception about the therapeutic workshops as a tool for social reintegration. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic workshops contributes to the effectuation of social change on mental illness and social inclusion of people with psychic disorders in the daily family, in the community, encouraged by the multidisciplinary approach.
Dalhuisen, Lydia; Koenraadt, Frans
In the Netherlands pre-trial forensic mental health assessments are conducted to examine whether a mental disorder was present at the time of the offence that affected the free will of a person, in which case criminal accountability is considered diminished or absent. This study aims to investigate
Davies, Jacqueline; Heyman, Bob; Godin, Paul; Shaw, M.; Reynolds, L.
Managers, doctors, nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists, unqualified staff and service users were interviewed for a qualitative study of risk management and rehabilitation in an inner city medium secure forensic mental health care unit. Different professional orientations to service user problems were identified. Doctors focused primarily on the diagnosis of mental disorder, which they managed mainly through pharmaceutical interventions. Psychologists were principall...
We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal
Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M
Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...
Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development.…
Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J
Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim
To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.
Cailhol, L; Thalamas, C; Garrido, C; Birmes, P; Lapeyre-Mestre, M
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability and impulsivity. Several North American prospective studies support the high level of mental health care utilization in this population. There is little data in other systems of health organization, such as France. Furthermore, little is known on the variables associated with the mental health service utilization among BPD patients. The main objective was to compare the utilization of mental health care among BPD patients, to the general population and patients with another personality disorder (PD) and to describe the demographic and clinical factors associated with the group of patients who use the most health care. A multi-center (5 public and private centers), epidemiological study. Data were collected prospectively (database of an insurance fund covering 80% of the population) and viewed, retrospectively. We used the data collected during the five years previously to the inclusion. Inclusion criteria were age (18-60 years) and membership in the health insurance fund targeted. Patients on legal protection, forced hospitalization, with a chronic psychotic disorder, manic, mental retardation, or not reading French were excluded. First, four groups were composed: BPD, other PD, control groups for PD and other PD. The first two groups were recruited from a screening of inpatients including a self-administered questionnaire (Personality Disorder Questionnaire 4+). Assessment by a psychologist including the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) was given straight to those who had a score above 28. This questionnaire allowed us to distinguish one group of subjects with BPD and a group with other PD (without BPD). Clinical evaluation included Axis I (MINI), Axis II (SIDP-IV), psychopathological features (YSQ-I, DSQ-40), demographic variables and therapeutic alliance (Haq-II). Matched controls (age, sex) composed the 3rd and 4th group (BPD control and
Koenen, K C; Ratanatharathorn, A; Ng, L; McLaughlin, K A; Bromet, E J; Stein, D J; Karam, E G; Meron Ruscio, A; Benjet, C; Scott, K; Atwoli, L; Petukhova, M; Lim, C C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Degenhardt, L; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Huang, Y; Kawakami, N; Lee, S; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Sampson, N; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Williams, D; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C
Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.
Sharples, P J
The aetiology of mental disorders is not fully understood. This paper presents an analysis of the conceptual control process exploring the tools of conceptual application and the phases and the mechanism of the control process and seeks to show how the illness states of mental disorder naturally come to occur. Living occurs in a world of change. For living to occur some control is required and to exert control, to provide direction for the conceptual process, some interpretation of significance, some definition of need is also required. Such interpretation, monitoring significance in relation to the many aspects of change, forms the base on which living occurs. Change in human terms is intrinsically insecure and interpretation of significance is an interpretation of security, an interpretation of control in living. Conceptual control is a process applied to maintain security, to maintain a secure base for the interpretation of significance, it is a process applied to produce and hold a sense of control. Powering a process, producing and holding a sense of control, is an active process and so requires some form of energy. Human beings have a sense of that energy, something exhibited in terms such as full of energy, tired, exhausted. As energy is required to power the control process, accompanying the sense of energy is a sense of the ability to provide power, is a sense of the ability to hold and maintain control, is a sense of security. As available energy reduces there is difficulty holding the same sense of control, a person in the same setting comes to feel more insecure. This can result in a person experiencing mental disorder from mild to severe degree. Mild where conceptual process is applied to manage just one or a very few particular needs, severe and more general where the insecurity affects the base of interpretation. In this later case seeking to protect security can lead to mania, mood-incongruent delusions, schizophrenia. Failing ability to protect can
Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study. ... Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the ... life stress and sociodemographic predictors of 12-month and lifetime disorder.
Objective To explore the difference on mental rotation ability between major depressive disorders and healthy subjects.Methods Twenty-three patients with major depressive disorders and 24 healthy subjects
Ormel, J; Raven, D; van Oort, F; Hartman, C A; Reijneveld, S A; Veenstra, R; Vollebergh, W A M; Buitelaar, J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J
With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.
