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Sample records for maternal health infant

  1. Maternal pre- and postnatal mental health and infant development in war conditions: The Gaza Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Kuittinen, Saija; Qouta, Samir R

    2018-03-01

    Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development. Palestinian women (N = 511) from the Gaza strip participated during pregnancy (T1) and at 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum. They reported PTSD, depressive, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms, as well as pregnancy complications, newborn health risks such as prematurity, and infant sensorimotor and language development. First, exposure to war trauma was associated with high levels of maternal mental health and complications at pregnancy, and with increased postpartum mental health symptoms, but exposure was not directly associated with newborn health risks or problems in infant development. Second, maternal mental health both in pregnancy and postpartum, but not pregnancy complications or newborn health, mediated the negative impact of war trauma on infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months. Interventions to protect early child development in war conditions should be tailored to support maternal mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel adu Gyamfi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternal healthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of both policy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of the maternal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readers have been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shape maternal and infant care in Ghana

  3. Associations between Maternal Hormonal Biomarkers and Maternal Mental and Physical Health of Very Low Birthweight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and bio...

  4. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  5. War trauma and maternal-fetal attachment predicting maternal mental health, infant development, and dyadic interaction in Palestinian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Diab, Safwat Y

    2017-10-01

    Optimal maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is believed to be beneficial for infant well-being and dyadic interaction, but research is scarce in general and among risk populations. Our study involved dyads living in war conditions and examined how traumatic war trauma associates with MFA and which factors mediate that association. It also modeled the role of MFA in predicting newborn health, infant development, mother-infant interaction, and maternal postpartum mental health. Palestinian women from the Gaza Strip (N = 511) participated during their second trimester (T1), and when their infants were 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months. Mothers reported MFA (interaction with, attributions to, and fantasies about the fetus), social support, and prenatal mental health (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) at T1, newborn health at T2, and the postpartum mental health, infant's sensorimotor and language development, and mother-infant interaction (emotional availability) at T3. Results revealed, first, that war trauma was not directly associated with MFA but that it was mediated through a low level of social support and high level of maternal prenatal mental health problems. Second, intensive MFA predicted optimal mother-reported infant's sensorimotor and language development and mother-infant emotional availability but not newborn health or maternal postpartum mental health.

  6. Associations between maternal hormonal biomarkers and maternal mental and physical health of very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and biochemical measurement. Maternal mental and physical health status using questionnaires as well as maternal testosterone and cortisol levels using an enzyme immunoassay were measured four times (birth, 40 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA], and 6 and 12 months [age of infant, corrected age]. General linear models showed that higher testosterone levels were associated with greater depressive symptoms, stress, and poorer physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and at 6 and 12 months. High cortisol levels were associated with greater anxiety at 40 weeks PMA; however, with better mental and physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and 6 and 12 months. Physical activity was associated with lower maternal perceived stress at 12 months. Maternal health did not differ by race, except anxiety, which was higher in White than non-White mothers after birth. As very low birth weight infants grew up, maternal physical health improved but mental health deteriorated. Testosterone and cortisol levels were found to be positively correlated in women but testosterone was more predictive of maternal mental and physical health than cortisol. Indeed testosterone consistently showed its associations with maternal health. Maternal stress might be improved through regular physical exercise.

  7. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Fair Starts for Children. An Assessment of Rural Poverty and Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Richard A.

    The Maternal and Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW) of Vanderbilt University's Center for Health Services gathered data on family planning, prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, and preventive child health care from 60 women in 6 rural, low income communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The resulting baseline…

  9. An mHealth strategy to reduce eclampsia and maternal and infant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An mHealth strategy to reduce eclampsia and maternal and infant death in Tanzania ... this project will provide education and practical skills to health workers for ... Findings from the study are also expected to support sustainable strategies to ...

  10. Maternal Education Gradients in Infant Health in Four South American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-11-01

    Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more

  11. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  12. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services.

  13. Care around birth, infant and mother health and maternal health investments - Evidence from a nurse strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007-2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007-2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers' prenatal midwife consultations, their length of hospital stay at birth, and the number of home visits by trained nurses after hospital discharge. We find that this reduction in care around birth increased the number of child and mother general practitioner (GP) contacts in the first month. As we do not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers-especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits-are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of maternity leave on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Maya

    2011-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of unpaid maternity leave provisions of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. My identification strategy uses variation in pre-FMLA maternity leave policies across states and variation in which firms are covered by FMLA provisions. Using Vital Statistics data and difference-in-difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternity leave led to small increases in birth weight, decreases in the likelihood of a premature birth, and substantial decreases in infant mortality for children of college-educated and married mothers, who were most able to take advantage of unpaid leave. My results are robust to the inclusion of numerous controls for maternal, child, and county characteristics, state, year, and month fixed effects, and state-year interactions, as well as across several different specifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  16. [The relationship between socioeconomic factors and maternal and infant health programs in 13 Argentine provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, Graciela; Paganini, José María

    2007-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal and infant health and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in Argentina; to evaluate how health program quality affects the primary health indicators for mothers and infants. This is a cross-sectional study with multiple variables. The authors studied six indicators for maternal and infant health: rates for maternal, infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality; the percentage of newborns with low birthweight; and the percentage of premature newborns. The study was conducted in 79 administrative units in 13 provinces that represent different geographic regions of Argentina. They included (1) the provinces of Salta and Jujuy in northwest Argentina; (2) the provinces of Córdoba, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires in central Argentina; (3) the provinces of Entre Ríos and Misiones in the Mesopotamia or northeast region; (4) the provinces of San Luis, San Juan, and Mendoza in the Cuyo or northwest, Andean region; and (5) the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut in the south. The explanatory variable in the study was the quality of health programs, controlled by socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in 1999 and 2000. The definition of program quality ("poor," "average," "good," and "very good") was based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of selected variables such as policies, organization, and procedures as determined by the investigators. Documentation was obtained from secondary official sources. The investigators interviewed 117 health system managers (including supervisors of provincial and local health programs, administrators of maternal and child health programs, and hospital directors), who provided information on characteristics and indicators of the health programs. There were marked geographic differences in the levels of maternal and infant health, medical care, and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors. Only 10.0% of health programs were classified as "very good," 35.4% as

  17. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  18. Demographic, maternal, and infant health correlates of post-partum depression in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Abushaikha, Lubna A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined post-partum depression and its relationship with demographic, maternal, and infant health problems in urban Jordanian women. Participants (n = 315) were selected from five maternal child healthcare centers and one major hospital in Amman, Jordan. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure post-partum depression within 12 weeks of birth. A number of socio-demographic and health problems were examined for an association with post-partum depression. Results showed that 25% of post-partum women suffered moderate to severe depression and 50% of the sample had mild depression. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, education, employment, income) were significantly related to post-partum depression; however, two obstetric/infant variables (mode of birth and breastfeeding), were significantly associated with post-partum depression. There was a significant association between post-partum depression and 15 health problems of obstetric, gynecologic (i.e. episiotomy pain, infection), and general health conditions (i.e. fatigue, headache). Nurses and midwives need to emphasize post-partum depression screening, follow-up, and proper management of maternal and infant health factors predisposing to post-partum depression rather than merely focusing on women's inherent demographic factors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Infant mortality in India: use of maternal and child health services in relation to literacy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Medha K; Rao, Shobha S; Garole, Varsha R

    2002-06-01

    Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through increased use of maternal and child health (MCH) services. Illiteracy of females was strongly associated with all variables relating to maternal care and also with infant mortality rate. States were grouped into best, medium, and worst on the basis of female illiteracy (about 11%, 48.5%, and 75% respectively). Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 livebirths) was significantly (pIlliteracy of females had a more detrimental impact on rural than on urban areas. In the event of high female illiteracy, male literacy was beneficial for improving the use of services for reducing infant mortality rate. The micro-level study supported all major findings obtained for the national-level aggregate data. Programmes, like providing free education to girls, will yield long-term health benefits.

  20. Impact of HIV-1 infection on the feto-maternal crosstalk and consequences for pregnancy outcome and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Marcus; Bunders, Madeleine J

    2016-11-01

    Adaptation of the maternal immune system to establish maternal/fetal equilibrium is required for a successful pregnancy. Viral infections, including HIV-1 infection, can alter this maternal/fetal equilibrium, with significant consequences for pregnancy outcome, including miscarriages, impaired fetal growth, and premature delivery. Furthermore, maternal HIV-1 infection has been shown to have a long-term impact on the developing fetal immune system also when the infant is not infected with the virus. In this review, we discuss the consequences of maternal HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy on pregnancy outcome and the health of the uninfected HIV-1-exposed infant.

  1. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  2. Prenatal Maternal Stress and Physical Abuse among Homeless Women and Infant Health Outcomes in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Ray M.; Richards, Rickelle; Sloan, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study examines whether the relationship between maternal stress or abuse situations and infant birth weight differs between homeless and non-homeless women. Methods. Analyses are based on data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2002–2007. Results. Homeless women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events, abusive situations, and poor maternal health than non-homeless women during pregnancy. Birth weight among infant...

  3. Care around birth, infant and mother health and maternal health investments – Evidence from a nurse strike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health...... not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health...... of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007–2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007–2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers...

  4. Maternal HIV infection alters the immune balance in the mother and fetus; implications for pregnancy outcome and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Caroline; Bunders, Madeleine J

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, there is an annual increase in the number of uninfected infants born to HIV-infected women. Although the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has vastly improved pregnancy outcome and the health of infants born to HIV-infected women, concerns remain regarding the impact the maternal HIV infection on the pregnancy outcome and the health of HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Maternal HIV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. In addition, an increased susceptibility to infections is reported in HIV-exposed uninfected infants compared with infants born to uninfected women. Studies have shown that HIV-exposure affects the maternal/fetal unit, with increase of proinflammatory cytokine produced by placental cells, as well as altered infant immune responses. These changes could provide the underlying conditions for negative pregnancy outcomes and facilitate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the infant. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms and investigate whether these altered infant immune responses persist and have clinical consequences beyond childhood. HIV infection in pregnant women is associated with altered immune responses in HIV-infected women and their offspring with clinical consequences for pregnancy outcome and the HIV-exposed uninfected infant. Further studies are required to address the origin and long-term consequences of prenatal HIV-exposure and subsequent immune activation for infant health.

  5. opinion maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... baby-friendly principles in the health services, strengthening community-based ... which to make any decision about public health, it is extraordinary that they .... safe – the acronym summarising the criteria that were proposed at that time ..... is wrong. Moreover, Saloojee et al. fail to mention children's rights,.

  6. Infant and maternal health monitoring using a combined Nordic database on ART and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Gissler, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate infant and maternal health after assisted reproductive technology (ART), using data on over 90 000 ART children and their mothers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which have been combined and will be compared with a control group of spontaneously conceived children...... on the mothers of ART children can be used to study risks during pregnancy and obstetric complications after ART. Methods. A personal identification number given to all Nordic residents allows cross-linkage of the national health registers and enables long-term follow-up of ART children. The medical birth...

  7. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  8. Infant and maternal health services in Ceylon, 1900-1948: imperialism or welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret

    2002-08-01

    This article contests a dominant contemporary view that colonial medicine was oppressive and detrimental to welfare; in particular, that infant and maternal welfare services were culturally hegemonic in their imposition of western practices and values on indigenous women. It does so by studying the development of these services in just one British colony--the 'model colony' of Ceylon from 1900 until independence. It shows how, at both a practical and a theoretical level, there was a direct policy transfer from the metropolitan centre to the colony. Moreover, the main justifications for the development of health and welfare services for women and children ran parallel to those used earlier in Britain. By 1948, these services were extensive in Ceylon and contributed to the fall in infant and maternal mortality rates at the end of the colonial period. It concludes by arguing that, just as in the West, these services were contradictory: they could both help maintain the exploitative State and enhance welfare. However, it is ultimately on their ability to improve health and welfare that they should be judged.

  9. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  10. Growth of Korean preterm infants in a family-centered tradition during early infancy: the influence of health risks, maternal employment, and the sex of infants.

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    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Lee, Sangmi

    2014-10-01

    The physical growth of mild preterm infants (maternal employment status, and the infant sex. There were four noteworthy findings on growth variation in Korean mild preterm infants during early infancy: (i) the secular trend of intrauterine growth; (ii) the cumulative adverse effects of four risk factors; (iii) the possible burden of maternal employment if insufficient support; and (iv) the possibility of the cultural favoritism to male infants regardless of the modern industrialized society. The study suggests that, in a modern society, while mild preterm infants could sustain typical fetal growth, the early postnatal growth may vary based on health risks and sociocultural circumstances related to child-bearing and -rearing practices surrounding them. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. Use of text messaging for maternal and infant health: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Parker, Ruth M; Yang, Baiyu; Elon, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Text messaging is an increasingly popular communication tool in health interventions, but has been little studied in maternal and infant health. This literature review evaluates studies of text messaging that may be applied to the promotion of maternal and infant health. Articles from peer-reviewed journals published before June 2012 were included if they were experimental or quasi-experimental studies of behaviors endorsed either by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Pediatrics Association, or the United States Preventive Services Task Force; included reproductive age women (12-50 years) or infants up to 2 years of age; and were available in English. Qualitative studies of text messaging specific to pregnant women were also included. Studies were compared and contrasted by key variables, including: design, time-period, study population, and results. Forty-eight articles were included, 30 of which were randomized controlled trials. Interventions vary greatly in effectiveness and soundness of methodology, but collectively indicate that there is a wide range of preventative behaviors that text message interventions can effectively promote, including smoking cessation, diabetes control, appointment reminders, medication adherence, weight loss, and vaccine uptake. Common methodological issues include not accounting for attention affect and not aligning text message content to measured outcomes. Those interventions that are based on an established theory of behavior change and use motivational as opposed to informational language are more likely to be successful. Building on the growing body of evidence for text message interventions reviewed here, as well as the growing popularity of text messaging as a medium, researchers should be able to use this technology to engage difficult to reach populations.

  12. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached “epidemic” status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for mic...

  13. Maternal and health care workers' perceptions of the effects of exclusive breastfeeding by HIV positive mothers on maternal and infant health in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafulafula, Ursula K; Hutchinson, Mary K; Gennaro, Susan; Guttmacher, Sally

    2014-07-25

    HIV-positive mothers are likely to exclusively breastfeed if they perceive exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) beneficial to them and their infants. Nevertheless, very little is known in Malawi about HIV-positive mothers' perceptions regarding EBF. In order to effectively promote EBF among these mothers, it is important to first understand their perceptions on benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. This study therefore, explored maternal and health care workers' perceptions of the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on HIV-positive mothers' health and that of their infants. This was a qualitative study within a larger project. Face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions using a semi- structured interview and focus group guide were conducted. Sixteen HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers, between 18 and 35 years old, were interviewed and data saturation was achieved. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) comprising of five and six adult women of unknown HIV status who were personal assistants to maternity patients, and one FGD with five nurse-midwives working in the maternity wards of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, were also conducted. Thematic content data analysis was utilized. The study revealed more positive than negative perceived effects of exclusive breastfeeding. However, the fear of transmitting HIV to infants through breast milk featured strongly in the study participants' reports including those of the nurse-midwives. Only one nurse-midwife and a few HIV-positive mothers believed that EBF prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Furthermore, participants, especially the HIV-positive mothers felt that exclusive breastfeeding leads to maternal ill- health and would accelerate their progression to full blown AIDS. While most participants considered exclusive breastfeeding as an important component of the wellbeing of their infants' health, they did not share the worldwide acknowledged benefits of exclusive breastfeeding in the

  14. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  15. The National Network of State Perinatal Quality Collaboratives: A Growing Movement to Improve Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Zsakeba T; Ernst, Kelly; Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Berns, Scott; Suchdev, Danielle B; Main, Elliott; McCaffrey, Martin; Lee, Karyn; Rouse, Tara Bristol; Olson, Christine K

    2018-03-01

    State Perinatal Quality Collaboratives (PQCs) are networks of multidisciplinary teams working to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. To address the shared needs across state PQCs and enable collaboration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in partnership with March of Dimes and perinatal quality improvement experts from across the country, supported the development and launch of the National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives (NNPQC). This process included assessing the status of PQCs in this country and identifying the needs and resources that would be most useful to support PQC development. National representatives from 48 states gathered for the first meeting of the NNPQC to share best practices for making measurable improvements in maternal and infant health. The number of state PQCs has grown considerably over the past decade, with an active PQC or a PQC in development in almost every state. However, PQCs have some common challenges that need to be addressed. After its successful launch, the NNPQC is positioned to ensure that every state PQC has access to key tools and resources that build capacity to actively improve maternal and infant health outcomes and healthcare quality.

  16. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for microbiota in host metabolism and energy harvest, providing novel tools for obesity prevention and management. The maternal environment, including nutrition and microbes, influences the likelihood of developing childhood diseases, which may persist and be exacerbated in adulthood. Maternal obesity and weight gain also influence microbiota composition and activity during pregnancy and lactation. They affect microbial diversity in the gut and breast milk. Such microbial changes may be transferred to the offspring during delivery and also during lactation, affecting infant microbial colonisation and immune system maturation. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the peri-natal period may provide a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our infants using targeted strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota during early life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Lenhart, Otto; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Using multi-state, multi-year difference-in-differences analyses, we estimated effects of state EITC generosity on maternal health behaviors, birth weight and gestation weeks. We find little difference in maternal health behaviors associated with state-level EITC. In contrast, results for key infant health outcomes of birth weight and gestation weeks show small improvements in states with EITCs, with larger effects seen among states with more generous EITCs. Our results provide evidence for important health benefits of state-level EITC policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of anthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asefzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indices are of the best indicators for growth monitoring during neonatal period. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association ofanthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices. The study was conducted in 230 mothers who had health profiles in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin during 2013. Data were collected through the records in mothers’ health profiles. Data were analyzed using T-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Of 230 infants, 119 (51.7% were male. Mean weight and head circumference were significantly different between Iranian and Afghan infants.The Iranian mothers were older and had higher weight and height during pregnancy compared to the Afghan mothers and the difference was statistically significant. There was positive significant correlation between mothers’ age, weight, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and infants’ birth weight. There was also positive significant correlation between mothers’ hemoglobin and hematocrit and infants’ height. With regards to the results, proper nutrition, maternal health, and providing appropriate health services during pregnancy can be beneficial for improving infants’ health.

  19. Promoting research to improve maternal, neonatal, infant and adolescent health in West Africa: the role of the West African Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombie, Issiaka; Bouwayé, Aissa; Mongbo, Yves; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Assogba, Laurent; Crespin, Xavier

    2017-07-12

    West Africa has adopted numerous strategies to counter maternal and infant mortality, provides national maternal and infant health programmes, and hosts many active technical and financial partners and non-governmental organisations. Despite this, maternal and infant morbidity and mortality indicators are still very high. In this commentary, internal actors and officials of the West African Health Organisation (WAHO) examine the regional organisation's role in promoting research as a tool for strengthening maternal and infant health in West Africa.As a specialised institution of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) responsible for health issues, WAHO's mission is to provide the sub-region's population with the highest possible health standards by harmonising Member States' policies, resource pooling, and cooperation among Member States and third countries to collectively and strategically combat the region's health problems. To achieve this, WAHO's main intervention strategy is that of facilitation, as this encourages the generation and use of evidence to inform decision-making and reinforce practice.WAHO's analysis of interventions since 2000 showed that it had effected some changes in research governance, management and funding, as well as in individual and institutional capacity building, research dissemination, collaboration and exchanges between the various stakeholders. It also revealed several challenges such as process ownership, member countries' commitment, weak individual and institutional capacity, mobilisation, and stakeholder commitment. To better strengthen evidence-based decision-making, in 2016, WAHO created a unique programme aimed at improving the production, dissemination and use of research information and results in health programme planning to ultimately improve population health.While WAHO's experiences to date demonstrate how a regional health institution can integrate research promotion into the fight against maternal and

  20. [Costs of maternal-infant care in an institutionalized health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Ríos, E; Salinas Martínez, A M; Guzmán Padilla, J E; Garza Elizondo, M E; Tovar Castillo, N H; García Cornejo, M L

    1998-01-01

    Partial and total maternal and child health care costs were estimated. The study was developed in a Primary Care Health Clinic (PCHC) and a General Hospital (GH) of a social security health care system. Maternal and child health care services, type of activity and frequency utilization during 1995, were defined; cost examination was done separately for the PCHC and the GH. Estimation of fixed cost included departmentalization, determination of inputs, costs, basic services disbursements, and weighing. These data were related to depreciation, labor period and productivity. Estimation of variable costs required the participation of field experts; costs corresponded to those registered in billing records. The fixed cost plus the variable cost determined the unit cost, which multiplied by the of frequency of utilization generated the prenatal care, labor and delivery care, and postnatal care cost. The sum of these three equaled the maternal and child health care cost. The prenatal care cost was $1,205.33, the labor and delivery care cost was $3,313.98, and the postnatal care was $559.91. The total cost of the maternal and child health care corresponded to $5,079.22. Cost information is valuable for the health care personnel for health care planning activities.

  1. Worth the Wait? The Effect of Early Term Birth on Maternal and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000's, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been d...

  2. Maternal mental health and its association with infant growth at 6 months in ethnic groups: results from the Born-in-Bradford birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma D Traviss

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth.Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK. Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28 was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Modelling included social deprivation, ethnicity, and other known influences on infant growth such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.Maternal distress improved markedly from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. At both times Pakistani women had more somatic and depression symptoms than White women. Depression in pregnancy (GHQ subscale D was associated with lower infant growth at 6 months. Self-reported social dysfunction in pregnancy (GHQ subscale C was associated with lower gestational age.. Pakistani women reported higher GHQ scores during pregnancy associated with smaller infants at birth. They lived in areas of higher social deprivation, reported less alcohol consumption and smoking postnatally, all independent influences on growth at 6 months.Maternal mental health in pregnancy is an independent influence on infant growth up to 6 months and is associated with ethnicity which was itself associated with deprivation in our sample. There is a complex relationship between symptoms of maternal distress, ethnicity, deprivation, health behaviours, and early infant growth. Measures should include both emotional and somatic symptoms and interventions to reduce risks of poor early growth need to include psychological and social components.

  3. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emond Alan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60

  4. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  5. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  6. The positive role of breastfeeding on infant health during the first 6 weeks: findings from a prospective observational study based on maternal reports.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to report on adverse infant and maternal clinical outcomes, and investigate the relationship between infant feeding practice and such adverse clinical outcomes in infants during the first 6 weeks postpartum. From an eligible sample of 450 mother-term infant pairs recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin, 27.1% of infants (n=122) were maternally reported to have had an illness during the first 6 weeks that necessitated the provision of prescribed medication +\\/- general practitioner\\/paediatrician attendance +\\/- hospitalisation. Of these, 90 infants had > or =1 episode of infection +\\/- viral +\\/- gastro-intestinal-related condition. After adjustment, \\'any\\' breastfeeding to 6 weeks was protective against such adverse infant outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44, P = 0.022). Attendance to the GP\\/paediatrician for > 1 visit (aOR 3.44, P = 0.000) and multiparity (aOR 1.76, P = 0.041) were also positively associated with such adverse infant outcomes. To decrease infant morbidity rates in Ireland, government investment in breastfeeding promotion, support and research should be a continued public health priority.

  7. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  9. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Hadad

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  10. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

  11. A Nurse Leadership Project to Improve Health Literacy on a Maternal-Infant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikes, Reetta; Arterberry, Katheryn; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    To describe how participation in the Sigma Theta Tau International Maternal-Child Health Nurse Leadership Academy positioned the authors to lead an interdisciplinary team through implementation and evaluation of a change project related to patient education based upon national health literacy standards. The project goal was to improve patient satisfaction with nurse communication and preparation for hospital discharge. Quality improvement. Mother/-baby unit of an academic medical center serving a high percentage of patients of a minority population and underserved clients. The five- step intervention included (a) review of current health literacy standards, (b) formation of an infrastructure for development and evaluation of existing patient education materials, (c) assessment of patient education materials currently in use, (d) assessment of literacy level and learning styles of new mothers, and (e) provision of continuing education to increase knowledge of nurses as patient teachers and of health literacy. Mean scores of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) in the domains of patient satisfaction with nurse communication and discharge information were used to measure patient satisfaction with health communication. Patient satisfaction with nurse communication increased from 75.9% to 84.6%. Satisfaction with discharge information increased from 84.6% to 98.6%. The leadership academy successfully positioned the authors to guide an interdisciplinary team through development of a process to meet the education and communication needs of patients and improve their health literacy. As a result, a positive effect was noted on patient satisfaction with health communication. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. Maternal mood and concordant maternal and infant salivary cortisol during heel lance while in kangaroo care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S

    2015-03-01

    Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Popo

    Full Text Available The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year.A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW, and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed.486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03.The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  14. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popo, Emma; Kenyon, Sara; Dann, Sophie-Anna; MacArthur, Christine; Blissett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk) RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year. A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW), and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition) and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed. 486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03). The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  15. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  16. Impact of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and maternal obesity on infant microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, P.D.; Berg, E. van den; Weerth, C. de; Browne, P.D.; Claassen, E.; Cabena, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    The prenatal period is a critical window of development for all major physiological systems in the human body. During pregnancy, maternal prenatal psychosocial stress (PNS) and maternal obesity are identified as risk factors for infant and child health. Several possible mechanisms have been

  17. Maternal obesity and infant mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective to investigate the knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care. A qualitative analysis was made based on a thematic investigation of the subject matter. Ten pregnant teenagers with chronological age between ten and nineteen years old joined in the survey. They found themselves around the fifth and ninth months of gestation age, being attended at the Center of Pregnant TeenagersAttention Care at Fortaleza General Hospital. The collection of data involved the application of a semi-structured interview broaching topics that could identify what the pregnant teenagers knew about Speech Therapy and maternal-infant care. Education interventions, related to Speech Therapy health promotion, were also accomplished. The results pointed out that the pregnant teenagers’ level of knowledge on aspects such as: food transition and utensils, oral habits, language stimulation and hearing loss detection, was still incipient and unsatisfactory. It is concluded that the knowledge of the pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care was unsatisfactory, which demonstrates the importance of education interventions related to human communication health care for this studied sample.

  19. Maternal urinary bisphenol A levels and infant low birth weight: A nested case-control study of the Health Baby Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenqian; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Huang, Kai; Zhu, Yingshuang; Wu, Chuansha; Peng, Yang; Jiang, Minmin; Hu, Jie; Chang, Huailong; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, has been demonstrated to affect fetal development in animal studies, but findings in human studies have been inconsistent. We investigated whether maternal exposure to BPA during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant low birth weight (LBW). A total 452 mother-infant pairs (113 LBW cases and 339 matched controls) were selected from the participants enrolled in the prospective Health Baby Cohort (HBC) in Wuhan city, China, during 2012-2014. BPA concentrations were measured in maternal urine samples collected at delivery, and the information of birth outcomes was retrieved from the medical records. A conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between urinary BPA levels and LBW. Mothers with LBW infants had significantly higher urinary BPA levels (median: 4.70μg/L) than the control mothers (median: 2.25μg/L) (p<0.05). Increased risk of LBW was associated with higher maternal urinary levels of BPA [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13 for the medium tertile, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 8.08; adjusted OR=2.49 for the highest tertile, 95% CI: 0.98, 6.36]. The association was more pronounced among female infants than among male infants, with a statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to higher levels of BPA may potentially increase the risk of delivering LBW infants, especially for female infants. This is the first case-control study to examine the association in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-neonatal infant mortality in Malawi: the importance of maternal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Francine H.; le Cessie, Saskia; Kalanda, Boniface F.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Broadhead, Robin L.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2004-01-01

    In a cohort study of mothers and their infants, information was collected from women attending the antenatal services of two hospitals in a rural area of Malawi and 561 of their babies were enrolled in a follow-up study. There were 128 with a low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g), 138 with fetal anaemia

  1. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  2. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  3. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  4. Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... that maternal immunisation with the Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccine is safe. Indeed, maternal vaccination is now recommended to prevent pertussis infection in vulnerable young infants. In the USA and UK, the immunisation of pregnant women with a Tdap or dTaP/IPV (diphtheria, ...

  5. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.

  6. The effect of maternal dietary diversity on infant outcome of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of maternal dietary diversity on infant outcome of Pregnant women. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... can serve as useful predictive indicator of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the likelihood of delivering LBW babies.

  7. Maternal lifestyle and nutritional status in relation to pregnancy and infant health outcomes in Western China: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Chun-Xia; Sun, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study started in 2015 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. A sample of 1901 pregnant women at 15-20 weeks of gestation were recruited from four maternal and child health hospitals and are followed prospectively to 12 months post partum. Detailed information on maternal lifestyle and nutritional status, obstetric complications, pregnancy outcomes, infant feeding practices, illnesses of the mother and infant and growth trajectory is collected through personal interviews, anthropometric measures and medical records and local health management system records retrieval. Multilevel mixed regression models, adjusted for clustering, will be applied to investigate the association between various exposure variables of interest and the longitudinal outcomes, taking into account the correlated data structure and the nesting of observations. Kaplan-Meier test and Cox regression analysis will be used to analyse the time-to-event data. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committee of West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Curtin University. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Maternal and infant health indicators by county, census tract and year, 1999-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDMs) designated by the national Environmental Public Health Tracking Program derived...

  9. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and

  10. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  11. ["Birth weakness": cultural meanings of maternal impressions for infant health in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Nations, Marilyn K; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy encompasses socio-cultural, historical, and affective dimensions that process various meanings in women's bodies. Each society constructs popular concepts, practices, and explanatory models that differ from the biomedical model and aim to protect the mother and fetus and foster a healthy pregnancy. This qualitative study, based on interpretative anthropology, unveils the experiences of 27 poor women and their repercussions on the malnutrition of their infants, treated at a Childhood Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. From January to June 2004, ethnographic and narrative interviews were conducted on so-called "birth weakness", in addition to participant observation of outpatient, nursing, and home childcare. The mothers believed that their own physical and emotional suffering and precarious nutritional status were "imprinted" on the fetus, resulting in the child's malnutrition. While the ethno-etiology of "weakness" points to factors outside the body that involuntarily affect the pregnant mother, the medical view tended to incriminate the mother herself. It is necessary to understand the mothers' narratives, sympathize with their suffering, and spawn a closer approach between the popular and biomedical concepts.

  12. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  13. [Surgical methods for delivery in modern obstetrics and their influence on maternal and infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanevych, Ie V; Mitsoda, R M; Konoplianko, T V; Konoplianko, V V

    2000-03-01

    The article addresses issues of comparative characterization of deliveries involving surgery and impact thereof on the health of the mother and her child. Risk factors are identified that the mother and her child run in sectio cesarea, in application of obstetrical forceps, and in vacuum-extraction of the fetus. Cesarean section was found out to be the most acceptable mode of delivery in origination of organic and functional nervous system involvement in children but the most ill-chosen and unpropitious one in the mother, especially so in those groups at risk for bleeding, septic complications, and genital endometriosis. Among those surgical methods of delivery being the least traumatic to the mother are obstetrical forceps and vacuum-extraction of the fetus.

  14. Influences of maternal postpartum depression on fathers and on father-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janice H

    2008-11-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Impact of maternal obesity on very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalak, Rubia; Rijhsinghani, Asha; McCallum, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Infants born at less than  34 weeks' gestational age are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Data are limited on the impact of maternal obesity on the very preterm infant. This study reviewed whether maternal obesity further increases the intensive care needs of very preterm infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation. Maternal and neonatal data for live-born singleton births of 23 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks' gestation delivering in upstate New York were reviewed. BMI categorization followed the National Institutes of Health BMI classification that subdivides obesity into three ascending BMI groups. Records were obtained on 1,224 women, of whom 31.6% were classified with obesity. Despite similar mean gestational age (31 to 31.6 weeks, P = 0.57) and birth weight (1,488 to 1,569 g, P = 0.51) of the infants in the BMI categories, delivery room (DR) resuscitation was more common for infants of women with level III obesity (63.2%, P = 0.04) with a trend toward the continued need for assisted ventilation (54.7%, P = 0.06). Preterm infants of women with level III obesity were more likely to require DR resuscitation with a trend to continued need for ventilatory support beyond 6 hours of age. This could impact utilization of DR resources at delivering hospitals. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  17. Learning strengths from cultural differences: a comparative study of maternal health-related behaviors and infant care among Southern Asian immigrants and Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Wei, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-01-22

    Many studies have indicated that most immigrant women come from underdeveloped countries, and this can have negative effects on their lives, children's adaptation to school, and medical care utilization. However, there is insufficient literature about differences in infant caretaking, pre-postpartum health care, and health outcome between immigrant and native Taiwanese populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between Southern Asia immigrants and Taiwanese women in their access to medical care, postnatal growth, and infant care throughout the first six months postpartum. Comparative and descriptive designs were applied. Immigrant women were eligible if they visited three suburban settings of the Outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Outpatient Department of Pediatrics in Northern Taiwan during the period up to six months postpartum. Immigrant women appeared to have a lower frequency of antenatal examinations and obtained less health information from health care providers. However, they did not differ significantly from native Taiwanese women in maternal body size, postnatal growth curves, exclusive breastfeeding rates or vaccination awareness at the 6th month postpartum. Learning strengths from cultural differences between immigrant and native women and closing the gaps in health inequality are important issues. Despite the limitation of small sample size, the present findings can be used as references to help health care providers to develop further health policies in Taiwan.

  18. A Norwegian prospective study of preterm mother–infant interactions at 6 and 18 months and the impact of maternal mental health problems, pregnancy and birth complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misund, Aud R; Bråten, Stein; Nerdrum, Per; Pripp, Are Hugo; Diseth, Trond H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pregnancy, birth and health complications, maternal mental health problems following preterm birth and their possible impact on early mother–infant interaction at 6 and 18 months corrected age (CA) were explored. Predictors of mother–infant interaction at 18 months CA were identified. Design and methods This prospective longitudinal and observational study included 33 preterm mother–infant (interactions at 6 and 18 months CA from a socioeconomic low-risk, middle-class sample. The Parent–Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) scale was used to assess the mother–infant interaction. Results ‘Bleeding in pregnancy’ predicted lower quality in preterm mother–infant interaction in 6 PCERA scales, while high ‘maternal trait anxiety’ predicted higher interactional quality in 2 PCERA scales and ‘family size’ predicted lower interactional quality in 1 PCERA scale at 18 months CA. Mothers with symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, general psychological distress and anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum (PP) showed significantly better outcome than mothers without symptoms in 6 PCERA subscales at 6 months CA and 2 PCERA subscales at 18 months CA. Conclusions Our study detected a correspondence between early pregnancy complications and lower quality of preterm mother–infant interaction, and an association between high levels of maternal mental health problems and better quality in preterm mother–infant interaction. PMID:27147380

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Dysfunctional Cognitions, and Infant Night Waking: The Role of Maternal Nighttime Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…

  20. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the 'Top End' of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Josif, Cathryn; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Wardaguga, Molly; Belton, Suzanne; Gao, Yu; Dunbar, Terry; Kildea, Sue

    2014-06-02

    Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of 'out of hospital' or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the

  1. Physiological Reactivity to Infant Crying and Observed Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pieper, Suzanne; Zeskind, Philip S.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between maternal sensitivity and physiological reactivity to infant crying were examined using measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 49 mothers of second-born infants. Using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale, an independent assessment of maternal sensitivity was made during maternal free play and bathing of…

  2. Effect of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation on maternal health, birth outcomes, and infant growth among HIV-infected Tanzanian pregnant women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher P; Aboud, Said; Muhihi, Alfa; Sando, David M; Al-Beity, Fadhlun M Alwy; Wang, Molin; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2017-09-04

    Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D 3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children. The Trial of Vitamins-5 (ToV5) is an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maternal vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation conducted among 2300 HIV-infected pregnant women receiving triple-drug ART under Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. HIV-infected pregnant women of 12-27 weeks gestation are randomized to either: 1) 3000 IU vitamin D 3 taken daily from randomization in pregnancy until trial discharge at 12 months postpartum; or 2) a matching placebo regimen. Maternal participants are followed-up at monthly clinic visits during pregnancy, at delivery, and then with their children at monthly postpartum clinic visits. The primary efficacy outcomes of the trial are: 1) maternal HIV disease progression or death; 2) risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) births; and 3) risk of infant stunting at 1 year of age. The primary safety outcome of the trial is incident maternal hypercalcemia. Secondary outcomes include a range of clinical and biological maternal and child health outcomes. The ToV5 will provide causal evidence on the effect of vitamin D 3 supplementation on HIV progression and death, SGA births, and infant stunting at 1 year of age. The results of the trial are likely generalizable to HIV-infected pregnant women and their children in similar resource-limited settings utilizing the Option B+ approach. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02305927

  3. The Relationship between Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Mother-Infant Attachment Behaviors in Primiparous Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Taffazoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment

  4. Longitudinal relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal mind-mindedness, and infant attachment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy

    2018-05-01

    The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cohort profile: maternal lifestyle and diet in relation to pregnancy, postpartum and infant health outcomes in Vietnam: A multicentre prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cong Luat; Nguyen, Phung Thi Hoang; Chu, Tan Khac; Ha, Anh Vo Van; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Duong, Dat Van; Do, Dung Van; Tang, Hong Kim; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2017-09-05

    To determine modifiable maternal risk factors for adverse pregnancy, postpartum maternal and child health outcomes in Vietnam. This prospective cohort study included pregnant women seeking prenatal care at six hospitals in three large cities in Vietnam. After enrolment, eligible participants who gave their consent to participate in the study were interviewed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Glucose testing was conducted and blood pressure was measured during this period. Each participant will be assessed prospectively during their postnatal visits at delivery, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and will be followed up for 5 years. Of 2248 eligible pregnant women, 2030 were recruited (participation rate 90.3%) between August 2015 and July 2016. All participants completed the baseline assessment. Their mean (SD) age was 27.6 (5.3) years. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 20.2 (SD 2.6) kg/m 2 , with nearly two-thirds of participants having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (18.5 to pregnancy BMI pregnancy BMI ≥23.0 kg/m 2 ) accounted for 12.8%. No pregnant women reported smoking during their pregnancy while 13.4% of them had continued drinking. 22.8% of participants had hyperglycaemia. Their mean systolic blood pressure was 105.6 (SD 8.2) mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure was 67.4 (SD 7.5) mm Hg. The relationships of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status with the health outcomes of pregnancy, postpartum maternity and infants will be analysed. Meanwhile, participants will be closely tracked to minimise loss to follow-up. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  7. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Maternal role attainment with medically fragile infants: Part 2. relationship to the quality of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Burchinal, Margaret R; Goldman, Barbara Davis

    2011-02-01

    We examined which components of maternal role attainment (identity, presence, competence) influenced quality of parenting for 72 medically fragile infants, controlling for maternal education and infant illness severity. Maternal competence was related to responsiveness. Maternal presence and technology dependence were inversely related to participation. Greater competence and maternal education were associated with better normal caregiving. Presence was negatively related although competence was positively related to illness-related caregiving. Mothers with lower competence and more technology dependent children perceived their children as more vulnerable and child cues as more difficult to read. Maternal role attainment influenced parenting quality for these infants more than did child illness severity; thus interventions are needed to help mothers develop their maternal role during hospitalization and after discharge. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 34:35-48, 2011. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.

  10. Associations between infant temperament, maternal stress, and infants' sleep across the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, Barbara M; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C

    2015-05-01

    Effects of temperament and maternal stress on infant sleep behaviors were explored longitudinally. Negative temperament was associated with sleep problems, and with longer sleep latency and night wakefulness, whereas maternal stress was associated with day sleep duration, suggesting infant and maternal characteristics affect sleep differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  13. A Norwegian prospective study of preterm mother-infant interactions at 6 and 18 months and the impact of maternal mental health problems, pregnancy and birth complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misund, Aud R; Bråten, Stein; Nerdrum, Per; Pripp, Are Hugo; Diseth, Trond H

    2016-05-04

    Pregnancy, birth and health complications, maternal mental health problems following preterm birth and their possible impact on early mother-infant interaction at 6 and 18 months corrected age (CA) were explored. Predictors of mother-infant interaction at 18 months CA were identified. This prospective longitudinal and observational study included 33 preterm mother-infant (interactions at 6 and 18 months CA from a socioeconomic low-risk, middle-class sample. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) scale was used to assess the mother-infant interaction. 'Bleeding in pregnancy' predicted lower quality in preterm mother-infant interaction in 6 PCERA scales, while high 'maternal trait anxiety' predicted higher interactional quality in 2 PCERA scales and 'family size' predicted lower interactional quality in 1 PCERA scale at 18 months CA. Mothers with symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, general psychological distress and anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum (PP) showed significantly better outcome than mothers without symptoms in 6 PCERA subscales at 6 months CA and 2 PCERA subscales at 18 months CA. Our study detected a correspondence between early pregnancy complications and lower quality of preterm mother-infant interaction, and an association between high levels of maternal mental health problems and better quality in preterm mother-infant interaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompels, U A; Larke, N; Sanz-Ramos, M; Bates, M; Musonda, K; Manno, D; Siame, J; Monze, M; Filteau, S

    2012-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: -0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: -0.72 [95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 [95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

  15. [Effects of Kangaroo Care on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok; Shin, Hye Sook

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kangaroo Care(KC) on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected from September 1. 2006 to June 20. 2007. The participants were 22 mothers in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. KC was applied three times per day, for a total of ten times in 4 days to the experimental group. The degree of anxiety was statistically significantly different between the two groups but maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment was statistically insignificant. This data suggests that KC was effective for mothers anxiety relief but it was not effective for maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment of mothers. The implications for nursing practice and directions for future research need to be discussed.

  16. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  17. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  18. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  19. Maternal lactation for preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2001-11-01

    In recent decades, neonatologists have made considerable progress in life support techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of respiratory disorders, which has led to a higher neonatal survival rate. Research into neonatal nutrition has also produced great benefits. It has been found that one of the key points regarding the improved survival rate of infants is the necessity for nutrition that is both adequate and as natural as possible. In this respect, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the process, protection, support and maintenance of maternal lactation in neonatal units. Humanization of perinatal attention during delivery, respect for the rights of parents and their children, protection of the mother and child bonding process, early skin contact with the mother and greater attention to individualized care are all key factors in the reinforcement of maternal lactation and are issues that must be addressed within the field of neonatology. Research activities need to concern themselves with: (1) acquiring greater knowledge concerning the common problems and difficulties that arise with mothers and their preterm babies; (2) training healthcare professionals in these aspects, for example in the extraction and storage of milk and in improving techniques of emotional and communicational skills; (3) by means of specific programmes such as the setting up of support groups, so that the effort made to encourage the initiation of breastfeeding is justified by its continuation for as long as possible. Thus, we hope to establish standards of care based on starting, encouraging and prolonging maternal lactation, in sufficient quantity and quality, always remembering that the fundamental goal of our research is the well-being of the child and its family.

  20. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

  1. Maternal HIV infection alters the immune balance in the mother and fetus; implications for pregnancy outcome and infant health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Caroline; Bunders, Madeleine J.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, there is an annual increase in the number of uninfected infants born to HIV-infected women. Although the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has vastly improved pregnancy

  2. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results. PMID:25954021

  3. Pragmatic controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity in maternity and child health care clinics: pregnancy and infant weight outcomes (The VACOPP Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mustila, Taina; Raitanen, Jani; Keskinen, P?ivi; Saari, Antti; Luoto, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Background According to current evidence, the prevention of obesity should start early in life. Even the prenatal environment may expose a child to unhealthy weight gain; maternal gestational diabetes is known to be among the prenatal risk factors conducive to obesity. Here we report the effects of antenatal dietary and physical activity counselling on pregnancy and infant weight gain outcomes. Methods The study was a non-randomised controlled pragmatic trial aiming to prevent childhood obesi...

  4. Antenatal mother–infant bonding scores are related to maternal reports of infant crying behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Truijens, S.E.M.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between antenatal mother–infant bonding scores and maternal reports of infant crying behaviour. Background: Crying is normal behaviour and it is important for parent–infant bonding. Even though bonding starts antenatally, the relation between antenatal bonding

  5. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  6. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal

  7. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  9. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  10. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  11. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  13. Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women. ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among ...

  14. How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

  15. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  16. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting ...

  17. Impact of the Growing Healthy mHealth Program on Maternal Feeding Practices, Infant Food Preferences, and Satiety Responsiveness: Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel A; Abbott, Gavin; Zheng, Miaobing; Lymer, Sharyn J; Taki, Sarah; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Ong, Kok-Leong; Campbell, Karen J

    2018-04-25

    Infancy is an important life stage for obesity prevention efforts. Parents' infant feeding practices influence the development of infants' food preferences and eating behaviors and subsequently diet and weight. Mobile health (mHealth) may provide a feasible medium through which to deliver programs to promote healthy infant feeding as it allows low cost and easy access to tailored content. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of an mHealth intervention on parental feeding practices, infant food preferences, and infant satiety responsiveness. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an mHealth intervention group (Growing Healthy) and a nonrandomized comparison group ("Baby's First Food"). The intervention group received access to a free app with age-appropriate push notifications, a website, and an online forum that provided them with evidence-based advice on infant feeding for healthy growth from birth until 9 months of age. Behavior change techniques were selected using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. Participants in both groups completed three Web-based surveys, first when their infants were less than 3 months old (baseline, T1), then at 6 months (time 2, T2), and 9 months of age (time 3, T3). Surveys included questions on infant feeding practices and beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire, IFQ), satiety responsiveness (Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire), and infant's food exposure and liking. Multivariate linear regression models, estimated using maximum likelihood with bootstrapped standard errors, were fitted to compare continuous outcomes between the intervention groups, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for the same covariates was performed for categorical outcomes. A total of 645 parents (Growing Healthy: n=301, Baby's First Food: n=344) met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study, reducing to a sample size of 546 (Growing Healthy: n=234, Baby's First Food: n=312

  18. Maternal intake of methyl-group donors affects DNA methylation of metabolic genes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Before and during pregnancy, we evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet and supplementation (folic acid) in relation to gene-specific ( IGF2 DMR, DNMT1 , LEP , RXRA ) buccal epithelial cell DNA methylation in 6 months old infants ( n  = 114) via pyrosequencing. In the early postnatal period, we determined the effect of maternal choline intake during lactation (in mothers who breast-fed for at least 3 months) on gene-specific buccal DNA methylation ( n  = 65). Maternal dietary and supplemental intake of methyl-group donors (folate, betaine, folic acid), only in the periconception period, was associated with buccal cell DNA methylation in genes related to growth ( IGF2 DMR), metabolism ( RXRA ), and appetite control ( LEP ). A negative association was found between maternal folate and folic acid intake before pregnancy and infant LEP (slope = -1.233, 95% CI -2.342; -0.125, p  = 0.0298) and IGF2 DMR methylation (slope = -0.706, 95% CI -1.242; -0.107, p  = 0.0101), respectively. Positive associations were observed for maternal betaine (slope = 0.875, 95% CI 0.118; 1.633, p  = 0.0241) and folate (slope = 0.685, 95% CI 0.245; 1.125, p  = 0.0027) intake before pregnancy and RXRA methylation. Buccal DNMT1 methylation in the infant was negatively associated with maternal methyl-group donor intake in the first and second trimester of pregnancy and negatively in the third trimester. We found no clear association between maternal choline intake

  19. Maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and its association with anxiety and early infant regulatory problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Sohn, Christof; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna

    2017-11-01

    Maternal self-confidence has become an essential concept in understanding early disturbances in the mother-child relationship. Recent research suggests that maternal self-confidence may be associated with maternal mental health and infant development. The current study investigated the dynamics of maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and the predictive ability of maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and early regulatory problems in infants. Questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and early regulatory problems (Questionnaire for crying, sleeping and feeding) were completed in a sample of 130 women at three different time points (third trimester (T1), first week postpartum (T2), and 4 months postpartum (T3). Maternal self-confidence increased significantly over time. High maternal trait anxiety and early infant regulatory problems negatively contributed to the prediction of maternal self-confidence, explaining 31.8% of the variance (R=.583, F 3,96 =15.950, pself-confidence, regulatory problems in infants, and maternal mental distress. There is an urgent need for appropriate programs to reduce maternal anxiety and to promote maternal self-confidence in order to prevent early regulatory problems in infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The mediated effects of maternal depression and infant temperament on maternal role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Jennifer L; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-02-01

    We examined prenatal depression, postpartum depression, and infant temperament, respectively, in a mediated process model to predict maternal role. Using a prospective, observational design, we surveyed 168 women during pregnancy and then in postpartum. Data analyses supported the contribution of each variable in an ascending fashion (ab = -0.01, SE = 0.004, 95 % CI [-0.021, -0.004]), such that infant temperament had the strongest effects (sr(2) = .124, p maternal role with both direct effects and indirect effects via infant temperament. These results highlighted the significant impact postpartum depression may have on maternal role. Future interventions targeting mothers experiencing or who are at risk for depression may consider tools to improve mother-baby interactions. The effects of such intervention may subsequently improve both infant temperament and maternal role evaluation.

  1. Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy in an Irish obstetric population and their associations with socio-demographic and infant characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and combined occurrence of peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplement use, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a sample of women in Dublin, and determine the factors associated with these health behaviours.

  2. Maternal Responses and Development of Communication Skills in Extremely Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana Marie; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined maternal responses to infants' spontaneous communicative behaviors in a sample of 20 extremely-low-gestational-age (ELGA) infants and 20 full-term (FT) infants during 30 minutes of play interaction when infants were 12 months of age. Relations between maternal responses and infants' communication skills at 12 and 24…

  3. Impact of the Growing Healthy mHealth Program on Maternal Feeding Practices, Infant Food Preferences, and Satiety Responsiveness: Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel A; Abbott, Gavin; Zheng, Miaobing; Lymer, Sharyn J; Taki, Sarah; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Ong, Kok-Leong; Campbell, Karen J

    2018-01-01

    Background Infancy is an important life stage for obesity prevention efforts. Parents’ infant feeding practices influence the development of infants’ food preferences and eating behaviors and subsequently diet and weight. Mobile health (mHealth) may provide a feasible medium through which to deliver programs to promote healthy infant feeding as it allows low cost and easy access to tailored content. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the effects of an mHealth intervention on parental feeding practices, infant food preferences, and infant satiety responsiveness. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an mHealth intervention group (Growing Healthy) and a nonrandomized comparison group (“Baby's First Food"). The intervention group received access to a free app with age-appropriate push notifications, a website, and an online forum that provided them with evidence-based advice on infant feeding for healthy growth from birth until 9 months of age. Behavior change techniques were selected using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. Participants in both groups completed three Web-based surveys, first when their infants were less than 3 months old (baseline, T1), then at 6 months (time 2, T2), and 9 months of age (time 3, T3). Surveys included questions on infant feeding practices and beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire, IFQ), satiety responsiveness (Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire), and infant’s food exposure and liking. Multivariate linear regression models, estimated using maximum likelihood with bootstrapped standard errors, were fitted to compare continuous outcomes between the intervention groups, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for the same covariates was performed for categorical outcomes. Results A total of 645 parents (Growing Healthy: n=301, Baby's First Food: n=344) met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study, reducing to a sample size of 546

  4. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  5. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mothers' perinatal and infant mental health knowledge in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. ... the denial of negative maternal affect post-birth to elevated levels of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances.

  7. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the contribution of maternal antibiotics and breastfeeding to development of the infant microbiome and pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemas, Dominick J; Yee, Shanique; Cacho, Nicole; Miller, Darci; Cardel, Michelle; Gurka, Matthew; Janicke, David; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric obesity, a significant public health concern, has been associated with adult premature mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota is associated with pediatric obesity. Establishment of the infant gut microbiome is dependent on a dynamic maternal-infant microbiota exchange during early life. The objective of this review is to describe maternal factors such as feeding practices and antibiotic use that may influence the infant gut microbiome and risk for obesity. The complex components in human milk have many nutritional benefits to the infant; however, the microbiome in human milk may be an important factor to help regulate the infant's weight. We discuss maternal antibiotics and the effects on breast milk as critical exposures that alter the infant's gut microbiome and influence the risk of pediatric obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal prepregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H

    2015-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however, studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, maternal prepregnancy weight status and infants' gross motor development were examined. Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal prepregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios (HR) below one indicate a lower "risk" of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Compared to infants born to thin and normal-weight mothers (BMI obesity (BMI > 30) were slower to sit without support (HR = 0.91, P = 0.03) and crawl on hands and knees (HR = 0.86, P obesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Factors affecting the implementation of health legislation and its impact on the rural poor in China: a case study of implementation of the maternal and infant health care law in two poor counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Zhang, Tuohong; Yang, Hui; Gao, Jun; Tang, Shenglan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a case study of health legislation in China. In the transition to a market economy, legislation has been developed to offset the weakening in the central planning mechanism and political control that have historically influenced the behaviour of institutions and individuals in the Ministry of Health. There has been relatively little empirical examination of the implementation and impact of legislation as a tool for influencing health service provision in low-income countries. The study aimed to contribute towards filling this gap by exploring the factors affecting the implementation and impact of the Maternal and Infant Health Care Law, through a case study of two poor, rural counties in Chongqing municipality, China. The study found that key local actors perceive health legislation to be an important tool for safeguarding access to essential health care. However, the implementation of health legislation is inevitably a political process. The study illustrates the difficulties involved in efforts to influence provider behaviour through a national level legislative framework in a situation of decentralization of control over those providers, due to extreme regional variation in economic situations and limited resource inputs from the centre. Lessons are drawn for Chinese and international policy makers.

  12. Very preterm/very low birthweight infants' attachment: infant and maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.

  13. A review on child and maternal health status of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.

  14. Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    -11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....

  15. The influence of physical activity during pregnancy on maternal, fetal or infant heart rate variability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Watson, Estelle D; Sattler, Matteo C; Ruf, Wolfgang; Titze, Sylvia; van Poppel, Mireille

    2016-10-26

    Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with several positive effects for mother, fetus, and offspring. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and surrogate marker to determine fetal overall health and the development of fetal autonomic nervous system. In addition, it has been shown to be significantly influenced by maternal behavior. However, the influence of maternal PA on HRV has not yet been systematically reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the influence of regular maternal PA on maternal, fetal or infant HRV. A systematic literature search following a priori formulated criteria of studies that examined the influence of regular maternal PA (assessed for a minimum period of 6 weeks) on maternal, fetal or infant HRV was performed in the databases Pubmed and SPORTDiscus. Quality of each study was assessed using the standardized Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (QATQS). Nine articles were included into the present systematic review: two intervention studies, one prospective longitudinal study, and six post-hoc analysis of subsets of the longitudinal study. Of these articles four referred to maternal HRV, five to fetal HRV, and one to infant HRV. The overall global rating for the standardized quality assessment of the articles was moderate to weak. The articles regarding the influence of maternal PA on maternal HRV indicated contrary results. Five of five articles regarding the influence of maternal PA on fetal HRV showed increases of fetal HRV on most parameters depending on maternal PA. The article referring to infant HRV (measured one month postnatal) showed an increased HRV. Based on the current evidence available, our overall conclusion is that the hypothesis that maternal PA influences maternal HRV cannot be supported, but there is a trend that maternal PA might increase fetal and infant HRV (clinical conclusion). Therefore, we recommend that further, high quality studies

  16. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Education Materials. January 1981-October 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Holly Berry

    The materials cited in this annotated bibliography focus on maternal and infant health and the critical importance of good nutrition. Audiovisuals and books are listed in 152 citations derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA database. Materials are available from the National Agricultural Library or through interlibrary loan to a local…

  18. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  19. Maternal characteristics and perception of temperament associated with infant TV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV.

  20. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Mizugaki

    Full Text Available Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned: a happy smiling face (smile condition or a calm neutral face (neutral condition. Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  1. Infants with atopic dermatitis: maternal hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.

  2. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  3. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  4. The effect of maternal presence on premature infant response to recorded music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearn, Trish; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of maternal presence on the physiological and behavioral status of the preterm infant when exposed to recorded music versus ambient sound. Repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. Special care nursery (SCN) in a tertiary perinatal center. Clinically stable preterm infants (22) born at > 28 weeks gestation and enrolled at > 32 weeks gestation and their mothers. Infants were exposed to lullaby music (6 minutes of ambient sound alternating with 2x 6 minutes recorded lullaby music) at a volume within the recommended sound level for the SCN. The mothers in the experimental group were present for the first 12 minutes (baseline and first music period) whereas the mothers in the control group were absent overall. There was no discernible infant response to music and therefore no significant impact of maternal presence on infant's response to music over time. However during the mothers' presence (first 12 minutes), the infants exhibited significantly higher oxygen saturation than during their absence p = .024) and less time spent in quiet sleep after their departure, though this was not significant. Infants may have been unable to detect the music against the ambient soundscape. Regardless of exposure to music, the infants' physiological and behavioral regulation were affected by the presence and departure of the mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  6. Breastfeeding and its relation to maternal sensitivity and infant attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharner, Anne; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Raat, Hein; Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Moll, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-06-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding with maternal sensitive responsiveness and infant-mother attachment security and disorganization. We included 675 participants of a prospective cohort study. Questionnaires about breastfeeding practices were administered at 2 and 6 months postpartum. At 14 months, maternal sensitive responsiveness was assessed in a 13-minute laboratory procedure using Ainsworth's sensitivity scales, and attachment quality was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers were genotyped for oxytocin receptor genes OXTR rs53576 and OXTR rs2254298. Linear regressions and analyses of covariance adjusted for various background variables were conducted. We tested for mediation and moderation by maternal sensitive responsiveness and maternal oxytocin receptor genotype. Continuous analyses showed that longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with more maternal sensitive responsiveness (B = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02; 0.20, p attachment security (B = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.46, p attachment disorganization (B = -0.20, 95% CI -0.36; -0.03, p attachment classification, but longer duration of breastfeeding predicted a lower risk of disorganized versus secure attachment classification (n = 151; odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99, p = .04). Maternal sensitive responsiveness did not mediate the associations, and maternal oxytocin receptor genotype was not a significant moderator. Although duration of breastfeeding was not associated with differences in infant-mother attachment classifications, we found subtle positive associations between duration of breastfeeding and sensitive responsiveness, attachment security, and disorganization.

  7. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the…

  8. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant

  9. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers’ prenatal sleep and infants’ sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers’ perceptions of infant sleep. PMID:27448324

  10. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p attachment behaviors.

  11. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.

  12. The relationship of prenatal maternal depression or anxiety to maternal caregiving behavior and infant behavior self-regulation during infant heel lance: an ethological time-based study of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Fay F; Craig, Kenneth D; Bakeman, Roger; Castral, Thaila; Mirlashari, Jila

    2016-09-07

    Sensitive and responsive maternal caregiving behavior strengthens infant self-regulatory capacities (HL), but this regulatory role may be diminished in some mothers with second-trimester prenatal exposure to depression and/ or anxiety (MDA). This study examined maternal and infant behavior during infant heel lance (HL) when mothers had or did not have MDA. Ethological methods and micro-analytic approaches capable of distinguishing and comparing time-based patterning in maternal and infant behavior were used to clarify biological mechanisms, such as MDA, that may underlie observed behavior. Aims were to examine group differences in caregiving behavior between mothers with and without MDA 5 min Pre-HL and 5 min Post-H, and relationships between MDA, maternal caregiving behavior and infant pain behavior self-regulation, concurrently. At second trimester, mothers were assessed for symptoms of mild-severe depression or anxiety. Mothers whose scores exceeded predetermined cut-off scores on one or more of the mental health measures were allocated to the MDA-exposure group, those below to the non-MDA-exposure group. Reliable observers, blinded to MDA status and study phases, coded video records of the caregiving behavior of each study mother for the full duration of the 5 min Pre-HL and 5 min Post-HL study phases. Group differences and associations between mean measures of maternal mental health scores, time-based measures of maternal behavior, and time-based measures of infant pain behavior regulation (previously coded) were concurrently analyzed using comparative and correlational statistics. MDA-exposed mothers spent significantly more time not embracing, engaging or responding to infant cues than maternal controls Pre-HL and Post-HL. MDA was associated with atypical maternal caregiving behavior, which in turn was related to atypical infant pain behavior self-regulation during and after the HL. Our findings have implication for practice. We recommend inclusion of

  13. THE IMPACT OF DEPRESSION ON MATERNAL RESPONSES TO INFANT FACES IN PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, J A; Pearson, R M; Lee, R; Chauhan, D; Bennert, K; Burns, A; Baxter, H; Evans, J

    2015-01-01

    Research has suggested that prenatal depression may be associated with disrupted maternal responses to infant stimuli, with depressed pregnant women not showing the bias toward distressed infants as that observed in nondepressed pregnant women. The current study examined the effects of depression on self- reported responses to infant stimuli, in early pregnancy. Women with clinical depression (n = 38), and nondepressed women (n = 67) were recruited from a wider cognitive behavioral therapy trial. They completed Maternal Response Scales in which they were presented with images of distressed, neutral, and happy infant faces, with no time limit. The women rated their responses to these images along three dimensions--wanting to comfort, wanting to turn away, and feelings of anxiety--using Likert scales via a computerized task. There was evidence that women with depression in pregnancy showed different responses than did women without depression. Women with depression were substantially more likely to be in the highest quartile for ratings of wanting to turn away, odds (OR) ratio = 4.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.63-10.5, p = .003, and also were substantially less likely to be in the highest quartile for wanting to comfort a distressed infant face, OR = 0.22, 95% CIs = 0.09-0.54, p < .001. Findings are consistent with there being both a heightened avoidant and a reduced comforting response toward distressed infants in depressed pregnant women, providing some support that depression disrupts maternal preparations at a conscious level. © 2015 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Does the visibility of a congenital anomaly affect maternal-infant attachment levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztepe, Handan; Ay, Ayşe; Kerimoğlu Yıldız, Gizem; Çınar, Sevil

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether congenital anomaly visibility affects maternal-infant attachment levels. The study population consisted of mothers who had infants with cleft lip/palate or congenital heart anomalies who were receiving treatment in a university hospital. The data were collected using the Structured Questionnaire Form and the Maternal Attachment Inventory. Statistically significant differences in maternal-infant attachment levels were observed between infants with cleft lips/palates and healthy infants and between infants with congenital heart anomalies and healthy infants. It is important to apply appropriate nursing interventions for these mothers during the postpartum period. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with human milk feeding in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Dillard, Robert G; Gruber, Kenneth J; O'Shea, T Michael

    2009-11-01

    This study identified maternal and infant characteristics predicting human milk (HM) feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants whose mothers (n = 184) participated in a study of lactation counseling and initiated milk expression. Data were collected prospectively, by maternal interview and medical record review. During hospitalization, 159 (86%) infants received at least 50% HM proportion of feedings in the first 2 weeks of life, and 114 (62%) received some HM until the day of hospital discharge. Analysis showed plan to breastfeed was the strongest predictor of initiation and duration of HM feeding. Greater than 12 years of education, respiratory distress syndrome, Apgar score >6, and female gender were significant predictors, and no perinatal hypertensive disorder, white race, and mechanical ventilation were marginal predictors of HM feeding. Women with a high-risk pregnancy should be provided education about the benefits of breastfeeding for infants who are likely to be born prematurely.

  18. Enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security with video feedback: an exploratory study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, Rosalinda; Castoro, Germana; Costantino, Elisabetta; Sette, Giovanna; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether a short-term and attachment-based video-feedback intervention, the Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting With Discussions on the Representational Level (VIPP-R; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008), might be effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and in promoting infants' attachment security in an Italian sample of dyads with primiparous mothers. Moreover, we explore whether the effectiveness of VIPP-R might be different for parents with insecure attachment representations who might be most in need of preventive intervention, as compared to parents who already have a more balanced and secure state of mind. Thirty-two infants (40% female) and their mothers participated in the study. The sample was divided into an intervention group (n = 16) and a comparison group (n = 16). At 6 and 13 months of age, the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, N. Kaplan, & J. Cassidy, 1985) was administered. Moreover, a 30-min mother-infant play situation was videotaped and coded for maternal sensitivity with the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000). At 13 months of age, the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.D. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) was used to assess the security of mother-infant attachment. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between intervention and AAI security for infant attachment security; moreover, main effects of AAI security and intervention for maternal sensitivity were found. The VIPP-R appears effective in enhancing maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security, although only mothers with an insecure attachment representation may benefit from the intervention. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Erin E; Holmes, Bjarne M; Granger, Douglas A; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2013-11-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers ( N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers' and infants' cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother's difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant's cues, which in turn has implications for the infant's reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy.

  20. The protective role of maternal posttraumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing among Palestinian mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-01

    War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma. The participants were 511 Palestinian mothers and their infants living in the Gaza strip. The mothers were interviewed in their second trimester of pregnancy (T1) as well as when the infant was four months (T2) and twelve months (T3). Mothers reported posttraumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) at T1 and posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999) at T2. They also reported their exposure to traumatic war events both at T1 and T3 and described their mental health conditions (e.g., PTSD and/or depressive and dissociation symptoms) at T3. The Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to measure infants' stress regulation at T2 and sensorimotor and language development at T3. The results, based on regression analyses with interaction terms between trauma and PTG, showed that high levels of traumatic war events were not associated with high levels of PTSD, depressive, or dissociation symptoms among mothers showing high levels of PTG. This suggests that PTG may protect maternal mental health from the effects of trauma. In turn, positive maternal PTCs appeared to protect the infants' stress regulation from the effects of war trauma. The study concludes by discussing ways to develop and implement preventive interventions for mother-infant dyads in war conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal depression in association with fathers' involvement with their infants: spillover or compensation/buffering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Lusby, Cara M; Thompson, Katina; Newport, D Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N

    2014-01-01

    Both concurrent and prospective associations between maternal depression and father involvement were tested to evaluate support for the spillover model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with lower father involvement) and the compensatory/buffering model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with higher father involvement). Participants in this longitudinal study were women at risk for perinatal depression in association with their histories of mood or anxiety disorders, their husbands/partners, and their infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with depression rating scales at multiple times over the infants' first year. Paternal involvement was measured with a questionnaire (relative perceived responsibility) and a time diary (accessibility and engagement) inquiring about a recent weekday and a recent weekend, completed in a telephone interview, at infant ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Findings consistently supported the compensatory/buffering model for depression in the first 6 months' postpartum, along with an indication of spillover regarding maternal depressive symptoms that persist into the second half of the infants' first year. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for clinical practice and policy as well as suggestions for future research. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...

  3. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  4. Video Edutainment: Impact on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Toro ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faced with one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, Nigeria has identified maternal and child health as a priority issue. This project will help address the problem through research that assesses the reception, cost, and impact of home visits. It will also examine how video "edutainment" (educational ...

  5. Comparison of infants with jaundice due to maternal diabetes and infants with unknown jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2017-07-01

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, among 2,800 infants with jaundice in Ghaem hospital in Mashhad during the 2007 to 2014, features of 59 infants of diabetic mother's (case group and 78 infants with unknown jaundice (control group were analyzed. After confirming of jaundice (Bilirubin ≥ 17 mg/dl in newborns based on examination of pediatrician and laboratory results, a researcher made questionnaire containing maternal demographic data, (maternal age, parity, maternal problems during pregnancy, route of delivery. Also neonatal characteristics including age, sex, birth weight, current weight, duration of hospitalization, current age, age of recovery and laboratory data (Bilirubin, direct bilirubin, hematocrit, platelet, sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, Cr, TSH, T4 were assessed. After data collection and recording information in SPSS software, version 19.5 (IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA, by using tables, charts and statistical indices, the study was evaluated. Data were analyzed using statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney, Chi-square tests after normality control. Comparison of the two groups in normal distribution with t-test and for non-standard data with Mann-Whitney test. Also for definitive variables Chi-square test was used. P-value less than 0.50 was the significant level minimum. Results: In this study, the prevalence of jaundice due to maternal diabetes was 2.10 percent. Birth weight (P=0.02, current age (P=0.003, parity (P=0.000, maternal age (P=0.000, age of recovery (P=0.04, cesarean section (P=0.001, prematurity (P=0.000, maternal problems during pregnancy (P=0.000, abnormal physical examinations (P=0.001 in diabetic mother's infants and Bilirubin (P=0.000, length of hospitalization (P=0.003, in infants with unknown jaundice were higher. Conclusion: The infant of diabetic mother are at increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Neonatal complications consist of high birth weight, preterm labor, more jaundice and late recovery

  6. The neighbourhood method for measuring differences in maternal mortality, infant mortality and other rare demographic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    Full Text Available In the absence of reliable systems for registering rare types of vital events large surveys are required to measure changes in their rates. However some events such as maternal deaths are widely known about in the community. This study examined the utility of asking respondents about events in their neighbourhood as an efficient method for measuring relative rates of rare health events such as maternal and infant deaths. A survey was conducted in the health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS in Matlab, Bangladesh, which includes two areas with different health care regimes. Adult women were asked about any maternal deaths; multiple births; infant deaths, live births and some other events they knew of in a small specified area around their home. Agreement between HDSS records and survey responses was moderate or better (kappa≥0.44 for all the events and greatest for maternal deaths (kappa = 0.77 with 84% being reported. Most events were more likely to be reported if they were recent (p<0.05. Infant mortality rate in one area was 0.56 times that in the other which was well reflected by the ratio of survey results (0.53. Simulations were used to study the ability of the method to detect differences in maternal mortality ratio. These suggested that a sample size around 5000 would give 80% power to detect a 50% decrease from a baseline of 183 which compared well with an estimated sample size around 10 times larger using the direct sisterhood method. The findings suggest that the Neighbourhood Method has potential for monitoring relative differences between areas or changes over time in the rates of rare demographic events, requiring considerably smaller sample sizes than traditional methods. This raises the possibility for interventions to demonstrate real effects on outcomes such as maternal deaths where previously this was only feasible by indirect methods.

  7. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  8. Maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes as potential moderators of the relation between maternal history of care and maternal cortisol secretion in the context of mother-infant separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Jamieson, Brittany; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2017-10-01

    A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles. Findings indicate that a mother's history of care is related to her cortisol secretion in anticipation of infant stress, but that this relation depends on her genetic characteristics. Findings are discussed in relation to the maternal protective system and anticipatory cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  10. Maternal executive function, infant feeding responsiveness and infant growth during the first 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, A J; Demerath, E W; Finsaas, M C; Moore, C J; Georgieff, M K; Carlson, S M

    2017-08-01

    There is limited research in young infants, particularly function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69). Maternal executive function was assessed using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery subtests for executive function and infant body composition using air displacement plethysmography. Mothers with higher executive function reported relying on fewer non-satiety cues at 2 weeks of age (β = -0.29, p = 0.037) and on more infant hunger cues at 3 months of age (β = 0.31, p = 0.018) in their decisions on initiating and terminating feedings. Responsive feeding decisions, specifically the use of infant-based hunger cues at 3 months, in turn were associated with lower gains in weight-for-length (β = -0.30, p = 0.028) and percent body fat (β = -0.2, p = 0.091; non-covariate adjusted β = -0.27, p = 0.029). These findings show both an association between maternal executive function and responsive feeding decisions and an association between responsive feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. The causal nature and direction of these associations require further investigation. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Multi-risk infants: predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0-4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Psychosocial and sociodemographic risk, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant

  13. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafai, Yassaman; Steinberg, Julia R; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2016-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (pexternalizing behaviors and 10.5% (pexternalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatitis B maternal screening, infant vaccination, and infant prophylaxis practices in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R L; Smith, S; Rowe-West, B; Sterritt, B

    1999-06-01

    To determine if the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices hepatitis B screening, vaccination, and prophylaxis recommendations were being followed in North Carolina, and to establish a baseline hepatitis B seroprevalence rate. A survey of mother and infant birthing facility medical records. Four birthing facilities selected from each of the 7 districts in North Carolina (a total of 28 facilities). A probability proportional to size survey design was used to select 4763 mother-infant record pairs. All records came from the 1996 birth cohort. Maternal hepatitis B screening status, infant vaccination status, infants prophylaxis status, hepatitis B seroprevalence rate, demographic and clinical predictors for maternal infection, failure to receive prenatal care or for whom status was unknown, failure to screen, and failure to vaccinate. Ninety-two percent of pregnant women were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen. Eighty-six percent of infants received dose 1 of the hepatitis B vaccine. Four of the 9 infants with mothers who were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive did not receive both vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin. The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was 0.2%. Mothers who were not screened for infection were 3.4 times more likely to have infants who were not vaccinated. White mothers were twice as likely not to have their child vaccinated as mothers of other races. Not all infants with hepatitis B-infected mothers were receiving vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin as recommended. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection may be lower in North Carolina than in other states. Hepatitis B laboratory test results should be included in every mother's medical record.

  15. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  16. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S

    2012-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.

  17. Timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia: the role of maternal anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Penny, Mary E; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Joseph, Serene A; Gagnon, Anita; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2013-05-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown that delayed cord-clamping is beneficial to infant iron status. The role of maternal anaemia in this relationship, however, has not been established. To determine the effect of maternal anaemia at delivery on the association between timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia at 4 and 8 months of age. A cohort of pregnant women admitted to the labour room of Hospital Iquitos (Iquitos, Peru) and their newborns were recruited into the study during two time periods (18 May to 3 June and 6-20 July 2009). Between the two recruitment periods, the hospital's policy changed from early to delayed umbilical cord-clamping. Maternal haemoglobin levels were measured before delivery, and the time between delivery and cord-clamping was recorded at delivery for the entire cohort. Mother-infant pairs were followed-up at 4 (n = 207) and 8 months (n = 184) post partum. Infant haemoglobin levels were measured at follow-up visits. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (Hb anaemia was modified by the mother's anaemia status. Significant benefits of delayed cord-clamping in preventing anaemia were found in infants born to anaemic mothers at both 4 months (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and 8 months (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.76) of age. The study contributes additional evidence in support of delayed cord-clamping. This intervention is likely to have most public health impact in areas with a high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy.

  18. Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.

  19. Blended Infant Massage–Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz S. Porter, PhD, ARNP, FAANP, FAAN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction.

  20. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  1. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Lee, Sue Y.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response. Methods: Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical–BCG associations among approximately 500 mother–infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders. Results: The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid [interquartile range (IQR): 37–248], and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115–847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: –42, –32; p PCB–DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone. Conclusions: The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown. Citation: Jusko TA, De Roos AJ, Lee SY, Thevenet-Morrison K, Schwartz SM, Verner MA, Palkovicova Murinova L, Drobná B, Kočan A, Fabišiková A, Čonka K, Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lawrence BP. 2016. A birth cohort study of maternal and infant

  2. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. User embracement and maternal characteristics associated with liquid offer to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Bittencourt, Sonia Azevedo; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Couto de Oliveira, Maria Inês; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2010-08-01

    To identify the maternal characteristics and welcoming actions towards mothers of infants aged less than six months associated with early liquid offer. Cross-sectional study performed in 2007, with a representative sample of mothers of infants aged less than six months (n=1,057), users of Primary Health Care (PHC) Units, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between explanatory variables and liquid offer, with weighing and design effect and controlled for infant age. Of all mothers, 32% did not receive the welcoming card in the maternity hospital, 47% did not receive guidance on breastfeeding at their first visit to the PHC unit after childbirth and 55% reported they had offered liquids to their infants. Women without at least six months of previous breastfeeding experience were more likely to offer liquids than those with such experience (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.16;2.13). Mothers who had not received guidance on breastfeeding at their first visit to the UBS after childbirth were 58% more likely to offer liquids than those who had received it. Liquid offer was positively associated with adolescence among women with a partner (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.10;4.30) and negatively associated with adolescence among those without a partner (OR=0.31; 95% CI: 0.11;0.85). Among women with less than eight years of education, those who had not received guidance on breastfeeding after childbirth were 1.8 times more likely to offer liquids than others who had received it. Age, marital status and previous breastfeeding experience are maternal characteristics associated with liquid offer to infants aged less than six months. Receiving early guidance on breastfeeding could reduce liquid offer to infants.

  4. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphism and susceptibility to a home-visiting maternal-infant attachment intervention delivered by community health workers in South Africa: Reanalysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barak; Kumsta, Robert; Fearon, Pasco; Moser, Dirk; Skeen, Sarah; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne; Moran, Greg; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Clear recognition of the damaging effects of poverty on early childhood development has fueled an interest in interventions aimed at mitigating these harmful consequences. Psychosocial interventions aimed at alleviating the negative impacts of poverty on children are frequently shown to be of benefit, but effect sizes are typically small to moderate. However, averaging outcomes over an entire sample, as is typically done, could underestimate efficacy because weaker effects on less susceptible individuals would dilute estimation of effects on those more disposed to respond. This study investigates whether a genetic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene moderates susceptibility to a psychosocial intervention. We reanalyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of a home-visiting program delivered by community health workers in a black, isiXhosa-speaking population in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The intervention, designed to enhance maternal-infant attachment, began in the third trimester and continued until 6 mo postpartum. Implemented between April 1999 and February 2003, the intervention comprised 16 home visits delivered to 220 mother-infant dyads by specially trained community health workers. A control group of 229 mother-infant dyads did not receive the intervention. Security of maternal-infant attachment was the main outcome measured at infant age 18 mo. Compared to controls, infants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to be securely attached to their primary caregiver (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, p = 0.029, 95% CI [1.06, 2.76], d = 0.29). After the trial, 162 intervention and 172 control group children were reenrolled in a follow-up study at 13 y of age (December 2012-June 2014). At this time, DNA collected from 279 children (134 intervention and 145 control) was genotyped for a common serotonin transporter polymorphism. There were both genetic data and attachment security data for 220 children (110 intervention and 110 control), of

  6. Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 polymorphism and susceptibility to a home-visiting maternal-infant attachment intervention delivered by community health workers in South Africa: Reanalysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Morgan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clear recognition of the damaging effects of poverty on early childhood development has fueled an interest in interventions aimed at mitigating these harmful consequences. Psychosocial interventions aimed at alleviating the negative impacts of poverty on children are frequently shown to be of benefit, but effect sizes are typically small to moderate. However, averaging outcomes over an entire sample, as is typically done, could underestimate efficacy because weaker effects on less susceptible individuals would dilute estimation of effects on those more disposed to respond. This study investigates whether a genetic polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene moderates susceptibility to a psychosocial intervention.We reanalyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of a home-visiting program delivered by community health workers in a black, isiXhosa-speaking population in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The intervention, designed to enhance maternal-infant attachment, began in the third trimester and continued until 6 mo postpartum. Implemented between April 1999 and February 2003, the intervention comprised 16 home visits delivered to 220 mother-infant dyads by specially trained community health workers. A control group of 229 mother-infant dyads did not receive the intervention. Security of maternal-infant attachment was the main outcome measured at infant age 18 mo. Compared to controls, infants in the intervention group were significantly more likely to be securely attached to their primary caregiver (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, p = 0.029, 95% CI [1.06, 2.76], d = 0.29. After the trial, 162 intervention and 172 control group children were reenrolled in a follow-up study at 13 y of age (December 2012-June 2014. At this time, DNA collected from 279 children (134 intervention and 145 control was genotyped for a common serotonin transporter polymorphism. There were both genetic data and attachment security data for 220 children (110 intervention and

  7. Exploring Maternal Perceptions of Infant Sleep and Feeding Method Among Mothers in the United Kingdom: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Ball, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    In a context with strong rhetorical support for breastfeeding in the health system, yet extremely low rates of breastfeeding after hospital discharge, U.K. women's decisions about infant feeding reflect the reality of competing priorities in their lives, including obtaining adequate sleep. Popular wisdom in the U.K. tightly links breastfeeding and inadequate night-time sleep. Mothers are advised by peers and family to introduce formula or solid foods to infants to promote longer sleep. The first objective of this study was to investigate women's understandings of the nature of infant sleep and their perceptions of links between infant feeding method and sleep. The second was to explore how these perceptions influence infant feeding and sleep practices. Underpinning our work is the understanding that infant care choices result from trade-offs by which mothers strive to balance infant- and self-care. We conducted seven focus groups with mothers of infants in two regions of the U.K. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and emergent themes were identified. We found clearly diverging narratives between breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers viewed the fragmentary nature of infant sleep as natural, while mothers who were formula feeding felt this was a problem to be fixed. The strategies used to promote infant and maternal sleep in each group were aligned with their underlying perception of how infant sleep works. Maternal perceptions of the nature of infant sleep and its relation to infant feeding method impact infant care practices in the first year of life.

  8. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  9. Maternal Self-Regulation, Relationship Adjustment, and Home Chaos: Contributions to Infant Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Laake, Lauren M.; Oddi, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the direct and indirect effects of parental self-regulation on children’s outcomes. In the present investigation, the effects of maternal self-regulation, home chaos, and inter-parental relationship adjustment on broad and specific indicators of infant negative emotionality (NE) were examined. A sample of maternal caregivers and their 4-month-old infants (N = 85) from a rural community participated. Results demonstrated that better maternal self-regulation was associated with lower infant NE broadly, as well as with lower infant sadness and distress to limitations/frustration and better falling reactivity (i.e. emotion regulation), specifically. Maternal self-regulation also predicted less chaotic home environments and better maternal inter-parental relationship adjustment. Findings also supported the indirect effects of maternal self-regulation on broad and specific indicators of infant NE through home chaos and maternal relationship adjustment. Some differential effects were also identified. Elevated home chaos appeared to specifically affect infant frustration/distress to limitations whereas maternal relationship adjustment affected broad infant NE, as well as several specific indicators of infant NE: frustration/distress to limitations, sadness, and falling reactivity. In conjunction with other recent investigations that have reported the effects of maternal self-regulation on parenting, the findings in the present investigation suggest that parental self-regulation may influence children’s outcomes through several proximal environmental pathways. PMID:23748168

  10. Mother-infant joint attention and sharing: relations to disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie Yoon, Seungyeon; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Lock, Anna; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The normative development of infant shared attention has been studied extensively, but few studies have examined the impact of disorganized attachment and disturbed maternal caregiving on mother-infant shared attention. The authors examined both maternal initiations of joint attention and infants' responses to those initiations during the reunion episodes of the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months of infant age. The mothers' initiations of joint attention and three forms of infant response, including shunning, simple joint attention, and sharing attention, were examined in relation to infant disorganized attachment and maternal disrupted communication. Mothers who were disrupted in communication with their infants at 18 months initiated fewer bids for joint attention at 12 months, and, at 18 months, mothers of infants classified disorganized initiated fewer bids. However, the infant' responses were unrelated to either the infant' or the mother' disturbed attachment. At both ages, disorganized infants and infants of disrupted mothers were as likely to respond to maternal bids as were their lower risk counterparts. Our results suggest that a disposition to share experiences with others is robust in infancy, even among infants with adverse attachment experiences, but this infant disposition may depend on adult initiation of bids to be realized.

  11. Safety of the breast-feeding infant after maternal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Priti G; Bosak, Jodi; Berlin, Cheston

    2014-04-01

    There has been an increase in breast-feeding supported by the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization. An anesthesiologist may be presented with a well-motivated breast-feeding mother who wishes to breast-feed her infant in the perioperative period. Administration of anesthesia entails acute administration of drugs with potential for sedation and respiratory effects on the nursing infant. The short-term use of these drugs minimizes the possibility of these effects. The aim should be to minimize the use of narcotics and benzodiazepines, use shorter acting agents, use regional anesthesia where possible and avoid agents with active metabolites. Frequent clinical assessments of the nursing infant are important. Available literature does suggest that although the currently available anesthetic and analgesic drugs are transferred in the breast milk, the amounts transferred are almost always clinically insignificant and pose little or no risk to the nursing infant. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health.

  13. Relations between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Savonlahti, Elina; Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Piha, Jorma; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between maternal representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in a group of preterm and full-term infants. The study groups consisted of 38 mothers and their preterm infants (quality of mother-infant interaction was studied using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) method at 6 and 12 months of the infant's corrected age. The results showed that maternal representations are related to the quality of mother-infant interaction in a parallel manner in preterm and full-term infants and their mothers. Furthermore, distorted representations were more strongly related to a higher number of areas of concern in mother-infant interaction than other representation classifications. Our results underline the importance of combined assessment of the subjective experiences of the mother and the quality of mother-infant interaction in clinical follow-up. This is the first study to describe the relation between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction involving preterm infants. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of economic recession on maternal and infant mortality: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, Lisa; Fitzmaurice, Ann; Graham, Wendy J

    2010-11-24

    The effect of the recent world recession on population health has featured heavily in recent international meetings. Maternal health is a particular concern given that many countries were already falling short of their MDG targets for 2015. We utilise 20th century time series data from 14 high and middle income countries to investigate associations between previous economic recession and boom periods on maternal and infant outcomes (1936 to 2005). A first difference logarithmic model is used to investigate the association between short run fluctuations in GDP per capita (individual incomes) and changes in health outcomes. Separate models are estimated for four separate time periods. The results suggest a modest but significant association between maternal and infant mortality and economic growth for early periods (1936 to 1965) but not more recent periods. Individual country data display markedly different patterns of response to economic changes. Japan and Canada were vulnerable to economic shocks in the post war period. In contrast, mortality rates in countries such as the UK and Italy and particularly the US appear little affected by economic fluctuations. The data presented suggest that recessions do have a negative association with maternal and infant outcomes particularly in earlier stages of a country's development although the effects vary widely across different systems. Almost all of the 20 least wealthy countries have suffered a reduction of 10% or more in GDP per capita in at least one of the last five decades. The challenge for today's policy makers is the design and implementation of mechanisms that protect vulnerable populations from the effects of fluctuating national income.

  15. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence...

  16. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and...

  17. Improving adolescent maternal health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nelson R ... of information concerning their bodies and ..... improve quality of healthcare services for adolescents[15] – services that .... equipment, medicines, supplies and technology needed to ensure effective service provision to adolescents.

  18. Some studies of maternal and infant lead exposure in Glasgow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.R.; Goldberg, A.; Pocock, S.J.; Meredith, A.; Stewart, I.M.; MacAnespie, H.; Lees, R.; Low, A.

    1982-04-01

    In two studies in the city of Glasgow, 236 mothers and their newly born infants and 117 mothers and their 6-weeks old children's environmental lead exposure were examined. In both studies blood lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with the cube root of the domestic water lead concentrations. In the first study, multiple regression analyses of maternal blood lead and cord blood lead concentrations on other variables showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. It was also noted that there was an annual fluctuation in maternal blood lead concentration with highest values in the autumn. In the second study, similar relationships were found. Although there was no association between blood lead and sex, age, place of birth or feeding method, as in the previous study, a significant association between social class and blood lead was found. This could be explained on the basis of the significant correlation between water lead and social class. In those mothers who breast fed, breast milk lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with blood lead concentrations where breast milk lead was around one tenth of blood lead concentration. These studies emphasise the importance of water lead in the economy of environmental lead exposure to mothers and their unborn and newly born infants.

  19. Association between maternal childhood maltreatment and mother-infant attachment disorganization: Moderation by maternal oxytocin receptor gene and cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Masellis, Mario; Meinz, Paul; Atkinson, Leslie

    2018-04-24

    This study examined maternal oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576) genotype and cortisol secretion as moderators of the relation between maternal childhood maltreatment history and disorganized mother-infant attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads completed the SSP at infant age 17 months. Self-reported maltreatment history more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and disorganized classification for mothers with more plasticity alleles of OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer plasticity alleles. Maltreatment history also more strongly predicted mother-infant attachment disorganization score and classification for mothers with higher SSP cortisol secretion, relative to mothers with lower SSP cortisol secretion. Findings indicate that maltreatment history is related to disorganization in the next generation, but that this relation depends on maternal genetic characteristics and cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Kangaroo Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on the Physiological Functions of Preterm Infants, Maternal-Infant Attachment, and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Sook; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kwon, Myung Soon; Cho, Haeryun; Kim, Eun Hye; Jun, Eun Mi; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effects of kangaroo care on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal-infant attachment, and maternal stress. For this study, a quasi-experiment design was used with a nonequivalent control group, and a pre- and post-test. Data were collected from preterm infants with corrected gestational ages of ≥33weeks who were hospitalized between May and October 2011. Twenty infants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control group. As an intervention, kangaroo care was provided in 30-min sessions conducted thrice a week for a total of 10 times. The collected data were analyzed by using the t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and the ANCOVA test. After kangaroo care, the respiration rate significantly differed between the two groups (F=5.701, p=.020). The experimental group had higher maternal-infant attachment scores (F=25.881, pinfant physiological functions such as respiration rate, increasing maternal-infant attachment, and reducing maternal stress. This study suggests that kangaroo care can be used to promote emotional bonding and support between mothers and their babies, and to stabilize the physiological functions of premature babies. Kangaroo care may be one of the most effective nursing interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit for the care of preterm infants and their mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal fitness at the onset of the second trimester of pregnancy: correlates and relationship with infant birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, M; Alméras, N; Plaisance, J; Rhéaume, C; Bujold, E; Tremblay, A; Marc, I

    2013-12-01

    What is already known about this subject A healthy life begins in utero and a healthy pregnancy requires a fit and healthy mother. Physical activity during pregnancy provides a stimulation that is essential for promoting optimal body oxygenation and composition as well as metabolic fitness during pregnancy. Although a higher maternal fitness is expected to provide a beneficial fetal environment, it is still unclear whether physical fitness during pregnancy contributes to perinatal health. What this study adds Participation in sports and exercise previously and at the beginning of pregnancy can benefit maternal health by improving cardiorespiratory fitness during pregnancy, irrespective of maternal body mass index. Maternal strength, an indicator of muscular fitness, is an independent determinant of infant fetal growth and can positively influence birth weight. It is still unclear whether maternal physical activity and fitness during pregnancy contributes to perinatal health. The aims of this study were to characterize maternal physical fitness at 16 weeks of pregnancy and to examine its effects on infant birth weight. Maternal anthropometry (body mass index [BMI] and skin-folds), physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) and muscular fitness (handgrip strength) were assessed at 16 weeks of gestation in 65 healthy pregnant women. Offspring birth weight was collected from maternal charts after delivery. A higher VO2 peak was associated with physical activity spent at sports and exercise before and in early pregnancy (P = 0.0005). Maternal BMI was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (P pregnancy as a new determinant of infant birth weight. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiff Annie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions, self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1 type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2 frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3 attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4 theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89% had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68. Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity, percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%. Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses. Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and

  3. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  4. MATERNAL REPRESENTATIONS AND INFANT ATTACHMENT: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PROTOTYPE HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Hawkins, Erinn; Plamondon, Andre; Moran, Greg; Benoit, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The prototype hypothesis suggests that attachment representations derived in infancy continue to influence subsequent relationships over the life span, including those formed with one's own children. In the current study, we test the prototype hypothesis by exploring (a) whether child-specific representations following actual experience in interaction with a specific child impacts caregiver-child attachment over and above the prenatal forecast of that representation and (b) whether maternal attachment representations exert their influence on infant attachment via the more child-specific representation of that relationship. In a longitudinal study of 84 mother-infant dyads, mothers' representations of their attachment history were obtained prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; M. Main, R. Goldwyn, & E. Hesse, 2002), representations of relationship with a specific child were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, & L. Barton, 1986), collected both prenatally and again at infant age 11 months, and infant attachment was assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Walters, & S. Wall, 1978) when infants were 11 months of age. Consistent with the prototype hypothesis, considerable correspondence was found between mothers' AAI and WMCI classifications. A mediation analysis showed that WMCI fully accounted for the association between AAI and infant attachment. Postnatal WMCI measured at 11 months' postpartum did not add to the prediction of infant attachment, over and above that explained by the prenatal WMCI. Implications for these findings are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. From a policy planning perspective, further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that explain the benefits of paid maternity leave for infant mortality.

  6. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  7. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  8. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios below one indicate a lower “risk” of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Results Compared to infants born to thin and normal weight mothers (BMI obese mothers (BMI>30) were slower to sit without support [HR=0.91, p=0.03] and crawl on hands and knees [HR=0.86, pobesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. PMID:25755075

  9. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  10. Microbial Therapeutics Designed for Infant Health.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watkins, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard." Moreover, the use of prebiotics as an aid for the development of a healthy gut microbiome is equally as important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Breastmilk, a natural prebiotic source, provides optimal active ingredients for the growth of beneficial microbial species. However, early life disorders such as necrotising enterocolitis, childhood obesity, and even autism have been associated with an altered\\/disturbed gut microbiome. Subsequently, microbial therapies have been introduced, in addition to suitable prebiotic ingredients, which when administered, may aid in the prevention of a microbial disturbance in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the beneficial effects of different probiotic and prebiotic treatments in early life, with particular emphasis on the different conditions which negatively impact microbial colonisation at birth.

  11. Microbial Therapeutics Designed for Infant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watkins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the “gold standard.” Moreover, the use of prebiotics as an aid for the development of a healthy gut microbiome is equally as important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Breastmilk, a natural prebiotic source, provides optimal active ingredients for the growth of beneficial microbial species. However, early life disorders such as necrotising enterocolitis, childhood obesity, and even autism have been associated with an altered/disturbed gut microbiome. Subsequently, microbial therapies have been introduced, in addition to suitable prebiotic ingredients, which when administered, may aid in the prevention of a microbial disturbance in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the beneficial effects of different probiotic and prebiotic treatments in early life, with particular emphasis on the different conditions which negatively impact microbial colonisation at birth.

  12. Infant feeding-related maternity care practices and maternal report of breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Perrine, Cria G; Freedman, David S; Williams, Letitia; Morrow, Brian; Smith, Ruben A; Dee, Deborah L

    2018-02-07

    Evidence-based maternity practices and policies can improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Maternity facilities report practices through the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, but individual outcomes, such as breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, are not collected. mPINC data on maternity care practices for 2009 were linked to data from the 2009 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which collects information on mothers' behaviors and experiences around pregnancy. We calculated total mPINC scores (range 0-100). PRAMS data on any and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks were examined by total mPINC score quartile. Of 15 715 women in our sample, 53.7% were breastfeeding any at 8 weeks, and 29.3% were breastfeeding exclusively. They gave birth at 1016 facilities that had a mean total mPINC score of 65/100 (range 19-99). Care dimension subscores ranged from 41 for facility discharge care to 81 for breastfeeding assistance. In multivariable analysis adjusting for covariates, a positive relationship was found between total mPINC score quartile and both any breastfeeding (quartile 2: odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08-1.83], quartile 3: OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.96], quartile 4: OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.61-2.78] vs quartile 1) and exclusive breastfeeding (quartile 3: OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.04-1.90], quartile 4: OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.41-2.55] vs quartile 1) at 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that evidence-based maternity care practices and policies are associated with better breastfeeding outcomes. Maternity facilities may evaluate their practices and policies to ensure they are helping mothers achieve their breastfeeding goals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  14. Maternal resolution of grief after preterm birth: implications for infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prachi E; Clements, Melissa; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-02-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' unresolved grief regarding their infant's preterm birth and infant-mother attachment security. We hypothesized that mothers with unresolved grief would be more likely to have insecurely attached infants at 16 months and that this association would be partially mediated by maternal interaction quality. This longitudinal study focused on 74 preterm infants (age of infants. The present analysis included assessment of neonatal and socioeconomic risks at NICU discharge; maternal depression, Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview findings, and quality of parenting at a postterm age of 9 months; and infant-mother attachment at postterm age of 16 months. Associations among findings of grief resolution with the Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview, quality of parenting interactions, and attachment security were explored by using relative risk ratios and logistic and multivariate regression models. The relative risk of developing insecure attachment when mothers had unresolved grief was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.44). Controlling for covariates (adjusted odds ratio: 2.94), maternal feelings of resolved grief regarding the preterm birth experience were associated with secure infant-mother attachment at 16 months. Maternal grief resolution and interaction quality were independent predictors of attachment security. Maternal grief resolution regarding the experience of preterm birth and the quality of maternal interactions have important implications for emerging attachment security for infants born prematurely.

  15. Nurturing girls: a key to promoting maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Mothers should invest in women's health and in the health of the next generation by taking good care of their daughters beginning at birth. Indeed girls who develop healthily, confidently, and is strong are more apt to have a safe motherhood and nurture their own children so they can reach their full potential. Nevertheless many obstacles to this occurring exist. Even though both girls and boys live in poverty, girls encounter the additional obstacle of sexual discrimination. For example, female infants have an elevated natural immunity level to fight off diseases than do male infants, female infant mortality exceeds male infant mortality in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. In addition, excessive death rates among small girls occur in some countries of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. Reduced breast feeding, amount of food, immunization coverage, health care, and school enrollment for females contribute to these excessive death rates among females. In fact, if these deprivations do not result in death, they do cause poor health throughout life and greater risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Motherhood drains the already stunted and anemic bodies. For example, malnourished pregnant women, as evidenced by stunting, often have too small or deformed pelvises making it difficult to delivery a child normally. Anemic mothers cannot easily endure hemorrhaging loss during childbirth and abortion. Finally, deprivation influences a girl's mental ability to manage motherhood. Moreover, it reduces self esteem which in turn renders them reluctant to demand improvements in maternal care which would reduce maternal mortality.

  16. Postpartum depression, delayed maternal adaptation, and mechanical infant caring: a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennieffer Anne

    2008-03-01

    With 10-15 percent of mothers experiencing postpartum depression this mental health problem is a significant public health issue. One concern is that normal infant development is at risk. Understanding how Postpartum depression impacts on mothering is important knowledge in managing this health problem. To: Explore what is it like to become a mother, and examine how postpartum depression impacts on maternal adaptation. A hermeneutic approach was used guided by the philosophical works of Heidegger and Gadamer A relatively affluent metropolitan area, including surrounding rural areas within Australia. Via purposeful, maximum variation sampling, eleven women who had been medically diagnosed with postpartum depression following childbirth but who were not experiencing psychosis participated in the study. In-depth interviews and reflective journaling. Mothers with postpartum depression become "stuck" in a liminal state, an incomplete process of the rite of passage. Therefore, adaptation to the social role of a mother was found to be delayed. Additionally, a delay in becoming competent in parenting skills was evident. A lack of maternal-infant attachment was noted, however, mothers continued to care for their infants but in an unthinking manner that was labelled "mechanical infant caring". The distress caused by the delay in adapting to being a mother could be addressed by providing a mentor to at-risk women. The mentor should be a mother who has previously recovered from postpartum depression and would act as a symbol of hope. Additionally, on-going education and the insight that occurs during the liminal phase can facilitate mothers with postpartum depression to adapt appropriately.

  17. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  18. A Comparison of Maternal and Paternal Experiences of Becoming Parents of a Very Preterm Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. How do maternal subclinical symptoms influence infant motor development during the first year of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Piallini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes mother-infant’s dyad.Within this relationship,the presence of depression,somatization,hostility,paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered.Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of infant’s health-status,but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, eelings and intentions,in this study the quality of infants’movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes.The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may lead infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0-11months.Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0-11months-old.Mothers’ symptomatology was screened with SymptomChecklist-90-Revised(SCL-90-R,while infants were tested with Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition.All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however,on the basis of SCL-90-Rscores, mothers’sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical.Descriptive,T-test,correlational analysis between PDMS-2scores and SCL-90-R results are reported,as well as regression models results.Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology,Somatization(SOM,Interpersonal Sensitivity(IS,Depression(DEP,Hostility(HOSand Paranoid Ideation(PARand infants’motor abilities.These results were then further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant motor outcomes on the basis of babies’ age and maternal status.The presence of positive symptoms in SCL-90-Rquestionnaire (subclinical group predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies.In particular,depressive and hostility feelings in mothers seemed to induce an infant

  1. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health ... Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and dysfunctional ...

  2. A maternal erythrocyte DHA content of approximately 6 g% is the DHA status at which intrauterine DHA biomagnifications turns into bioattenuation and postnatal infant DHA equilibrium isreached

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in infant compared with maternal lipids at delivery is named biomagnification. The decline of infant and maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status during lactation in Western countries suggests maternal depletion. We investigated whether

  3. Maternal-foetal attachment independently predicts the quality of maternal-infant bonding and post-partum psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Palagini, Laura; Bacci, Olivia; Borri, Chiara; Teristi, Valentina; Corezzi, Camilla; Faraoni, Sara; Antonelli, Paolo; Cargioli, Claudio; Banti, Susanna; Perugi, Giulio; Mauri, Mauro

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal antenatal attachment and post-partum psychopathology, maternal-infant bonding, while checking for antenatal psychopathology, for lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and for the known risk factors for peripartum depression. One hundred and six women recruited at the first month of pregnancy (T0) were evaluated with the structured interview for DSM-IV TR (SCID-I) to assess the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and with the Perinatal Depression Predictor Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). At the sixth month of pregnancy (T1) and at the first month post-partum (T2), all patients were evaluated with the PDPI-R, the EPDS, the STAI, at T1, with the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), and at T2 with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS). Multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal-foetal attachment was the variable most significantly associated with postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety and with quality of maternal-infant attachment. The logistic regression analyses showed that antenatal attachment may predict postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms (respectively, OR: 0.83 - IC [0.74 - 0.95], p = .005, OR: 0.88 - IC [0.79 - 0.98], p = .02), and the quality of maternal postnatal attachment (OR: 1.17 - IC [1.08 - 1.27], p depression, the sociodemographic variables and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. The quality of maternal-foetal bonding may independently predict the quality of maternal-infant attachment and post-partum depressive and anxiety symptoms. A comprehensive assessment of maternal risk factors for perinatal psychopathology during pregnancy should include the evaluation of antenatal attachment that could be modifiable by specific interventions promoting the quality of maternal bonding.

  4. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  5. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  7. Emerging effortful control in toddlerhood: the role of infant orienting/regulation, maternal effortful control, and maternal time spent in caregiving activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; Lance, Kate Oddi; Iddins, Erin; Waits, Robin; Vanvleet, Jessica; Lee, Lindsay

    2011-02-01

    Latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to examine the contribution of changes in infant orienting/regulation (O/R) to the emergence of toddler effortful control (EC), the contributions of maternal EC to the development of infant O/R and the emergence of toddler EC, the influence of maternal time spent in caregiving activities on toddler EC and the slope of infant O/R, and the contribution of maternal EC to subsequent maternal time spent in caregiving activities. Mothers from 158 families completed a self-report measure of EC when their infants were 4 months of age, a measure of infant O/R when their infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, and a measure of toddler EC when their children reached 18 months of age. Information concerning maternal time spent in various interactive caregiving activities was collected when infants were 6 months old. Results indicated higher maternal EC predicted interindividual differences in the intercept (i.e., higher intercepts), but not slope, of infant O/R and that higher maternal EC, higher infant O/R intercept, and higher infant O/R slope contributed to higher toddler EC. Furthermore, higher maternal EC predicted greater maternal time spent in interactive caregiving activities with their infants and greater maternal time in interactive caregiving with infants also contributed to higher toddler EC after controlling for maternal EC. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of maternal EC, directly and through caregiving, on toddler EC. Additional implications as they are related to early developing regulatory aspects of temperament are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  9. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  10. [The relationship between early neo-maternal exposure, and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in the mothers of NICU infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Mee; Kim, Mi-Ran

    2005-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the quantities of three neo-maternal exposures; visiting frequency, auditory contact and physical contact, and to examine the relationship between the quantities of each exposure and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in 40 mothers of NICU babies during the first week in the NICU. Each neo-maternal exposure was counted at every mother's visit to the newborn and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression were measured using the maternal attachment inventory, the maternal self-report inventory and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) on the first and seventh day in the NICU. The Mean of each neo-maternal exposure was 8.77(2.81) for the visiting frequency, 5.82(3.66) for the auditory contact and 5.60(2.89) for the physical contact during 7 days in the NICU. No significant changes were found in the scores of maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression between the first and the seventh day in the NICU. The quantities of neo-maternal exposures were positively related to the scores of maternal attachment and maternal self-esteem but not related to postpartum depression. The results of the study suggest the lack of early neo-maternal exposure in cases of NICU hospitalization negate its beneficial effects on maternal psychological well-being in increasing maternal attachment and self-esteem. More efforts are needed for the neo-maternal interaction and the reevaluation of NICU visitation hours in order to promote maternal-infant interaction.

  11. State of the science of maternal-infant bonding: a principle-based concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E

    2013-12-01

    to provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. after a brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) Maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioural or biological components was limited. (2) The concept is clearly operationalised in the affective domain. (3) Maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  13. [Effect of docosahexenoic acid supplementation on infant's growth and body mass index during maternal pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Shang, Y; Liu, Y J; Chang, X L; Yao, H Y; Liang, A M; Qi, K M

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on infant's growth and BMI during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 1 516 healthy pregnant women delivered their babies in two maternal and child health care hospitals in Beijing and were chosen as the subjects in this cohort study from May to October 2015. Self-developed questionnaires were used to gather general information of the subjects, including age, height, weight, weight gain during pregnancy, delivery mode, DHA supplementation etc ., before giving birth. Information on body length, weight, head circumference and BMI at birth and 6 months postnatal, of the infants were recorded. Breast milk was collected to test the fatty acid profiles by using the gas chromatography (GC) method at one to three months postnatally. Results: The overall rate of DHA supplementation was 47.76% among the pregnant women, in which introduction of DHA from the early and second stage of the pregnancy accounted for 49.31% and 39.64% respectively. When DHA supplementation began from the early pregnant stage, the DHA concentration showed an increase in the milk ( P 0.05). Higher height and lower BMI were seen in the infants at birth and 6 months in the supplementation group when comparing to the non-supplementary group ( P pregnancy, there were positive correlations between DHA supplementation and height ( r =0.324, r =0.216), head circumference ( r =0.221, r =0.302) as well as the increment of head circumference ( r =0.276) at birth and 6 months ( P pregnancy. Conclusions: When DHA supplementation program was carried out during maternal pregnancy, it could increase the height and head circumference and inhibit the rapid increase of BMI in the infants BMI. Our findings seemed helpful in promoting brain development and preventing the childhood obesity.

  14. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  15. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.

  16. Mother- versus Infant-Centered Correlates of Maternal Mind-Mindedness in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal mind-mindedness in infant-mother interaction related to aspects of obstetric history and infant temperament. Study 1, conducted with a socially diverse sample of 206 eight-month-old infants and their mothers, focused on links between maternal mind-mindedness and (i) planned conception, (ii) perception of pregnancy,…

  17. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered (“destabilized”) with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were “looking through” them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother’s face—a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence. PMID:25983359

  18. The role of sociodemographic risk and maternal behavior in the prediction of infant attachment disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedaly, Lindsey R; Leerkes, Esther M

    2016-12-01

    Predictors of infant attachment disorganization were examined among 203 primiparous mothers (52% European American, 48% African American) and their infants (104 female). The Strange Situation Procedure was administered at one year. Global maternal insensitivity and overtly negative maternal behavior were observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were six months and one year old. Mothers reported on their demographics to yield a measure of sociodemographic risk (i.e., age, education, income-to-needs). Overtly negative maternal behavior was positively associated with the infant attachment disorganization rating scale score, but did not predict being classified as disorganized. Global maternal insensitivity was associated with higher attachment disorganization, both the rating and the classification, when sociodemographic risk was high but not when sociodemographic risk was low. The pattern of results did not vary by maternal race. The results provide some support for the view that negative maternal behavior and the combination of sociodemographic risk and global maternal insensitivity play a role in the development of infant attachment disorganization.

  19. Importance of maternal diet in the training of the infant's immune system during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurink, P V; Knipping, K; Wiens, F; Barańska, K; Stahl, B; Garssen, J; Krolak-Olejnik, B

    2018-02-02

    Latest forecasts predict that half of the European population will be allergic within the coming 15 years, with food allergies contributing substantially to the total burden; preventive measures are urgently needed. Unfortunately, all attempted alimentary strategies for primary prevention of allergic diseases through allergen avoidance so far have failed. This also holds true for the prevention of food allergies in breastfed infants by the common practice of excluding certain foods with allergenic potential from the maternal diet. As a preventive measure, therefore, exclusion diets should be discouraged. They can exhaust nursing mothers and negatively impact both their nutritional status as well as their motivation to breastfeed. A prolonged exclusion diet may be indicated solely in cases of doctor-diagnosed food allergy following rigid medical tests (e.g. double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges). Indicated cases usually involve exclusion of only a few food items. Continued breastfeeding is generally important for many aspects of the infant's health, including the training of the infant's immune responses to foreign compounds and avoidance of overshooting inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that the presence of maternal dietary proteins in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and human milk might support the induction of tolerance towards solid foods in infants. These are exactly the same species of proteins or remnants thereof that, in comparatively few cases, trigger allergic responses. However, the insight that the proteins of maternal dietary origin in human milk are more likely to be cure (or, more precise, directing prevention) than curse has still largely evaded the attention of health care professionals consulted by worried breastfeeding mothers. In this paper, we summarize recent literature on the importance of exposure to dietary proteins in the establishment of immunological tolerance and hence prevention of allergic disease. Multiple

  20. The role of negative maternal affective states and infant temperament in early interactions between infants with cleft lip and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Fedeli, Claudia; Murray, Lynne; Morandi, Francesco; Brusati, Roberto; Perego, Guenda Ghezzi; Borgatti, Renato

    2012-03-01

    The study examined the early interaction between mothers and their infants with cleft lip, assessing the role of maternal affective state and expressiveness and differences in infant temperament. Mother-infant interactions were assessed in 25 2-month-old infants with cleft lip and 25 age-matched healthy infants. Self-report and behavioral observations were used to assess maternal depressive symptoms and expressions. Mothers rated infant temperament. Infants with cleft lip were less engaged and their mothers showed more difficulty in interaction than control group dyads. Mothers of infants with cleft lip displayed more negative affectivity, but did not report more self-rated depressive symptoms than control group mothers. No group differences were found in infant temperament. In order to support the mother's experience and facilitate her ongoing parental role, findings highlight the importance of identifying maternal negative affectivity during early interactions, even when they seem have little awareness of their depressive symptoms.

  1. Infant-Mother Attachment Classification: Risk and Protection in Relation to Changing Maternal Caregiving Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Psychology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The relations between early infant-mother attachment and children's social competence and behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period were examined in more than 1,000 children under conditions of decreasing, stable, and increasing maternal parenting quality. Infants' Strange Situation attachment classifications predicted…

  2. Maternal Attachment Representation and Neurophysiological Processing during the Perception of Infants' Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Leyh

    Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.

  3. [Maternal bonding and infant attachment in women with and without social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ariane; Knappe, Susanne; Petrowski, Katja; Petzoldt, Johanna; Martini, Julia

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association of maternal social phobia with maternal bonding and infant attachment in a prospective-longitudinal study (MARI study, N = 306). A subsample of 46 women with and without lifetime social phobia (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women, CIDI-V) and their infants was investigated. Mothers reported antenatal and postnatal bonding (MAAS, MPAS). Infants’ attachment classifications/behavior were observed in the strange situation test at 16 months after delivery. The rate of insecure attachment was higher in infants of mothers with social phobia (45.4 % vs. 33.3 %), and infants needed significantly more time to reconnect with their mothers during reunion in the strange situation (U = 160.0, p = .019). There were no group differences with regard to maternal bonding during pregnancy (t = -.151, p = .881) and after delivery (t = .408, p = .685) and resistant (U = 262.5, p = .969), avoidant (U = 311.5, p = .258) as well as contact-keeping behaviors (U = 224.0, p = .373) of the infant in the strange situation. Mothers with social phobia may transmit their inhibited behavioral disposition to their infants or fail to encourage their infants to interact with other people. Mothers with social phobia should be informed about the possible link of maternal avoidance behavior with adverse infant development and should be provided with information on treatment options.

  4. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  5. Maternal Gesture Use and Language Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development.…

  6. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal R; Griffiths, Paula L; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3-5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy (e.g. decision-making, freedom of movement, financial autonomy, and acceptance of domestic violence). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3-5 month old infants. Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Length of Maternity Leave and Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roseanne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Assessed association between length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interaction. Found a direct association between shorter leave and more negative affect and behavior; mothers with more depressive symptoms or who perceived their infant as having a difficult temperament, and with shorter leaves expressed less positive affect,…

  8. Mind-Mindedness in Adult and Adolescent Mothers: Relations to Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Isabelle; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the quality of maternal mind-mindedness among adult and adolescent mothers, using an assessment of the appropriateness and emotional valence of maternal mind-related comments while interacting with their infants. Twenty-nine adult mothers and 69 adolescent mothers participated in two assessments with their 18-month-old…

  9. A Study of Maternal Attachment among Mothers of Infants with Congenital Anomalies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylmaz, Hatice Bal; Kavlak, Oya; Isler, Aysegul; Liman, Tulin; Van Sell, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect maternal attachment among mothers whose infants were born with congenital anomalies. A questionnaire was used to collect individual sociodemographic data, and the Maternal Attachment Inventory was used to collect information about the emotional attachment of mothers to infants…

  10. Maternal history of parentification and warm responsiveness: The mediating role of knowledge of infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Wang, Lijuan; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Borkowski, John G

    2015-12-01

    Maternal history of parentification in the family of origin poses subsequent risk to parenting quality during the transition to parenthood. The present study builds on prior work by evaluating whether the association between maternal parentification history and warm responsiveness is mediated by maternal knowledge of infant development in first time mothers. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on the transition to motherhood, maternal knowledge of infant development and observational codings of warm responsiveness were examined across the first 18 months of parenthood for 374 mothers who also provided retrospective reports of their childhood parentification experiences. Results indicated that maternal retrospective reports of higher engagement in parentified roles in family of origin were associated with poorer knowledge of infant development across the first 18 months of parenthood and, in turn, less warm responsiveness with 18-month-old children. However, maternal parentification history did not significantly influence changes in maternal warm responsiveness across the transition to parenthood. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting maternal knowledge of infant development as early as the prenatal period may be useful for preventing poor warm responsiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…

  12. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  13. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  14. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  15. Spanking infants and toddlers: maternal belief and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, R R; Stein, R E

    1995-01-01

    To describe maternal beliefs and practices of spanking infants and toddlers and the relations between factors affecting these beliefs and practices. Cross-sectional survey. Site 1 was an inner-city teaching hospital pediatric clinic. Site 2 was a private pediatrician's office in a nearby suburban neighborhood. Mothers of children less than 4 years old in the waiting area. Site 1: n = 104; site 2: n = 100. Systematic sample of convenience. Mothers were interviewed using a 20-minute structured questionnaire. Measures were constructed to assess beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = .90) and practices about spanking and approach to discipline (alpha > .71). Belief in spanking correlated significantly (P children 1 to 3 years old. Forty-two percent reported that they had spanked their own child in the past week. Mothers believed more strongly in spanking for dangerous misbehaviors than for annoying ones (P disciplining very young children. The context of the spanking affects beliefs and practices. The finding that belief and practice of spanking are highly correlated suggests that belief rather than impulse largely explains spanking of children less than 4 years old. The high correlation between spanking and negative approach toward discipline raises questions about whether negative consequences of spanking are the result of spanking per se, the negative approach toward the child, or both.

  16. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction.Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction.False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  17. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status.

  18. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marques Sotero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202 living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01 and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01, when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01. Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu.

  19. Maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security in Korea: cross-cultural validation of the Strange Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mi Kyoung; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to analyze infant and maternal behavior both during the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and a free play session in a Korean sample (N = 87) to help understand whether mother-infant attachment relationships are universal or culture-specific. Distributions of attachment classifications in the Korean sample were compared with a cross-national sample. Behavior of mothers and infants following the two separation episodes in the SSP, including mothers' proximity to their infants and infants' approach to the caregiver, was also observed, as was the association between maternal sensitivity observed during free play session and infant security. The percentage of Korean infants classified as secure versus insecure mirrored the global distribution, however, only one Korean baby was classified as avoidant. Following the separation episodes in the Strange Situation, Korean mothers were more likely than mothers in Ainsworth's Baltimore sample to approach their babies immediately and sit beside them throughout the reunion episodes, even when their babies were no longer distressed. Also, Korean babies less often approached their mothers during reunions than did infants in the Baltimore sample. Finally, the link between maternal sensitivity and infant security was significant. The findings support the idea that the basic secure base function of attachment is universal and the SSP is a valid measure of secure attachment, but cultural differences in caregiving may result in variations in how this function is manifested.

  20. Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina’s Downturns

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Cruces; Pablo Glüzman; Luis Felipe López Calva

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of recent crises in Argentina (including the severe downturn of 2001-2002) on health and education outcomes. The identification strategy relies on both the inter-temporal and the cross-provincial co-variation between changes in regional GDP and outcomes by province. These results indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, with countercyclical though not significant patterns fo...

  1. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhazlina Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

  2. Maternal health literacy and late initiation of immunizations among an inner-city birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Feemster, Kristen A; Mohamad, Zeinab; Fiks, Alex; Grundmeier, Robert; Cnaan, Avital

    2011-04-01

    To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on immunization status adjusting for the relevant covariates. The cohort consists of primarily African-American (87%), single (87%) mothers (mean age 23.4 years). Health literacy was inadequate or marginal among 24% of mothers. Immunizations were up-to-date among 73% of infants at age 3 months and 43% at 7 months. Maternal health literacy was not significantly associated with immunization status at either 3 or 7 months. In multivariable analysis, compared to infants who had delayed immunizations at 3 months, infants with up-to-date immunizations at 3 months were 11.3 times (95%CI 6.0-21.3) more likely to be up-to-date at 7 months. The only strong predictors of up-to-date immunization status at 3 months were maternal education (high school graduate or beyond) and attending a hospital-affiliated clinic. Though maternal health literacy is not associated with immunization status in this cohort, later immunization status is most strongly predicted by immunization status at 3 months. These results further support the importance of intervening from an early age to ensure that infants are fully protected against vaccine preventable diseases.

  3. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and infant immune response to routine childhood vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanewa, Olayinka; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition. Response to childhood vaccination may be associated with fetal and early life environment; evaluation of programs should take this into account.

  4. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing and infant health: New evidence from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Meckel, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site. We adjusted for fixed maternal determinants of infant health by comparing siblings who were and were not exposed to fracking sites in utero. We found evidence for negative health effects of in utero exposure to fracking sites within 3 km of a mother's residence, with the largest health impacts seen for in utero exposure within 1 km of fracking sites. Negative health impacts include a greater incidence of low-birth weight babies as well as significant declines in average birth weight and in several other measures of infant health. There is little evidence for health effects at distances beyond 3 km, suggesting that health impacts of fracking are highly local. Informal estimates suggest that about 29,000 of the nearly 4 million annual U.S. births occur within 1 km of an active fracking site and that these births therefore may be at higher risk of poor birth outcomes.

  6. Independent and combined effects of maternal smoking and solid fuel on infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adedini, Sunday A; Wandera, Stephen O; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Pooled weighted data on 143 602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality. Socio-economic and other confounding variables were included as controls. The distribution of the main explanatory variable in households was as follows: smoking + solid fuel - 4.6%; smoking + non-solid fuel - 0.22%; no smoking + solid fuel - 86.9%; and no smoking + non-solid fuel - 8.2%. The highest infant mortality rate was recorded among children exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (72 per 1000 live births); the child mortality rate was estimated to be 54 per 1000 for this group. In full multivariate models, the risk of infant death was 71% higher among those exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (HR = 1.71, CI: 1.29-2.28). For ages 12 to 59 months, the risk of death was 99% higher (HR = 1.99, CI: 1.28-3.08). Combined exposures to cigarette smoke and solid fuel increase the risks of infant and child mortality. Mothers of under-five children need to be educated about the danger of smoking while innovative approaches are needed to reduce the mortality risks associated with solid cooking fuel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  8. Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa ... spacing are cri cal to maternal and child health programming. It is ... APHRC is the only African ins tu on ... Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria.

  9. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  11. The Study of Maternal Perception of Preterm Infants and Some Related Factors in Selected Hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafoorie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Appropriate maternal care is necessary to provide Physical growth and mental development of neonate which is related to establishing a good relationship between mother and infant. Positive perception of mothers to their neonates, creates a better relationship between them. Maternal perception of neonates is based on her understanding of biological behavior of the infant. Special features of prematurity, maternal stress and anxiety due to premature delivery are effective on maternal perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal perception of premature infants as determining it’s related factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 150 mothers of preterm infants who were been admitted to Neonatal intensive care units of 2 selected hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, entered the study. Broussard questionnaire were used to measure the maternal perception. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis and Kay square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: Most of mother’s had a negative perception of their preterm infant. Based on the results, Mather’s job, fathers’ job, mothers’ age, husband’s support, desire about the pregnancy, history of miscarriage and still birth were related with perception of mothers of preterm infants. Discussion: Negative perceptions in mothers of preterm infants are prevalent and in some groups are in higher risk. As negative perception can have a role in developmental processes and cause problems in future, preparing circumstances to decrease mothers’ stress and providing facilities and interventions to increase mother-infant communications are essential. These are treatment team’s duties. The health care team can screen susceptible cases and by supportive interventions, it is possible to create better mother-baby relationship and prepare better care to prevent future developmental problems.

  12. "Whatever average is:" understanding African-American mothers' perceptions of infant weight, growth, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Biomedical researchers have raised concerns that mothers' inability to recognize infant and toddler overweight poses a barrier to stemming increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly among low-income or minority mothers. Little anthropological research has examined the sociocultural, economic or structural factors shaping maternal perceptions of infant and toddler size or addressed biomedical depictions of maternal misperception as a "socio-cultural problem." We use qualitative and quantitative data from 237 low-income, African-American mothers to explore how they define 'normal' infant growth and infant overweight. Our quantitative results document that mothers' perceptions of infant size change with infant age, are sensitive to the size of other infants in the community, and are associated with concerns over health and appetite. Qualitative analysis documents that mothers are concerned with their children's weight status and assess size in relation to their infants' cues, local and societal norms of appropriate size, interactions with biomedicine, and concerns about infant health and sufficiency. These findings suggest that mothers use multiple models to interpret and respond to child weight. An anthropological focus on the complex social and structural factors shaping what is considered 'normal' and 'abnormal' infant weight is critical for shaping appropriate and successful interventions.

  13. Macro-economic conditions and infant health: a changing relationship for black and white infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We study whether the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant health, infant mortality and maternal characteristics in the United States has changed over the years 1980-2004. We use microdata on births and deaths for years 1980-2004 and find that the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant mortality and birthweight changes over time and is stronger for blacks than whites. For years 1980-1989 increases in the state unemployment rate are associated with a decline in infant mortality among blacks, an effect driven by mortality from gestational development and birth weight, and complications of placenta while in utero. In contrast, state economic conditions are unrelated to black infant mortality in years 1990-2004 and white infant mortality in any period, although effects vary by cause of death. We explore potential mechanisms for our findings and, including mothers younger than 18 in the analysis, uncover evidence of age-related maternal selection in response to the business cycle. In particular, in years 1980-1989 an increase in the unemployment rate at the time of conception is associated with fewer babies born to young mothers. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between business cycles and infant mortality differs by race and period. Age-related selection into motherhood in response to the business cycle is a possible explanation for this changing relationship.

  14. The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Outcomes and Maternal Emotional Well-Being Among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants. A Secondary, Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Background Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. Purpose The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Methods Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern U.S. medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow up occurred during 2009-2012. Results Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at one month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety compared to those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at one month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms relative to those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Implications for Practice Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated health care needs Implications for Research Prospective research is critical to document women’s intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding plans. PMID:27533332

  15. Maternal-Child Health Data from the NLSY: 1988 Tabulations and Summary Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Quinlan, Stephen V.

    This report uses data from the 1983 through 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to provide information about prenatal, infant, and child health. Objectives of the report are to present statistics which should be of value to maternal and child health policymakers, and to provide NLSY users with baseline information about…

  16. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Nandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs.We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (<1 y, neonatal (<28 d, and post-neonatal (between 28 d and 1 y after birth mortality. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries. Average rates of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality over the study period were 55.2, 30.7, and 23.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Each additional month of paid maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0, reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes.More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda

  17. Maternal Anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight: A systematic review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Shoboo; Delpishe, Ali; Azami, Milad; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammed Reza; Sayehmiri, Kurosh

    2017-03-01

    Infant low birth weight is one of the major problems in different societies. Different reports have provided different results regarding the relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in different months of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight. This systematic review was conducted using related keywords in national (Sid, Iran.doc, Iran medex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Springer, Embase, Google scholar) databases. Relative risks and confidence intervals were extracted from each study. The results were combined using random-effects model for meta-analysis. The I 2 index was also used to measure heterogeneity between the studies. Overall, 17 studies with a total sample size of 245407 entered the final meta-analysis and demonstrated that the relative risk for maternal anemia in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.55), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.57-1.65), and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.84-1.76), respectively. The relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in the first trimester of pregnancy was significant. Maternal anemia, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, can be considered as a risk factor for pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, one needs to take the necessary steps to cure this disease in order to reduce the incidence of infant low birth weight.

  18. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Nancy; Harris, David E; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000-2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  19. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Baugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU, and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  20. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (pde Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The implementation of security in distributed infant and maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, P; Kemppainen, E

    2000-11-01

    According to the Finnish National Fund for Research and Development in the information society, knowledge is the basis of education and culture and the most important production factor. ICT significantly promotes interaction and exchange between individuals, business enterprises and other organisations, utilisation of information, and provision of services and access to them. Our project is one of approximately 300 projects which are developing seamless social and health care ICT services in Finland [P. Ruotsalainen, Asiakaslähtöinen palveluketju ja tietote-knologia, Kirjassa: Nouko-S. Juvonen, P. Ruotsalainen, I. Kiikkala (toim), Hyvinvointivaltion palveluketjut. Hygieia. Kustannusosakeyhtiö Tammi, Tammer-Paino Oy, Tampere, 2000]. The principal aim is both to research and create a new model for social and health care services and to disseminate the know-how brought about for the benefit of software enterprises and educational institutes. A product called Maternity Clinic on the Net is developed in the project, and it can be applied to the national and international social and health care services.

  4. Maternal and child health in Brazil: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L

    2011-05-28

    In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988

  5. Correlation of Breastmilk Arsenic With Maternal, Infant Urinary Arsenic and Drinking Water Arsenic in an Arsenic Affected Area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauddin, M.; Islam, M. R.; Milton, A. H.; Alauddin, S. T.; Mouly, T.; Behri, E.; Ayesha, A.; Akter, S.; Islam, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 97% of population in Bangladesh depend on groundwater as the principle source of drinking water and this water is highly contaminated with inorganic arsenic. Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water by pregnant women raises the prospect of early life exposure to inorganic arsenic for newborn which may be lead to adverse health effect in later life. This work was carried out in parts of Gopalganj district in Bangladesh, a region affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater. The objective of the work was to assess potential early life exposure to arsenic for infants through breastfeeding by mothers who were drinking water with arsenic levels ranging from 100 to 300 µg/l. A cohort of 30 mother-baby pairs were selected for the current study. Breastmilk samples from mothers, urine samples from each pair of subjects at 1, 6 and 9 month age of infant were collected and total arsenic were determined in these samples. In addition speciation of urinary arsenic and metabolites were carried out in 12 mother-baby pairs. Median level for breastmilk arsenic were 0.50 µg/l. Urinary arsenic of infants did not correlate with breastmilk arsenic with progressing age of infants. Maternal and infant urinary total arsenic at 1 month age of infant showed some positive correlation (r = 0.39). In infant urine major metabolite were dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) (approximately 70%) indicating good methylating capacity for infants at 1 and 6 months of age. In conclusion, infants were not exposed to arsenic through breastfeeding even though mothers were exposed to significant levels of arsenic through drinking water.

  6. The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Outcomes and Maternal Emotional Well-being Among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants: A Secondary, Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra

    2017-02-01

    Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern US medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow-up occurred during 2009-2012. Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at 1 month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety than among those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at 1 month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms than among those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated healthcare needs. Prospective research is critical to document women's intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding goals.

  7. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Doria K; Senti, Jeanine L; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-05-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal vitamin D status that promotes sufficient vitamin D transfer from mother to infant exclusively from breast milk. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms lactation or breastfeeding or milk, human and vitamin D. The resulting articles were further limited to those written in English, published within the last 10 years, and involving clinical or randomized controlled trials of humans. The search yielded 13 studies, 3 of which provide evidence for maternal intake of vitamin D and the correlation with exclusively breastfed infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. A strong positive correlation exists between maternal vitamin D intake during exclusive breastfeeding and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There is support to conclude that when maternal vitamin D intake is sufficient, vitamin D transfer via breast milk is adequate to meet infant needs. In the reviewed studies, doses up to 10 times the current recommended daily intake of vitamin D were needed to produce sufficient transfer from mother to breastfed infant. Further research is needed to refine the dose and gestational timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation. Due to the high rates of vitamin D deficiency during lactation and the correlations between vitamin D deficiency and multiple diseases, providers should consider monitoring lactating mothers' vitamin D status.

  8. Infant Attachment and Maternal Sensitivity in the Arab Minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Ghadir; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    This study is the first to examine infant-mother attachment in the Arab culture. Eighty-five Arab 1-year-old infants from Israel were observed in the strange situation, and maternal sensitivity was assessed from home observations. Supporting attachment theory's normativity hypothesis, no differences were found between the Arab-Israeli attachment distribution and Jewish-Israeli, Western, and non-Western distributions when examined at the two-way secure versus insecure level, although a few differences emerged when examined at the four-way ABCD level. Supporting the sensitivity hypothesis, mothers of secure infants were more sensitive than those of insecure infants but only in the case of Christian (and not Muslim) mothers. The findings provide support to attachment theory's generalizability but raise questions regarding the assessment of maternal sensitivity cross-culturally. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. A comparison of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as unique predictors of infant social-emotional and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Melissa; Wilhelm, Mari S; Gamble, Wendy C; Card, Noel A

    2010-02-01

    Although maternal sensitivity has been shown to influence social-emotional development, the role of verbal stimulation on infant developmental outcomes has received less exploration. Recent research has focused on intentional behaviors within the context of a mother-infant interaction as a critical influence and as distinct from sensitivity. In this investigation 6377 mother-infant dyads participated in a teaching task as part of the sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analyses focused in deciphering the role of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as contributors to the infant's social-emotional (S-E) and cognitive (Cog) development. We further hypothesized that inclusion of infant age as a moderator of maternal behaviors would illuminate any differences between younger and older infants. For the infant's S-E development, our hypothesis that maternal sensitivity would be a stronger predictor than verbal stimulation was not supported; nor did we find support for our hypothesis that the association would be moderated by age. For Cog development, only verbal stimulation had a direct positive effect on the infant's cognitive ability; our findings for moderation showed that mothers spoke more to older infants than younger infants. Identification of specific maternal behaviors associated with infant outcomes informs the child development field, and also provides strategies for early intervention to assist mothers with developing or maintaining a consistent relationship that includes sensitivity and verbal stimulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. PEDIATRIC NURSING MODELLING APPROACH ON MOTHER'S KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE ABILITY AND MATERNAL CONFIDENCE OF INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Saleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first five years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother's knowledge, practice ability and maternal confidence of infant (0-6 months growth and development. Method: A quasy eksperimental pre-post with control group design was used. The intervention given was health education with modelling approach related to lactation management and infant growth development stimulation. The research was conducted in Maros Regency wiht 81 samples (41 in the treatment group and 40 in the control group. Result: The wilcoxon test reveals that there was a signi fi cant difference between treatment and control group, accordingly, knowledge (p = 0.00, p = 0.01, practice ability (p = 0.00, p = 0,006 and maternal confidence (p = 0.03, p = 0.03. In addition, from mann whitney test, between the two group, the data obtained are: knowledge (p = 0,950, practice ability (p = 0.00 and maternal con fi dence (p = 0,061. Discussion: Health education with modelling approach conducting by nurse was effective in increasing knowledge, practice ability, maternal confidence breastfeeding and baby stimulation, which was in turn can optimize baby growth and development. That is why, community health nurses role should be increase by making community health nursing program as one of primary public health centre program.

  11. Health status evaluation in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Arkhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.

  12. Maternal problem drinking and child mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:

  13. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  14. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  15. Durability and Kinetics of Maternal Pertussis Antibodies in Infants of Mothers Immunized with Tdap During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, C Mary; Rench, Marcia; Swaim, Laurie; Timmins, Audra; Vyas, Anuja; Ng, Nancy; Paulos, Simon; Park, So Hee; Jeyachandran, Amilia; Rajam, Gorisankar; Schiffer, Jarad; Baker, Carol J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Infant protection against severe pertussis requires sufficient maternal pertussis antibodies until infant immunization begins. The kinetics of maternally-derived Tdap-induced antibodies in infants is poorly understood. Methods 34 healthy mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively from maternal Tdap immunization to infant age 6 weeks. Blood was collected from women pre-Tdap, 4 weeks post Tdap and at delivery, and from infants at birth, and age 3 and 6 weeks. IgG to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbrial proteins (FIM) and pertactin (PRN) was quantified by luminex assay (IU/mL). Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) for pertussis-specific IgG and half-life of IgG to PT were calculated. Results Mean maternal age was 31.1 years (range 22.7–39.7); 47% were white, 32% Hispanic and 21% Black. Tdap was administered at a mean gestation of 30.7 weeks (28–32.7). Infants had a mean gestation of 39.1 weeks (36–41.1) and birthweight of 3379g (2580–4584). GMCs (95%C.I.) for maternal pertussis-specific IgG increased significantly 4 weeks post-Tdap (4-fold higher in 59%, 41%, 29% and 44% for PT, FHA, FIM and PRN, respectively) and waned before delivery. Placental transfer was 135% for PT, 141% for FHA, 131% for FIM and 136% for PRN. Maternal antibodies in infants decayed quickly, but at age 6 weeks GMC of infant PT-specific IgG was 21.1IU/mL (14.7–30.2) and 91% had PT ≥ 10 IU/mL. Estimated half-life of PT-specific IgG in infants was 30.9 days. Time PT (IU/mL) FHA (IU/mL) FIM (IU/mL) PRN (IU/mL) Pre-Tdap 9.85 (6.71–14.45) 32.81 (21.79–49.42) 131.55 (81.98–211.15) 55.67 (35.75–86.68) Post-Tdap 46.8 (34.4–63.68) 116.82 (88.9–153.5) 440.35 (327.57–591.97) 233.02 (179.14–303.04) Maternal Delivery 40.78 (29.4–56.53) 104.81 (78.27–140.35) 384.5 (287.41–514.28) 204.41 (155.42–268.84) Infant Cord 55.12 (38.65–78.6) 147.81 (113.47–192.49) 505.36 (366.44–696.95) 278

  16. Associations Between Maternal-Foetal Attachment and Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branjerdporn, Grace; Meredith, Pamela; Strong, Jenny; Garcia, Jenniffer

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Infant developmental outcomes may be influenced by a range of prenatal maternal characteristics. While there is some evidence to suggest that maternal-foetal attachment may be associated with infant developmental outcomes, there is a need to systematically review this evidence to guide future research and clinical practice. Methods Five electronic databases were systematically scanned. Key journals and reference lists were hand-searched. Papers were included if: (1) pregnant women were assessed for maternal-foetal attachment; (2) the infants were later assessed, under 2 years old, for any developmental outcome (e.g., social-emotional, cognition, motor, language, adaptive behaviour); and (3) they were published in English. Two independent reviewers used the STROBE checklist to appraise the quality of each paper. Results Of the 968 papers identified, eight were included in the review, and four of these were of low quality (infant temperament (n = 5), adaptive behaviour (e.g., colic, sleep) (n = 2), and milestone attainment (n = 1). There is some evidence to suggest that lower maternal-foetal attachment is related to suboptimal developmental outcomes. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited and low quality studies available. Conclusions Although maternal-foetal attachment may be associated with infant developmental outcomes, future research is required which: (1) considers a range of developmental outcomes, (2) has increased scientific rigour, (3) assesses mother-infant dyads at different prenatal and postnatal time points, and (4) examines different target populations.

  17. Maternal anxiety disorders predict excessive infant crying: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wittich, Julia; Einsle, Franziska; Höfler, Michael; Martini, Julia

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively examine relations between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders and excessive infant crying. Based on the prospective longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development Study, n=306 expectant mothers were enrolled during early pregnancy and repeatedly interviewed until 16 months post partum. Lifetime and prospective information on maternal anxiety and depressive disorders was assessed via standardised diagnostic interviews (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women). Excessive crying (crying for ≥3 h per day on ≥3 days per week for ≥3 weeks) was assessed via Baby-DIPS. During the first 16 months after delivery, n=286 mother-infant dyads were available and included in the analyses. Excessive crying was reported by n=29 mothers (10.1%). Infants of mothers with anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy were at higher risk for excessive crying than infants of mothers without any anxiety disorder prior to pregnancy (OR=2.54, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.78, p=0.027). Risk was even increased when considering additionally incident anxiety disorders until delivery (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.25 to 7.32, p=0.014) and until 16 months post partum (OR=2.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 7.28, p=0.027). Associations remained stable when adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal covariates. Maternal depressive disorders prior to pregnancy were not significantly associated with excessive crying in this sample. Maternal lifetime and incident anxiety disorders revealed to be a robust predictor for excessive crying. Thus, early identification and monitoring of women with anxiety disorders is important to identify mother-infant dyads at risk for excessive crying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Family, maternal, and child health through photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline C; Pies, Cheri A

    2004-06-01

    (1) To introduce photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, for use by MCH program managers to enhance community health assessments and program planning efforts, (2) to enable community people to use the photovoice methodology as a tool to record, reflect, and communicate their family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns, and (3) to educate community leaders about family, maternal, and child health issues from a grassroots perspective. Photovoice is based upon the theoretical literature on education for critical consciousness, feminist theory, and community-based approaches to documentary photography. Picture This Photovoice project took place in Contra Costa, an economically and ethnically diverse county in the San Francisco Bay area. Sixty county residents of ages 13-50 participated in 3 sessions during which they received training from the local health department in the techniques and process of photovoice. Residents were provided with disposable cameras and were encouraged to take photographs reflecting their views on family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns in their community, and then participated in group discussions about their photographs. Community events were held to enable participants to educate MCH staff and community leaders. The photovoice project provided MCH staff with information to supplement existing quantitative perinatal data and contributed to an understanding of key MCH issues that participating community residents would like to see addressed. Participants' concerns centered on the need for safe places for children's recreation and for improvement in the broader community environment within county neighborhoods. Participants' definitions of family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns differed from those that MCH professionals may typically view as MCH issues (low birth weight, maternal mortality, teen pregnancy prevention), which helped MCH program staff to expand priorities and include

  19. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  20. Addressing maternal and child health in fragile contexts | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-18

    Jan 18, 2018 ... ... improving maternal and child care, even in difficult contexts such as South ... the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa (IMCHA) initiative ... of Health and National Primary Health Care Development Agency, and ...

  1. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  2. The impact of unemployment cycles on child and maternal health in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Gimenez, Lucas G; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of economic cycles in Argentina on infant and maternal health between 1994 and 2006, a period that spans the major economic crisis in 1999-2002. We evaluate the effects of province-level unemployment rates on several infant health outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth rate, and hospital discharge status after birth in a sample of 15,000 infants born in 13 provinces. Maternal health and healthcare outcomes include acute and chronic illnesses, infectious diseases, and use of prenatal visits and technology. Regression models control for hospital and year fixed effects and province-specific time trends. Unemployment rise reduces fetal growth rate particularly among high educated parents. Also, maternal poverty-related infectious diseases increase, although reporting of acute illnesses declines (an effect more pronounced among low educated parents). There is also some evidence for reduced access to prenatal care and technology among less educated parents with higher unemployment. Unemployment rise in Argentina has adversely affected certain infant and maternal health outcomes, but several measures show no evidence of significant change.

  3. Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, S; Kristine Moller, U; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    /l), with increasing levels (P3.08 (2.67-3.92  pmol/l) at the last visit. Vitamin D levels were not associated with anthropometric indices of the newborn infant or their growth during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50  nmol......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status and possible consequences of low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in a population of healthy mothers and their infants.Subjects/methods:A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants....... They were followed up three times during 9 months. RESULTS: Cord blood 25OHD level (43.3 ± 20.4  nmol/l) on average was 62 ± 16% of maternal levels (73.3 ± 30.7  nmol/l), measured 1-2 weeks postpartum. Cord blood 25OHD correlated positively with maternal 25OHD levels (r=0.83, P

  4. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......-regulating function of affectionate, caregiving and playful maternal touch in 24 PPD and 47 nonclinical mother-infant dyads when infants were four months old. In order to investigate the direction of effects and to account for repeated observations, the data were analysed using time-window sequential analysis......, only in the PPD dyads, were the mothers more likely to initiate affectionate touch when their infants were displaying negative facial affect. Our results also showed that mothers use specific touch types to regulate infants’ negative and positive affects; infants are more likely to initiate positive...

  5. The influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive): data from a prospective birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C M; Parkinson, K N; Drewett, R F

    2006-01-01

    Aims To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive) in the first year of life. Methods The Gateshead Millennium Baby Study is a population birth cohort in northeast England studied prospectively from birth, via parental questionnaires and a health check aged 13 months. Data were collected on maternal education, deprivation, eating attitudes, and depression, using the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3 months. Weight gain was assessed using change in weight SD score, conditional on birth weight (Thrive Index); weight faltering was defined as conditional weight gain below the 5th centile. Results Of 923 eligible infants born at term, 774 (84%) had both weight and questionnaire data. Replicating a previous finding, both the highest and the lowest levels of deprivation were associated with weight faltering; this was independent of the type of milk feeding. No relation was found with maternal educational status. Maternal eating restraint was unrelated to weight gain. Infants of mothers with high depression symptom scores (EPDS >12) had significantly slower weight gain and increased rates of weight faltering up to 4 months (relative risk 2.5), especially if they came from deprived families, but by 12 months they were no different from the remainder of the cohort. Conclusions In this setting, social and maternal characteristics had little influence on infants' weight gain, apart from a strong, but transient effect of postnatal depression. PMID:16397011

  6. Maternal cognitions and mother-infant interaction in postnatal depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas

    2012-11-01

    Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother-child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother-infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother-child interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Maternal Cognitions and Mother–Infant Interaction in Postnatal Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Craske, Michelle G.; Lehtonen, Annukka; Harvey, Allison; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Davies, Beverley; Goodwin, Julia; Murray, Lynne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Counsell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression and anxiety have been shown to increase the risk of disturbances in mother–child interaction and child development. Research into mechanisms has focused on genetics and maternal behavior; maternal cognitions have received little attention. Our aim was to experimentally determine if worry and rumination in mothers with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), diagnosed in the postnatal 6 months, interfered with maternal responsiveness to their 10-month old infants. Mothers (N = 253: GAD n = 90; MDD n = 57; control n = 106) and their infants were randomized to either a worry/rumination prime (WRP) or a neutral prime (NP); mother–infant interactions were assessed before and after priming. Type of priming was a significant predictor of maternal cognitions, with WRP resulting in more negative thoughts, higher thought recurrence and more self-focus relative to NP across the entire sample. Interaction effects between group and priming were significant for two parenting variables: Compared with controls, WRP had a more negative impact on maternal responsiveness to infant vocalization for GAD, and to a lesser extent for MDD; WRP led to decreased maternal vocalization for GAD. Also, mothers with GAD used stronger control after the NP than WRP, as well as compared with other groups, and overall post-priming, their children exhibited lower emotional tone and more withdrawal. Across the entire sample, WRP was associated with increased child vocalization relative to NP. This study demonstrated that disturbances in maternal cognitions, in the context of postnatal anxiety and to a lesser degree depression, play a significant role in mother–child interaction. PMID:22288906

  8. [A Maternal Health Care System Based on Mobile Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Zeng, Weijie; Li, Chengwei; Xue, Junwei; Wu, Xiuyong; Liu, Yinjia; Wan, Yuxin; Zhang, Yiru; Ji, Yurong; Wu, Lei; Yang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Bin; Huang, Yueshan; Wu, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Wearable devices are used in the new design of the maternal health care system to detect electrocardiogram and oxygen saturation signal while smart terminals are used to achieve assessments and input maternal clinical information. All the results combined with biochemical analysis from hospital are uploaded to cloud server by mobile Internet. Machine learning algorithms are used for data mining of all information of subjects. This system can achieve the assessment and care of maternal physical health as well as mental health. Moreover, the system can send the results and health guidance to smart terminals.

  9. Maternal malaria status and metabolic profiles in pregnancy and in cord blood: relationships with birth size in Nigerian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Omolola O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant Nigerian women, and is associated with small birth size and the attendant short- and long-term health risks. The influence of malaria on maternal metabolic status in pregnancy and in cord blood and how this relates to birth size has not been studied. The study objective was to define relationships between maternal and cord serum metabolic markers, maternal malaria status and birth size. Methods During pregnancy, anthropometric measurements, blood film for malaria parasites and assays for lipids, glucose, insulin and TNF were obtained from 467 mothers and these analytes and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were obtained from cord blood of 187 babies. Results Overall prevalence of maternal malaria was 52%, associated with younger age, anaemia and smaller infant birth size. Mothers with malaria had significantly lower cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL and higher TNF, but no difference in triglyceride. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal malaria on cord blood lipids, but the median (range cord IGF-I was significantly lower in babies whose mothers had malaria: 60.4 (24,145μg/L, versus no malaria: 76.5 (24, 150μg/L, p = 0.03. On regression analysis, the key determinants of birth weight included maternal total cholesterol, malarial status and cord insulin and IGF-I. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy was common and associated with reduced birth size, lower maternal lipids and higher TNF. In the setting of endemic malaria, maternal total cholesterol during pregnancy and cord blood insulin and IGF-I levels are potential biomarkers of foetal growth and birth size.

  10. Advancing maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans: the effect of neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Simon, Dyan M; Jackson, Tara A; Drolet, Aimee

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether neighborhood poverty modifies the relationship between maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans. Stratified analyses were performed on the vital records of African Americans born in Chicago by means of 1992-1995 computerized birth file with appended 1990 US Census income and 1995 Chicago Department of Public Health data. Four neighborhood-level variables (low median family income, high rates of unemployment, homicide, and lead poisoning) were analyzed. This is a population-based study. Twenty-one percent (n=21,811) of women resided in nonimpoverished neighborhoods (zero ecologic risk factors); 23% (n=24,914) of women lived in extremely impoverished neighborhoods (four ecologic risk factors). In nonimpoverished neighborhoods, 30-34 year old women had a moderately low birth weight (1500-2499 g) rate of 13.9% compared to 10.3% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% confidence interval [CI])=3.5 (2.2-4.6). In contrast, extremely impoverished women aged 30-34 years had a moderately low birth weight rate of 19.8% compared to 11.8% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% CI)=7.7 (6.1-9.3). This trend persisted among women who received early prenatal care and were primagravids or of low parity. Neighborhood poverty did not modify the association of advancing maternal age and the risk of very low birth weight (poverty accelerates the rise in moderately low birth weight but not very low birth weight; rates were associated with advancing maternal age among urban African Americans.

  11. Interventions in maternal and infant nutrition in the first 1000 days with a focus on socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Sarki, Mahesh; Lobstein, Tim

    -conceptual nutrition of parents-to-be will have follow-on benefits for the child, and for their children in turn. Such policies can help EU Member States to decrease the risk of childhood obesity, improve maternal health, and reduce health disparities in the most disadvantaged groups. This life-course approach...... in pregnancy and continuing after birth and those starting after birth but before age 2 years. The first review3 included: prevention of childhood overweight or obesity as an outcome, identifies gaps in current research, and discusses conceptual frameworks and opportunities for future interventions. The review...... that reducing maternal pre-conceptual overweight, gestational weight gain, and healthy infant weight gain by implementing nutrition recommendations shows promise for childhood obesity prevention. Policy interventions on marketing of breast-milk substitutes appear to influence socio-economic differences...

  12. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Contextual Variables on Infant-Mother Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Bogat, G. Anne; von Eye, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effects of maternal characteristics, social support, and risk factors on infant-mother attachment in a heterogeneous sample. Two hundred and six women between the ages of 18 and 40 were interviewed during their last trimester of pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal…

  13. Nutrition Support Team Guide to Maternal Diet for the Human-Milk-Fed Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Kathleen; DeFranco, Emily A; Kleiman, Jeanne; Rogers, Lynette K; Morrow, Ardythe L; Valentine, Christina J

    2018-03-30

    Human milk feeding is encouraged for all infants; however, the mammary gland depends on maternal dietary intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and iodine. Nutrition support team knowledge of maternal feeding guidelines for these nutrient sources can therefore impact infant intake. We hypothesized that these key nutrients for lactation in the mother's diet would be less than the dietary guidelines in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of nutrition data collected during a randomized, controlled trial. Dietary records were analyzed from 16 mothers (13 with singleton and 3 with multiple births) completing the study. Mean dietary intakes of selected nutrients were calculated and compared with the current dietary reference intakes. Mean maternal dietary intake for singletons was significantly (P vitamin A (58%), vitamin D (44%), and choline (58%);) DHA comprised only 5% of the current expert recommendation. Based on singleton recommendations, mothers to twins consumed an adequate intake except for DHA. Women providing breast milk for singleton preterm infants did not consume dietary reference intakes for key nutrients. Twin mothers' diets were adequate except for DHA, but these guidelines are based on singleton pregnancies and remain poorly understood for twin needs. The nutrition support team can have a unique role in maternal dietary education to impact human milk nutrient delivery to the infant. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...

  15. Indicators of fetal and infant health outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, Simone; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Cuttini, Marina; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Bottu, Jean

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of the member states of the European Union to produce the indicators recommended by the PERISTAT project on perinatal health indicators and to provide an overview of fetal and infant health outcomes for these countries according to the information now available.

  16. Maternal buffering beyond glucocorticoids: impact of early life stress on corticolimbic circuits that control infant responses to novelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Brittany R.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Guzman, Dora B.; Nair, Govind; Shi, Yundi; McCormack, Kai M.; Hu, Xiaoping; Styner, Martin A.; Sanchez, Mar M.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal presence has a potent buffering effect on infant fear and stress responses in primates. We previously reported that maternal presence is not effective in buffering the endocrine stress response in infant rhesus monkeys reared by maltreating mothers. We have also reported that maltreating mothers show low maternal responsiveness and permissiveness/secure-base behavior. Although still not understood, it is possible that this maternal buffering effect is mediated, at least partially, through deactivation of amygdala response circuits when mothers are present. Here we studied rhesus monkey infants that differed in the quality of early maternal care to investigate how this early experience modulated maternal buffering effects on behavioral responses to novelty during the weaning period. We also examined the relationship between these behavioral responses and structural connectivity in one of the underlying regulatory neural circuits: amygdala-prefrontal pathways. Our findings suggest that infant exploration in a novel situation is predicted by maternal responsiveness and structural integrity of amygdala-prefrontal white matter depending on maternal presence (positive relationships when mother is absent). These results provide evidence that maternal buffering of infant behavioral inhibition is dependent on the quality of maternal care and structural connectivity of neural pathways that are sensitive to early life stress. PMID:27295326

  17. Predictors of infant foster care in cases of maternal psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.

  18. Predictors of infant foster care in cases of maternal psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M.-C.; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study of 1018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant, to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents’ pathology and psychosocial context. Results Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15%) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: i) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; ii) maternal psychiatric disorder; iii) paternal psychiatric disorder; iv) maternal lack of good relationships with others; v) mother receipt of disability benefits; vi) low social class. Conclusions This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child’s protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period. PMID:22706788

  19. Geographic Distribution of Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization and Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization: Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. F. Kram

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS can be transmitted from a colonized mother to newborn during vaginal delivery and may or may not contribute to infant death. This study aimed to explore the geographic distribution and risk factors of maternal GBS colonization and infant death during birth hospitalization. Methods: We retrospectively studied mothers with live birth(s in a large eastern Wisconsin hospital system from 2007 through 2013. Associations between maternal and neonatal variables, GBS colonization and infant death were examined using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models also were developed. Results: Study population (N = 99,305 had a mean age of 28.1 years and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI of 26.7 kg/m2; 64.0% were white, 59.2% married, 39.3% nulliparous and 25.7% cesarean delivery. Mean gestational age was 39.0 weeks. Rate of maternal GBS colonization (22.3% overall was greater in blacks (34.1% vs. 20.1% in whites, P < 0.0001, unmarried women (25.5% vs. 20.0% married, P < 0.0001, women with sexually transmitted or other genital infections (P < 0.0001 and residents of ZIP code group 532XX (P < 0.0001, and was associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.0001. All predictors of colonization were significant on multivariable analysis. Rate of infant death was 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (n = 558 excluding lethal anomalies and stillbirths and was negatively associated with maternal GBS colonization (P < 0.0001. On multivariable analysis, 532XX ZIP code group, lower gestational age, preterm labor, hyaline membrane disease, normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, hydramnios, oligohydramnios and absence of maternal GBS were associated with infant death. Conclusions: Geographic characteristics were associated with infant death and maternal GBS colonization. Further research is needed to determine if increased surveillance or treatment of mothers colonized with GBS decreases the risk of infant

  20. Effects of maternal depressive symptomatology during pregnancy and the postpartum period on infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohoka, Harue; Koide, Takayoshi; Goto, Setsuko; Murase, Satomi; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Aleksic, Branko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Furumura, Kaori; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-08-01

    Postnatal depression has demonstrated long-term consequences on child cognitive and emotional development; however, the link between maternal and child pathology has not been clearly identified. We conducted a prospective study using self-rating questionnaires to clarify the association between bonding disorder and maternal mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. A total of 389 women participated in this study and completed questionnaires. Participants were asked to complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale four times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We found statistically significant weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.14-0.39) between the EPDS and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale scores at each testing period. Women who experienced low mood tended to have stronger bonding disorder. Furthermore, the effectiveness of attachment between the mother and child was closely related to the mood of the mother as measured by the EPDS. We observed different patterns of bonding and maternal mood. Distinct subtypes regarding maternal mood and formation of mother-to-infant attachment suggests that analysis of bonding disorder should be performed considering the course of maternal depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Disposition and Health Outcomes among Infants Born to Mothers with No Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). Methods: A retrospective record…

  2. Early infant adipose deposition is positively associated with the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in human milk independent of maternal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M C; Young, B E; Lemas, D J; Palmer, C E; Hernandez, T L; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F; MacLean, P S

    2017-04-01

    Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum. Forty-eight infants from normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) mothers were exclusively or predominantly breastfed over the first 4 months of lactation. Mid-feed HM and maternal RBC were collected at either transitional (2 weeks) or established (4 months) lactation, along with infant body composition assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. The FA composition of HM and maternal RBC was measured quantitatively by lipid mass spectrometry. In transitional and established HM, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower (P=0.008; 0.005) and the arachidonic acid (AA)/DHA+eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio was higher (P=0.05; 0.02) in the OB relative to the NW group. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and AA/DHA+EPA ratios in transitional and established HM were moderately correlated (P=0.018; 0.001). Total infant fat mass was increased in the upper AA/DHA+EPA tertile of established HM relative to the lower tertile (P=0.019). The amount of changes in infant fat mass and percentage of body fat were predicted by AA/EPA+DHA ratios in established HM (P=0.038; 0.010). Perinatal infant exposures to a high AA/EPA+DHA ratio during the first 4 months of life, which is primarily reflective of maternal dietary FA, may significantly contribute to

  3. Maternal Obesity and Impaired Fetal and Infant Survival-One More Piece Added to the Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal obesity and increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality is well documented, but it has often been questioned whether the association is driven by obesity per se or by unmeasured factors such as insulin resistance or genes. In this issue of the Journal, Lindam...... et al. compared the body mass indices (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of women who had stillbirths and infant deaths with those of their sisters or of population controls. Significant excess risks of both outcomes were observed in obese women (body mass index ≥30), and associations were strongest when...... sister controls were used. Although this careful analysis adds to the existing evidence of a causal relationship between maternal obesity and impaired fetal and infant survival, a biological pathway has not yet been established. Additionally, we are in urgent need of effective tools to reduce obesity...

  4. Backcasting to identify food waste prevention and mitigation opportunities for infant feeding in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne; Becker, Genevieve; Moles, Richard; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2017-03-01

    Food waste in hospitals is of major concern for two reasons: one, healthcare needs to move toward preventative and demand led models for sustainability and two, food system sustainability needs to seek preventative measures such as diet adaptation and waste prevention. The impact of breast-milk substitute use on health services are well established in literature in terms of healthcare implications, cost and resourcing, however as a food demand and waste management issue little has been published to date. This paper presents the use of a desk based backcasting method to analyse food waste prevention, mitigation and management options within the Irish Maternity Service. Best practice in healthcare provision and waste management regulations are used to frame solutions. Strategic problem orientation revealed that 61% of the volume of ready to use breast-milk substitutes purchased by maternity services remains unconsumed and ends up as waste. Thirteen viable strategies to prevent and manage this waste were identified. Significant opportunities exist to prevent waste and also decrease food demand leading to both positive health and environmental outcomes. Backcasting methods display great promise in delivering food waste management strategies in healthcare settings, especially where evidenced best practice policies exist to inform solution forming processes. In terms of food waste prevention and management, difficulties arise in distinguishing between demand reduction, waste prevention and waste reduction measures under the current Waste Management Hierarchy definitions. Ultimately demand reduction at source requires prioritisation, a strategy which is complimentary to health policy on infant feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui

    2015-01-08

    -reported levels of depression (SMD -0.22, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.02, 4 studies, 356 participants, low quality evidence). There were improvements favouring PIP in the proportion of infants securely attached at post-intervention (RR 8.93, 95% CI 1.25 to 63.70, 2 studies, 168 participants, very low quality evidence); a reduction in the number of infants with an avoidant attachment style at post-intervention (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.95, 2 studies, 168 participants, low quality evidence); fewer infants with disorganised attachment at post-intervention (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.58, 2 studies, 168 participants, low quality evidence); and an increase in the proportion of infants moving from insecure to secure attachment at post-intervention (RR 11.45, 95% CI 3.11 to 42.08, 2 studies, 168 participants, low quality evidence). There were no differences between PIP and control in any of the meta-analyses for the remaining primary outcomes (i.e. adverse effects), or secondary outcomes.Four studies contributed data at post-intervention or follow-up to the PIP versus alternative treatment analyses producing 15 meta-analyses measuring parent mental health (depression); parent-infant interaction (maternal sensitivity); infant attachment category (secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganised) and attachment change (insecure to secure, stable secure, secure to insecure, stable insecure); infant behaviour and infant cognitive development. None of the remaining meta-analyses of PIP versus alternative treatment for primary outcomes (i.e. adverse effects), or secondary outcomes showed differences in outcome or any adverse changes.We used the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE) approach to rate the overall quality of the evidence. For all comparisons, we rated the evidence as low or very low quality for parental depression and secure or disorganised infant attachment. Where we downgraded the evidence, it was because there was risk of bias in the study design

  6. Maternal Anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight: A systematic review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoboo Rahmati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant low birth weight is one of the major problems in different societies. Different reports have provided different results regarding the relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in different months of pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was conducted using related keywords in national (Sid, Iran.doc, Iran medex and Magiran and international (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Springer, Embase, Google scholar databases. Relative risks and confidence intervals were extracted from each study. The results were combined using random-effects model for meta-analysis. The I2 index was also used to measure heterogeneity between the studies. Results: Overall, 17 studies with a total sample size of 245407 entered the final meta-analysis and demonstrated that the relative risk for maternal anemia in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.55, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.57-1.65, and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.84-1.76, respectively. The relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in the first trimester of pregnancy was significant. Conclusion: Maternal anemia, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, can be considered as a risk factor for pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, one needs to take the necessary steps to cure this disease in order to reduce the incidence of infant low birth weight.

  7. Evaluating the impact a proposed family planning model would have on maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ahmad Masoud; Wade, Benjamin; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential impact a proposed family planning model would have on reducing maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has a high total fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and high maternal mortality rate. Afghanistan also has tremendous socio-cultural barriers to and misconceptions about family planning services. We applied predictive statistical models to a proposed family planning model for Afghanistan to better understand the impact increased family planning can have on Afghanistan's maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. We further developed a sensitivity analysis that illustrates the number of maternal and infant deaths that can be averted over 5 years according to different increases in contraceptive prevalence rates. Incrementally increasing contraceptive prevalence rates in Afghanistan from 10% to 60% over the course of 5 years could prevent 11,653 maternal deaths and 317,084 infant deaths, a total of 328,737 maternal and infant deaths averted. Achieving goals in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in Afghanistan requires a culturally relevant approach to family planning that will be supported by the population. The family planning model for Afghanistan presents such a solution and holds the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Maternal stress and infant mortality: The importance of the preconception period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Khashan, Ali S.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Although preconception and prenatal maternal stress are associated with adverse birth and childhood outcomes, the relation to infant mortality remains uncertain. We used logistic regression to study infant mortality risk following maternal stress within a population-based sample of offspring born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008 (N= 3,055,361). Preconception (6-0 months before conception) and prenatal (conception to birth) stress was defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. A total of 20,651 offspring were exposed to preconception stress, 26,731 to prenatal stress, and 8,398 cases of infant mortality were identified. Preconception stress increased the risk of infant mortality independent of measured covariates (adjusted OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.25–1.88) and the association was timing-specific and robust across low-risk groups. Prenatal stress did not increase risk of infant mortality (adjusted OR=1.05; 95% CI=0.84–1.30). The period immediately before conception may be a sensitive developmental period influencing risk for infant mortality. PMID:23653129

  9. The influence of interpersonal aggression on maternal perceptions of infant emotions: Associations with early parenting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Carolyn J; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Busuito, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that mothers who have experienced child maltreatment and aggression within their adult relationships may be at particular risk for misinterpreting infant emotions, leading to less sensitive parenting behaviors. Participants were 120 pregnant women recruited for a larger, longitudinal study investigating the role of psychosocial and environmental risk on women and their young children. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and when children were 1 and 2 years of age. Participants completed a projective test designed to elicit individual differences in perceptions of infant emotions and an observer-rated assessment of parenting behaviors was conducted in the family home. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between maternal interpersonal aggression exposure and perceptions of infant emotion and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that a history of child abuse and intimate partner conflict were associated with a maternal tendency to view ambiguous infant facial expressions as negative (i.e., negative attribution bias), and in turn, with less parenting sensitivity over time. Findings suggest that negative attributions of infant emotion may be 1 mechanism by which a history of trauma and violence exposure contributes to less sensitive parenting for some mothers. Implications for intervention include the need for trauma-informed clinical services and psychoeducational methods that help mothers more accurately read and respond to infant emotional expression and bids for connection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 'Shedding light' on the challenges faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan-Bitar, Sahar; Narrainen, Sheila

    2011-04-01

    to explore the challenges and barriers faced by Palestinian maternal health-care providers (HCPs) to the provision of quality maternal health-care services through a case study of a Palestinian public referral hospital in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. descriptive qualitative study. The data are from a broader study, conducted in 2005 at the same hospital as part of a baseline assessment of maternal health services. 31 maternal HCPs; nine midwives and 14 nurses and eight doctors. the quality of care provided for women and infants at this Palestinian public hospital is substandard. The maternal HCPs work within a difficult and resource-constrained environment. ISSUES INCLUDE: high workload, poor compensation, humiliation in the workplace, suboptimal supervision and the absence of professional support and guidance. Midwives are perceived to be at the bottom of the health professional hierarchy. there is a need for managers and policy makers to enable maternal HCPs to provide better quality care for women and infants during childbirth, through facilitating the roles of midwives and nurses and creating a more positive and resourceful environment. Palestinian midwives need to increase their knowledge and use evidence-based practices during childbirth. They need to unite and create their own circle of professional support in the form of a Palestinian midwifery professional body. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child & adolescent health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...

  13. Maternal health and human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2004)1 versus 807 per ... and mental health'. Malawi ratified the ... are gender discrimination, poverty, lack of education, an inadequate health .... Have relevant laws, policies and strategies been put in place ... State should seek support from, and continue to work in close.

  14. Disruption to the development of maternal responsiveness? The impact of prenatal depression on mother-infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R M; Melotti, R; Heron, J; Joinson, C; Stein, A; Ramchandani, P G; Evans, J

    2012-12-01

    Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data from over 900 mother-infant pairs in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC), we found that women with high depressive symptom scores during mid pregnancy, but NOT when their infants were 8 months, had a 30% increased risk of low maternal responsiveness when the infant was 12 months compared to women with consistently low depression. This may provide a mechanism to explain the independent association between prenatal depression and poorer infant development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  16. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  17. Psychosocial Stress During First Pregnancy Predicts Infant Health Outcomes in the First Postnatal Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, A L; DiBenedetto, M R; Paul, I M; Zhu, J; Kjerulff, K H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychosocial stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first postnatal year. A sample of 3000 women completed a stress inventory (the Psychosocial Hassles Scale) during their third trimester before first childbirth. Infant health outcomes were measured via maternal report at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Poisson regression was used to model the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first year, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, marital status, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who were younger, minority, unmarried, publicly insured and without a college degree were more likely to report high levels of prenatal stress. High prenatal stress was a significant predictor of maternal reporting of gastrointestinal illness (p stress was also a significant predictor of urgent care visits (p stress is associated with increased maternal reporting of infant illness, as well as increased frequency of both urgent care visits and emergency department visits.

  18. When Infants Lose Exclusive Maternal Attention: Is It Jealousy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Carrington, Heather A.; Tronick, E. Z.; Carroll, Sebrina R.

    2004-01-01

    To characterize infant reactions to jealousy evocation, 94 6-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped in an episode where the mothers directed positive attention toward a lifelike doll, and in 2 contrasting interactions: face-to-face play and a still-face perturbation. Cross-context comparisons of affects and behaviors revealed that jealousy…

  19. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving adolescent pregnancy outcomes and maternal health:a case study of comprehensive case managed services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K; Palley, Howard A

    2003-01-01

    Our findings indicate how health outcomes regarding adolescent pregnancy and maternal and infant health care are intertwined with a case management process that fosters measures that are social in nature-the provision of direct services, as well as the encouragement of informal social supports systems. They also show how case managed services in a small, nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a strong commitment to its clients may provide the spontaneity and caring which results in a "match" between client needs and the delivery of services-and positive outcomes for pregnant women, early maternal health and infant health. The delivery of such case managed services in a manner which is intensive, comprehensive, flexible and integrated contributes significantly to such improved health outcomes.

  1. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: A comparison between full-term and preterm dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Tooten, A.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother’s representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and

  2. Investigation of Maternal-Infant Attachment In The Early Postpartum Period With Evidence Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Gulesen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy attachment is a key concept in creating a positive environment for the development of the infant after birth. The earlier and the healthier the mother creates a communication and interaction with her baby, a stronger maternal-infant attachment will be developed. The time period immediately after birth is the most convenient time for the initiation of positive mother-infant relationship as it is the most intense period of attachment. The aim of this article was to define mother-infant attachment and to examine the evidence-based practices for midwives and nurses who play a role in the development of this attachment in the early postpartum period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 177-182

  3. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Free glutamic acid has an appetite regulating effect and studies with infant formula have suggested that free amino acids (FAA), especially glutamic acid, can downregulate intake. The content of glutamic acid and glutamine is high in breast milk but varies considerably between mothers....... The aim was to investigate if maternal anthropometry was associated with the content of the FAA glutamic acid or glutamine in breast milk and if there was a negative association between these FAA and current size or early infant growth in fully breastfed infants. Methods: From a subgroup of 78 mothers......, of which 50 were fully breast feeding, from the Odense Child Cohort breast milk samples were collected 4 months after birth and analyzed for FAA. Information regarding breastfeeding status and infant weight and length was also recorded. Results: There was a large variation in the concentration of the FAAs...

  4. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chebaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum. Canadian mothers (n = 124 consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69 were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI in pmol/L were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747, 452 (400, 504, and 506 (459, 552; in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687, 317 (256, 378, and 357 (312, 402. The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L: 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05; only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001.

  5. Correlations between maternal, breast milk, and infant vitamin B12 concentrations among mother-infant dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Pry Veng, Cambodia: an exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal a...

  6. Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musonda, Kunda G; Nyonda, Mary; Filteau, Suzanne; Kasonka, Lackson; Monze, Mwaka; Gompels, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly with maternal HIV exposure. In this study, we analyzed infants risks for acquisition of HCMV infection from breastfeeding and compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Two cohorts were studied in Zambia. (1) Two hundred sixty-one HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were compared for HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads and genotypes (glycoprotein gO) in milk from birth to 4 months postpartum. (2) Maternally HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants were compared for HCMV infection risk factors. The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration. Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent of genotype. In infants, HCMV antibody seroprevalence was 83% by 18 months age. Longer breastfeeding duration increased infection risk in maternally HIV-unexposed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 for 18 months vs 6 months vs never; 95% CI, 3.71-111.70; P breastfeeding, which is common in Africa, increased risk of HCMV infection in infants. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had extended milk HCMV secretion. Women who were HIV-positive secreted higher HCMV levels, and for longer duration, with their children at increased infection risk. Human cytomegalovirus control is required to maintain health benefits of breastfeeding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  7. Increased maternal BMI is associated with infant wheezing in early life: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.; Reynolds, R. M.; Seckl, J. R.; van der Wal, M.; Bonsel, G. J.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of obesity are increasing in women of child bearing age with negative impacts on maternal and offspring health. Emerging evidence suggests in utero origins of respiratory health in offspring of obese mothers but mechanisms are unknown. Changes in maternal cortisol levels are one potential

  8. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  9. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  10. Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2015-11-01

    The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study, limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy. Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize 24-h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA), and autocorrelation function (ACF). The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm. Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Parameters of circadian rhythm were generated from cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and ACF. The correlation among measures of rhythm center (cosinor mesor, NPCRA mid level), strength or fit of 24-h period (cosinor magnitude and R(2), NPCRA amplitude and relative amplitude (RA)), phase (cosinor acrophase, NPCRA M10 and L5 midpoint), and rhythm stability and variability (NPCRA interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV), ACF) was assessed, and additionally the effect size (eta(2)) for change over time evaluated. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the 24-h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time. Findings inform selection of analysis and

  11. Prenatal Maternal Reactivity to Infant Cries Predicts Postnatal Perceptions of Infant Temperament and Marriage Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined cardiac response and ratings of subjective aversiveness to recordings of unfamiliar infant cries in 60 primiparous women at 32 weeks' gestation. Mothers who prenatally rated the crying recordings as more aversive postnatally described their infants as more fussy and unpredictable. Women who showed greater cardiac acceleration to the cries…

  12. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  13. Impact of maternal mental health on maternal-child interaction in attendees in a community health clinic in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. Methodology: This is a descriptive clinic-based study. Eligible and consenting mothers are attending the child immunization clinic in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria participated. Consecutive mothers completed the interview questionnaires independently while those who were not literate had the questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Instruments used were a sociodemographic proforma, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Mother and Infant Attachment Scale (MIAS, and the Zung Depression Scale. Results: In total, ninety-eight women were enrolled, 66.3% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and mean age of 30.9 years (±5.1 standard deviation. Most were aged between 26 and 35 years (66.3%. Over 90% had at secondary school education or more. Over a 10 th (13.3% was unemployed and 96% married. The children were aged between 6 weeks and 1 year, males (63.1%, and females (46.9%, and the majority were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (82.7%. A 10 th (10.2% of the women had probable psychiatric morbidity, 14.3% had scores suggestive of postpartum depression, and 18 (16.3% scored below average attachment in interaction with their children on the MIAS. There was an association found between reduced maternal-child attachment interaction and maternal depression (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Emotional disorders, such as depression, in mothers can be associated reduced maternal-child interaction. It is important that integrated mental health

  14. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  15. Analysis the Development of Mother and Infant Health in Sampang District Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini Rukmini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital have a strategic role in efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This study aimed to determine the development of maternal and infant health services carried out in Sampang District hospital between 2010 and May 2012. Methods: The quantitative study with ecology design carried out in Sampang District hospital east Java Province Indonesia in 2012. The collection of secondary data such as coverage of maternal and infant health care in the period of 2010 to May 2012, as well as qualitative data collection with in depth interview to the Head of Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Doctors and midwives. Data were analyzed descriptively. Result: In Sampang District hospital in period 2010 – May 2012 showed, an increase in maternal and child health services, where an increase in the handling of complications of pregnancy, normal delivery or Sectio Caesar and management of newborn complications and maternal and neonatal deaths are relatively increased . The coverage of family planning services was still low and the vast majority was IUD. Conclusion: The maternal and child health services in Sampang District hospital in period of 2010 – May 2012, showed an increase in the quantity of service coverage. The majority cases of delivery in hospitals were referral cases and complications. Howefer, the number of Sectio Caesar, maternal and neonatal mortality were still high. Recommendation: Sampang District Health Offi ce and Sampang District Hospital should create a policis and programs to reduce neonatal mortality in an integrated, continuous with proper implementation of standard procedures at every level of service, supported by well trained human resources, infrastructure and adequate fi nancing.

  16. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  17. Socioeconomic disadvantages and neural sensitivity to infant cry: role of maternal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Capistrano, Christian; Congleton, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage such as poverty can increase distress levels, which may further make low-income mothers more vulnerable to difficulties in the transition to parenthood. However, little is known about the neurobiological processes by which poverty and maternal distress are associated with risks for adaptations to motherhood. Thus, the current study examined the associations between income and neural responses to infant cry sounds among first-time new mothers (N = 28) during the early postpartum period. Lower income was associated with reduced responses to infant cry in the medial prefrontal gyrus (involved in evaluating emotional values of stimuli), middle prefrontal gyrus (involved in affective regulation) and superior temporal gyrus (involved in sensory information processing). When examining the role of maternal distress, we found a mediating role of perceived stress, but not depressive symptoms, in the links between income and prefrontal responses to infant cry. Reduced neural responses to infant cry in the right middle frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus were further associated with less positive perceptions of parenting. The results demonstrate that perceived stress associated with socioeconomic disadvantages may contribute to reduced neural responses to infant cry, which is further associated with less positive perceptions of motherhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  19. The effect of maternal near miss on adverse infant nutritional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce M. Zanardi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender.

  20. Maternal and Infantile Adiponectin as Marker for Anthropometric Parameters of Lactating Mothers and their Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreldin, Ahmed Ragab

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk adiponectin could play a role in the regulation of infants' growth during lactation. The aim is to evaluate adiponectin concentration in human milk and to investigate its relationship with serum adiponectin concentration in lactating mothers and their breastfed infants and with anthropometric parameters of infants and mothers. Sixty healthy term infants and their healthy lactating mothers are included at infant age of 1 month then repeated again at the age of 4 months. All subjects included in this study were subjected to history, clinical examination, investigations including serum level of adiponectin of infants and their mothers by RIA test, human milk level of adiponectin by ELISA test. There was a significant decrease in serum adiponectin of infant and mothers and maternal breast milk at the age of 4 months when compared to them at the age of 1 month. There was a significant positive correlation between infant serum adiponection, maternal serum adiponectin and breast milk adiponectin at infant's age of 1 month and at infant's age of 4 months. There was a significant negative correlation between maternal serum adiponectin and BMI of mothers. There was a significant negative correlation between infant serum adiponectin and their weight and length of infants at the age of 1 month and at the age of 4 months. There's a metabolic link between mothers and their infants through breast milk during the first 6 months of life. A gradual decline in adiponectin level in maternal breast milk is associated with a gradual increase in infant growth up to 6 months of age.

  1. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  2. Infant Functional Regulatory Problems and Gender Moderate Bidirectional Effects Between Externalizing Behavior and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078

  3. Maternal Separations During the Reentry Years for 100 Infants Raised in a Prison Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Mary W.; Goshin, Lorie; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Prison nurseries prevent maternal separations related to incarceration for the small subset of children whose pregnant mothers are incarcerated in states with such programs. For a cohort of 100 children accepted by corrections into one prison nursery, subsequent separation patterns are analyzed. The largest numbers are caused by corrections’ removal of infants from the nursery and infants reaching a one-year age limit. Criminal recidivism and substance abuse relapse threaten continued mothering during reentry. Focused and coordinated services are needed during prison stay and reentry years to sustain mothering for women and children accepted into prison nursery programs. PMID:22328865

  4. "What is genuine maternal love"? Clinical considerations and technique n psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa

    2005-01-01

    The question of what is genuine maternal love was posed by a mother struggling to understand and value the nature of her bond with her small baby. The question surfaced time and again in the context of this dyad's long-term parent-infant psychotherapy and has challenged me to examine my thinking and, indeed, has produced impassioned discussions within the Parent Infant Project team at The Anna Freud Centre. In this paper I will address this question through sessional material of this mother and baby and discuss issues of technique in response to it, including my countertransference and conceptualization.

  5. Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers in Sub- Saharan Africa. ... their pregnancies were normal during antenatal care visits, hostile attitude of health workers, poverty and mode of payment. Majority of the PHCs provided antenatal, normal delivery, and post natal services. Rural mothers lacked ...

  6. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    OpenAIRE

    Listyowardojo, Tita Alissa; Yan, Xiaoling; Leyshon, Stephen; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Yu, Xin Yan; Zheng, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequenti...

  7. Impact of maternal and neonatal health initiatives on inequity in maternal health care utilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Rahman, Mohammad Masudur; Moinuddin, Md; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Ahmed, Shakil; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization. Two surveys were carried out in four districts in Bangladesh- baseline in 2008 and end-line in 2013. The baseline survey collected data from 13,206 women giving birth in the preceding year and in end-line 7,177 women were interviewed. Inequity in maternal healthcare utilization was calculated pre and post-MNHIB using rich-to-poor ratio and concentration index. Mean age of respondents were 23.9 and 24.6 years in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Utilization of pregnancy-related care increased for all socioeconomic strata between these two surveys. The concentration indices (CI) for various maternal health service utilization in 2013 were found to be lower than the indices in 2008. However, in comparison to contemporary BDHS data in nearby districts, MNHIB was successful in reducing inequity in receiving ANC from a trained provider (CI: 0.337 and 0.272), institutional delivery (CI: 0.435 in 2008 to 0.362 in 2013), and delivery by skilled personnel (CI: 0.396 and 0.370). Overall use of maternal health care services increased in post-MNHIB year compared to pre-MNHIB year and inequity in maternal service utilization declined for three indicators out of six considered in the paper. The reductions in CI values for select maternal care indicators imply that the program has been successful not only in improving utilization of maternal health services but also in lowering inequality of service utilization across socioeconomic groups

  8. Emotional labour and aboriginal maternal infant care workers: The invisible load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, R; Rumbold, A; Hoon, E; Stuart-Butler, D; Moore, V

    2018-04-01

    The term 'emotional labour' has been used to describe the competing demands on midwives to empathize with clients whilst maintaining a level of professional detachment. Previous research indicates that when individuals experience difficulty managing these emotions, burnout may result. Aboriginal health care workers often have roles with large emotional demands, as they are relied upon heavily to engage clients in care. However, the concept of emotional labour has received little attention in relation to this group. To explore potential sources of emotional labour for Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care workers in a maternity care program for Aboriginal women in South Australia. The program involves these workers providing care for women in partnership with midwives. We employed a phenomenological approach. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with staff and clients of the program. Recorded interviews were transcribed and coded and emerging themes identified. This workforce undertakes extensive emotional labour. Key sources include the cultural and family obligations they have to clients, complex social needs of many clients, and potential for community backlash when poor perinatal outcomes occur. A lack of respect for the role within the workplace further contributes to these experiences. This study found that the responsibilities inherent to the role as both cultural broker and carer create significant emotional labour for workers. Recommendations to address this and enhance the sustainability of this workforce include: recognition and valuing of emotional work by management and other staff, enhancing cultural awareness training, and building stress-relieving activities into the workplace. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal employment in child-care institutions and the risk of infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, L.G.; Benn, C.S.; Simonsen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information on wheezing episodes, AD, maternal employment, and other variables were collected by interview at 12 and 30 wk of gestation, and 6 and 18 months of age, and by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Child-care Database......% CI: 1.05-1.77), and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81-1.31), respectively, for first-born infants of mothers employed in child-care institutions compared with infants of mothers not so employed. There was no effect of maternal employment in child-care institutions among infants with older siblings. In conclusion......, the results did not support the hypothesis that maternal microbial exposure before or during pregnancy as reflected by maternal employment in child-care institutions protects the offspring against infant wheeze and AD....

  10. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanieh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam.A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age.60% (582/960 of women had 25-OHD levels <75 nmol/L at 32 weeks gestation. Infants born to women with 25-OHD deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L had reduced developmental language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L (Mean Difference (MD -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI -5.67 to -1.28. For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02.Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  11. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  12. Maternal mode of living and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L.G. Dytz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available ln this article, maternal mode of living is investigated, examining both socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle factors, in order to identify to what extent health policies are tangibly meeting the needs of low income Brazilian mothers and children. Data are derived from unstructured interviews with 17 mothers with children underage 6, residing in the Federal District, Brazil. Their stories reveal a life marked by economic difficulties and inadequate living conditions, aggravated by early reproductive behavior, confinement to the home and no leisure. Although they have access to primary health care, the quality is inadequate. Increased awareness to the mother's situation is necessary in order to improve the health of young children.

  13. Study of Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Esfandtari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMFin the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 190 mothers who referring to Yazd health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 10.14±2.00 (out of 14 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 10.12±2.015 (out of 14. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 72.9%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (24.5% and good growth (55.3%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude and maternal knowledge towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive knowledge and attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  14. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  15. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…

  16. Parenting stress in mothers of very preterm infants -- influence of development, temperament and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Cuskelly, Monica; Gibbons, Kristen

    2013-09-01

    To measure levels of parenting stress and postnatal depression in mothers of very preterm infants in comparison with mothers of infants born at term is the objective of this study. The study also aimed to explore factors associated with parenting stress in the mothers of the preterm infants. One hundred and five mothers who delivered 124 babies at ≤30 weeks gestation were enrolled together with 105 term mothers who delivered 120 babies. At one year of age (corrected for prematurity for the preterm cohort), the mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Short Temperament Scale for Toddlers. The infants had neurodevelopmental assessment. The preterm and term groups were compared. Questionnaires were completed by 101 of the preterm mothers and 98 of the term mothers. The mean PSI Total Stress score was significantly higher for the preterm mothers (70.28 vs 64.52, p = 0.022), with 19% of the preterm group and 9% of the term group having high scores (p = 0.038).There was no group difference on the EPDS or measures of temperament, with disability being greater in the preterm infants. For the preterm group, maternal depression and infant temperament were independent predictors of Total Stress scores on multivariate analysis. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants at one year of age is significantly greater than that found in mothers of term infants. For preterm mothers, symptoms of depression and infant temperament are independent risk factors for higher levels of parenting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06), this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs), institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501), institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214), children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340), underweight children (CI = -0.19420), and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596). Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in

  18. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Goli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical

  19. [Educational guideline for the maternal orientation concerning the care with preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Leite, Adriana Moraes

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed at describing the development of educational and instructional material for maternal training, so as to prepare the mother for the preterm infants' discharge from hospital, by means of the participatory methodology. The pedagogical model used was that of education for critical consciousness, based on Paulo Freire. Study participants were two nurses, two nursing auxiliaries and four mothers of preterm babies, which were hospitalized at the Intermediate Care Unit of a university hospital in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. The participants indicated the subjects of interest for the teaching-learning process, which were grouped into the categories: daily care, feeding, hygiene, special care and family relationship. We decided to develop an educational folder with figures, which could be taken home. This educational and instructional material was produced by the researchers on the basis of literature, their professional experience and on technical and scientific advice from other professionals. The final version of the folder was validated by the participants and now constitutes a creative instrument that can be of help in health education activities oriented towards these clients. According to the participants, the educational material directed the guidelines and helped the mothers to memorize the content that had to be learned.

  20. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  1. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the first baby study: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2014-07-15

    Miscarriage, the unexpected loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation, may have a negative effect on a mother's perception of herself as a capable woman and on her emotional health when she is pregnant again subsequent to the miscarriage. As such, a mother with a history of miscarriage may be at greater risk for difficulties navigating the process of becoming a mother and achieving positive maternal-infant bonding with an infant born subsequent to the loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding after the birth of a healthy infant to test the hypothesis that women with a history of miscarriage have decreased maternal-infant bonding compared to women without a history of miscarriage. We completed secondary analysis of the First Baby Study, a longitudinal cohort study, to examine the effect of a history of miscarriage on maternal-infant bonding at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after women experienced the birth of their first live-born baby. In a sample of 2798 women living in Pennsylvania, USA, we tested our hypothesis using linear regression analysis of Shortened Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (S-PBQ) scores, followed by longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equations model with repeated measures. We found that women with a history of miscarriage had similar S-PBQ scores as women without a history of miscarriage at each of the three postpartum time points. Likewise, longitudinal analysis revealed no difference in the pattern of maternal-infant bonding scores between women with and without a history of miscarriage. Women in the First Baby Study with a history of miscarriage did not differ from women without a history of miscarriage in their reported level of bonding with their subsequently born infants. It is important for clinicians to recognize that even though some women may experience impaired bonding related to a history of miscarriage, the majority of women form a healthy bond

  3. Infants delivered in maternity homes run by traditional birth attendants in urban Nigeria: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Inem, Victor A; Abosede, Olayinka A

    2011-06-01

    We explored factors associated with traditional maternity/herbal homes (TMHs) run by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) compared with hospital or home delivery in Lagos, Nigeria, and found that infants delivered at TMHs were less likely to have severe hyperbilirubinemia compared with infants delivered in hospitals or residential homes. These infants were also less likely to be preterm compared with those delivered in hospitals or undernourished compared with infants delivered in residential homes. We concluded that infants delivered at TMHs who survive are unlikely to be at greater risks of some adverse perinatal outcomes than those delivered in hospitals or family homes.

  4. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  5. Behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears: The impact of maternal love withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riem, Madelon M E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; De Carli, Pietro; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears, taking into account childhood experiences with parental love-withdrawal. With functional MRI (fMRI), we measured neural reactivity to pictures of infants and adults with and without tears on their faces in nulliparous women with varying childhood experiences of maternal use of love withdrawal. Behavioral responses to infant and adult tears were measured with an approach-avoidance task. We found that individuals with experiences of love withdrawal showed less amygdala and insula reactivity to adult tears, but love withdrawal did not affect amygdala and insula reactivity to infant tears. During the approach-avoidance task, individuals responded faster to adult tears in the approach condition compared with the avoidance condition, indicating that adult tears facilitate approach behavior. Individuals responded faster to infant tears than to adult tears, regardless of approach or avoidance condition. Our findings suggest that infant tears are highly salient and may, therefore, overrule the effects of contextual and personal characteristics that influence the perception of adult crying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Observations on the health of infants at a time of rapid societal change: a longitudinal study from birth to fifteen months in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Hazel; Green, Katherine; Gardner, Andrew S; Geddes, Donna

    2018-02-07

    Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates has been accompanied by a rise in chronic disease. Early childhood is known to affect health outcomes in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the general health of Emirati infants born in a government maternity hospital in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in October 2002. One hundred twenty-five women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed as part of a larger study encompassing a wide range of cultural, social, and behavioural aspects of health. They were then re-interviewed at three (n = 94), six (n = 59) and 15 months postpartum (n = 52). Data are presented using univariate statistics. In this study seven infants (6%) were born prematurely and four infants (3%) were classified as small for gestational age, while 11 (9%) of the infants weighed less than 2500 g. Low birth weight infants (LBW) were significantly more likely to require treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR = 30.83, p = 0.00). Iron supplementation during pregnancy was associated with fewer underweight infants (OR = 3.92, p = 0.042). No associations were found between infant birth weight and maternal age, age at marriage, consanguinity, education level, current maternal employment, parity, pre-existing anaemia or anaemia in pregnancy, diabetes, folic acid intake, multivitamin intake or infant gender. Maternally-reported infant health issues, vaccination, medication, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, and use of secure car seats are also reported. The health of infants at birth in this UAE sample showed improvements compared to previous studies. The proportion of LBW infants is decreasing and continuing improvements in health care in the UAE are having a positive impact on infant health.

  7. Preconception health and care (PHC)-a strategy for improved maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Anna; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2016-06-20

    Maternal health status before pregnancy is a decisive factor for pregnancy outcomes and for risk for maternal and infant complications. Still, maternity care does not start until the pregnancy is established and in most low-income settings not until more than half of the pregnancy has passed, which often is too late to impact outcomes. In Western societies preconception care (PCC) is widely recognized as a way to optimize women's health through biomedical and behavioural changes prior to conception with the aim of improving pregnancy outcomes. But the content of PCC is inconsistent and limited to single interventions or preconception counselling to women with chronic illnesses. It has been suggested that PCC should be extended to preconception health and care (PHC), including interventions prior to pregnancy in order to optimize women's health in general, and thereby subsequent pregnancy outcomes, the well-being of the family, and the health of the future child. With this definition, almost every activity that can improve the health of girls and women can be included in the concept. In the World Health Report of 2005 a longitudinal approach to women's wellness and reproductive health was highlighted, and the World Health Organization has proposed a more comprehensive maternal and child health care, also including psychosocial issues and intimate partner violence. The present article gives an overview of the recent literature and discusses contents and delivery of PCC/PHC in Western as well as low-income countries. The article puts special emphasis on why violence against women is an issue for PHC.

  8. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal ... maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method ..... types of samples were used in order to capture different.

  9. On the Relation between Maternal State of Mind and Sensitivity in the Prediction of Infant Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Leslie; Goldberg, Susan; Raval, Vaishali; Pederson, David; Benoit, Diane; Moran, Greg; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Zwiers, Michael; Leung, Eman

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theorists assume that maternal mental representations influence responsivity, which influences infant attachment security. However, primary studies do not support this mediation model. The authors tested mediation using 2 mother-infant samples and found no evidence of mediation. Therefore, the authors explored sensitivity as a…

  10. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC. A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20 and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers. 24-h milk intake (MI and feeding frequency (FFQ were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003. Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM (US: p ≤ 0.002, greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008, greater FM index (FMI (US: p ≤ 0.001 and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI (US: p = 0.015. Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001 and FFMI (US: p < 0.001. Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011. Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.

  11. Maternal health among working women: A case study in the Mexican-U.S. border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ojeda de la Peña

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a description of the differences in maternal health among women of the wage-earning class along the Mexican/United States border in Tijuana, Baja California. The study analyzes the specific case of women using the services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, breaking up the sample according to their employment and level of physical labor on the job in industrial, business, and service sectors. The study is based on information from a survey titled, "Social Conditions of Women and Reproductive Health in Tijuana".This was a post-partum survey administered to a total of 2,596 obstetrical patients seen at the Gynecology-. Obstetrics hospital of the Tijuana IMSSoffice during the spring of 1993.The results indicate differing maternal health oonditions among workers, in relation to some of the factors considered risks for infant and maternal health.

  12. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-06-01

    Experimental animal studies suggest that early glucocorticoid exposure may have lasting effects on the neurodevelopment of the offspring; animal studies also suggest that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. We prospectively followed 125 mothers and their normally developing children from pregnancy through 17 months postnatal. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infants were assessed at an average age of 17 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and ratings of infant-mother attachment classification were made from the standard Ainsworth Strange Situation assessment. Prenatal cortisol exposure, indexed by amniotic fluid levels, negatively predicted cognitive ability in the infant, independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors. This association was moderated by child-mother attachment: in children with an insecure attachment, the correlation was [r(54) = -.47, p < .001]; in contrast, the association was nonexistent in children who had a secure attachment [r(70) = -.05, ns]. These findings mimic experimental animal findings and provide the first direct human evidence that increased cortisol in utero is associated with impaired cognitive development, and that its impact is dependent on the quality of the mother-infant relationship. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional availability and attachment across generations: variations in patterns associated with infant health risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, R; van IJzendoorn, M H; Coppola, G

    2012-07-01

    The presence of limits or distortions in the children's communicative behaviours (due to a chronic illness) may interfere with the possibility to build secure attachment relationships. Moreover, the distress that the atypical chronic illness condition brings to family life may interfere the intergenerational transmission of attachment. This study evaluated the associations between maternal attachment representations, emotional availability and mother-child attachment in a clinical and in a comparison group. Forty infants (23 female) in their 14th month of life and their mothers participated in this study, 20 dyads with clinical infants (10 premature infants and 10 infants affected by atopic dermatitis) and 20 full-term and healthy comparison infants. The Adult Attachment Interview, the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) and the Strange Situation Procedure were used to assess, respectively, the security of mothers' attachment representations, the emotional availability and the quality of mother-child attachment. We found that the two groups (clinical vs. comparison) did not differ with respect to the Adult Attachment Interview and the Emotional Availability Scales measures. A significant difference was found in the distribution of the infant-mother attachment patterns, with a higher incidence of insecure infants in the clinical group. In the typically developing group, more secure maternal attachment representations predicted more emotional availability in mother-infant interactions, which predicted more secure infant-mother attachments. However, we did not find similar support for intergenerational transmission of attachment in the clinical group. We speculate that constant concerns about the child's health condition and communicative difficulties of clinical infants may hamper or even mitigate the intergenerational transmission of attachment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Building Relationships: Integrating Infant Mental Health Services in a Newborn and Infant Critical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Patricia P.; Matic, Tamara; Carson, Melissa C.; Williams, Marian E.

    2017-01-01

    Infants are born primed to develop attachment relationships. However, when infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit at birth, the stress and trauma associated with the highly specialized medical environment can threaten the development of a nurturing and secure caregiving relationship. Infant mental health is an evidence-based…

  15. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing the minimum age of marriage program to improve maternal and child health in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjarwati

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the article is to review the importance of understanding the adolescent reproductive health, especially the impact of early marriage to have commitment for health maintenance by increasing the minimum age of marriage. There are countless studies describing the impact of pregnancy at a very young age, the risk that young people must understand to support the program of increasing minimum age of marriage in Indonesia. Increasing the minimum age of marriage is as one of the government programs in improving maternal and child health. It also supports the Indonesian government's program about a thousand days of life. It is required that teens understand the impact of early marriage to prepare for optimal health for future generations. The maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high because health is not optimal since the early period of pregnancy. These studies reveal that the increased number of early marriages leads to rising divorce rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality and intensifies the risk of cervical cancer. The increase in early marriage is mostly attributed to unwanted pregnancy. It is revealed that early marriage increases the rate of pregnancy at too young an age with the risk of maternal and child health in Indonesia.

  17. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  18. Local health departments and specific maternal and child health expenditures: relationships between spending and need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dunbar, Matthew; Bryan, Matthew; Morris, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    As a part of the Public Health Activities and Service Tracking study and in collaboration with partners in 2 Public Health Practice-Based Research Network states, we examined relationships between local health department (LHD) maternal and child health (MCH) expenditures and local needs. We used a multivariate pooled time-series design to estimate ecologic associations between expenditures in 3 MCH-specific service areas and related measures of need from 2005 to 2010 while controlling for other factors. Retrospective expenditure data from LHDs and for 3 MCH services represented annual investments in (1) Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), (2) family planning, and (3) a composite of Maternal, Infant, Child, and Adolescent (MICA) service. Expenditure data from all LHDs in Florida and Washington were then combined with "need" and control variables. Our sample consisted of the 102 LHDs in Florida and Washington and the county (or multicounty) jurisdictions they serve. Expenditures for WIC and for our composite of MICA services were strongly associated with need among LHDs in the sample states. For WIC, this association was positive, and for MICA services, this association was negative. Family planning expenditures were weakly associated, in a positive direction. Findings demonstrate wide variations across programs and LHDs in relation to need and may underscore differences in how programs are funded. Programs with financial disbursements based on guidelines that factor in local needs may be better able to provide service as local needs grow than programs with less needs-based funding allocations.

  19. Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Samuel, Buck S; Houghteling, Pearl; Shan, Guru; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Walker, W Allan

    2016-12-30

    The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of nutritional exposures on the intestinal microbiome in a cohort of preterm infants early in life. Principal component analysis of 199 samples from 30 preterm infants (<32 weeks) over the first 60 days following birth showed that the intestinal microbiome was influenced by postnatal time (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.13), birth weight (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.08), and nutrition (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.21). Infants who were fed breast milk had a greater initial bacterial diversity and a more gradual acquisition of diversity compared to infants who were fed infant formula. The microbiome of infants fed breast milk were more similar regardless of birth weight (p = 0.049), in contrast to the microbiome of infants fed infant formula, which clustered differently based on birth weight (p < 0.001). By adjusting for differences in gut maturity, an ordered succession of microbial phylotypes was observed in breast milk-fed infants, which appeared to be disrupted in those fed infant formula. Supplementation with pasteurized donor human milk was partially successful in promoting a microbiome more similar to breast milk-fed infants and moderating rapid increases in bacterial diversity. The preterm infant intestinal microbiome is influenced by postnatal time, birth weight, gestational age, and nutrition. Feeding with breast milk appears to mask the influence of birth weight, suggesting a

  20. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam. A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age. 60% (582/960) of women had 25-OHD levels language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L) (Mean Difference (MD) -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -5.67 to -1.28). For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02). Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  1. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Nejtek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect

  2. Maternal Knowledge and Practice in Mashhad City about Breast-feeding in First 6 -Month of Infant's Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tehranian

    2014-04-01

     breast-feeding. Average of maternal knowledge about exclusive breast-feeding was 19/818+4/545 of total score 28 and average of maternal practice was 7/106+2/338 of total score 12. Status of growth infants at 4/8% was very good and in 42/9% was good. There was a significant relationship between maternal practice about Breast-feeding and fathers' education, number of children, status of growth (P

  3. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  5. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  6. Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 180 mother-infant pairs. Serum of total lycopene as well as the cis- and trans-isomers concentrations were measured using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Descriptive statistics were calculated; Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord concentrations. The relationship between lycopene concentration and outcomes were evaluated with linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal and cord serum lycopene concentrations were positively correlated for total lycopene (r = 0.30, p < 0.0001, cis-lycopene (r = 0.29, p = 0.0002; and trans-lycopene (r = 0.32, p < 0.0001. Maternal concentrations of cis-lycopene were significantly lower in mothers whose infants developed respiratory distress syndrome compared to those who did not (0.336 ± 0.171 vs. 0.445 ± 0.238 µmol/L, p = 0.04 and also in mothers whose babies were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit compared to those who were not (0.380 ± 0.202 vs. 0.458 ± 0.244 µmol/L, p = 0.04. Conversely, cord concentrations of trans-lycopene were significantly higher in infants who developed RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome (0.023 ± 0.012 vs. 0.016 ± 0.012, p = 0.007 for RDS vs. no RDS, and a similar pattern was seen NICU admission (0.023 ± 0.016 vs. 0.015 ± 0.009 µmol/L for NICU (Newborn Intensive Care Unit admission vs. no NICU admission, p = 0.007. Maternal concentrations of total and cis-lycopene were positively associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference after

  7. Assessment of the Role of Maternal Characteristics, Mental Health and Maternal Marital Satisfaction in Prediction of Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Dehghan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal mortality comprises a large part of infant mortality, and it depends largely on neonatal birth weight. Besides maternal diseases, it seems that other important factors such as maternal demographic characteristics, mental health and marital satisfaction, affects their infants birth weight. This study conducted aiming to evaluate these affecting factors on neonatal birth weight. Materials and Methods  This study was descriptive – correlative, and conducted on all of the mothers and their neonates who were 200 mothers and neonates born during the summer 2015, in Urmia Kosar hospital that lasted 6 months. We used the GHQ (General Health Questionnaire, to evaluate the mental status of mothers and ENRICH for the evaluation of marital satisfaction. Demographic characteristics of mothers collected to special forms. Results In this study, 200 mothers, and 200 neonates born in Kosar Hospital were studied. The mean age of the mothers was 28.06 ± 6.34 years and the duration of pregnancy was 39.14 ± 1.21 months. The amount of obtained was significant for pregnancy duration in predicting neonatal birth weight. In marital status parameters, beta amounts for economic, family and communication was significant in predicting neonatal birth weight. Among parameters of maternal mental health, correlation of depression was significant in predicting neonatal birth weight. Conclusion According to results, in white race low maternal age was a risk factor for bearing low birth weight baby. Marital satisfaction and bearing no stress from husband lets the fetus grow well and reaches normal birth weight.

  8. 76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... specified in the Affordable Care Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness of such programs on different populations...

  9. Maternal-infant transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T.; Fujimine, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [SRL Nishinihon, Fukuoka (Japan); Shimomura, H. [Shimomura OBGY Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagayama, J. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in plastics of automobiles, textile industry, television, personal computer, electronic appliances etc. The amount of production world-wide has reached 40,000 tons in 1992. In 1992 world-wide production of PBDEs reached 40,000 tons raising serious concern over the dangers of environmental pollution by BFRs. The toxicity of PBDEs was reported to be an antagonist of thyroid-hormone (T4) and inhibition to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Since PBDEs are structurally similar to PCBs and therefore they work as an antagonist. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) demonstrate biological stability and high lipophilicity. As a result, PCBs used in the past and released into the environment, have been transmitted through the food chain and accumlated in the human body over time. In Japan, approximately 58,000 tons of PCBs were produced with the grade name of Kanechlor in between 1954 and 1971. In this study, all PCB congeners and 25 PBDE congeners (17, 25, 28, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37, 47, 49, 66, 71, 75, 77, 85, 99, 100, 116, 119, 126, 138, 153, 154, 155, 166) were analyzed by the method that combines high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether congener-specific PCBs and PBDEs were transferred from pregnant women to their infants.

  10. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  11. Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and newborn health outcomes in southern Tanzania's Mtwara region are poor ... rates were similar when comparing home births with health facility births. ... and newborn health care services, better care-seeking, and improved health ...

  12. Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  13. Maternal and paternal infant representations : A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  14. Social capital and maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheabo Dessalegn, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the effect of social capital on maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia. Reports show that in Ethiopia, despite the huge investment in health infrastructure and the deployment of health professionals to provide maternal health services free of charge, utilization remains low.

  15. Maternal Mortality in Nigerian and Public Health Interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related goals are majorly driven by public health interventions, and some good progress has been noticed in issues relating to maternal mortality and morbidity i.e. Improve Maternal Health (MDG 5). 1The public health interventions utilized include, but are not limited to: surveillance, outreach, referral and follow up, ...

  16. Maternal reflective functioning among mothers with childhood maltreatment histories: links to sensitive parenting and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Ann M; Muzik, Maria; Wong, Kristyn; Beeghly, Marjorie; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Irwin, Jessica L; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was assessed with the Parent Development Interview, parenting was coded from videotaped mother-child interactions, and infant attachment was evaluated in Ainsworth's Strange Situation by independent teams of reliable coders masked to maternal history. Reflective functioning was associated with parenting sensitivity and secure attachment, and inversely associated with demographic risk and parenting negativity; however, it was not associated with maternal maltreatment history or PTSD. Parenting sensitivity mediated the relationship between reflective functioning and infant attachment, controlling for demographic risk. Findings are discussed in the context of prior research on reflective functioning and the importance of targeting reflective functioning in interventions.

  17. Association between maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and infants' communication skills: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Lisbeth; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Slinning, Kari

    2016-11-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with adverse effects on a broad range of child outcomes, including language problems. The current study aimed to investigate if the time of exposure to maternal PND symptoms measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks, 4 months and 6 months postpartum were related to the infants' communication skills measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) at 12 and 24 months. Secondly, to study to what extent the number of exposures to high level of PND symptoms (i.e., EPDS score≥10) might be associated with level of communication skills later (at 12 and 24 months), and last, to determine to what extent maternal PND symptoms at 6 weeks were related to changes in the developmental course of communication skills from 4 to 24 months. 1555 children and their mothers participate in the study. Regression analyses indicated that PND at 4 months were associated with lower levels of communicative skills at 12 (coefficient -0.37, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.12, p=0.004) and 24 months (coefficient -0.34, CI -0.56 to -0.13, p=0.002). Infants of mothers with an EPDS sum score≥10 obtained at a minimum of two time points, had significantly worse communicative skills at 12 months than infants of mothers with no indication of PND (difference -6.12, CI -11.14 to -1.09, p=0.017). No such significant relations were found at 24 months. However, linear mixed effects analysis showed that mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 weeks were not significantly related to changes in infant communication scores from age 4 to 24 months. These findings suggest that symptoms of maternal PND symptoms should be taken into account for communication development in infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria: the need for urgent changes in financing for maternal health in the Nigerian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, P N

    2013-06-01

    Nigeria's maternal mortality indices are among the worst in the world. Various approaches aimed at combatting the persistently high maternal mortality rates in the past have been ineffective. The objective of this article was to evaluate the fairness and equitability of financing for maternal health in the Nigerian health system. A review of the performance of the Nigerian Health system with regards to financing for maternal healthcare and comparison with other health systems utilising internationally accepted criteria was done. Household out-of -pocket payment was found to be the largest source of health care financing in the Nigerian health system contributing as much as 65.6 % of total health expenditure. This is in sharp contrast to the performance of more effective health systems like that in South Africa where health care is free for pregnant and breast feeding mothers. The result is that South Africa reports less than a tenth of total maternal mortalities reported from Nigeria annually. The current Nigeria health financing system is not equitable and appears to encourage maternal mortalities since it does not cater for the most vulnerable. There is an urgent need for a review of financing of maternal health in Nigeria to achieve universal access to maternal health care. An urgent overhaul of the currently under performing National Health Insurance scheme or adoption of the simpler system based on funding from taxation with universal access for health care including maternal care and services free at the point of access is suggested.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder in the perinatal period: early infant and maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankley, Gaynor; Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine; Lewis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines pregnancy and early infant outcomes of pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder presenting for obstetric services to a major metropolitan maternity hospital in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective case review of pregnancy and early infant outcomes on 42 women who had been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder via psychiatric assessment using DSM-IV-R criteria was undertaken. Outcomes were compared with a control group of 14,313 consisting of women and infants of non-affected women from the same hospital over the same period of time. Women presenting for obstetric services with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder experienced considerable psychosocial impairment. They anticipated birth as traumatic and frequently requested early delivery. High comorbidity with substance abuse was found and high rates of referral to child protective services. Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder were significantly more likely to have negative birth outcomes such as lowered Apgar scores, prematurity and special care nursery referral when compared with controls. These findings offer preliminary evidence to be considered by clinicians in developing treatments and services for the perinatal care of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. Further research is required in order to develop evidence informed clinical guidelines for the management of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Birth intervention and non-maternal infant-handling during parturition in a nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenshi; Gu, Tieliu; Pan, Yue; Feng, Chunguang; Long, Yu; Zhao, Yi; Meng, Hao; Liang, Zuhong; Yao, Meng

    2014-10-01

    Direct intervention in infant delivery by non-parturient individuals is a rare phenomenon in nonhuman primates. In contrast, birth assistance by other individuals, or the practice of midwifery, is universal among human societies and generally believed to be a behavior unique to our species. It has been proposed that the enlarged head of the human fetus and the relatively narrow birth canal constrained by bipedalism has made human parturition more difficult than in nonhuman primates, and these anatomic challenges have led to the rotation of the fetus in the birth canal and an occiput anterior (i.e., backward-facing) orientation of emergence. These characteristics have hindered the mother's ability to self-assist the delivery of the infant, therefore necessitating assistance by other individuals or midwives for successful birth. Here we report the first high-definition video recordings of birth intervention behavior in a wild nonhuman primate, the white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus). We observed that while a primiparous female gave birth to an infant in an occiput posterior (i.e., forward-facing) orientation, a multiparous female intervened in the delivery by manually pulling the infant out of the birth canal and cared for it in the following hours. Our finding shows extensive social interactions throughout parturition, and presents an unequivocal case of non-maternal intervention with infant birth in a nonhuman primate.

  2. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: longitudinal relations with mother-infant disrupted interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-12-01

    : The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children

  3. Social gradients in health for Pakistani and White British women and infants in two UK birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Eleonora P; Pickett, Kate E; Wright, John

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine social gradients in low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, smoking during pregnancy and maternal health for women and infants of Pakistani origin and White British women and infants in the UK. The sample included women and singleton infants from the Born in Bradford (BiB) study (n = 8181) and the first sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) (n = 8980). Social gradients in health for four measures of socioeconomic status (SES): maternal education, means-tested benefits, financial situation, and occupation of the father were analysed in multivariate regression models adjusting for maternal age and parity. For White British mothers and infants in the MCS sample, social gradients in health were observed for at least three out of four measures of SES for each health outcome (p for trend social gradient in health for Pakistani women was demonstrated with the self-reported measure of financial situation, in relation to mental health (p for trend social gradients in health for Pakistani women and infants and discusses potential explanations for this finding.

  4. Maternally Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of Establishing and Maintaining Tooth-Brushing Routines with Infants and Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Establishing effective toothbrushing routines using fluoridated toothpaste in infancy has been suggested as important to dental health throughout childhood and into adulthood. However, previous studies have revealed a number of potential barriers to, and facilitators of caregivers ability to establish early dyadic toothbrushing routines with pre-schoolers. However, as yet no qualitative research has been conducted to ascertain potential barriers and facilitators of the earliest dyadic toothbrushing in infancy, and nor has any previous research specifically focused on how novice mothers of first-born infants and preschoolers manage this task. This study therefore outlines findings from a qualitative interview study with first-time mothers of children aged 24–30 months (n = 16 exploring perceived barriers to and facilitators of early dyadic toothbrushing routines with infants and preschoolers. A number of key themes were identified from interview transcripts and an ‘ecological’ approach conceptualised maternally perceived barriers to and facilitators of dyadic toothbrushing. Proximal influences were found to be located within the caregiver-child relationship (‘micro-system’, including parental cognitions (e.g., PSE, parental behaviours (e.g., parenting practices and infant and preschooler temperament and behaviours (e.g., tantrums. Distal factors were also identified as relevant to the establishment and maintenance of these routines, such as social support (‘exosystem’ and family history of tooth-brushing (‘chronosystem’.

  5. Infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing gastroschisis related mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Jordan C; Wren, Sherry M; Macheka, Nyasha; Mbuwayesango, Bothwell A; Bruzoni, Matias; Sylvester, Karl G; Kastenberg, Zachary J

    2015-12-01

    Survival for infants with gastroschisis in developed countries has improved dramatically in recent decades with reported mortality rates of 4-7%. Conversely, mortality rates for gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa remain as great as 60% in contemporary series. This study describes the burden of gastroschisis at the major pediatric hospital in Zimbabwe with the goal of identifying modifiable factors influencing gastroschisis-related infant mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all cases of gastroschisis admitted to Harare Children's Hospital in 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing survival. A total of 5,585 neonatal unit admissions were identified including 95 (1.7%) infants born with gastroschisis. Gastroschisis-related mortality was 84% (n = 80). Of infants with gastroschisis, 96% (n = 91) were born outside Harare Hospital, 82% (n = 78) were born outside Harare Province, and 23% (n = 25) were home births. The unadjusted odds of survival for these neonates with gastroschisis were decreased for low birth weight infants (age; OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.50), and for those born to teenage mothers (age; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.46). There was also a trend toward decreased odds of survival for home births (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.02-1.34) and for those born outside Harare Province (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.10-1.22). Gastroschisis-related infant mortality in Zimbabwe is associated with well-known risk factors, including low birth weight, prematurity, and teenage mothers. However, modifiable factors identified in this study signify potential opportunities for developing innovative approaches to perinatal care in such a resource-constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. PMID:24564800

  7. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Patel, Shivani A; Rahman, Atif

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of perinatal depression and its impacts on the health of mothers, their newborns, and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We define and describe the urgency and scope of the problem of perinatal depression for mothers, while highlighting some specific issues such as suicidal ideation and decreased likelihood to seek health care. Pathways through which stress may link maternal depression to childhood growth and development (e.g., the hypo-pituitary axis) are discussed, followed by a summary of the adverse effects of depression on birth outcomes, parenting practices, and child growth and development. Although preliminary studies on the association between maternal depressive symptoms and maternal and child mortality exist, more research on these topics is needed. We describe the available interventions and suggest strategies to reduce maternal depressive symptoms in LMICs, including integration of services with existing primary health-care systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Infant Massage and Quality of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Are There Associations with Maternal Psychological Wellbeing, Marital Quality, and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; Parolin, Micol; Bozza, Giusy; Freato, Susanna; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Infant massage programs have proved to be effective in enhancing post-natal development of highly risk infants, such as preterm newborns and drug or HIV exposed children. Less studies have focused on the role of infant massage in supporting the co-construction of early adult-child relationships. In line with this lack of literature, the present paper reports on a pilot study aimed at investigating longitudinally the quality of mother-child interactions, with specific reference to emotional availability (EA), in a group of mother-child pairs involved in infant massage classes. Moreover, associations between mother-child EA, maternal wellbeing, marital adjustment, and social support were also investigated, with the hypothesis to find a link between low maternal distress, high couple satisfaction and high perceived support and interactions of better quality in the dyads. The study involved 20 mothers and their children, aged between 2 and 7 months, who participated to infant massage classes. The assessment took place at three stages: at the beginning of massage course, at the end of it and at 1-month follow-up. At the first stage of assessment self-report questionnaires were administered to examine the presence of maternal psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-R), perceived social support (MSPSS), and marital adjustment (Dyadic Adjustment Scale); dyadic interactions were observed and rated with the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008) at each stage of data collection. The results showed a significant improvement in the quality of mother-child interactions, between the first and the last evaluation, parallel to the unfolding of the massage program, highlighting a general increase in maternal and child's EA. The presence of maternal psychological distress resulted associated with less optimal mother-child emotional exchanges, while the hypothesis regarding couple satisfaction and social support influence were not confirmed. These preliminary results, if replicated

  9. The protective role of maternal post-traumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing in Palestinian mothers and infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-21

    Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences. This three-wave prospective study involved Palestinian women living in the Gaza Strip who were at the second trimester of pregnancy (T1), women with infants aged 4 months (T2), and women with children aged 12 months (T3) months. The participants reported their war experiences in a 30-item checklist of losses, destruction, and atrocities in the 2008-09, 2012, and 2014 military offensives. Post-traumatic growth was assessed by a 21-item scale and post-traumatic cognition by a 36-item scale. Maternal mental health was assessed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms at T1 and T3, and infants' stress regulation was assessed with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire at T2 and T3. We included 511 women at T1, 481 women at T2, and 454 women at T3. High maternal post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition had protective roles. Post-traumatic growth had a protective effect on maternal mental health since severe exposure to traumatic war experiences was not associated with maternal PTSD, depression, and dissociation if women showed high post-traumatic growth, as indicated by the significant interaction effect between post-traumatic growth and war trauma on each of the three symptoms. Post-traumatic cognition had a protective effect on infant development since severe exposure was not associated with dysfunctional

  10. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Shiboski, Stephen C; Heyman, Melvin B

    2011-02-23

    Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78) and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01) compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point). Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92). Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  11. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  12. Association of Maternal Interaction with Emotional Regulation in 4 and 9 Month Infants During the Still Face Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean R.; MacLean, Peggy C.; Duncan, Andrea F.; Aragón, Crystal; Schrader, Ronald M.; Caprihan, Arvind; Phillips, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the Still Face Paradigm to investigate the relationship of maternal interaction on infants’ emotion regulation responses. Seventy infant-mother dyads were seen at 4 months and 25 of these same dyads were re-evaluated at 9 months. Maternal interactions were coded for attention seeking and contingent responding. Emotional regulation was described by infant stress reaction and overall positive affect. Results indicated that at both 4 and 9 months mothers who used more contingent responding interactions had infants who showed more positive affect. In contrast, mothers who used more attention seeking play had infants who showed less positive affect after the Still Face Paradigm. Patterns of stress reaction were reversed, as mothers who used more attention seeking play had infants with less negative affect. Implications for intervention and emotional regulation patterns over time are discussed. PMID:22217393

  13. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    ). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction...... was identified for short durations of breastfeeding (food introduction (associated with greater infant weight gain; however, the timing of complementary food introduction did not increase infant weight gain at longer durations of breastfeeding (> or =20 wk...

  14. Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; White, Kimberly; Overby, Nina; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2018-02-13

    Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and many carotenoids, including lycopene, potentially have antioxidant properties. The objective of this analysis was to explore the associations between serum lycopene concentrations, including lycopene isomers, and maternal-newborn outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 180 mother-infant pairs. Serum of total lycopene as well as the cis - and trans -isomers concentrations were measured using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Descriptive statistics were calculated; Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord concentrations. The relationship between lycopene concentration and outcomes were evaluated with linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal and cord serum lycopene concentrations were positively correlated for total lycopene ( r = 0.30, p lycopene ( r = 0.29, p = 0.0002); and trans -lycopene ( r = 0.32, p lycopene were significantly lower in mothers whose infants developed respiratory distress syndrome compared to those who did not (0.336 ± 0.171 vs. 0.445 ± 0.238 µmol/L, p = 0.04) and also in mothers whose babies were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit compared to those who were not (0.380 ± 0.202 vs. 0.458 ± 0.244 µmol/L, p = 0.04). Conversely, cord concentrations of trans -lycopene were significantly higher in infants who developed RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome) (0.023 ± 0.012 vs. 0.016 ± 0.012, p = 0.007 for RDS vs. no RDS), and a similar pattern was seen NICU admission (0.023 ± 0.016 vs. 0.015 ± 0.009 µmol/L for NICU (Newborn Intensive Care Unit) admission vs. no NICU admission, p = 0.007). Maternal concentrations of total and cis -lycopene were positively associated with infant birth weight, length and head circumference after adjustment for relevant confounders. As serum carotenoids

  15. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Feldman, Amy S; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  16. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  17. Maternal hypertension and neonatal outcome among small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Magee, Laura Ann; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Muir, Jennifer C; Stewart, Shawn D; Sherman, Paul; Lee, Shoo K

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether maternal hypertension might improve perinatal outcome among small for gestational age (SGA) infants (neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and 3,244 SGA singletons. Multivariable regression was used to analyze the relation between maternal hypertension and each of the following: SNAP-II (Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology; ordinal regression) and neonatal survival and survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (logistic regression), adjusting for potential confounders. There were 698 (21.5%) neonates born to hypertensive mothers. Inversely associated with lower SNAP-II scores (healthier infant) were antenatal steroids (complete course: odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.83; incomplete: OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.88), lower gestational age (neonatal survival (93.0% versus 91.2%, and adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), but not survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (91.4% versus 87.0%, and adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0), respectively. Among SGA neonates in NICU, maternal hypertension is associated with improved admission neonatal physiology and survival.

  18. Experiences with Universal Health Coverage of Maternal Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    services does not expose the user to financial hardship‖. This is based on the .... statements of the two hospitals at inception was ―to run integrated maternal and child .... consolidated revenue for primary health care which will essentially be ...

  19. A critical review of infant mortality rates reported by the Ministry of Health in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Eskiocak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The infant mortality rate is an indicator that is calculated by dividing the number of infants who died before their first birthday by the number of live births in a given year. Infant mortality rates are the main determinants of the under-five mortality rate, which is used for the developmental ranking of countries by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF. It is also an important indicator for assessing the maternal and child health status of a country and for calculating life expectancy at birth. The aim of this review is to reassess the calculations that were made in recent years in Turkey in the light of the criteria mentioned in the text and to guide the steps that need to be taken to make future calculations.Methods: The infant mortality rates of Turkey were collected, and their values and methods of calculating the rates were compared. Results:According to the Annual Reports of Health Statistics by Ministry of Health, the infant mortality rate has dropped from 29,0% in 2003 to 7,4% in 2012 in Turkey; but in these reports, infant mortality rates were taken from various studies and by various methods and presented in the same charts. In the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI, UNICEF and the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS and in references used, this value was reported by different numbers (11,6 and 12% for 2012; 13,6% for 2013, respectively. Conclusions: The infant mortality rate must be calculated by a scientific approach and with definitions according to international standards in terms of comparability. This must be consistent between countries and between years studied so that the report can be compared according to consistent standards.Keywords: Infant mortality rate, calculation of infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, Turkey

  20. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listyowardojo TA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequential mixed methods approach. The study was part of a bigger study looking at the application of the mixed methods approach to assess safety culture in health care in different organizations and countries.Methodology: A mixed methods approach was utilized by first distributing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire measuring six safety culture dimensions and five independent items to all hospital staff (n=1482 working in 18 departments at a single hospital. Afterward, semistructured interviews were conducted using convenience sampling, where 48 hospital staff from nine departments at the same hospital were individually interviewed.Results: The survey received a response rate of 96%. The survey findings show significant differences between the hospital departments in almost all safety culture dimensions and independent items. Similarly, the interview findings revealed that there were different, competing priorities between departments perceived to result in a reduced quality of collaboration and bottlenecks in care delivery. Another major finding was that staff who worked more hours per week would perceive working conditions significantly more negatively. Issues related to working conditions were also the most common concerns discussed in the interviews, especially the issue on high workload. High workload was also reflected in the fact that 91.45% of survey respondents reported that they worked 40 hours or longer per week. Finally, interview findings complemented

  1. Maternal incarceration, child protection, and infant mortality: a descriptive study of infant children of women prisoners in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Caitlin McMillen; Mejia, Gloria C; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2018-01-15

    There are no population statistics collected on a routine basis on the children of prisoners in Australia. Accordingly, their potential vulnerability to adverse outcomes remains unclear. This study draws on linked administrative data to describe the exposure of children aged less than 2 years to maternal imprisonment in Western Australia, their contact with child protection services, and infant mortality rates. In Western Australia, 36.5 per 1000 Indigenous (n = 804) and 1.3 per 1000 non-Indigenous (n = 395) children born between 2001 and 2011 had mothers imprisoned after birth to age 2 years. One-third of infants' mothers had multiple imprisonments (maximum of 11). Nearly half (46%) of prison stays were for ≤2 weeks, 12% were between 2 and 4 weeks, 14% were for 1-3 months, and 28% were longer than three months. Additionally, 17.4 per 1000 Indigenous (n = 383) and 0.5 per 1000 non-Indigenous (n = 150) children had mothers imprisoned during pregnancy. Half of the children with a history of maternal incarceration in pregnancy to age 2 years came into contact with child protection services by their second birthday, with 31% of Indigenous and 35% of non-Indigenous children entering out-of-home care. Rates of placement in care were significantly higher for Indigenous children (Relative Risk (RR) 27.30; 95%CI 19.19 to 38.84; p policies and procedures. Prison may present an opportunity to identify and work with vulnerable families to help improve outcomes for children as well as mothers.

  2. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Hoang, Minh V; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Le, Chung H; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009-2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.

  3. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Hoang, Minh V.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Le, Chung H.; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam. PMID:26328947

  4. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong H. Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014, has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective: This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods: Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1, which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results: Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion: A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam.

  5. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...

  6. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.

  7. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... An electronic maternal health platform, called mMOM, links health system users ... Minority women are thus gaining knowledge and trust in reproductive health services available to them.

  8. Maternal Vaccination With a Monocomponent Pertussis Toxoid Vaccine Is Sufficient to Protect Infants in a Baboon Model of Whooping Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Parul; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Wagner, Leslie D; Merkel, Tod J

    2018-03-28

    Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen responsible for serious respiratory illness. The disease is most severe