Hofer, Patrizia D; Wahl, Karina; Meyer, Andrea H; Miché, Marcel; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind
Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with other mental disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. Few longitudinal studies, however, have evaluated the temporal association of prior OCD and subsequent mental disorders across the age period of highest risk for first onset of mental disorders. We examined associations between prior OCD and a broad range of subsequent mental disorders and simulated proportions of new onsets of mental disorders that could potentially be attributed to prior OCD, assuming a causal relationship. Data from 3,021 14- to 24-year-old community subjects were prospectively collected for up to 10 years. DSM-IV OCD and other DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used adjusted time-dependent proportional hazard models to estimate the temporal associations of prior OCD with subsequent mental disorders. Prior OCD was associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorders (BIP; [hazard ratio, HR = 6.9, 95% confidence interval, CI, (2.8,17.3)], bulimia nervosa [HR = 6.8 (1.3,36.6)], dysthymia [HR = 4.4 (2.1,9.0)], generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; [HR = 3.4 (1.1,10.9)], and social phobia [HR = 2.9 (1.1,7.7)]). Of these outcome disorders, between 65 and 85% could be attributed to OCD in the exposed group, whereas between 1.5 and 7.7% could be attributed to OCD in the total sample. This study provides strong evidence that prior OCD is associated with an increased risk of subsequent onset of BIP, bulimia nervosa, dysthymia, GAD, and social phobia among adolescents and young adults. Future studies should evaluate if early treatment of OCD can prevent the onset of these subsequent mental disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.
Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C
Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.
Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia
Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years ( M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder ( k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder ( k = 0.24-0.52; k = 0.19-0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria ( k = 0.22-0.67; k = 0.24-0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder ( k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.
Butler, Margaret; Warfa, Nasir; Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Global migration is reaching record high levels and UK migrant groups comprise an increasing proportion of the total population. The migratory process causes stress that can affect mental health. There is limited consistent empirical evidence of a longitudinal nature to explain the association between migration and mental health. This review aims to examine the evidence of a relationship between migration and common mental disorder (CMD) amongst migrants over time. A comprehensive search of medical and psychiatric databases for global quantitative empirical studies investigating incidence of CMD amongst adult migrants from 1975 to July 2012 was conducted. Declines in rates of CMD amongst migrants over time were reported by two thirds of the 18 studies reviewed, less than one third of which were statistically significant. On the contrary, three studies showed an increased rate of CMD, one statistically significant. Individual psychological resources, social support, the acculturation process, cultural variations and time since relocation are identified as statistically significant protective factors against the development of CMD amongst migrants. New enlightening points include the significant impact of varying patterns of psychological distress, of which negative is the most adverse for CMD. Migration is an extremely complex process. Further clarification is needed to gain deeper understanding of the relationship between migration and CMD to address contradictions in the literature and health inequalities amongst migrants.
Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas
Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother-child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother-infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother-child interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G.; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas
Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother–child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother–infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother–child interaction. PMID:22288906
Barbosa, Isabela Roberta Cruz; Silva, Wesley Bruno Merencio; Cerqueira, Grace Sanches Gutierrez; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Almeida, Fernando Antonio; Novo, Joe Luiz Vieira Garcia
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the most important cause of maternal and fetal death and pregnancy complications in Latin America and the Caribbean. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiological profile of women with HDP admitted to a Brazilian tertiary reference hospital, and to evaluate maternal and fetal outcome in each HDP and the impact of prenatal care on the maternal and fetal outcome. HDP in 1501 women were classified according to usual definitions as chronic hypertension (n = 564), pre-eclampsia (n = 579), eclampsia (n = 74) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension (n = 284). Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes registered as maternal death and near miss and fetal outcomes documented as stillbirth, neonatal death and newborn respiratory complications were compiled. Prenatal care was classified as complete (⩾ 6 visits), incomplete (prenatal care or prenatal not done had progressive higher mortality rates and greater frequency of near miss cases, and their children had higher mortality rates. In a tertiary reference hospital, eclampsia and chronic hypertension superimposed on pre-eclampsia are associated with a worst outcome for mothers and fetuses, whereas complete prenatal care is associated with a better maternal and fetal outcome in HDP. © The Author(s), 2015.
Butler, Alexandra; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Lipman, Ellen Louise; MacMillan, Harriet L; Gonzalez, Andrea; Gorter, Jan Willem; Georgiades, Kathy; Speechley, Kathy N; Boyle, Michael H; Ferro, Mark A
Methodologically, to assess the feasibility of participant recruitment and retention, as well as missing data in studying mental disorder among children newly diagnosed with chronic physical conditions (ie, multimorbidity). Substantively, to examine the prevalence of multimorbidity, identify sociodemographic correlates and model the influence of multimorbidity on changes in child quality of life and parental psychosocial outcomes over a 6-month follow-up. Prospective pilot study. Two children's tertiary-care hospitals. Children aged 6-16 years diagnosed in the past 6 months with one of the following: asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, food allergy or juvenile arthritis, and their parents. Response, participation and retention rates. Child mental disorder using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline and 6 months. Child quality of life, parental symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression, and family functioning. All outcomes were parent reported. Response, participation and retention rates were 90%, 83% and 88%, respectively. Of the 50 children enrolled in the study, the prevalence of multimorbidity was 58% at baseline and 42% at 6 months. No sociodemographic characteristics were associated with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity at baseline was associated with declines over 6 months in the following quality of life domains: physical well-being, β=-4.82 (-8.47, -1.17); psychological well-being, β=-4.10 (-7.62, -0.58) and school environment, β=-4.17 (-8.18, -0.16). There was no association with parental psychosocial outcomes over time. Preliminary evidence suggests that mental disorder in children with a physical condition is very common and has a negative impact on quality of life over time. Based on the strong response rate and minimal attrition, our approach to study child multimorbidity appears feasible and suggests that multimorbidity is an important concern for families. Methodological and substantive findings from this pilot study have
Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders are heterogeneous systemic ailments that are most often caused by maternal inheritance of a variety of mutations of the mitochondrial (mt DNA. Paternal inheritance and somatic mutation are rare. The disorders are well recognized not only for the genotypic heterogeneity, but also the phenotypic variation among the affected members of a single family. The genotype-phenotype correlation of the diversity of the syndromic and non-syndromic features of mitochondrial disorders are discussed. Some aspects of the molecular mechanisms of this heterogeneity, and the histopathologic findings are highlighted.
Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M
Objective: This manuscript examines the impact of mental health state and specific mental and physical disorders on work role disability and quality of life in six European countries. Method: The ESEMeD study was conducted in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Individuals
Wibbelink, C.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Oort, F.J.
To investigate the association between mental disorders and recidivism in juveniles, a three-level meta-analysis of 20 manuscripts (17 independent studies, N = 5737 juveniles) was conducted. The study focused on internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and comorbid disorders (combinations
Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....
HIV risk behavior was significantly related to alcohol use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Mental health services provide an important context for HIV/AIDS interventions in resource‑constrained countries like Nigeria. Keywords: Human immuno virus, Mental health, Psychiatric patients, Risk behavior, Severe mental disorders ...
Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Dyson, Margaret; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
Publicly funded mental health services are critical in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Accurate identification of psychiatric comorbidity is necessary for effective mental health treatment. Little is known about psychiatric diagnosis for this population in routine mental health care. This study (1) examined correspondence…
Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie
Few studies on the associations between pre-morbid IQ and mental disorders are based on comprehensive assessment of intelligence in both women and men and include a wide range of confounding variables. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the association between pre-morbid IQ...... and hospitalisation with any mental disorder, including possible gender differences in the association....
Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle
Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…
Usefulness of radiological examination of uranium in diagnosis of mental disorders (schizophrenia, affective psychosis, senile psychosis, chronic alcoholism, reactive psychosis) was proved in this study. Especially computerized tomography seems to be useful in revealing of organic background for mental disorders. (author). 123 refs, 32 tabs
Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Fischer, Frida Marina
This manuscript presents a review of the literature about medical leaves due to mental and behavioral disorders and return to work of teachers. There are scarce published manuscripts. Most articles relate with prevalence of mental disorders and factors associated with the work organization, and did not mention intervention proposals and or changes in the work organization and teaching work. Proposed actions are discussed.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
Objectives: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. Methods: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.
OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. METHODS: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only
Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bultmann, Ute; Steenstra, Ivan
This study aims to determine the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders and their association with economic activity, sex, age, work-relatedness and income replacement using a population-based study of sickness benefit claims (> 15 days) due to mental disorders in
Kerebih, Habtamu; Ajaeb, Mohammed; Hailesilassie, Hailemariam
Medical students are at risk of common mental disorders due to difficulties of adjustment to the medical school environment, exposure to death and human suffering. However there is limited data on this aspect. Therefore, the current study assessed the magnitude of common mental disorders and contributing factors among medical students. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 12-16, 2015 using stratified sampling technique. Three hundred and five medical students participated in the study. Common mental disorders were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with common mental disorders among students. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. Prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was 35.2%. Being female, younger age, married, having less than 250 birr monthly pocket money, attending pre-clinical class, khat chewing, smoking cigarettes, alcohol drinking and ganja/shisha use were significantly associated with common mental disorders. The overall prevalence of common mental disorders among medical students was high. Therefore, it is essential to institute effective intervention strategies giving emphasis to contributing factors to common mental disorders.
Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.
Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10
This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…
Mackinejad, Kioumars; Sharifi, Vandad
In this paper the importance of Wittgenstein's philosophical ideas for the justification of a dimensional approach to the classification of mental disorders is discussed. Some of his basic concepts in his Philosophical Investigations, such as 'family resemblances', 'grammar' and 'language-game' and their relations to the concept of mental disorder are explored.
Søndergård, S; Vaegter, H B; Erlangsen, A
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of mental disorders in patients with chronic pain vary and may be overestimated when assessed by screening instruments only. Objectives were to estimate the 10-year prevalence of different mental disorders diagnosed by psychiatrists in patients with chronic pain compa...
Michon, H. W. C.; ten Have, M.; Kroon, H.; van Weeghel, J.; de Graaf, R.; Schene, A. H.
Background. Both mental disorders and personality characteristics are associated with impaired work functioning, but these determinants have not yet been studied together. The aim of this paper is to examine the impairing effects that mental disorders and personality characteristics (i.e.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don
Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations.