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Sample records for maternal effect

  1. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  2. Maternal effects in the magpie

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlaja, Marjo

    2006-01-01

    Maternal effects are suggested to be an efficient way to adapt offspring to variable and changing environments with consequent effects on variation in offspring fitness. In birds, mothers are able to affect the quality of their offspring through egg quality and through their incubation and parental care behaviour. Maternal effects via egg quality and hatching asynchrony, caused by incubation behaviour, may incur costs for both the mother and her offspring. For my thesis, I investigated the ad...

  3. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  4. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  5. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  6. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Baheiraei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth.

  7. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

  8. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Wade, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single-locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency-dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent-of-origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be "available" to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  9. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  10. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okina...

  11. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that mate

  12. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Akerud, H; Kaihola, H; Pawluski, J L; Skalkidou, A; Högberg, U; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are

  13. Maternal passive smoking and its effect on maternal, neonatal and placental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K N; Vidyadaran, M K; Goh, Y M; Nasaruddin, A A; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S

    2005-08-01

    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results. PMID:16379184

  14. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the mother-child bond. While it has been argued the developmental effects of maternal cocaine use on children were initially overstated, it is clear that disruptions of typical maternal behavior (i.e. postpartum depression, anxiety disorders) are detrimental to the physical and emotional health of offspring. Cocaine use in mothers is commonly associated with psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, and it is postulated that many of the negative effects of maternal cocaine use on offspring are mediated through changes in maternal behavior. This review will summarize research on cocaine and maternal behavior in animal and human studies, discuss potential mechanisms, and suggest therapeutic strategies for treating cocaine-affected maternal behavior which may improve the physical and behavioral health of both mother and child. The primary objective is to stimulate future communication, cooperation, and collaboration between researchers who use animals and humans to study cocaine and maternal behavior. PMID:22942878

  16. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Dunifon; Anne Toft Hansen; Sean Nicholson; Lisbeth Palmhøj Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child's first three and first 15 years on that child's grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employmen...

  17. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Ruela, Priscilla Bôa F; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de A; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Lima, Eliane de Fátima

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation. PMID:24142324

  18. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    weeks), low birth weight (LBW; mortality (≥28 weeks). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated. Associations between maternal age and outcomes were analyzed. RESULT(S): The risk of placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  19. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  20. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  1. Fetal and Maternal Effects of Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşenur Alper Gürz1; Füsun Ayşin Artıran İğde1; Mustafa Fevzi Dikici1

    2015-01-01

    Since in the early 1900s, the relationship between vitamin D and human health was discovered which led to a cure for rickets. In recent years, studies suggest that besides the rickets, vitamin D deficiency may also have an important role in the development of some clinical situations such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis and tuberculosis. In addition, many studies showed that the maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy influence the development of pree...

  2. Effects of pregnancy on maternal work tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Glenn, Nicole M; Heenan, Aaron P; Davies, Gregory A L

    2005-04-01

    This review summarizes current information on the tolerance of healthy pregnant women and their fetuses to acute strenuous exertion. Maximal aerobic power, expressed in L x min(-1), is not significantly affected in women who maintain an active lifestyle, whereas values expressed in ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) decline with advancing gestational age in relation to maternal/fetal weight gain. Efficiency during standard exercise testing and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (Tvent) also appear to be unaffected by pregnancy, but the ability to utilize carbohydrate and exercise anaerobically during brief strenuous exercise may be reduced. Fetal responses to short strenuous exercise are usually moderate and revert to baseline values within approximately 30 min postexercise. Future studies should examine alveolar gas exchange kinetics at the start of exercise and during recovery from both moderate and strenuous exertion. Existing studies of the responses of pregnant women to prolonged exercise have focused primarily on substrate utilization and glucose homeostasis. Other maternal responses to prolonged exercise that should be examined include acid-base regulation, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and perception of effort. Fetal reactions should also be examined in relation to maternal responses. Until evidence-based, occupation-specific guidelines become available, it is recommended that pregnant women use the Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period, published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). PMID:15981789

  3. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  4. Effects of maternal diabetes on trophoblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition characterizedby hyperglycemia over a prolonged period. There arethree main types of DM: DM type 1 (DM1), DM2 andgestational DM (GDM). Maternal diabetes, which includesthe occurrence of DM1 and DM2 during pregnancy orGDM, increases the occurrence of gesttionalcomplicationsand adverse fetal outcomes. The hyperglycemic intrauterineenvironment affects not only the fetus but alsothe placental development and function in humans andexperimental rodents. The underlying mechanisms arestill unclear, but some evidence indicates alterationsin trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control in diabetes. A proper coordination of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion is required for placental development. Initially, increased expression of proliferative markers in junctional and labyrinth zones of rat placentas and villous cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, stromal cells and fetal endothelial cells in human placentas is reported among diabetics. Moreover, reduced apoptotic index and expression of some apoptotic genes are described in placentas of GDM women. In addition, cell cycle regulators including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors seem to be affected by the hyperglycemic environment. More studies are necessary to check the balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in trophoblast cells during maternal diabetes.

  5. The Effects of Maternal Employment and Non-Maternal Infant Care on Development at Two and Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Sandra; Thompson, William W.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed effects of maternal employment on infants with mothers working 20 or more hours per week or fewer than 20 hours per week. Found that neither differences in maternal employment during child's first year, nor child's entry into nonmaternal care before age one, predicted differences in cognitive and socioemotional development at ages two and…

  6. Feto-maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of gestational age and maternal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, S; Mauri, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2016-10-01

    Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well-being, the effect of pre-gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto-maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client-owned pregnant bitches of different pre-gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well-being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies. PMID:27440379

  7. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  8. The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Adolescent Daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Anet E.

    While most studies indicate a positive influence of the working mother on adolescent daughters, relatively little research on the effects of maternal employment has been done in South Africa. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differences between South African adolescent daughters of working mothers and non-working mothers in…

  9. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  10. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  11. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Schoolchildren's Educational Aspirations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dong-Beom; Chung, Il-Hwan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationships between maternal employment and schoolchildren's educational aspirations in Korea. Found that children whose mothers were working full-time had lower educational aspirations, although maternal involvement and parents' educational expectations mitigated these effects. (JPB)

  12. The effect of Kristeller maneuver on maternal and neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Acmaz; Evrim Albayrak; Gokalp Oner; Murvet Baser; Gulsum Aykut; Gulender Tas Tekin; Gokmen Zararsiz; Iptisam Ipek Muderris

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The use of fundal pressure in management of the second stage of labor is controversial. The aim of this study was both to evaluate the effectiveness of fundal pressure in shortening the second stage of labor and to examine the re- lated neonatal and maternal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to Kristeller maneuver (KM) intervention group (n = 145) and control group (n = 140). Umbilical artery blood gas analysis, creatinine kinase (CK), CK with myo...

  13. The Effects of Weathering Demonstrated by Maternal Age on Low Birth Weight Outcome in Babies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Mustapha, Bello; Bappariya, Jonathan Isah; Alfred, Numfor; Joel, Zwabragi

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights. Methods One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age ...

  14. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother–infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother–infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  15. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered.

  16. Effectiveness of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care in increasing uptake of skilled maternity care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations’ use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations’ access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. PMID:27190222

  17. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  18. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  19. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  20. Effects of REM sleep restriction during pregnancy on rodent maternal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel N. Pires; Sergio Tufik; Monica L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of sleep restriction during pregnancy on maternal care and maternal aggression in a rodent model.Methods:Twenty-three female Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups: control (n=12) or sleep restriction (n=11) during the entire pregnancy. At the fifth postpartum day, the animals were subjected to the resident-intruder paradigm and to the pup retrieval test.Results:Sleep restriction during pregnancy had no direct effects on maternal care. Regarding aggre...

  1. Effect of Transient Maternal Hypotension on Apoptotic Cell Death in Foetal Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Özyürek, Hamit; Bayrak, Sibel; Pehlivanoğlu, Bilge; Atilla, Pergin; Balkancı, Zeynep Dicle; Çakar, Nur; Anlar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine perfusion insufficiency induced by transient maternal hypotension has been reported to be associated with foetal brain malformations. However, the effects of maternal hypotension on apoptotic processes in the foetal brain have not been investigated experimentally during the intrauterine period. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transient maternal hypotension on apoptotic cell death in the intrauterine foetal brain. Study...

  2. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne; Nicholson, Sean;

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance....

  3. [Effect of exercise in water on maternal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Saegusa, S; Yamada, A; Suzuki, M; Noguchi, M; Niwa, S; Nakanishi, M

    1994-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of exercise in water on the maternal circulation, twenty normal pregnancies were examined under the following three conditions; 1) on the land at rest, 2) during water immersion and 3) after the exercise in water. Their gestational ages were from 25 to 37 weeks (31 +/- 4 weeks, mean +/- S.D., n = 20). We examined the blood pressure, the urine volume throughout the examination, CBC and the levels of vasopressin, plasma renin activity and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). The blood volume calculated from the Hb and Ht were significantly (p water immersion (105.8 +/- 2.5%), even after the exercise (101.6 +/- 2.9%). Vasopressin was decreased during the water immersion and increased after the exercise, but plasma renin activity was decreased in these two conditions. The hANP concentration was significantly (p exercise in water and correlated with the urine volume (ml/hour) during the examination. These results show that the decline in blood pressure and the increase in the urine volume during the maternal swimming were caused by the decreased plasma renin activity and the increased hANP concentration resulted from the blood volume expansion during the exercise in water.

  4. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  5. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdhadip Dey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging, are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to

  6. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  7. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  8. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Santos Müller

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

  9. Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothe...

  10. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  11. Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Gunilla; Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Haargaard, Birgitte;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study, and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding...... with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to ten years ago (64% versus 50%). Detection...

  12. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  13. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild.

  14. Maternal depression and the learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech: Roles of maternal sensitivity, depression diagnosis, and speech acoustic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S; Danko, Christina M; Cejka, Anna M; Everhart, Kevin D

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the associative learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech (IDS) depend on infants' social experience was tested in a conditioned-attention paradigm with a cumulative sample of 4- to 14-month-old infants. Following six forward pairings of a brief IDS segment and a photographic slide of a smiling female face, infants of clinically depressed mothers exhibited evidence of having acquired significantly weaker voice-face associations than infants of non-depressed mothers. Regression analyses revealed that maternal depression was significantly related to infant learning even after demographic correlates of depression, antidepressant medication use, and extent of pitch modulation in maternal IDS had been taken into account. However, after maternal depression had been accounted for, maternal emotional availability, coded by blind raters from separate play interactions, accounted for significant further increments in the proportion of variance accounted for in infant learning scores. Both maternal depression and maternal insensitivity negatively, and additively, predicted poor learning.

  15. DNA methylation mediates the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birthweight of the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Küpers (Marlijn); X. Xu (Xiaojing); S.A. Jankipersadsing (Soesma A.); A. Vaez (Ahmad); S. La Bastide-van Gemert (Sacha); S. Scholtens (Salome); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); J.F. Felix (Janine F.); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); X. Wang (Xiaoling); W.E. Corpeleijn (Willemijn); H. Snieder (Harold)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We examined whether the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birthweight of the offspring was mediated by smoking-induced changes to DNA methylation in cord blood. Methods: First, we used cord blood of 129 Dutch children exposed to maternal smoking vs 126 unexposed

  16. Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C Weiss

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress (MSUS on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day (PND 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the HPA axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2 in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice.

  17. Estimation of direct and maternal effects for weaning and yearling weight in Bali cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth trait is a function of its inherent ability for growth, milk production and mothering ability of its dam. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal on the genetic evaluation of Bali cattle. There were 8.320 calves used to analyze genetik parameters affecting W205 and W365. A connectedness program was used to evaluate genetik linkages between contemporary groups (CG. Data were analyzed to observe non-genetik factors using PROC MIXED (SAS. Single and multiple trait analyses were done including CG, sex of calf and dam age as fixed effects. Variance components were computed by the ASREML package using animal models BLUP with matrix inverse of relationship. A sequential analysis was performed by including additional random effect to evaluate the inclusion of maternal effects, which were compared using likelihood-ratio tests (LRT. Estimates of direct and maternal effects of single-trait and multiple-traits were different. Heritability for W205-D, W365-D, W205-M, W365-M were 0.31; 0.48; 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. Negatif correlation between direct and maternal effects for both W205-DM and W365-DM were quite moderate. Although the estimates of maternal effects in Bali cattle were low; the inclusion of maternal effects has to be considered due to moderate correlation between direct and maternal effects in order to obtain accurate genetic variances.

  18. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  19. Maternal effects alter the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Smiseth, Per T

    2016-09-14

    A maternal effect is a causal influence of the maternal phenotype on the offspring phenotype over and above any direct effects of genes. There is abundant evidence that maternal effects can have a major impact on offspring fitness. Yet, no previous study has investigated the potential role of maternal effects in influencing the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring. Inbreeding depression is a reduction in the fitness of inbred offspring relative to outbred offspring. Here, we tested whether maternal effects due to body size alter the magnitude of inbreeding depression in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides We found that inbreeding depression in larval survival was more severe for offspring of large females than offspring of small females. This might be due to differences in how small and large females invest in an inbred brood because of their different prospects for future breeding opportunities. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for a causal effect of the maternal phenotype on the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring. In natural populations that are subject to inbreeding, maternal effects may drive variation in inbreeding depression and therefore contribute to variation in the strength and direction of selection for inbreeding avoidance. PMID:27629026

  20. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  1. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  2. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  3. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  4. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus.

  5. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  6. Effects of Maternal Employment on Children: A Review of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire

    1974-01-01

    Reviews results of published and unpublished research on the effects of maternal employment as they relate to: adjustment of the child, school achievement and intelligence, attitudes and perceptions, and activities of children with working mothers. (SET)

  7. Effect of Health Insurance on the Use and Provision of Maternal Health Services and Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lauren A.; Hatt, Laurel E.

    2013-01-01

    Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and consultation with experts in healthcare financing and maternal health. Twenty-nine articles met the review criteria of focusing on health insurance and its effect on the use or quality of maternal health services, or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Sixteen studies assessed demand-side effects of insurance, eight focused on supply-side effects, and the remainder addressed both. Geographically, the studies provided evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (n=11), Asia (n=9), Latin America (n=8), and Turkey. The studies included examples from national or social insurance schemes (n=7), government-run public health insurance schemes (n=4), community-based health insurance schemes (n=11), and private insurance (n=3). Half of the studies used econometric analyses while the remaining provided descriptive statistics or qualitative results. There is relatively consistent evidence that health insurance is positively correlated with the use of maternal health services. Only four studies used methods that can establish this causal relationship. Six studies presented suggestive evidence of overprovision of caesarean sections in response to providers’ payment incentives through health insurance. Few studies focused on the relationship between health insurance and the quality of maternal health services or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The available evidence on the quality and health outcomes is inconclusive, given the differences in measurement, contradictory findings, and

  8. The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Development in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gregg; Elizabeth Washbrook

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from the ALSPAC cohort of 12000 births to explore the effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. The results indicate that full time maternal employment begun in the 18 months after childbirth has small negative effects on later child outcomes. Part-time work and work begun later than 18 months, however, do not seem to have any adverse consequences. We explore the issue of whether our results are biased by unobserved heterogeneity bu...

  9. Spillover Effects of Maternal Education on Child's Health and Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kemptner, Daniel; Marcus, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of maternal education on child's health and health behavior. We draw on a rich German panel data set containing information about three generations. This allows instrumenting maternal education by the number of her siblings while conditioning on grandparental characteristics. The instrumental variables approach has not yet been used in the intergenerational context and works for the sample sizes of common household panels. We find substantial effects on hea...

  10. Effects of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Behavior and Academic Outcomes: Evidence from Japanese Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the short-term and long-term effects of maternal employment on adolescent children’s outcomes, namely, on behavior and grades at school and on total years of education. Because a mother’s decision to work depends heavily on her husband’s socioeconomic characteristics in Japan, IV methods were employed to deal with this self-selection problem. The results show that maternal full-time employment itself does not hinder adolescents’ human capital development. Rather, maternal ...

  11. Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2008-02-01

    80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be

  12. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  13. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  14. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  15. The effect of maternal diabetes on pre- and postnatal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoud, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: The abnormal intrauterine environment in case of maternal diabetes results in impaired perinatal outcome. In this thesis we investigated factors that were related to altered fetal growth and growth during childhood. Methods: A cohort of women with pregnancies complicated by

  16. Maternal effects on offspring consumption can stabilize fluctuating predator-prey systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Little, Tom J; Hoyle, Andy

    2015-12-01

    Maternal effects, where the conditions experienced by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are widespread in nature and have the potential to influence population dynamics. However, they are very rarely included in models of population dynamics. Here, we investigate a recently discovered maternal effect, where maternal food availability affects the feeding rate of offspring so that well-fed mothers produce fast-feeding offspring. To understand how this maternal effect influences population dynamics, we explore novel predator-prey models where the consumption rate of predators is modified by changes in maternal prey availability. We address the 'paradox of enrichment', a theoretical prediction that nutrient enrichment destabilizes populations, leading to cycling behaviour and an increased risk of extinction, which has proved difficult to confirm in the wild. Our models show that enriched populations can be stabilized by maternal effects on feeding rate, thus presenting an intriguing potential explanation for the general absence of 'paradox of enrichment' behaviour in natural populations. This stabilizing influence should also reduce a population's risk of extinction and vulnerability to harvesting. PMID:26631563

  17. The observed association between maternal anxiety and adolescent asthma: children of twin design suggest familial effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Havland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that maternal anxiety is associated with asthma in the adolescent child, but mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal anxiety and maternal, self- and register-based report of asthma in the adolescent child, and whether the association remains after control of familial confounding (shared environmental and genetic factors. METHOD: From the Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden, 1691 mothers (1058 twins and their adolescent child were included. The association between maternal self-reported anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP somatic or psychic anxiety and asthma based on subjective (maternal or child report or objective (register-based diagnosis and medication measures were analysed using logistic regression. The children-of-twins design was used to explore whether genes or environment contribute to the association. RESULTS: Maternal BAI anxiety (OR 2.02, CI 1.15-3.55 was significantly associated with adolescent asthma reported by the mother. Maternal KSP somatic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.04-2.91 and psychic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.05-2.86 was significantly associated with breathlessness reported by the adolescent child. In contrast, maternal anxiety was not associated with increased risk for the register-based outcomes of asthma diagnosis or medication. The results remained also after adjusting for covariates and the children-of-twins analyses which indicate that the association was due to familial confounding. CONCLUSIONS: We found some associations between maternal anxiety and subjectively reported offspring asthma or breathlessness which may be due to familial effects. A likely candidate for explaining this familial confounding is heritable personality traits associated with both anxiety and subjective measures of asthma.

  18. Influence of Mom and Dad: Quantitative Genetic Models for Maternal Effects and Genomic Imprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Santure, Anna W.; Spencer, Hamish G.

    2006-01-01

    The expression of an imprinted gene is dependent on the sex of the parent it was inherited from, and as a result reciprocal heterozygotes may display different phenotypes. In contrast, maternal genetic terms arise when the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the phenotype of its mother beyond the direct inheritance of alleles. Both maternal effects and imprinting may contribute to resemblance between offspring of the same mother. We demonstrate that two standard quantitative genetic mo...

  19. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  20. Effects of Individualized Video Feedback Combined with Group Parent Training onInappropriate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Phaneuf, Leah; Lee McIntyre, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The effects of adding individualized video feedback (IVF) to Webster-Stratton's (2000, 2001) group-based parent training program (GT) were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads. During all phases of the study, inappropriate maternal behavior was recorded from videotapes of playtime with their preschoolers with developmental disabilities. Results suggested that GT+IVF reduced inappropriate maternal behavior to levels below GT alone.

  1. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data.

  2. Intergenerational effects of cocaine on maternal aggressive behavior and brain oxytocin in rat dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurray, M.S.; Joyner, P.W.; Middleton, C.W.; Jarrett, T.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Black, M.A.; Hofler, V.E.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational cocaine treatment results in significantly increased maternal aggression towards an intruder by postpartum day six, while acute postpartum treatment dose dependently decreases maternal aggressive (MA) behavior. Both increased and decreased aggression in the cocaine-treated dams are correlated with either decreased or increased levels of oxytocin in the amygdala, respectively. The current study was an effort to determine whether the effect of gestational cocaine on maternal aggression is transient or would continue into the postpartum period; whether an intermittent cocaine treatment regimen, which incorporates gestational and postpartum intermittent cocaine treatment, would differ from chronic daily gestational treatment; and finally, whether next generation female offspring of cocaine-treated or control dams would have altered MA behavior and oxytocin system changes attributable to either prenatal drug exposure, rearing condition or both. We now report no increase in maternal aggression following chronic gestational treatment and significantly lower levels of aggression in intermittently treated dams on postpartum day eight, with no significant effects in either group on postpartum day 12. Young adult female offspring of the cocaine-treated and control dams, who reared their own natural litters and were tested on postpartum day eight for maternal aggression, had higher levels of maternal aggression towards an intruder attributable to both prenatal cocaine exposure and rearing condition. Higher aggression in cocaine-reared next generation dams was associated with lower levels of oxytocin in the amygdala. Intergenerational effects of cocaine were apparent with respect to aggression and oxytocin system changes. PMID:18609307

  3. Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tracey; Cahalan, Christine; Ap Dewi, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days) and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1-2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P >0.05). As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

  4. Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05. As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

  5. Effect of a maternal and child health handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour: a community-based controlled trial in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Satoko; Soyano, Ayako; Igarashi, Hisato; Ura, Midori; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) handbooks are comprehensive home-based booklets designed to integrate MCH records. Although empirical evidence suggests the handbooks are more effective than current card-type records, this has not been scientifically demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the MCH handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour as measured by antenatal care (ANC) attendance, delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and delivery at a health f...

  6. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed.

  7. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  8. Global progress and potentially effective policy responses to reduce maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Say, Lale

    2012-10-01

    Reducing maternal mortality within significant margins is a global imperative that reflects attainment of development goals. Progress in reducing maternal mortality, in particular among countries with notably high maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), has been substantially slower than the Millennium Development Goal target of an annual rate of 5.5% decline. The latest UN maternal mortality estimates show a reduction in MMR in a number of countries between 1990 and 2008. Understanding the factors associated with progress in countries that have reduced maternal mortality provides other countries and development partners with opportunities to consider and implement policies and interventions that could help accelerate progress. This paper reviews 6 countries that have demonstrated marked progress. The policies that have been effective include innovative financing measures; investment in human resources both in terms of strengthening pre-service education and emphasizing in-service training for healthcare providers; strengthening obstetric care by enhancing infrastructure and upgrading equipment, as well as improving quality of services; and investing in the broader determinants of maternal mortality, particularly family planning and women's education and socioeconomic empowerment. This range of actions, which includes a combination of facility and community-based approaches, provides a list of potentially effective strategies that could be considered when developing programs in other countries with slower progress. Strong political will and multistakeholder involvement and interventions are key in the development and implementation of these policies and actions.

  9. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  10. Effect on mortality of community-based maternity-care programme in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauveau, V; Stewart, K; Khan, S A; Chakraborty, J

    1991-11-01

    Various community-based interventions have been proposed to improve maternity care, but hardly any studies have reported the effect of these measures on maternal mortality. In this study, the efficacy of a maternity-care programme to reduce maternal mortality has been evaluated in the context of a primary health-care project in rural Bangladesh. Trained midwives were posted in villages, and asked to attend as many home-deliveries as possible, detect and manage obstetric complications at onset, and accompany patients requiring referral for higher-level care to the project central maternity clinic. The effect of the programme was evaluated by comparison of direct obstetric maternal mortality ratios between the programme area and a neighbouring control area without midwives. Random assignment of the intervention was not possible but potentially confounding characteristics, including coverage and use of other health and family planning services, were similar in both areas. Maternal mortality ratios due to obstetric complications were similar in both areas during the 3 years preceding the start of the programme. By contrast, during the following 3 years, the ratio was significantly lower in the programme than in the control area (1.4 vs 3.8 per 1000 live births, p = 0.02). The findings suggest that maternal survival can be improved by the posting of midwives at village level, if they are given proper training, means, supervision, and back-up. The inputs for such a programme to succeed and the constraints of its replication on a large scale should not be underestimated. PMID:1682600

  11. Influence of mom and dad: quantitative genetic models for maternal effects and genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santure, Anna W; Spencer, Hamish G

    2006-08-01

    The expression of an imprinted gene is dependent on the sex of the parent it was inherited from, and as a result reciprocal heterozygotes may display different phenotypes. In contrast, maternal genetic terms arise when the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the phenotype of its mother beyond the direct inheritance of alleles. Both maternal effects and imprinting may contribute to resemblance between offspring of the same mother. We demonstrate that two standard quantitative genetic models for deriving breeding values, population variances and covariances between relatives, are not equivalent when maternal genetic effects and imprinting are acting. Maternal and imprinting effects introduce both sex-dependent and generation-dependent effects that result in differences in the way additive and dominance effects are defined for the two approaches. We use a simple example to demonstrate that both imprinting and maternal genetic effects add extra terms to covariances between relatives and that model misspecification may over- or underestimate true covariances or lead to extremely variable parameter estimation. Thus, an understanding of various forms of parental effects is essential in correctly estimating quantitative genetic variance components. PMID:16751674

  12. Maternal methyl supplemented diets and effects on offspring health

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel J.; Vrana, Paul B.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2014-01-01

    Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids, and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS) diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yie...

  13. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the n...

  14. Commentary: Parental care and the proximate links between maternal effects and offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B

    2015-04-01

    Maternal effects influence the phenotype of offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, and thus are important components of individual life-histories and act as drivers of and/or constraints on phenotypic evolution. A maternal effect common in egg-laying vertebrates is provisioning of the yolk with carotenoids, organic pigments that often color sexual ornaments and are hypothesized to play positive and substantial physiological roles. In a recent study, yolks of great tit (Parus major) eggs were directly supplemented with carotenoids, and the effects on offspring fitness proxies measured (Marri and Richner in Oecologia 176:371-377, 2014a). Nestlings from supplemented broods were heavier early in development and more likely to fledge, but otherwise equivalent to control nestlings. The authors consider in detail the potential physiological mechanisms that might underlie this result, and here I expand on their Discussion by considering a non-exclusive explanation: that parents provided higher quality care to broods that received supplemental carotenoids. I discuss the general non-independence of pre- and post-hatching/parturition maternal effects when parents care for offspring, and then briefly review evidence that carotenoids specifically are tied to the intensity of avian begging displays. Finally, I detail how inclusive fitness opportunities and constraints shape the adaptive landscape in which maternal effects operate, highlighting both theoretical and applied concerns surrounding questions about the adaptiveness of maternal effects. PMID:25694043

  15. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  16. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  17. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  18. Effects of maternal worm infections and anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy on infant motor and neurocognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampijja, Margaret; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Muhangi, Lawrence; Webb, Emily L; Lewis, Charlie; Elliott, Alison M; Alcock, Katie J

    2012-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that maternal worm infections in pregnancy affect infant motor and neurocognitive development, and that anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy can reverse these effects. We used measures which examine infant motor, cognitive and executive function, including inhibition. We assessed 983 Ugandan infants aged 15 months, using locally appropriate measures within the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy. Key exposures were maternal worm infections and anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy. Effects of other health and social factors were controlled for statistically. Of the five major worm species found in the pregnant women, two had influences on the developmental measures: Maternal Mansonella perstans and Strongyloides stercoralis infections showed negative associations with the A-not B-task, and Language, respectively. Performance on other psychomotor and cognitive measures was associated with illnesses during infancy and infants' behavior during assessment, but not with maternal worm infections. There were no positive effects of maternal anthelminthic treatment on infant abilities. Mansonella perstans and Strongyloides stercoralis infection during pregnancy seem associated with impaired early executive function and language, respectively, but single-dose anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy was not beneficial. The biological mechanisms that could underlie these neurocognitive effects are discussed. PMID:23158229

  19. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  20. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low, poverty reduction must be accompanied by effective behavior change communication to prevent child stunting and to protect women from unhealthy weight gain. PMID:24598879

  1. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  2. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  3. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Krogh, Marianne Thode;

    2016-01-01

    This study examined early and long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression on cognitive, language, and motor development in infants of clinically depressed mothers. Participants were 83 mothers and their full-term born children from the urban region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of this group, 28...... mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression three to four months postpartum in a diagnostic interview. Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition, when the infants were 4 and 13 months of age. We found that maternal...... (79%) of the clinical mothers were no longer, or not again, depressed. These results may indicate that maternal depression can have an acute, concurrent effect on infant cognitive development as early as at four months postpartum. At the same time, in the absence of other risk factors, this effect may...

  4. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Tharner, Anne

    depression three to four months postpartum did not differ from infants of non-clinical mothers. However, regardless of depression group membership boys scored lower on the language scale at 13 months of age. Discussion: These results suggest that maternal depression can have an acute, concurrent effect......Background: It is well documented that maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has the potential to disrupt aspects of caregiving known to be critical for healthy child development. However, with regard to long term effects of PPD on global indices of infant development measured by standardized...... postpartum, it is possible that potential adverse effects of PPD on infant development for a large part have diminished or buffered by protective factors at the time when infant development is measured. However, little is known about how the concurrent exposure to maternal depressed mood impacts on infant...

  5. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

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    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  6. Effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure during gestation on both maternal and offspring behavior.

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    Kazuya eTomihara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption during gestation impairs the physical and behavioral development of offspring. However, it is unclear whether endocrine disruption also impairs maternal behavior and in turn further contributes to the developmental and behavioral dysfunction of offspring. We orally administered the synthetic non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES to pregnant female C57BL/6J mice from gestation day 11–17 and then investigated the maternal behavior of mothers. In addition, we examined the direct effects of in utero DES exposure and the indirect effects of aberrant maternal behavior on offspring using the cross-fostering method. In mothers, endocrine disruption during gestation decreased maternal behavior. In addition, endocrine disruption of foster mother influenced anxiety-related behavior and passive avoidance learning of pups regardless of their exposure in utero. The influence of DES exposure in utero, irrespective of exposure to the foster mother, was also shown in female offspring. These results demonstrate the risks of endocrine disruptors on both mother as well as offspring and suggest that developmental deficits may stem from both in utero toxicity and aberrant maternal care.

  7. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ??? 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Effects of REM sleep restriction during pregnancy on rodent maternal behavior

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    Gabriel N. Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the effects of sleep restriction during pregnancy on maternal care and maternal aggression in a rodent model.Methods:Twenty-three female Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups: control (n=12 or sleep restriction (n=11 during the entire pregnancy. At the fifth postpartum day, the animals were subjected to the resident-intruder paradigm and to the pup retrieval test.Results:Sleep restriction during pregnancy had no direct effects on maternal care. Regarding aggressive behavior, defensive aggression was increased by sleep loss, with a lower responsiveness threshold to hostile environmental stimuli. Sleep deprivation during gestation also reduced self-grooming behavior.Conclusion:Taking increased self-grooming as a behavioral correlate of anxiety in rodents, this study provides evidence that lactating dams were in a condition of reduced anxiety. From an adaptive perspective, this pattern of stress response may function to ensure proper maternal behavior, thereby guaranteeing the survival and viability of the litter. Under a translational perspective, the present article confronts the importance of biological and adaptive features to rodent maternal behavior with the relevance of sociocultural factors to the human mother-infant relationship and to the onset of postpartum depression.

  9. Effects of maternal and infant co-infections, and of maternal immunisation, on the infant response to BCG and tetanus immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alison M; Mawa, Patrice A; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Lyadda, Nancy; Bukusuba, Joseph; Kizza, Moses; Namujju, Proscovia B; Nabulime, Juliet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Muwanga, Moses; Whitworth, James A G

    2010-12-16

    Some vaccines show poor efficacy in tropical countries. Within a birth cohort in Uganda, we investigated factors that might influence responses to BCG and tetanus immunisation. Whole blood assay responses to crude culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cCFP)) and tetanus toxoid (TT) were examined among 1506 and 1433 one-year-olds, respectively. Maternal Mansonella perstans infection was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-10 responses to both immunogens but no reduction in gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5 and IL-13 responses; other maternal helminth infections showed little effect. Tetanus immunisation during pregnancy was associated with higher infant responses to TT; maternal BCG scar (from past immunisation) with lower infant IL-5 and IL-13 responses to cCFP. IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 to TT were reduced in HIV-exposed-uninfected infants; infant malaria and HIV were associated with lower IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 responses to both immunogens. We conclude that maternal helminth infections are unlikely to explain poor vaccine efficacy in the tropics. Effects of maternal immunisation on infant responses to vaccines should be explored. Prevention of infant malaria and HIV could contribute to effectiveness of immunisation programmes. PMID:21040693

  10. Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeks Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

  11. The effects of paid maternity leave: Evidence from Temporary Disability Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Jenna

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a large-scale paid maternity leave program on birth outcomes in the United States. In 1978, states with Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs were required to start providing wage replacement benefits to pregnant women, substantially increasing access to antenatal and postnatal paid leave for working mothers. Using natality data, I find that TDI paid maternity leave reduces the share of low birth weight births by 3.2 percent, and the estimated treatment-on-the-treated effect is over 10 percent. It also decreases the likelihood of early term birth by 6.6 percent. Paid maternity leave has particularly large impacts on the children of unmarried and black mothers. PMID:26218984

  12. The effect of maternal stress on birth outcomes: exploiting a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of research highlights that in utero conditions are consequential for individual outcomes throughout the life cycle, but research assessing causal processes is scarce. This article examines the effect of one such condition-prenatal maternal stress-on birth weight, an early outcome shown to affect cognitive, educational, and socioeconomic attainment later in life. Exploiting a major earthquake as a source of acute stress and using a difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternal exposure to stress results in a significant decline in birth weight and an increase in the proportion of low birth weight. This effect is focused on the first trimester of gestation, and it is mediated by reduced gestational age rather than by factors affecting the intrauterine growth of term infants. The findings highlight the relevance of understanding the early emergence of unequal outcomes and of investing in maternal well-being since the onset of pregnancy.

  13. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  14. The effect of maternal psychopathology on parent-child agreement of child anxiety symptoms: A hierarchical linear modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of maternal anxiety, worry, depression, child age and gender on mother and child reports of child anxiety using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants were 73 mother-child dyads with children between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Reports of child anxiety symptoms, including symptoms of specific disorders (e.g., social phobia) were obtained using concordant versions of the Screen for Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms relative to their mothers. Maternal worry and depression predicted for significantly lower levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and increasing discrepant reports. Maternal anxiety predicted for higher levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and decreasing discrepant reports. Maternal depression was associated with increased child-reported child anxiety symptoms. No significant effect of child age or gender was observed. Findings may inform inconsistencies in previous studies on reporter discrepancies. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  16. Maternal effects and population regulation: maternal density-induced reproduction suppression impairs offspring capacity in response to immediate environment in root voles Microtus oeconomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang-Hui; Du, Shou-Yang; Wu, Yan; Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; He, Hui; You, Zhi-Bing

    2015-03-01

    The hypothesis that maternal effects act as an adaptive bridge in translating maternal environments into offspring phenotypes, and thereby affecting population dynamics has not been studied in the well-controlled fields. In this study, the effects of maternal population density on offspring stress axis, reproduction and population dynamics were studied in root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Parental enclosures for breeding offspring were established by introducing six adults per sex into each of 4 (low density) and 30 adults per sex into each of another 4 (high density) enclosures. Live-trapping started 2 weeks after. Offspring captured at age of 20-30 days were removed to the laboratory, housed under laboratory conditions until puberty, and subsequently used to establish offspring populations in these same enclosures, after parental populations had been removed. [Correction added on 8 January 2015 after first online publication: '10-20 days' has been changed to '20-30 days.'] Offspring from each of the two parental sources were assigned into four enclosures with two for each of the two density treatments used in establishing parental populations (referred to as LL and LH for maternally unstressed offspring, assigned in low and high density, and HL and HH for maternally stressed offspring, assigned in low and high density). Faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) levels, offspring reproduction traits and population dynamics were tested following repeated live-trapping over two seasons. Differential fluctuations in population size were observed between maternally density-stressed and density-unstressed offspring. Populations in LL and LH groups changed significantly in responding to initial density and reached the similar levels at beginning of the second trapping season. Populations in HL and HH groups, however, were remained relatively steady, and in HL group, the low population size was sustained until end of experiment. Maternal density stress was associated with

  17. Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

  18. Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a cost

  19. The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

    This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

  20. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  1. Predation risk-mediated maternal effects in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freinschlag, Julia; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, physiology, life history and/or behavior. As a prime stressor, predation risk may even induce trans-generational alterations, called maternal effects. Accordingly, maternal predation risk during offspring production may influence offspring life history and anti-predator behavior. Here, we assessed whether different levels of predation risk, posed by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, induce graded maternal effects in its prey, the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, we generated four types of predation risk-stressed spider mite mothers by exposing them to living predators, direct and indirect predator cue combinations or no predator cues, respectively. Then, we investigated the life history (offspring developmental time, sex) and anti-predator response (activity, position on the leaf) of their offspring on leaves with and without direct and indirect predator cues. Maternal stress, no matter of the predation risk level, prolonged the offspring developmental time, as compared to offspring from unstressed mothers. This pattern was more pronounced on leaves with than without predator cues. Offspring from stressed mothers resided more likely on the leaf blade than close to the leaf vein. Offspring sex ratio and activity were not influenced by maternal predation risk but activity was higher on leaves with than without predator cues. We argue that the prolonged developmental time is non-adaptive, yet the changed site preference is adaptive because reducing the encounter likelihood with predators. Our study represents a key example for predation risk-mediated maternal effects on developmental trajectories of offspring.

  2. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; JY; Sung

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021,a Chinese herbal formula,and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS:JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials.All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia(2005).In a neonatal maternal separation(NMS)model,male SpragueDawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14,or no specific handling(NH).Starting from postnatal day 60,rats...

  3. Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Lindsay M; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1h each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety.

  4. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  5. Absence of Maternal Methylation in Biparental Hydatidiform Moles from Women with NLRP7 Maternal-Effect Mutations Reveals Widespread Placenta-Specific Imprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Delgado, Marta; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Tayama, Chiharu; Vidal, Enrique; Esteller, Manel; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Deo, Nandita; Barney, Olivia; Maclean, Ken; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Fisher, Rosemary; Monk, David

    2015-01-01

    Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is a maternal-effect autosomal recessive disorder usually associated with mutations of the NLRP7 gene. It is characterized by HM with excessive trophoblastic proliferation, which mimics the appearance of androgenetic molar conceptuses despite their diploid biparental constitution. It has been proposed that the phenotypes of both types of mole are associated with aberrant genomic imprinting. However no systematic analyses for imprinting defects have been reported. Here, we present the genome-wide methylation profiles of both spontaneous androgenetic and biparental NLRP7 defective molar tissues. We observe total paternalization of all ubiquitous and placenta-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in four androgenetic moles; namely gain of methylation at paternally methylated loci and absence of methylation at maternally methylated regions. The methylation defects observed in five RHM biopsies from NLRP7 defective patients are restricted to lack-of-methylation at maternal DMRs. Surprisingly RHMs from two sisters with the same missense mutations, as well as consecutive RHMs from one affected female show subtle allelic methylation differences, suggesting inter-RHM variation. These epigenotypes are consistent with NLRP7 being a maternal-effect gene and involved in imprint acquisition in the oocyte. In addition, bioinformatic screening of the resulting methylation datasets identified over sixty loci with methylation profiles consistent with imprinting in the placenta, of which we confirm 22 as novel maternally methylated loci. These observations strongly suggest that the molar phenotypes are due to defective placenta-specific imprinting and over-expression of paternally expressed transcripts, highlighting that maternal-effect mutations of NLRP7 are associated with the most severe form of multi-locus imprinting defects in humans. PMID:26544189

  6. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Meijssen; M.J. Wolf; H. van Bakel; K. Koldewijn; J. de Kok; A. van Baar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is desi

  7. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  8. Effects of decentralized health care financing on maternal care in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hartwig (Renate); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); S. Budiyati (Sri); A. Yumna (Athia); N. Warda (Nila); A. Suryahadi (Asep); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe exploit variation in the design of sub-national health care financing initiatives in Indonesian districts to assess the effects of these local schemes on maternal care from 2004 to 2010. The analysis is based on a district pseudo-panel, combining data from a unique survey among Distri

  9. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...

  10. No detectable maternal effects of elevated CO(2 on Arabidopsis thaliana over 15 generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianjun Teng

    Full Text Available Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO(2 on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO(2 over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO(2 significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass. Elevated CO(2 did not significantly influence silique length and number of seeds per silique. Across 15 generations grown at elevated CO(2 concentrations, however, there were no significant differences in these traits. In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO(2 did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations. Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO(2 failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO(2 responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO(2 concentrations.

  11. Environmental induction and phenotypic retention of adaptive maternal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Kevin P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of complex adaptations is one of the most controversial questions in biology. Environmental induction of novel phenotypes, where phenotypic retention of adaptive developmental variation is enabled by organismal complexity and homeostasis, can be a starting point in the evolution of some adaptations, but empirical examples are rare. Comparisons of populations that differ in historical recurrence of environmental induction can offer insight into its evolutionary significance, and recent colonization of North America by the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus provides such an opportunity. Results In both native (southern Arizona and newly established (northern Montana, 18 generations populations, breeding female finches exhibit the same complex adaptation – a sex-bias in ovulation sequence – in response to population-specific environmental stimulus of differing recurrence. We document that, in the new population, the adaptation is induced by a novel environment during females' first breeding and is subsequently retained across breeding attempts. In the native population, first-breeding females expressed a precise adaptive response to a recurrent environmental stimulus without environmental induction. We document strong selection on environmental cue recognition in both populations and find that rearrangement of the same proximate mechanism – clustering of oocytes that become males and females – can enable an adaptive response to distinct environmental stimuli. Conclusion The results show that developmental plasticity induced by novel environmental conditions confers significant fitness advantages to both maternal and offspring generations and might play an important role not only in the successful establishment of this invasive species across the widest ecological range of extant birds, but also can link environmental induction and genetic inheritance in the evolution of novel adaptations.

  12. Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T.M. Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®, water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89 and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95 increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

  13. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Michel

    Full Text Available Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring.

  14. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass) persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s) most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring. PMID:26288141

  15. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Fodor; Dóra Zelena

    2014-01-01

    Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on ...

  16. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood : prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and behaviou

  17. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied.

  18. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied. PMID:1474007

  19. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  20. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  1. Effect of a maternal and child health handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour: a community-based controlled trial in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Satoko; Soyano, Ayako; Igarashi, Hisato; Ura, Midori; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2015-11-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) handbooks are comprehensive home-based booklets designed to integrate MCH records. Although empirical evidence suggests the handbooks are more effective than current card-type records, this has not been scientifically demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the MCH handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour as measured by antenatal care (ANC) attendance, delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and delivery at a health facility. The Cambodian version of the MCH handbook was developed and introduced in two health centres, and two other health centres served as controls. Pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys were conducted with 320 women from the intervention areas and 320 women from the control areas who had given birth within 1 year before the survey. We evaluated the impact of the handbook by using difference-in-differences (DID) analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios for pre-post changes in key indicators by using logistic regression. In addition, we interviewed multiparous women, health staff and health volunteers to assess the acceptance and cultural appropriateness of the handbook. Content analysis was performed with the English-translated transcriptions. The DID analyses revealed that all key indicators increased in the intervention group against counterfactual assumptions. The intervention also increased maternal knowledge of all topics addressed except for the risk of severe bleeding after delivery; this may be attributable to the influence of cultural belief. Logistic regression showed that the intervention increased ANC attendance, delivery with SBAs and delivery at a health facility, even after adjusting for maternal age, education and economic conditions. The qualitative data indicated that the handbook was well received and culturally appropriate. Thus, the MCH handbook is a reasonable and superior alternative to current card-type maternal records. PMID:25595142

  2. The Effect of Maternal Depression and Substance Abuse on Child Human Capital Development

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Richard G; Ellen Meara

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model of human development, the stability of the home and parental mental health can have notable impacts on skill development in children that may affect the stock of human capital in adults (Knudsen, Heckman et al. 2006; Heckman 2007). We study effects of maternal depression and substance abuse on childr...

  3. Biological Tools to Study the Effects of Environmental Contaminants at the Feto–Maternal Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mannelli, Chiara; Ietta, Francesca; Avanzati, Anna Maria; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Paulesu, Luana

    2015-01-01

    The identification of reproductive toxicants is a major scientific challenge for human health. Prenatal life is the most vulnerable and important time span of human development. For obvious ethical reasons, in vivo models cannot be used in human pregnancy, and animal models do not perfectly reflect human physiology. This review describes the in vitro test models representative of the human feto–maternal interface and the effects of environmental chemicals with estrogen-like activity, mainly b...

  4. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  5. The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

    2002-05-14

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species.

  6. The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

    2002-05-14

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species. PMID:11983863

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  8. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

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    Anna Fodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers’ stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.

  9. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  10. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake. PMID:26947308

  11. A comparison of three vasopressors for tight control of maternal blood pressure during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: Effect on maternal and fetal outcome

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    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Results: The umbilical pH was comparable in all the three groups (P > 0.05. The mean SBP from spinal block until delivery was similar over time for all the three groups. The incidence of reactive hypertension was more in group M (P < 0.05 than in group E and group P. Total drug consumption to meet target blood pressure till delivery was 39.3 ± 14.6 mg in group E, 1.7 ± 0.9 mg in group M, and 283.6 ± 99.8 mcg in group P. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in the three groups. Conclusion: All the three vasopressors were equally effective in maintaining maternal blood pressure as well as umbilical pH during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section without any detrimental effects on fetal and maternal outcome.

  12. The Effect of Neuraxial Anesthesia on Maternal Cerebral Hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ineke R.; van Veen, Teelkien R.; Mears, Scott L.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Haeri, Sina; Belfort, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neuraxial anesthesia is known to reduce sympathetic tone and mean arterial pressure. Effects on cerebral hemodynamics in pregnancy are not well known. We hypothesize that cerebral hemodynamic parameters will change with respect to baseline following regional analgesia/anesthesia. Study Des

  13. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  14. Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Thurston, Sally W; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Duffy, Emeir M; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 g of fish (nine meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children's scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  15. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  16. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication. PMID:26362334

  17. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  18. Effect of water temperature on exercise-induced maternal hyperthermia on fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Fitzgerald, H M; Wilson, N C; Taylor, A W

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if water temperature influenced exercise-induced hyperthermia in swim-trained pregnant rats and the resulting fetal development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 weeks pre-pregnancy training were exercised daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation in water that was 34.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C (Cool Water Swimmers--CWS) or 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C (Warm Water Swimmers--WWS), for one hour/day. During this time period another group of pregnant rats was immersed to the neck in warm water (37.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C) (Warm Water Controls--WWC). On day 19 of gestation all animals were sacrificed and fetal development assessed. Maternal exercise in warm water elevated maternal body core temperature by 2.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C above resting values, with an increase in fetal abnormalities compared to the same exercise intensity in cool water. Fifty-eight percent of the abnormal fetuses and 60% of the resorption sites were found in the WWS group. Of the abnormalities determined, 65% were from the WWS group and 45% of these fetuses showed micrencephaly. Results suggest cool water may regulate maternal body temperature during swimming exercise and that swimming in warm water should be avoided during gestation because of potential teratogenic effects.

  19. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

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    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  20. Effect of the number of Ramadan fasting days on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gynecologists and perinatologists are left with many unanswered questions and concerns regarding fasting during pregnancy and its effects on maternal and neonatal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of Ramadan fasting days and pregnancy outcomes. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive, analytical study, 641 newborns, whose mothers had fasting experience during pregnancy, were enrolled and allocated to three groups, based on the number of maternal fasting days during pregnancy (group A: ≤10 days, group B: 11-20 days, and group C: 21-30 days. Demographic and anthropometric data of neonates and mothers were recorded. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and non-parametric tests were performed for data analysis. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in maternal weight (during the last month of pregnancy, neonatal height, incidence of pre-term labor, or neonatal congenital abnormality in the three groups. Increased number of fasting days was not correlated with decreased neonatal head circumference or weight, while 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores significantly improved (P

  1. Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; McKay, Talia; Iddins, Erin; Robertson, Christopher; Ramsay, Kristin; Rittmueller, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to: (1) identify the developmental trajectories of infant negative emotions (NE) and regulatory capacity (RC) from 4 to 12 months of age, (2) examine maternal and family factors that may affect NE and RC trajectories, (3) examine transactional associations between developing NE and RC, and (4) examine the effect of infant temperament trajectories on negative parenting when toddlers reached 18 months of age. Mothers from 156 families completed a measure of infant temperament when infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age and completed maternal relationship stress, depression, and family demographics measures when infants were 4 months of age. Information regarding negative parenting was collected when toddlers reached 18 months of age. LGM results suggest that maternal relationship stress and depression influence infant NE development, that high NE early in infancy may compromise the development of infant regulation, and that steeper decreases of infant RC contribute the greatest amount of variance to negative parenting in toddlerhood. The implications for models of early emotion regulation and incorporating changes in temperament over time into developmentally sensitive models (e.g., emerging parenting practices and developmental psychopathology) are discussed.

  2. Differential susceptibility to the effects of child temperament on maternal warmth and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and responsiveness) as well as plausible reasons for these differences. With 2,130 mothers of 14-month-old infants (51% male) as subjects, a regression mixture analysis identified three latent classes with varying associations between the child's temperament and mother-child interactions: nonsusceptible class, susceptible-high class, and susceptible-low class. Mother-reported depression was most predictive of class membership. Latent class differences in the maternal self-efficacy, marital conflict, and coparenting alliance were also found. On the other hand, family income, maternal employment, and the child's gender were not significant predictors of class membership when individual and contextual resources were considered. Overall, mothers with abundant individual and family resources (i.e., less depressed, highly self-efficacious, few marital conflicts, and high coparenting alliance with their spouse) showed that their interaction style with a child would vary according to the child's temperament, whereas mothers with slender resources interacted with their children in a less warm and responsive manner, regardless of the child's temperament. The implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:23991614

  3. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  4. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

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    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  5. Effect of Pregnancy on Maternal Asthma Symptoms and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Hellenbrand, Melissa E.; Holford, Theodore R.; Bracken, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether factors related to the patient or her treatment influence asthma severity during pregnancy. METHODS Symptom and medication data were collected by in-person and telephone interviews. Women were recruited before 24 weeks of gestation through private obstetricians and hospital clinics. Eight hundred seventy-two women had physician-diagnosed asthma, 686 were active asthmatics, and 641 with complete data were analyzed. The Global Initiative for Asthma measured severity. Cumulative logistic regression models for repeated measures assessed changes in asthma severity during each month of pregnancy. RESULTS Two factors had significant and profound effects on the course of asthma: prepregnancy severity and use of medication according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Although several factors were analyzed (race, age, atopic status, body mass index, parity, fetal sex, and smoking), none were significant risk factors for changes in asthma severity, measured in a clinically important way as a one-step change in Global Initiative for Asthma category. Women with milder asthma received most benefit from appropriate treatment, 62% decreased risk for worsening asthma among those with intermittent asthma (0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.23–0.64) and 52% decreased risk among those with mild persistent asthma (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.28–0.84). Month or trimester of gestation was not consistently associated with changes in asthma severity. CONCLUSION Asthma severity during pregnancy is similar to severity in the year before pregnancy, provided patients continue to use their prescribed medication. If women discontinue medication, even mild asthma is likely to become significantly more severe. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II PMID:20177287

  6. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  7. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  8. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim Elaine MP; Damasceno Débora C; Perobelli Juliana E; Spadotto Raquel; Fernandez Carla DB; Volpato Gustavo T; Kempinas Wilma DG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days bef...

  9. The effect of maternal healthcare on the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Fan, Lida

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%. PMID:25110673

  10. The Effect of Maternal Healthcare on the Probability of Child Survival in Azerbaijan

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    Nazim Habibov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%.

  11. Effects of Home Visitation on Maternal Competencies, Family Environment, and Child Development: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, Susan; Dähne, Verena; Brand, Tilman; Kurtz, Vivien; von Klitzing, Kai; Jungmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Based on the US Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, the German home visiting program "Pro Kind" offered support for socially and financially disadvantaged first-time mothers from pregnancy until the children's second birthday. A multi-centered, longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess its effectiveness on mothers and children. A total of 755 women with multiple risk factors were recruited, 394 received regular home visits (treatment group), while 361 only had access to standard community services (control group). Program influences on family environment (e.g., quality of home, social support), maternal competencies (e.g., maternal self-efficacy, empathy, parenting style), and child development (e.g., cognitive and motor development) were assessed from mothers' program intake in pregnancy to children's second birthday based on self-reports in regular interviews and developmental tests. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models showed small, but significant positive treatment effects on parental self-efficacy, and marginally significant effects on social support, and knowledge on child rearing. Maternal stress, self-efficacy, and feelings of attachment in the TG tend to show a more positive development over time. Subgroup effects were found for high-risk mothers in the TG, who reported more social support over time and, generally, had children with higher developmental scores compared to their CG counterparts. Post hoc analyses of implementation variables revealed the quality of the helping relationship as a significant indicator of treatment effects. Results are discussed in terms of implementation and public policy differences between NFP and Pro Kind. PMID:26103919

  12. Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation

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    Planeta C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35 = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12. Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32 = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8, but not on rearing condition (F(1,32<0.001, P = 0.998. Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period.

  13. Effects of probiotics and maternal vaccination on Salmonella enteritidis infection in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, L A F; Nascimento, V P; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of probiotics and maternal vaccination with an inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine on day-old chicks challenged with SE were evaluated. A 2 X 3 factorial arrangement was used (with or without probiotics; breeders nonvaccinated, vaccinated intramuscularly, or vaccinated intraperitoneally). Three trials were conducted in isolation cabinets and SE challenge was different between trials. The number of SE organisms per chick and the time interval between housing and introduction of seeder birds (hereafter called challenge) were 1.6 X 10(8) and 1 hr (Trial I), 1.8 X 10(6) and 12 hr (Trial II), and 1.2 X 10(4) and 24 hr (Trial III). SE recovery was assessed in ceca and liver at 3, 5, and 7 days postchallenge, and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) in ceca was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge. The number of SE (log CFU) in the ceca reduced 0.56 log (from 7.59 to 7.03) and 1.45 log (7.62 to 6.17) because of the treatment with probiotics in Trials II and III, respectively. The greater reduction in Trial III indicates the importance of the early use of probiotics on the prevention of SE infection. Treatment with probiotics resulted in a smaller number of SE-positive livers after 5 days postchallenge on Trial III. Although there was no significant effect of maternal vaccination on the number of SE CFU in the ceca, a significant effect of maternal vaccination on the SE CFU was observed in the liver, but not in the ceca at 5 days after challenge. PMID:17274302

  14. Effects of maternal exposure to nano-alumina during pregnancy on neurodevelopment in offspring mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of maternal exposure to nano-alumina during pregnancy on the neurodevelopment in offspring mice.Methods Female ICR mice were exposed to nano-alumina 10 d before mating,and the nano-alumina exposure lasted till offspring mice were born.All the female mice were randomly divided into 5groups:solvent control group (saline) ,nano-carbon group (11.76 mg/ml) ,microalumina group (50 mg/ml) ,50 nm alumina group (50 mg/ml) ,and 13 nm alumina group (50 mg/ml) .All the mice were treated by

  15. The effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Vlatka; Sporiš, Goran; Tomić, Jozo; Milanović, Zoran; Zigmundovac-Klaić, Djurdja; Pantelić, Saša

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth. Methods The study group of 166 women in gestational week 6-8 exercised regularly three days per week at submaximal intensity during their entire pregnancy and the control group of 168 women received standard antenatal care. The main outcomes were macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Results The study group had a lower frequency of macrosomia in newborns (6.0% vs 12.5%, P = 0.048) and g...

  16. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  17. Effect of restricted preen-gland access on maternal self maintenance and reproductive investment in mallards.

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    Mathieu Giraudeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As egg production and offspring care are costly, females should invest resources adaptively into their eggs to optimize current offspring quality and their own lifetime reproductive success. Parasite infections can influence maternal investment decisions due to their multiple negative physiological effects. The act of preening--applying oils with anti-microbial properties to feathers--is thought to be a means by which birds combat pathogens and parasites, but little is known of how preening during the reproductive period (and its expected disease-protecting effects influences maternal investment decisions at the level of the egg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally prevented female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from accessing their preen gland during breeding and monitored female immunoresponsiveness (e.g., plasma lysozyme concentration as well as some egg traits linked to offspring quality (e.g., egg mass, yolk carotenoid content, and albumen lysozyme levels. Females with no access to their preen gland showed an increase in plasma lysozyme level compared to control, normally preening females. In addition, preen-gland-restricted females laid significantly lighter eggs and deposited higher carotenoid concentrations in the yolk compared to control females. Albumen lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between eggs laid by females with or without preen gland access. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results establish a new link between an important avian self-maintenance behaviour and aspects of maternal health and reproduction. We suggest that higher yolk carotenoid levels in eggs laid by preen-gland-restricted females may serve to boost health of offspring that would hatch in a comparatively microbe-rich environment.

  18. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  19. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  20. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

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    Mukesh Raipuria

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C or high fat (F diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS. Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS, with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS, with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1 and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expressions (FS vs CS; these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater

  1. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

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    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  2. Heritability and artificial selection on ambulatory dispersal distance in Tetranychus urticae: effects of density and maternal effects.

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    Ellyn Valery Bitume

    Full Text Available Dispersal distance is understudied although the evolution of dispersal distance affects the distribution of genetic diversity through space. Using the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we tested the conditions under which dispersal distance could evolve. To this aim, we performed artificial selection based on dispersal distance by choosing 40 individuals (out of 150 that settled furthest from the home patch (high dispersal, HDIS and 40 individuals that remained close to the home patch (low dispersal, LDIS with three replicates per treatment. We did not observe a response to selection nor a difference between treatments in life-history traits (fecundity, survival, longevity, and sex-ratio after ten generations of selection. However, we show that heritability for dispersal distance depends on density. Heritability for dispersal distance was low and non-significant when using the same density as the artificial selection experiments while heritability becomes significant at a lower density. Furthermore, we show that maternal effects may have influenced the dispersal behaviour of the mites. Our results suggest primarily that selection did not work because high density and maternal effects induced phenotypic plasticity for dispersal distance. Density and maternal effects may affect the evolution of dispersal distance and should be incorporated into future theoretical and empirical studies.

  3. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  4. Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Ripke, Stephan; Kirov, George; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Owen, Michael; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting. PMID:23177929

  5. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages. PMID:26119914

  6. Prevalence of dominant mutations in Spain: effect of changes in maternal age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Herranz, I; Salvador, J; Prieto, L; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Rodríguez-Pinilla, E; Cordero, J F

    1988-12-01

    We studied the birth prevalence of autosomal dominant mutations in Spain and estimated how a decrease in maternal age distribution may lead to reduction in dominant mutations. The data were collected by the Estudio Colaborativo Español de Malformaciones Congénitas from April, 1976, to December, 1985. Among 553,270 liveborn infants monitored during the period, 66 infants with autosomal dominant conditions were identified. These included Apert, Crouzon, Hay-Wells, Treacher-Collins, Robinow, Stickler, Adams-Oliver, and the blepharophimosis syndromes, achondroplasia, cleidocranial dysostosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. The overall rate of autosomal dominant conditions was 1.2 per 10,000 liveborn infants. Thirteen (20%) had an affected relative, and 52 (79%) had a negative family history. One case was excluded because of insufficient family data. The rate of autosomal dominant mutations was 0.9 per 10,000 liveborn infants, or 47 per 1 million gametes. A reduction in the maternal age distribution of mothers age 35 years and older from the current 10.8% to 4.9%, as in Atlanta, Georgia, would reduce the rate of Down syndrome in Spain by 33% and through a change in parternal age distribution may lead to a reduction in dominant mutations of about 9.6%. This suggests that a public health campaign to reduce older maternal age distribution in Spain may also lead to a reduction in dominant mutations and emphasizes the potential that a direct campaign for fathers to complete their families before age 35 years may have a small, but measurable, effect in the primary prevention of dominant mutations.

  7. The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; Tumasonis, C; Briggs, R G; Narang, A S; Narang, R S; Rej, R; Stein, V; McMartin, D N; Kaminsky, L S

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  8. Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Gallardo, Meritxell López; Berzal, Alvaro Llorente; Prada, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-05-01

    Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation [24h, postnatal day 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the neurodevelopmental theory, these behavioral deficits might be mediated by detrimental neurodevelopmental processes that might be associated, at least partially, with stress-induced corticosterone responses. In order to address this hypothesis, we have focused on the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, two brain regions that show high density of glucocorticoid receptors, and analyzed possible neuronal and glial alterations by immunohistochemical techniques. To evaluate the presence of degenerated neurons we used Fluoro-Jade-C (FJ-C) staining and for the study of astrocytes we employed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Within control animals, females showed significantly more GFAP positive cells than males and a trend towards more FJ-C positive cells. Maternal deprivation induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial changes in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats that, in general, were more marked in males. This differential effect may be attributable to a greater vulnerability of males to this kind of early environmental insult and/or to sex-dependent differences in the onset and/or progression of the effects. The present experimental procedure may be instrumental in elucidating sex-dependent mechanisms of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders with a basis in early environmental insults.

  9. Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, R K; Kawecki, T J

    2013-12-01

    Based on ecological and metabolic arguments, some authors predict that adaptation to novel, harsh environments should involve alleles showing negative (diminishing return) epistasis and/or that it should be mediated in part by evolution of maternal effects. Although the first prediction has been supported in microbes, there has been little experimental support for either prediction in multicellular eukaryotes. Here we use a line-cross design to study the genetic architecture of adaptation to chronic larval malnutrition in a population of Drosophila melanogaster that evolved on an extremely nutrient-poor larval food for 84 generations. We assayed three fitness-related traits (developmental rate, adult female weight and egg-to-adult viability) under the malnutrition conditions in 14 crosses between this selected population and a nonadapted control population originally derived from the same base population. All traits showed a pattern of negative epistasis between alleles improving performance under malnutrition. Furthermore, evolutionary changes in maternal traits accounted for half of the 68% increase in viability and for the whole of 8% reduction in adult female body weight in the selected population (relative to unselected controls). These results thus support both of the above predictions and point to the importance of nonadditive effects in adaptive microevolution.

  10. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  11. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers. PMID:27262265

  12. Potential maternal effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on development and disease severity in a Mediterranean legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Grünzweig

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global change can greatly affect plant populations both directly by influencing growing conditions and indirectly by maternal effects on development of offspring. More information is needed on transgenerational effects of global change on plants and on their interactions with pathogens. The current study assessed potential maternal effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on performance and disease susceptibility of first-generation offspring of the Mediterranean legume Onobrychis crista-galli. Mother plants were grown at three CO2 concentrations, and the study focused on their offspring that were raised under common ambient climate and CO2. In addition, progeny were exposed to natural infection by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. In one out of three years, offspring of high-CO2 treatments (440 and 600 ppm had lower shoot biomass and reproductive output than offspring of low-CO2 treatment (280 ppm. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 offspring. However, some of the findings on maternal effects changed when the population was divided into two functionally diverging plant types distinguishable by flower color (pink, Type P; white Type W. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 progeny in the more disease-resistant (Type P, but not in the more susceptible plant type (Type W. In a low-infection year, maternal CO2 treatments did not differ in disease severity. Mother plants of Type P exposed to low CO2 produced larger seeds than all other combinations of CO2 and plant type, which might contribute to higher offspring performance. This study showed that elevated CO2 potentially exerts environmental maternal effects on performance of progeny and, notably, also on their susceptibility to natural infection by a pathogen. Maternal effects of global change might differently affect functionally divergent plant types, which could impact population fitness and alter plant

  13. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Marković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system.

  15. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  16. [Effect of maternal genotype on the rate of preimplantation development in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V V; Vakhrusheva, M P

    1981-01-01

    The genetic control of the rate of preimplantation development was studied in the mouse embryos. The number of cells in the embryo and the percentage of embryos at the blastocyst stage were determined on the 3.5 day of pregnancy. The experiments were carried out with CBA, A/He, C57Bl/Mib mice and mice homozygous by the mutant genes white (Miwh), fidget (fi) and ocular retardation (or), congenic with the inbred C57Bl/Mib mice. Contrasting differences were found between C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi mice. The rate of development of the morphologically normal C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi and F1 embryo was shown to depend on the maternal genotype, rather than on the paternal one. The effect of maternal genotype of the rate of preimplantation development was related to differences in the time of beginning of the cleavage. The rate of cleavage is similar for the C57Bl/Mib, fi/fi and F1 embryos.

  17. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff; Marazita, Mary L;

    2012-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test...

  18. Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

  19. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed

  20. Serotonergic and noradrenergic lesions suppress the enhancing effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on learning and memory in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2008-02-19

    The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.

  1. The Effect of Maternal Death on the Health of the Husband and Children in a Rural Area of China: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Long; Ye, Fang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Huntington, Dale; Huang, Yanjie; Wang, Anqi; Liu, Shuiqing; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of maternal death on the health of the index child, the health and educational attainment of the older children, and the mental health and quality of life of the surviving husband. Methods A cohort study including 183 households that experienced a maternal death matched to 346 households that experienced childbirth but not a maternal death was conducted prospectively between June 2009 and October 2011 in rural China. Data on household sociodemographic characte...

  2. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lepe; M. Bacardí Gascón; L. M. Castañeda-González; M.ª E. Pérez Morales; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by h...

  3. Clinical study of placenta previa and its effect on maternal health and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Advancing maternal age, multiparity, prior cesarean section, and prior abortions are independent risk factors for placenta previa. Placenta praevia remains a risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The detection of placenta previa should encourage a careful evaluation with timely delivery to reduce the associated maternal and perinatal complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3496-3499

  4. Are female children more vulnerable to the long-term effects of maternal depression during pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Quarini, C.; Pearson, R M; A. Stein; Ramchandani, P.G.; Lewis, G; Evans, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female fetuses are more vulnerable to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids. We examined whether exposure to prenatal maternal depression, a condition associated with high glucocorticoids, carries greater risk for depression at 12 and 18 years in girls. METHODS: Our sample comprised 7959 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children following imputation for missing data. Maternal depression was assessed pre-and post-natally, and offspring depressi...

  5. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reve...

  6. Individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation processes: the effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and children's physiological regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-07-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (Delta RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children's physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children's emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology x Baseline RSA x Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children's capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology.

  7. [The maternal effect in infantile autism: elevated DNA damage degree in patients and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porokhovnik, L N; Kostyuk, S V; Ershova, E S; Stukalov, S M; Veiko, N N; Korovina, N Yu; Gorbachevskaya, N L; Sorokin, A B; Lyapunova, N A

    2016-05-01

    Infantile autism is a common disorder of mental development, which is characterized by impairments in the communicative, cognitive and speech spheres and obsessional stereotyped behaviour. Although in most cases, pathogenic factors remain unclear, infantile autism has a significant hereditary component, however, its etiology is also under the influence of environmental factors, including the condition of the mother's body during pregnancy ("maternal effect"). Oxidative stress is assumed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of infantile autism. It is known that oxidative stress has a prominent genotoxic effect, which is realized through inducing single and double strand breaks of the nuclear DNA. We evaluated the degree of DNA damage in patients with infantile autism and their mothers using DNA comet assay. The comet tail moment and DNA per cent ratio in the tail were assessed for each individual. The two parameters appeared to be strongly correlated (r=0.90). Mean and median values of both parameters were considerably higher in the sample of autistic children, than in age-matching healthy controls. Interestingly, these parameters were also elevated in healthy mothers of autistic children, with no difference from the values in the group of autistic children. The control group of healthy women of reproductive age, who had no children with autism, differed by the DNA comet tail moment from the group of mothers of autistic children, but did not differ significantly from the control group of healthy children. The results suggest that there are genotoxic factors in mentally healthy mothers of autistic children, which can determine the pathological process in the foeti via environmental "maternal effect" during gestation. PMID:27563002

  8. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163

  9. Maternal filaggrin mutations increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in children: an effect independent of mutation inheritance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esparza-Gordillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD. We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36, we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8. Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i carrying a mutation and ii having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels, suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring

  10. The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Disorders (Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation on Skin Development in Wistar Rat Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amerion

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormones are necessary for normal development of many organs and because of the importance of skin as the largest and the most important organ in human body protection in spite of external environment, the study of thyroid hormones effects on skin development is considerable. In this survey we have tried to study the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on skin development in fetus during pregnancy and lactation by immunohistochemistry technique.   Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, hypothyroids, hyperthyroids, hypothyroids are treated with levothyroxin and a control group. The rat mothers were exposed to PTU with 50 mg/lit dosage and levothyroxin with 1 mg/lit dosage and PTU and levothyroxin simultaneously and with the same dosage respectively in hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and treated hypothyroids with levothyroxin groups. After 14 days, blood sample was taken from mothers, and if thyroid hormones level had change well, mating was allowed. After pregnancy and delivery, 1th day dorsal skin (as the sample for pregnancy assay and 10th day skin (as for lactation assay was used for immunohystochemical and morphometric studies. Results: In this study it was observed that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant increase in laminin expression, in most areas of skin, and maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant decrease in laminin expression. Also significant decrease was observed in hair follicles number and epidermis thickness in hypothyroidism groups. Conclusion: This study showed maternal hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in epidermis thickness and hair follicles number and it causes less hair in fetus. Also maternal hypothyroidism causes large changes in laminin expression in different parts of skin. At the same time,maternal hyperthyroidism causes opposite results. In fact, thyroid hormones

  11. Male and female helper effects on maternal investment and adult survival in red-winged fairy-wrens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejeune, Léa; van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew; Louter, Marina; Brouwer, Lyanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite its importance for the evolution of cooperative breeding, it has proven difficult to determine whether helpers improve their recipients’ fitness. Helpers affect fitness in multiple ways, both positive and negative, but their effects can also be concealed through reduced maternal investment.

  12. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; initial BW = 45.6 ± 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se ...

  13. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, V S; Prentice, A; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn=25,) and low (LIn=25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P≤0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P=0.04] and from 24wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P=0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [-21% (4%) RU/mL, P≤0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P≤0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [-0.5% (0.5%), P=0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets requires further research.

  14. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

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    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  15. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  16. Early maternal deprivation and neonatal single administration with a cannabinoid agonist induce long-term sex-dependent psychoimmunoendocrine effects in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Arranz, Lorena; Marco, Eva-María; Moreno, Enrique; Puerto, Marta; Guaza, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2007-07-01

    Maternal deprivation [24h on postnatal day 9] might represent an animal model of schizophrenia and behavioural and neurochemical alterations observed in adulthood may be mediated by hippocampal impairments induced by abnormally increased glucocorticoids due to neonatal stress. We aimed to provide new data for psychoimmunoendocrine characterization of this animal model by evaluating its effects in adolescent rats of both genders. In previous studies we found that cannabinoid compounds counteracted the enhanced impulsivity of maternally deprived animals and that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 showed neuroprotective properties in neonatal rats. So, we hypothesised that this compound could counteract at least some of the detrimental effects that we expected to find in maternally deprived animals. Accordingly, the drug was administered immediately after the maternal deprivation period. Maternally deprived males showed significantly decreased motor activity in the holeboard and the plus-maze. The cannabinoid agonist induced, exclusively in males, a significant anxiogenic-like effect, which was reversed by maternal deprivation. In the forced swimming test, both treatments independently induced depressive-like responses. Maternal deprivation reduced immunological function whereas the drug exerted tissue-dependent effects on the immune parameters analysed. Maternally deprived females showed reduced corticosterone levels whereas the cannabinoid agonist increased hormone concentration in all groups. In general, the results show detrimental effects of both treatments as well as intriguing interactions, notably in relation to emotional behaviour and certain immunological responses.

  17. Protective effect of pregnancy in rural South Africa: questioning the concept of "indirect cause" of maternal death.

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    Michel Garenne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of the level and composition of maternal mortality depends on the definition used, with inconsistencies leading to inflated rates and invalid comparisons across settings. This study investigates the differences in risk of death for women in their reproductive years during and outside the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, puerperium, focusing on specific causes of infectious, non-communicable and external causes of death after separating out direct obstetrical causes. METHODS: Data on all deaths of women aged 15-49 years that occurred in the Agincourt sub-district between 1992 and 2010 were obtained from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS located in rural South Africa. Causes of death were assessed using a validated verbal autopsy instrument. Analysis included 2170 deaths, of which 137 occurred during the maternal risk period. FINDINGS: Overall, women had significantly lower mortality during the maternal risk period than outside it (age-standardized RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.63-0.89. This was true in most age groups with the exception of adolescents aged 15-19 years where the risk of death was higher. Mortality from most causes, other than obstetric causes, was lower during the maternal risk period except for malaria, cardiovascular diseases and violence where there were no differences. Lower mortality was significant for HIV/AIDS (RR = 0.29, P<0.0001, cancers (RR = 0.10, P<0.023, and accidents (RR = 0, P<0.0001. INTERPRETATION: In this rural setting typical of much of Southern Africa, pregnancy was largely protective against the risk of death, most likely because of a strong selection effect amongst those women who conceived successfully. The concept of indirect cause of maternal death needs to be re-examined.

  18. Revisiting the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring birthweight: a quasi-experimental sibling analysis in Sweden.

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    Sol Pía Juárez

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester, the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify

  19. Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    Jian-Guo Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents and a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

  20. Opposite effects of early maternal deprivation on neurogenesis in male versus female rats.

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    Charlotte A Oomen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depression is more prevalent in women than in men. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood, but recent data shows that hippocampal volume reductions in depressed women occur only when depression is preceded by an early life stressor. This underlines the potential importance of early life stress, at least in women, for the vulnerability to develop depression. Perinatal stress exposure in rodents affects critical periods of brain development that persistently alter structural, emotional and neuroendocrine parameters in adult offspring. Moreover, stress inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of structural plasticity that has been implicated a.o. in antidepressant action and is highly abundant early postnatally. We here tested the hypothesis that early life stress differentially affects hippocampal structural plasticity in female versus male offspring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that 24 h of maternal deprivation (MD at PND3 affects hippocampal structural plasticity at PND21 in a sex-dependent manner. Neurogenesis was significantly increased in male but decreased in female offspring after MD. Since no other structural changes were found in granule cell layer volume, newborn cell survival or proliferation rate, astrocyte number or gliogenesis, this indicates that MD elicits specific changes in subsets of differentiating cells and differentially affects immature neurons. The MD induced sex-specific effects on neurogenesis cannot be explained by differences in maternal care. CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows that early environment has a critical influence on establishing sex differences in neural plasticity and supports the concept that the setpoint for neurogenesis may be determined during perinatal life. It is tempting to speculate that a reduced level of neurogenesis, secondary to early stress exposure, may contribute to maladaptation of the HPA axis and possibly to the increased vulnerability of women

  1. Effects of maternal starvation on some blood metabolites, liver glycogen, birth weight and survival of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, M O

    1981-12-01

    Pregnant crossbred sows were assigned to three treatments during the third trimester of gestation for an evaluation of the effects of maternal starvation on fetal development and piglet survival. Two groups of sows were taken off feed (water and trace mineralized salt only) on days 93 and 107 of gestation, respectively; the third group was fed 1.82 kg of complete sow diet/day and served as the control. Litter size, gestation length and pig birth weight in the 7-day and 21-day starvation groups were not different from those in the control group (P less than .05). Liver weight was depressed (P greater than .05) among the 7-day and 21-day progeny. However, liver glycogen concentrations and total liver glycogen were unaffected. Maternal blood glucose decreased to a fasting but steady level, while free fatty acid (FFA) increased in the two starved groups. Blood glucose and FFA at birth were similar for all treatment groups; however, FFA increased in the progeny of sows in the 7-day (P greater than .05) and 21-day (P greater than .01) starvation groups at 48 hr of age. Blood glucose at 48 hr did not vary (P less than .05), but the control progeny showed a faster glucose utilization, suggesting a greater dependence on carbohydrate metabolism than in the progeny of starved dams. Survival rate at 72 hr of age was higher among 21-day (43.8%) and 7-day (37.5%) progeny than among control progeny (8.5%). The increased plasma FFA level observed with fasting in the progeny of starved dams might indicate a shift toward lipid metabolism, which would account for the improved survival observed among the progeny of treated dams.

  2. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  3. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

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    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  4. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

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    Paulo eZielinsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten prcent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and antiinflamatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus constriction.Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal ductus arteriosus patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal ductus arteriosus after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet.

  5. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy.

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    Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V; Vian, Izabele

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

  6. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

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    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  7. The Effect of Maternal Teaching Talk on Children's Emergent Literacy as a Function of Type of Activity and Maternal Education Level

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    Korat, Ofra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal education affects mothers' teaching talk level as a function of activity (book reading vs. looking at a family photo album), and the contribution of maternal teaching talk level during these activities to 88 five- to six-year old children's emergent literacy. Videotaped mother-child interactions…

  8. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

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    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    , the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  9. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring.

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    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-03-22

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype-phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

  10. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes. PMID:27183114

  11. Assimilation effects on infant mortality among immigrants in Norway: Does maternal source country matter?

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    Jonas Kinge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assimilation models of infant outcomes among immigrants have received considerable attention in the social sciences. However, little effort has been made to investigate how these models are influenced by the source country. Objective: We investigate the relationship between infant mortality and the number of years since maternal migration and whether or not this relationship varies with maternal source country. Methods: We use an extensive dataset which includes all of the births in Norway between 1992-2010, augmented by information on the source country and other maternal characteristics. By measuring the source country infant mortality rate at the time the mother came to Norway, we are able to account for circumstances in the country the mother left behind. We apply assimilation models which allow for interactions between source country characteristics and maternal years since migration. We also fit models in which age at maternal migration replaces maternal years since migration. Results: Our analyses generated three main findings. First, an assimilation process has taken place, as the infant mortality rate declined with the number of years since maternal migration. Second, maternal source country characteristics are significantly associated with infant mortality rates in Norway. Mothers from countries with high infant mortality rates (e.g., countries in Africa and Asia had higher infant mortality rates than mothers from countries with low infant mortality rates (e.g., countries in Europe. Third, the assimilation process varied by maternal source country: i.e., the assimilation process was more pronounced among mothers from countries with high infant mortality rates than among those from countries with low infant mortality rates. Conclusions: The source country is an important predictor of the assimilation profiles. This studycontributes to the existing literature on assimilation by emphasising the significance ofthe source

  12. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

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    Elizabeth L Prado

    Full Text Available Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT, a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9 of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010, and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031. Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039 and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007 mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  13. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Ullman, Michael T; Muadz, Husni; Alcock, Katherine J; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2012-01-01

    Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9) of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010), and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031). Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039) and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007) mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  14. Effects of Maternal Hypoxia during Pregnancy on Bone Development in Offspring: A Guinea Pig Model

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    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with reduced bone mass and density in adult life. However, effects of maternal hypoxia (MH on offspring bone development are not known. Objective. The current study investigated the effects of fetal growth restriction induced by MH during the last half of gestation on bone structure and volume in the offspring of the fetus near term and the pup in adolescence. Methods. During 35–62-day gestation (term, 69d, guinea pigs were housed in room air (21% O2; control or 12% O2 (MH. Offspring femur and tibia were collected at 62d gestation and 120d after birth. Results. MH decreased fetal birth weight but did not affect osteogenic potential pools in the fetal bone marrow. Histological analysis showed no effects of MH on tibial growth plate thickness in either fetal or postnatal offspring, although there was increased VEGF mRNA expression in the growth plate of postnatal offspring. MH did not change primary spongiosa height but lowered collagen-1 mRNA expression in postnatal offspring. There was increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related gene (FABP4 in bone from the MH postnatal offspring. Conclusion. MH during late gestation did not change the pool of osteogenic cells before birth or growth plate heights before and after birth. However, MH reduced expression of bone formation marker (collagen-1 and increased expression of fat formation marker (FABP4 in postnatal offspring bone.

  15. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  16. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  17. The effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, canthaxanthin, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of progeny ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z Z; Wang, J P; Zeng, Q F; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Luo, Y H; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-03-01

    This trial studied the effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, and the mixture of canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on the performance of progeny ducklings. Four maternal diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (Regular and High; High premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than the Regular premix), and with or without the addition of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). Cherry Valley duck breeders (38-wk-old) were fed with corn-wheat flour-soybean meal-based diets for 8 wk, and then eggs were collected and hatched. Healthy ducklings (equal number of female and male) from each maternal group were randomly selected and received the same commercial starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 35 d) pellet diet for 35 d. Maternal High vitamin premix increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P = 0.001), BW (1 d, P growth performance and antioxidant status of ducklings.

  18. Effects of CdCl2 on the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and placental blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper is an essential element while Cd is an extremely toxic heavy metal of questionable biological usefulness. Cadmium has been reported to interfere with the metabolism of Cu, be teratogenic, and decrease blood flow in the fetal placenta. Because of these reported biological interactions of Cd and Cu, this investigation was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on placental transport of 67Cu and placental blood flow in the guinea pig. All guinea pigs used were 60 +/- 1 days pregnant. A placental perfusion technique was used to measure the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and 3H2O across the placenta. The clearance of 3H2O served as an indicator of placental blood flow on the maternal side of the circulation. The results indicated that an iv injection of 1 mg Cd/kg body weight resulted in an immediate increase in the clearance of 67Cu which declined over the next 8 min to an elevated level compared to the extrapolated best-fit curve of control values. This iv injection of CdCl2 concomitantly reduced the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 3H2O across the placenta. In conclusion, an acute exposure of the pregnant female to CdCl2 results in an increased maternal-to-fetal clearance 67Cu and a reduced placental blood flow that can alter the supply of nutrients to the developing embryo or fetus, and therefore modify normal development

  19. Social Autopsy of maternal, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh: qualitative exploration of its effect and community acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Eriksson, Charli; Halim, Abdul; Dalal, Koustuv

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social Autopsy (SA) is an innovative strategy where a trained facilitator leads community groups through a structured, standardised analysis of the physical, environmental, cultural and social factors contributing to a serious, non-fatal health event or death. The discussion stimulated by the formal process of SA determines the causes and suggests preventative measures that are appropriate and achievable in the community. Here we explored individual experiences of SA, including acceptance and participant learning, and its effect on rural communities in Bangladesh. The present study had explored the experiences gained while undertaking SA of maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in rural Bangladesh. Design Qualitative assessment of documents, observations, focus group discussions, group discussions and in-depth interviews by content and thematic analyses. Results Each community's maternal and neonatal death was a unique, sad story. SA undertaken by government field-level health workers were well accepted by rural communities. SA had the capability to explore the social reasons behind the medical cause of the death without apportioning blame to any individual or group. SA was a useful instrument to raise awareness and encourage community responses to errors within the society that contributed to the death. People participating in SA showed commitment to future preventative measures and devised their own solutions for the future prevention of maternal and neonatal deaths. Conclusions SA highlights societal errors and promotes discussion around maternal or newborn death. SA is an effective means to deliver important preventative messages and to sensitise the community to death issues. Importantly, the community itself is enabled to devise future strategies to avert future maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:27554100

  20. Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd E. Hefnawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Samples of allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver, kidney, maternal plasma and liver were collected from 30 ewes and classified into either early or late gestation and copper concentrations were measured. Approach: The Cu concentrations in the maternal plasma, allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and kidney increased significantly (pResults: Significant positive relationships were recorded between age of the fetus and Cu concentrations in the allantoic and amniotic fluid (r = 0.71-0.83, pConclusion: A significant negative correlation was recorded between the Cu concentrations in the maternal liver and fetal age (r = -0.74, p<0.01. Strong fetal-maternal relationships in Cu concentration were evident throughout the gestational period and dams seem to sacrifice Cu levels in order to maintain that in the fetus. Cu concentrations in the amniotic and allantoic fluids could be used as a possible indicator of the Cu status of the fetus throughout gestation.

  1. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  2. Effects of Hierarchical Roost Removal on Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Maternity Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Silvis; W Mark Ford; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in ca...

  3. Effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone on brain inflammation in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Kuypers

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are unknown. We hypothesized that antenatal glucocorticoids would modulate inflammation in the brain and prevent hippocampal and white matter injury after intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure. METHODS: Time-mated ewes received saline (control, an intra-amniotic injection of 10 mg LPS at 106d GA or 113d GA, maternal intra-muscular betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg maternal weight alone at 113d GA, betamethasone at 106d GA before LPS or betamethasone at 113d GA after LPS. Animals were delivered at 120d GA (term=150d. Brain structure volumes were measured on T2-weighted MRI images. The subcortical white matter (SCWM, periventricular white matter (PVWM and hippocampus were analyzed for microglia, astrocytes, apoptosis, proliferation, myelin and pre-synaptic vesicles. RESULTS: LPS and/or betamethasone exposure at different time-points during gestation did not alter brain structure volumes on MRI. Betamethasone alone did not alter any of the measurements. Intra-amniotic LPS at 106d or 113d GA induced inflammation as indicated by increased microglial and astrocyte recruitment which was paralleled by increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in the SCWM and decreased synaptophysin density in the hippocampus. Betamethasone before the LPS exposure at 113d GA prevented microglial activation and the decrease in synaptophysin. Betamethasone after LPS exposure increased microglial infiltration and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Intra-uterine LPS exposure for 7d or 14d before delivery induced inflammation and injury in the fetal white matter and hippocampus. Antenatal glucocorticoids aggravated the inflammatory changes in the brain caused by pre-existing intra-amniotic inflammation

  4. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm. PMID:20002162

  5. Sex-dependent maternal deprivation effects on brain monoamine content in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; O'Shea, Esther; Gutierrez-Lopez, M Dolores; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Colado, María Isabel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2010-07-26

    Rats subjected to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24h, postnatal days 9-10] show, later in life, behavioural alterations that resemble specific signs of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric signs including increased levels of impulsivity and an apparent difficulty to cope with stressful situations. Some of these behavioural modifications are observable in the periadolescent period. However there is no previous information regarding the possible underlying neurochemical correlates at this critical developmental period. In this study we have addressed the effects of MD on the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and their respective metabolites in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cerebellum of male and female periadolescent Wistar rats. MD rats showed significantly increased levels of 5-HT in all regions studied with the exception of cerebellum. In addition, MD animals showed increased levels of DA in PFC as well as increased levels of DA and a decrease of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios in striatum. The effect of MD on the monoaminergic systems was in several cases sex-dependent.

  6. Neonatal Adaptation Issues After Maternal Exposure to Prescription Drugs: Withdrawal Syndromes and Residual Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Irma; Sansone, Alice Capogrosso; Marino, Alessandra; Galiulo, Maria T; Mantarro, Stefania; Antonioli, Luca; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Tuccori, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy has the potential to harm offspring. Teratogenic effects are the most feared adverse outcomes in newborns; however, a wide spectrum of less known, usually reversible and often acute, neonatal adverse events can also occur due to drug intake by mothers during pregnancy, particularly in close proximity to delivery. This narrative review is aimed at the description of drugs and drug classes for which licit maternal use in the predelivery period has been associated with neonatal non-teratogenic disorders. For each drug class, epidemiology, clinical features, biological mechanism and management of these adverse reactions have been discussed in detail. Although these adverse reactions have been described mainly for substances used illicitly for recreational purposes, several prescription drugs have also been involved; these include mainly psychotropic medications such as opioids, antidepressants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. These effects can be partly explained by withdrawal syndromes (defined also as 'neonatal abstinence syndrome') caused by the delivery-related discontinuation of the drug disposition from the mother to the fetus, with symptoms that may include feeding disorders, tremors, irritability, hypotonia/hypertonia, vomiting and persistent crying, occurring a few hours to 1 month after delivery. Otherwise, neonatal neurological and behavioral effects can also be caused by a residual pharmacological effect due to an accumulation of the drug in the blood and tissues of the newborn, with various symptoms related to the toxic effects of the specific drug class, usually developing a few hours after birth. With few exceptions, validated protocols for the assessment and management of withdrawal or residual pharmacological effects of these drugs in neonates are often lacking or incomplete. Spontaneous reporting of these adverse reactions seems limited, although it might represent a useful tool for improving our knowledge about

  7. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  8. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  9. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  10. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  11. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring. PMID:27529279

  12. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring. PMID:27529279

  13. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27% or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%. Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55 and Day 90 of gestation (g90 and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160 and age at puberty period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC, cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2 mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  14. The effect of fetal gender on second-trimester maternal serum inhibin-A concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y H; Tang, M H

    2001-08-01

    Second-trimester serum inhibin-A is increasingly used as a fourth marker in addition to the triple test to screen for Down syndrome. We investigated whether fetal gender had an effect on serum inhibin-A concentration. A retrospective analysis was done on 316 normal pregnancies and 48 Down syndrome pregnancies in which maternal serum inhibin-A assays were performed between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation and in which the fetal sex was known. The median inhibin-A MoM (95% CI) for normal pregnancies in the presence of a male fetus was 0.93 (range 0.88-1.03). This was significantly lower than that in the presence of a female fetus (median MoM=1.04). The gender difference was not observed in the Down syndrome pregnancies. The increased inhibin-A concentration would lead to a 2.3-fold higher false-positive rate in the presence of a female fetus (10.6% vs. 4.6%; psex may be necessary when inhibin-A is used as a screening marker. PMID:11536266

  15. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Aksić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9 Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD. At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX, 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX, and 15% in motor cortex (MCX compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition.

  16. Gender-dependent effects of maternal immune activation on the behavior of mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid C Y Xuan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior.

  17. Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was≤3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ≤ 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

  18. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Long term effects of maternal protein restriction on postnatal lung alveoli development of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, S A; Mahmoud, O M; Salem, N A; Abdel-Alrahman, G; Hafez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition of women during pregnancy causes reduction in foetal growth and can adversely affect the development of the foetal lungs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal protein restriction on the postnatal lung development in neonatal period, and on lung structure in adult rat offspring. Female virgin Sprague-Dawley albino rats (more than 200 g) were used. One male rat was introduced into a cage with one female for matting. Once the pregnancy was confirmed, pregnant rats were divided into two main groups; each consists of 6 female as follow: 1 - normally nourished group; 2 - protein deficient group. After delivery, offspring were subdivided into three groups: 1 day after delivery, 2 weeks and 2 months postnatal. Rat body and lung weight were recorded and ratio of lung weight to body weight was assessed. Total plasma protein and serum albumin were assessed for all groups. Lung tissue stained with H&E for histological and morphometric analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the number of cells positive for pulmonary surfactant protein A. Our results showed that protein restriction interfere with neonatal and postnatal lung development resulting in morphological and morphometric changes of normal lung development. We concluded that protein deficiency lead to developmental retardation of lung. PMID:26620509

  20. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  1. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27300740

  2. Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

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    Bjørn Arne Rukke

    Full Text Available Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

  3. Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions. PMID:25996999

  4. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  5. An explicit test for the contribution of environmental maternal effects to rapid clinal differentiation in an invasive plant

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Lebeau, Julie; Meerts, Pierre; Mahy, Grégory

    2009-01-01

    Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic differentiation among populations. However, in such experiments, environmental maternal effects can influence phenotypic variation among individuals if seed sources are collected from field populations under variable environmental regimes. In the present study, we investigated the causes of an altitudina...

  6. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects.

  7. Effects of Maternal Diet and Exercise during Pregnancy on Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Fat of Weanling Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Raipuria; Hasnah Bahari; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high ...

  8. Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans, was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus, their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and

  9. The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Elementary and Junior High School Students’ Mental Health in Maku

    OpenAIRE

    Aghdam, Fatemeh Bakhtari; Ahmadzadeh, Sakineh; Hassanalizadeh, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Sabzmakan, Leila; Javadivala, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals’ fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents’ personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child’s personality than other factors. Given the mothers’ role in children’s mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation’s future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal ...

  10. Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Chopra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

  11. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine/Polydrug Use on Maternal-Infant Feeding Interactions During the First Year of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert; SATAYATHUM, SUDTIDA

    2005-01-01

    The effects of prenatal cocaine use on quality of maternal-infant interactions were evaluated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). A total of 341 (155 cocaine using; 186 non–cocaine using) low socioeconomic, primarily African-American dyads were evaluated longitudinally at birth, 6.5, and 12 months. Group differences over time were examined, controlling for covariates, using a mixed-model linear approach. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy were less sensitive to thei...

  12. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

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    Keisuke Itonaga

    Full Text Available The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability. Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  13. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, Keisuke; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation) may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing) in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design) during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii). Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability). Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  14. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

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    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  15. Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus

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    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

  16. The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Maccani, Matthew A; Francazio, Sarah; McGeary, John E

    2012-11-01

    The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse intrauterine conditions and exposures can influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as the child's future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. Previous studies have associated prenatal smoke exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders later in life. Researchers are now learning that many of the mechanisms whereby maternal smoke exposure may affect key pathways crucial for proper fetal growth and development are epigenetic in nature. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with altered DNA methylation and dysregulated expression of microRNA, but a deeper understanding of the epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy as well as how these epigenetic changes may affect later health and behavior remain to be elucidated. This article seeks to explore many of the previously described epigenetic alterations associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and assess how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development, as well as later child health, behavior, and well-being. We also outline future directions for this new and exciting field of research.

  17. Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Kimiyo Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care. However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%. Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%.Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the

  18. Estimation of direct and maternal breed effects for prediction of expected progeny differences for birth and weaning weights in three multibreed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Almeida, F A; Van Vleck, L D; Gregory, K E

    1997-05-01

    Direct and maternal breed effects on birth and 200-d weights were estimated for nine parental breeds (Hereford [H], Angus [A], Braunvieh [B], Limousin [L], Charolais [C], Simmental [S], Gelbvieh [G], Red Poll [R], and Pinzgauer [P]) that contributed to three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4B, 1/4C, 1/4L, 1/8H, 1/8A; MARC II = 1/4G, 1/4S, 1/4H, 1/4A; and MARC III = 1/4R, 1/4P, 1/4H, 1/4A). Records from each population, the composite plus pure breeds and crosses used to create each composite, were analyzed separately. The animal model included fixed effects of contemporary group (birth year-sex-dam age), proportions of individual and maternal heterosis and breed inheritance as covariates, and random effects of additive direct genetic (a) and additive maternal genetic (m) with covariance (a,m), permanent environment, and residual. Sampling correlations among estimates of genetic fixed effects were large, especially between direct and maternal heterosis and between direct and maternal breed genetic effects for the same breed, which were close to -1. This resulted in some large estimates with opposite sign and large standard errors for direct and maternal breed genetic effects. Data from a diallel experiment with H, A, B, and R breeds, from grading up and from a top cross experiment were required to separate breed effects satisfactorily into direct and maternal genetic effects. Results indicate that estimation of direct and maternal breed effects needed to predict hybrid EPD for multibreed populations from field data may not be possible. Information from designed crossbreeding experiments will need to be incorporated in some way.

  19. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

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    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  20. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

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    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  1. Developmental Fluoxetine Exposure Normalizes the Long-Term Effects of Maternal Stress on Post-Operative Pain in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Liesbeth Knaepen; Ine Rayen; Charlier, Thierry D.; Marianne Fillet; Virginie Houbart; Maarten van Kleef; Steinbusch, Harry W.; Jacob Patijn; Dick Tibboel; Joosten, Elbert A; Pawluski, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEarly life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study in...

  2. A comparative study of evaluate dose related feto-maternal effects of syntocinon during labor

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    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the duration of labor by augmenting labor with slow low regulated dose of syntocinon drip, thus reducing the maternal exhaustion and morbidity due to prolonged labor. There is significant reduction in the operative interference like LSCS, vacuum and forceps delivery, thus reducing maternal morbidity associated with operative interference and anesthesia. It also reduces the cost of medical services. The incidence of fetal distress and LSCS for the same does not increase in the augmentation group, indicating that syntocinon can be safely used for the augmentation. At this time, much attention in the field of obstetrics is focused on attempting to reduce the rate of cesarean section, not only to reduce maternal morbidity, but to lower the cost of medical care. Our finding is that syntocinon administration can significantly reduce the cesarean section rate. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1344-1348

  3. Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten Stephanie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. Methods An observational cohort study design was used. Mothers of babies who received the Read to Me! package in Nova Scotia born between January-August 2006 made up the intervention group (N = 1051. Mothers of babies born in Prince Edward Island between December 2006 and March 2008 made up the control group (N = 279 and did not receive any literacy package when their baby was born. A phone questionnaire was conducted consisting of questions regarding frequency and duration of maternal engagement in language and literacy-based activities with their infants. These activities included reading, singing, talking, listening to CDs and the radio and watching TV. Babies were aged 0–10 months at the time of the interview. Results Mothers who received the Read to Me! literacy package spent significantly more time reading to their babies, 17.9 ± 17.6 min/day compared to controls 12.6 ± 10.7 min/day, (p  Conclusions Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns.

  4. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  5. Maternal Side-Effects of Continuous vs. Intermittent Method of EntonoxDuring Labor: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Jila; Baghani, Roya; Tabaraei, Yaser; Rad, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Labor pain is one of the most tiresome types of pain. So human has been seeking to allay this pain until now. Administration of a suitable agent such as Entonox during labor is very beneficial for childbirth outcomes. Entonox can be administered in two ways: intermittently and continuously. The aim of this study is to demonstrate whether continuous method is as safe as intermittent method? This randomized clinical trial was performed in Mobini Hospital, Sabzevar, Iran. One hundred admitted women for vaginal delivery were included in this study. Fitted patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. After thorough training, the patients used Entonox during active phase of labor. Fifty parturients used it intermittently and 50 others used it continuously. Then, maternal adverse effects, satisfaction and labor progression were registered and compared in two groups. Statistical Analysis was performed by spss17 software, t-test and chi square test. The maternal side effects of Entonox had no significant difference in two groups (p>0.05). Mothers' satisfaction rate in continuous group was more than the intermittent group significantly (p<0.001). Meantime of active phase of labor had no significant difference between two groups (p=0.2). It seems that by more investigations, there will be conditions for mothers to choose the desired method of Entonox usage, intermittently or continuously. This approach leads to reduction of difficult labor and cesarean section and consequently helps improvement of maternal health level, both physically and psychologically. PMID:27642337

  6. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tschirren

    Full Text Available Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens.

  7. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin. PMID:27265168

  8. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  9. The effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health care at mission health facilities in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthalu, Gerald; Yi, Deokhee; Farrar, Shelley; Nkhoma, Dominic

    2016-11-01

    The Government of Malawi has signed contracts called service level agreements (SLAs) with mission health facilities in order to exempt their catchment populations from paying user fees. Government in turn reimburses the facilities for the services that they provide. SLAs started in 2006 with 28 out of 165 mission health facilities and increased to 74 in 2015. Most SLAs cover only maternal, neonatal and in some cases child health services due to limited resources. This study evaluated the effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health services. The difference-in-differences approach was combined with propensity score matching to evaluate the causal effect of user fee exemption. The gradual uptake of the policy provided a natural experiment with treated and control health facilities. A second control group, patients seeking non-maternal health care at CHAM health facilities with SLAs, was used to check the robustness of the results obtained using the primary control group. Health facility level panel data for 142 mission health facilities from 2003 to 2010 were used. User fee exemption led to a 15% (P services, however, other determinants may be more important.

  10. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin.

  11. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  12. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

    1985-04-01

    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  13. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  14. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

  15. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  16. Early Maternal Employment and Family Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Sara Markowitz; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2011-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the NICHD Study on Early Child Care (SECC) to examine the effects of maternal employment on family well-being, measured by maternal mental and overall health, parenting stress, and parenting quality. First, we estimate the effects of maternal employment on these outcomes measured when children are 6 months old. Next, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the effects of maternal employment on family outcomes during the first 4.5 years of children's ...

  17. Genetic and maternal determinants of effective dispersal : The effect of sire genotype and size at birth in side-blotched lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinervo, Barry; Calsbeek, Ryan; Comendant, Tosha; Both, Christiaan; Adamopoulou, Chloe; Clobert, Jean; Losos, Jonathan B.; Perrin, Nicolas (Associate)

    2006-01-01

    We assessed genetic factors on progeny dispersal due to sire color morph genotypes in a field pedigree and lab crosses, and we measured maternal effects by studying both natural and experimentally induced egg size variation. Progeny were released into nature upon hatching, but we recorded dispersal

  18. Stereological study of the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellar cortex development in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Vafaei-Nezhad, Saeed; Ghaemi, Kazem; Sadeghi, Akram; Ivar, Ghasem; Shojae, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with the deficits in balance and motor coordination and altered social behaviors in offspring. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the cerebellar volume and morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex of rat neonates during the first two postnatal weeks. Sprague Dawley female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition. At the end of pregnancy, the male offspring euthanized on postnatal days (P) 0, 7, and 14. Cavalieri's principle and fractionator methods were used to estimate the cerebellar volume, the thickness and the number of cells in the different layers of the cerebellar cortex. In spite of P0, there was a significant reduction in the cerebellar volume and the thickness of the external granule, molecular, and internal granule layers between the diabetic and the control animals. In diabetic group, the granular and purkinje cell densities were increased at P0. Moreover, the number of granular and purkinje cells in the cerebellum of diabetic neonates was reduced in comparison with the control group at P7 and P14. There were no significant differences in either the volume and thickness or the number of cells in the different layers of the cerebellar cortex between the insulin-treated diabetic group and controls. Our data indicate that diabetes in pregnancy disrupts the morphogenesis of cerebellar cortex. This dysmorphogenesis may be part of the cascade of events through which diabetes during pregnancy affects motor coordination and social behaviors in offspring. PMID:26842601

  19. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  20. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  1. Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome…

  2. Paternal involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervan, S.; Granic, I.; Solomon, T.; Blokland, K.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from fi

  3. The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

  4. Direct, maternal and nurse sow genetic effects on farrowing-pre-weaning- and total piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2002-01-01

    Peri- and postnatal survival data, including birth weights and cross-foster information from two line/farm combinations with 33717 and 29200 piglets, respectively, were analyzed to find the best genetic model to describe piglet survival. This was done in terms of direct (piglet), maternal and nurse

  5. Effects of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we reported increased umbilical artery blood flow in ewes supplemented with melatonin from mid- to late-pregnancy, while maternal nutrient restriction decreased uterine artery blood flow. To further unravel these responses, this study was designed to assess placental cell proliferation an...

  6. The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post-Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Annie W.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Wang, Jing; Self-Brown, Shannon; Davidson, Karen L.; Pellegrin, Angie; Palcic, Jeannette L.; Meyer, Kara; Paasch, Valerie; Baumeister, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8-16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3…

  7. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in Pla

  8. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  9. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  10. Effect of diet-induced maternal obesity on fetal skeletal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maternal environment, in particular nutritional status and diet composition during pregnancy, can alter the developmental trajectory of the fetus and change the risk for chronic disease processes such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer in the offspring. This knowledge suppor...

  11. Long term sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of maternal deprivation and juvenile unpredictable stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, R; Miguel-Blanco, C; Aisa, B; Lachize, S; Borcel, E; Meijer, O C; Ramirez, M J; De Kloet, E R; Viveros, M P

    2011-04-01

    We have analysed the long-term psychoneuroendocrine effects of maternal deprivation (MD) [24 h at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) during the periadolescent period (PND 28 to PND 43) in male and female Wistar rats. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM, anxiety) at PND 44 and in two memory tests, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition (NOT) in adulthood. The expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors, as well as of synaptophysin, neural cell adhesion molecule and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, was analysed by in situ hybridisation in selected hippocampal regions. Endocrine determinations of leptin, testosterone and oestradiol plasma levels were carried out by radioimmunoassay. Young CUS animals showed decreased anxiety behaviour in the EPM (increased percentage of time and entries in the open arms) irrespective of neonatal treatment. Memory impairments were induced by the two stressful treatments as was revealed by the NOT, with males being most clearly affected. Although each stressful procedure, when considered separately, induced different (always decrements) effects on the three synaptic molecules analysed and affected males and females differently, the combination of MD and CUS induced an unique disruptive effect on the three synaptic plasticity players. MD induced a long-term significant decrease in hippocampal GR only in males, whereas CUS tended to increase MR in males and decrease MR in females. Both neonatal MD and periadolescent CUS induced marked reductions in testosterone and oestradiol in males, whereas MD male animals also showed significantly decreased leptin levels. By contrast, in females, none of the hormones analysed was altered by any of the stressful procedures. Taking our data together in support of the 'two-hit' hypothesis, MD during neonatal life and/or exposure to CUS during the periadolescent period induced a permanent

  12. The effects of maternal anxiety during pregnancy on IGF2/H19 methylation in cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, T; Novakovic, B; Meyer, B; Rzehak, P; Vuillermin, P; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Burgner, D; Saffery, R; Ryan, J; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Carlin, John B; Allen, Katie J; Tang, Mimi L; Saffery, Richard; Ranganathan, Sarath; Burgner, David; Dwyer, Terry; Jachno, Kim; Sly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that maternal mental health in pregnancy can influence fetal development. The imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19, are involved in fetal growth and each is regulated by DNA methylation. This study aimed to determine the association between maternal mental well-being during pregnancy and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of IGF2 (DMR0) and the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) in newborn offspring. Maternal depression, anxiety and perceived stress were assessed at 28 weeks of pregnancy in the Barwon Infant Study (n=576). DNA methylation was measured in purified cord blood mononuclear cells using the Sequenom MassArray Platform. Maternal anxiety was associated with a decrease in average ICR methylation (Δ=−2.23% 95% CI=−3.68 to −0.77%), and across all six of the individual CpG units in anxious compared with non-anxious groups. Birth weight and sex modified the association between prenatal anxiety and infant methylation. When stratified into lower (⩽3530 g) and higher (>3530 g) birth weight groups using the median birth weight, there was a stronger association between anxiety and ICR methylation in the lower birth weight group (Δ=−3.89% 95% CI=−6.06 to −1.72%), with no association in the higher birth weight group. When stratified by infant sex, there was a stronger association in female infants (Δ=−3.70% 95% CI=−5.90 to −1.51%) and no association in males. All the linear regression models were adjusted for maternal age, smoking and folate intake. These findings show that maternal anxiety in pregnancy is associated with decreased IGF2/H19 ICR DNA methylation in progeny at birth, particularly in female, low birth weight neonates. ICR methylation may help link poor maternal mental health and adverse birth outcomes, but further investigation is needed. PMID:27023171

  13. Direct and maternal genetic effects on growth, reproduction, and ultrasound traits in zebu Brahman cattle in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R A; Dassonneville, R; Bejarano, D; Jimenez, A; Even, G; Mészáros, G; Sölkner, J

    2016-07-01

    Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BiW); adjusted weights at 4, 7, 12, and 18 mo; and ADG between 0 and 4 mo, between 4 and 7 mo, between 7 and 12 mo, and between 12 and 18 mo. Additionally, reproductive traits, calving interval, and age at first calving were analyzed, together with traits measured by ultrasound: loin eye area, deep fat mean, back fat, and rump fat. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering the fixed effects of the farm ( = 37), year and month of birth, sex, calving number (1 to 7), season (dry and rainy seasons), region (North Coast, Andean Region, and Oriental Savannas), and conception (natural mating or AI), whereas the age of the cows at calving was considered a polynomial covariate with linear and quadratic effects. Three different models were used to find the one with the best fit for each trait: a single-trait model with an additive direct genetic effect, a single-trait model with additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and finally, a multitrait model with an additive direct genetic effect. For the growth traits, the heritability was between 0.24 and 0.47, with the lowest value for weight at 7 mo and the greatest value for BiW, and the maternal heritability was found to be between 0.15 and 0.21 but did not decrease later on. The correlation between direct and maternal effects was high and negative (-0.59 to -0.76). With ultrasound traits, a model with only direct effects was used. The heritability was between 0.13 and 0.28 for back fat and loin eye area, respectively. The heritabilities for deep fat mean and rump fat were similar, being 0.19 and 0.21, respectively. The reproductive traits showed high residual variance. In particular, the heritability of calving interval was low (0.06). The results showed that the growth traits have an important genetic component, which is a favorable indicator for obtaining improvement progress in the zebu Brahman breed for beef production in

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Maternal Supportive Care and Acupressure (at BL32 Acupoint) on Labor Length and Infant's Apgar Score

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Prolonged labor leads to increase of cesarean deliveries, reduction of fetal heart rate, and maternal as well as infantile complications. Therefore, many women tend to use pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods for reduction of labor length. The present study aimed to compare the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (at BL32 acupoint) on labor length and infant's Apgar score. Methods: In this clinical trial, 150 women with low-risk pregnancy w...

  15. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate...

  16. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  17. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  18. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  19. Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-05-01

    Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was

  20. Genetic Analysis of Embryo, Cytoplasm and Maternal Effects and Their Environment Interactions for Isoflavone Content in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soybean seed products contain isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects for the isoflavone content (IC) of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal,embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore,the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability (65.73%) was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability (25.87%) and cytoplasmic heritability (8.39%). Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean. The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

  1. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eFuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces detrimental effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a substitute mother. The maternal care of biological and substitute mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the substitute mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of detrimental and beneficial effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may buffer the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  2. Effect of maternal PCOS and PCOS-like phenotype on the offspring's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. While the exact origin of PCOS is unknown, observations from clinical and animal studies suggest that maternal hyperandrogenism may be a contributing factor. Because women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenism during pregnancy, changes in the gestational endocrine milieu may play a role in the vertical transmission of this syndrome. This review discusses the potential developmental origins of PCOS, the impact of maternal PCOS on the offspring's health and contributions of the postnatal environment, capitalizing on findings from animal models that exhibit a PCOS-like phenotype. In addition, this review highlights the scarcity of data at early gestational stages in humans and the importance of animal experimentation to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the programming of adult diseases, therefore, helping identify therapeutic targets for preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:26639019

  3. Effect of maternal PCOS and PCOS-like phenotype on the offspring's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. While the exact origin of PCOS is unknown, observations from clinical and animal studies suggest that maternal hyperandrogenism may be a contributing factor. Because women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenism during pregnancy, changes in the gestational endocrine milieu may play a role in the vertical transmission of this syndrome. This review discusses the potential developmental origins of PCOS, the impact of maternal PCOS on the offspring's health and contributions of the postnatal environment, capitalizing on findings from animal models that exhibit a PCOS-like phenotype. In addition, this review highlights the scarcity of data at early gestational stages in humans and the importance of animal experimentation to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the programming of adult diseases, therefore, helping identify therapeutic targets for preventive and treatment strategies.

  4. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  5. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  6. Gender-Dependent Effects of Maternal Immune Activation on the Behavior of Mouse Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Ingrid C. Y.; Hampson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who we...

  7. Indiana bat summer maternity distribution: effects of current and future climates

    OpenAIRE

    Susan C Loeb; Winters, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Temperate zone bats may be more sensitive to climate change than other groups of mammals because many aspects of their ecology are closely linked to temperature. However, few studies have tried to predict the responses of bats to climate change. The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a federally listed endangered species that is found in the eastern United States. The northerly distribution of Indiana bat summer maternity colonies relative to their winter distributions suggests that warmer clima...

  8. Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Venke Furre; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how mother’s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child’s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different family types....

  9. The Effects of Maternal Mortality on Infant and Child Survival in Rural Tanzania: A Cohort Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Jocelyn E; Moucheraud, Corrina; Goshev, Simo; Levira, Francis; Mrema, Sigilbert; Canning, David; Masanja, Honorati; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    The full impact of a maternal death includes consequences faced by orphaned children. This analysis adds evidence to a literature on the magnitude of the association between a woman's death during or shortly after childbirth, and survival outcomes for her children. The Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in rural Tanzania conduct longitudinal, frequent data collection of key demographic events at the household level. Using a subset of the data from these sites (1996-2...

  10. Use of a computerised maternity information system to improve clinical effectiveness: thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G.; Mckenzie, C.; Mires, G.

    2000-01-01

    An audit of the introduction of a protocol for thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section revealed over treatment of low risk women and the under treatment of high risk women. A routine computer generated risk assessment profile was introduced as part of a maternity information system. Reaudit showed a significant improvement in adherence to the thromboprophylaxis protocol in all risk groups.


Keywords: thromboprophylaxis; caesarean section; computerised assessment

  11. Effects of maternal stress and obesity on human feto-placental glucocorticoid exposure

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, James Richard

    2014-01-01

    Fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids has been proposed as a key determinant of pregnancy outcome, as well as a predictor of long term health of the offspring through a phenomenon known as ‘developmental programming’. Obesity and ‘stress’ during pregnancy are two potential sources of altered fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. One in five pregnant women is obese at antenatal booking, and maternal obesity increases risk of offspring complications including higher birth weig...

  12. Beyond size–number trade-offs: clutch size as a maternal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research on life-history traits has viewed the link between clutch size and offspring size as a straightforward linear trade-off; the product of these two components is taken as a measure of maternal reproductive output. Investing more per egg results in fewer but larger eggs and, hence, offspring. This simple size–number trade-off has proved attractive to modellers, but our experimental studies on keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) reveal a more complex relatio...

  13. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner. PMID:27122310

  14. Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5

  15. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  16. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediates the effect of child maltreatment on behavioral and physiological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E Mark; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socioemotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3-6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on 2 consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than did nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. In addition, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  17. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  18. Seed fates in crop-wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  19. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems...... (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA...

  20. Effect of maternal lipid profile, C-peptide, insulin, and HBA1c levels during late pregnancy on large-for-gestational age newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Lin Hou; Huan-Huan Zhou; Xiao-Yang Chen; Xiu-Min Wang; Jie Shao; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns can increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that the levels of maternal blood lipids, connecting peptide (C-peptide), insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly different between LGA and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborns. This study aimed to determine the effect of the levels of maternal lipids, C-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c during late pregnancy on LGA newborns. Methods: This study comprised 2790 non-diabetic women in late pregnancy. Among their newborns, 2236 (80.1%) newborns were AGA, and 554 (19.9%) newborns were LGA. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and their case records. The levels of maternal fasting serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), C-peptide, insulin and blood HbA1c were measured. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables between the AGA and LGA groups, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was made to determine the independent risk factors for LGA newborns. Results: Maternal TG, C-peptide, insulin and HbA1c levels were signifi cantly higher in the LGA group than in the AGA group (P Conclusion: High maternal TG level during late pregnancy is signifi cantly associated with LGA newborns.

  1. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M A; Neville, T L; Reed, J J; Taylor, J B; Hallford, D M; Soto-Navarro, S A; Vonnahme, K A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2008-05-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se added as high-Se wheat at 3.0 mg/kg (Se-wheat), or sodium selenate at 3 (Se3) and 15 (Se15) mg/kg of Se. Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). Treatments were initiated at 50 +/- 5 d of gestation. The control, Se-wheat, Se3, and Se15 treatments provided 2.5, 75, 75, and 375 microg/kg of BW of Se, respectively. Ewe jugular blood samples were collected at 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, and 134 d of gestation. Fetal serum samples were collected at necropsy on d 134. In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of control) and dietary Se (adequate Se, 6 microg/kg of BW vs. high Se, 80 microg/kg of BW). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis). Blood samples were collected from the ewes at 62, 76, 90, 104, 118, 132, and 135 d of gestation. Fetal blood was collected at necropsy on d 135. In Exp.1, dietary Se source and concentration had no effect (P > 0.17) on maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations. Selenium supplementation increased (P = 0.06) the T(4):T(3) ratio vs. controls. In Exp. 2, dietary Se had no impact (P > 0.33) on main effect means for maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, T(3), or T(4) concentrations from d 62 to 132; however, at d 135, high-Se ewes had lower (P = 0.01) serum T(4) concentrations than adequate-Se ewes. A nutrition by Se interaction (P = 0.06) was detected for the T

  2. Assessing the Effect of mHealth Interventions in Improving Maternal and Neonatal Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Felicie Victoria Sondaal

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Availability and use of mobile phones is increasing rapidly with 90% of persons in developing countries having a mobile-cellular subscription. Mobile health (mHealth interventions have been proposed as effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal health. This systematic review assessed the effect of mHealth interventions that support pregnant women during the antenatal, birth and postnatal period in LMIC.The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42014010292. Six databases were searched from June 2014-April 2015, accompanied by grey literature search using pre-defined search terms linked to pregnant women in LMIC and mHealth. Quality of articles was assessed with an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Because of heterogeneity in outcomes, settings and study designs a narrative synthesis of quantitative results of intervention studies on maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes, service utilization, and healthy pregnancy education was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized with a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.In total, 3777 articles were found, of which 27 studies were included: twelve intervention studies and fifteen descriptive studies. mHealth interventions targeted at pregnant women increased maternal and neonatal service utilization shown through increased antenatal care attendance, facility-service utilization, skilled attendance at birth, and vaccination rates. Few articles assessed the effect on maternal or neonatal health outcomes, with inconsistent results.mHealth interventions may be effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal service utilization. Further studies assessing mHealth's impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes are recommended. The emerging trend of strong experimental research designs with randomized controlled trials, combined with feasibility research

  3. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Schwarz, A; Spinosa, H S; Florio, J C; Bernardi, M M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory suggested that the administration of antihistaminics (H(1) receptor antagonists) to pregnant Wistar rats throughout pregnancy altered brain sexual differentiation and dopaminergic physiology of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 20 mg/kg diphenhydramine (DPH) administration to pregnant rats during the fetal period of pregnancy [Gestation Days (GDs) 16-21], a critical period for brain sexual differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) maturation. Maternal body weight and water and food consumption were measured during pregnancy and offspring physical and behavioral development were evaluated during lactation. Offspring open-field behavior was assessed at 21 and 100 days of age. After the final open-field test, male and female sexual behavior, stereotypy following an apomorphine challenge, striatal content of dopamine (DA), the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. There were no significant treatment-related changes in maternal reproductive parameters, but DPH treatment decreased maternal body weight gain during the treatment period. Offspring physical parameters were not altered in the treated group, and no significant treatment-related changes were found in female open-field measures, sexual behavior or in striatal neurochemical measurements. However, delayed testis descent and altered patterns of sexual behavior occurred in male offspring accompanied by increased striatal DA, decreased striatal DOPAC as well as reduced DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to DPH during the fetal period of rat development altered postnatal CNS maturation and sexual development of male offspring via changes in striatal bioamine systems.

  5. The effect of locomotion on the mobilization of minerals from the maternal skeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Hood

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s. Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposing forces remains poorly understood. It is possible that inter-individual differences in the loading imposed by different forms of locomotion may alter the amount of mineral mobilized during reproduction. Here, the impact of vertical versus horizontal locomotion on bone mobilization was examined during reproduction in the laboratory mouse. The vertical, or climbing, group had access to a 60-cm tower, increasing strain on their appendicular skeleton. The horizontal, or tunnel, group had access to a 100-cm tunnel, which encouraged movements within the horizontal plane. Form of locomotion did not impact the amount of bone females mobilized during reproduction or the amount of mineral females deposited in the litter, but maternal bone architecture differed between groups. The climbing group displayed more trabeculae than the tunnel group, whereas the tunnel group displayed greater cortical bone mineral density mid-shaft. Interestingly, pups born to mothers in the climbing group had a higher concentration of total body calcium at 16 days than pups of mothers in the tunnel group. As maternal total body calcium composition and the amount of calcium invested in the full litter were not different between groups, the difference in the relative calcium content of pups between groups is not suspected to reflect difference in mineral allocation. Future research should consider the impact of maternal activity on the efficiency of offspring skeletal ossification via

  6. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. PMID:27174826

  7. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Ozanne, S. E.;

    2015-01-01

    inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An LPS challenge results in an immunological response that resembles the obesity‐induced immune profile, although LPS injections provoke a stronger response than the subclinical obesity‐associated response. Maternal LPS or cytokine......‐grade inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, that pregnancy can improve disease state. If pregnancy is also capable of suppressing the obesity‐associated inflammation, the immunological markers might be less likely to affect metabolic programming in the developing foetus than otherwise implied....

  8. Effect of maternal undernutrition on human foetal pancreas morphology in second trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Uday Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Results: Significant correlations between maternal and foetal parameters were seen. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the number, size or density and beta cell counts of the pancreas among foetal pancreas of mothers with BMI 18.5 kg/m 2 . Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that nutritional status of the mother may not have profound influence on the morphology of beta cells of foetal pancreas in second trimester of pregnancy. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.

  9. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  10. Fitness drivers in the threatened Dianthus guliae Janka (Caryophyllaceae): disentangling effects of growth context, maternal influence and inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, D; Gullo, T; Bernardo, L

    2011-01-01

    We studied inbreeding depression, growth context and maternal influence as constraints to fitness in the self-compatible, protandrous Dianthus guliae Janka, a threatened Italian endemic. We performed hand-pollinations to verify outcomes of self- and cross-fertilisation over two generations, and grew inbred and outbred D. guliae offspring under different conditions - in pots, a common garden and field conditions (with/without nutrient addition). The environment influenced juvenile growth and flowering likelihood/rate, but had little effect on inbreeding depression. Significant interactions among genetic and environmental factors influenced female fertility. Overall, genetic factors strongly affected both early (seed mass, seed germination, early survival) and late (seed/ovule ratio) life-history traits. After the first pollination experiment, we detected higher mortality in the selfed progeny, which is possibly a consequence of inbreeding depression caused by over-expression of early-acting deleterious alleles. The second pollination induced a strong loss of reproductive fitness (seed production, seed mass) in inbred D. guliae offspring, regardless of the pollination treatment (selfing/crossing); hence, a strong (genetic) maternal influence constrained early life-history traits of the second generation. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that self-compatibility does not prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding in D. guliae populations, and may increase the severe extinction risk if out-crossing rates decrease.

  11. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  12. Maternal care

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

  13. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  14. The effect of alfentanil on maternal haemodynamic changes due to tracheal intubation in elective caesarean sections under general anaesthesia

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    Seyedeh Masoumeh Hosseini Valami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Endotracheal intubation can produce severe maternal haemodynamic changes during caesarean sections under general anaesthesia. However, administration of narcotics before endotracheal intubation to prevent these changes may affect the Apgar score in neonates. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of intravenous alfentanil on haemodynamic changes due to endotracheal intubation in elective caesarean sections performed under general anaesthesia. Methods: Fifty parturients were randomly divided into two equal groups. Patients in the first group received alfentanil 10 μg/kg and in the second group received placebo intravenously 1 min before induction of anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. Haemodynamic parameters and bispectral index system (BIS in mothers, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and Apgar score in the newborn were assessed. Results: Changes in systolic blood pressure were significant at 1, 5 and 10 min after intubation between two groups. Changes in diastolic blood pressure were significantly less in alfentanil group, 1 min after induction of anaesthesia and 1 min after endotracheal intubation. Mean heart rate at 1 min after induction and at 1 and 5 min after intubation also reduced significantly in this group. Conclusion: Alfentanil use was associated with decreases or minimal increases in maternal systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate after endotracheal intubation.

  15. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  16. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

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    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  17. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  18. Independent and Combined Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Growth at 0-3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Yuan; Lv, Yao; Bao, Yu; Tang, Li; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Shao, Jie; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring growth at 0-3 years old. Methods. A total of 826 pairs of nondiabetic mothers and their offspring were recruited in this study. Maternal information was abstracted from medical records and questionnaires. Offspring growth trajectories of weights and BMIs were depicted based on anthropometric measurements. Results. Offspring of mothers who were prepregnancy overweight/obese or obtained excessive GWGs continuously had greater weight and BMI Z-scores throughout the first 3 years of life. Children of prepregnancy overweight/obese mothers with excessive GWGs had a phenotype of higher weight and BMI Z-scores than those prepregnancy overweight/obese ones with nonexcessive GWGs from birth to 18 months. Maternal excessive GWGs increased offspring's risk of overweight/obesity at 12 months (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03-2.00) and 24 months (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.25). Combination of excessive prepregnancy BMIs and GWGs was significantly associated with offspring's overweight/obesity at 30 months (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.53). Conclusions. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG are both significantly associated with rapid offspring growth from birth to 3 years old. Excessive GWGs strengthen the effects of high maternal prepregnancy BMIs on excessive offspring growth during their early life. PMID:27652262

  19. Effective Implement of Maternal Health Education%孕产期健康教育工作的有效实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑凤华

    2012-01-01

    Maternal health education can increase maternal self-care awareness, improve self-care ability, and enhance the confidence of pregnant women on pregnancy. Maternal health education contributes to reducing the complication of pregnancy. It also has positive stimulative effect on improving maternal health and eugenics. But the execution of current prenatal health education still exists many problems such as imperfect system,single education content, weak narrow interaction, consciousness of human care and so on. This article investigates effective implement of maternal health education during the period of preconception, pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, after discharge and related system construction.%孕产期健康教育可增加孕产妇自我保健意识、提高自我监护能力、增强成功分娩信心、降低妊娠合并症及并发症发生率,对提高孕产妇身心健康水平、达到优生优育目的 具有积极促进作用.但目前孕产期健康教育工作仍存在内容狭隘、形式单一、互动缺乏、制度不健全及人文关怀意识淡薄等问题.作者拟就孕产期健康教育工作的有效实施及落实情况等,综述如下.

  20. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  1. Effects of maternal education on infant mortality and stillbirths in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O; Madsen, Mette

    1999-01-01

    This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113......,814 births. When adjusted for mother's age, parity, and smoking, the stillbirth rate was independent of mother's educational level, but a clear social gradient in infant mortality was observed. Compared with a similar study in 1982-83, infant mortality has decreased most in the highest educational group...... and has increased in the lowest educational group. In conclusion, social inequality in infant mortality in Denmark is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in smoking habits. The social gap between different educational groups has widened during the last decade, but may partly be explained...

  2. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.;

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers...... DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive......-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants....

  3. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.;

    2011-01-01

    used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two...... strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was...

  4. Children's hedonic judgments of cigarette smoke odor: effects of parental smoking and maternal mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A; Mennella, Julie A

    2005-12-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3- to 8-year-old children's liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  5. Children’s Hedonic Judgments of Cigarette Smoke Odor: Effects of Parental Smoking and Maternal Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A.; Monell, Julie A. Mennella

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3-to 8-year-old children’s liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  6. Effects of the physical accessibility of maternal health services on their use in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Guirlène Calixte, Marie

    2006-11-01

    An analysis of data from the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey shows that little use is made of antenatal and delivery-care services in rural Haiti. After adjusting for individual-level factors, poor road conditions significantly reduce the likelihood of timely receipt of antenatal care and of four or more antenatal care visits, while the availability of a health centre within 5 kilometres significantly increases the odds of each outcome. The odds of being attended at delivery by trained medical personnel and of institutional delivery are significantly reduced by mountainous terrain and distance from the nearest hospital, and are increased if a health worker providing antenatal care is present in the neighbourhood. Neighbourhood poverty reduces the likelihood of safe delivery care. The findings suggest that improving the use made of maternal healthcare services would require, among other things, improvement of the availability of services and road conditions, and the reduction of poverty.

  7. Fluoxetine normalizes the effects of prenatal maternal stress on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mouse dams and male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Fatehi-Gharehlar, Laleh; Motayagheni, Negar; Homberg, Judith R

    2016-09-15

    Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period (lactation) is a common debilitating condition affecting mother-fetus/-infant interactions, which can be a risk factor for cognitive and affective disorders in mothers and their children. Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-(SSRI) pharmacotherapy is known as the first-line treatment of maternal depression. However, its use during pregnancy and lactation is a topic of concern. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone or in combination with fluoxetine (FLX) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity, anxiety-/depression-like behaviors in dams and in offspring. To do this, gestationally-stressed and non-stressed mouse dams were orally treated with FLX-(8/mg/kg/day) from gestational day 10 to lactation day 20. The behavioral outcomes of prenatal stress and FLX treatment in dams and male offspring were assessed using the sucrose preference, forced swim, zero maze, and light-dark box tests. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also evaluated as indicative of abnormal HPA-axis function. Our findings indicated that maternal stress resulted in increased depression-like behavior and HPA axis hyperactivity in dams during pregnancy and lactation which were reversed by FLX. Furthermore, prenatal stress increased anxiety/depression-like behaviors and HPA-axis reactivity in male offspring. These effects were reversed by maternal FLX treatment. Developmental FLX exposure, without prenatal stress, did not have any adverse effects on the above measured parameters. Our results suggest that prenatal stress induces maternal depression-like behavior which affects the development of affective symptoms in male offspring, and that remediation of maternal depression-like behavior coincidences with the normalization of anxiety-and depression-like symptoms in male offspring. PMID:27263073

  8. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, immunological and morphological changes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43 in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8 and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2 mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses.

  9. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  10. Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

    2014-06-01

    The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress.

  11. Maternity or catastrophe: a study of household expenditure on maternal health care in India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Using data from 60th round of the National Sample Survey, this study attempts to measure the incidence and intensity of ‘catastrophic’ maternal health care expenditure and examines its socio-economic correlates in urban and rural areas separately. Additionally, it measures the effect of maternal health care expenditure on poverty incidence and examines the factors associated with such impoverishment due to maternal health care payments. We found that maternal health care expenditure in urban ...

  12. The effect of health-facility admission and skilled birth attendant coverage on maternal survival in India: a case-control analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research in areas of low skilled attendant coverage found that maternal mortality is paradoxically higher in women who seek obstetric care. We estimated the effect of health-facility admission on maternal survival, and how this effect varies with skilled attendant coverage across India. METHODS/FINDINGS: Using unmatched population-based case-control analysis of national datasets, we compared the effect of health-facility admission at any time (antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum on maternal deaths (cases to women reporting pregnancies (controls. Probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage, among both women who were and were not admitted to a health-facility, however, the risk of death among women who were admitted was higher (at 50% coverage, OR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.85-2.92 than among those women who were not; while at higher levels of coverage, the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated. In a secondary analysis, the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing coverage among both women admitted for delivery or delivered at home but there was no effect of admission for delivery on mortality risk (50% coverage, OR = 1.0, 0.80-1.25, suggesting that poor quality of obstetric care may have attenuated the benefits of facility-based care. Subpopulation analysis of obstetric hemorrhage cases and report of 'excessive bleeding' in controls showed that the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage; but the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated (at 50% coverage, OR = 1.47, 0.95-1.79, suggesting that some of the effect in the main model can be explained by women arriving at facility with complications underway. Finally, highest risk associated with health-facility admission was clustered in women with education ≤ 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of health-facility admission did vary by skilled attendant coverage, and

  13. Effects of oral administration of caffeine on some physiological parameters and maternal behaviour of sows at farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superchi, Paola; Saleri, Roberta; Farina, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Riccardi, Enzo; Sabbioni, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine has been demonstrated to have a protective effect on neonatal viability of piglets. In order to assess whether caffeine, administered to parturient sows, also affects maternal behaviour, respiratory rate, and dopamine, nitric oxide and serotonin plasma levels, 20 sows, with induced parturition, received orally 27mg/kg of body weight of caffeine (T group; n=10) or not (NT group; n=10), on day 113 of gestation. Treatment did not affect the farrowing length. There were less stillborn piglets in T group than NT group (0.67 vs 2.44; Pbirth was observed. Caffeine did not affect physiological parameters of sows, as the behaviour score of sows laying on belly was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, although the present study was carried out with a limited number of sows, administration of caffeine to parturient sows has the potential for reducing the number of stillborn. PMID:27033919

  14. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  15. No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D; Mackay, Deborah;

    2012-01-01

    of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR......Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations...... in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases....

  16. Effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality in Rizhao City%日照市婚前检查对孕产妇死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永英; 刘杰; 厉君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婚前检查对孕产妇死亡的预防指导作用及效果。方法:分析日照市1998-2013年婚前医学检查和孕产妇死亡资料,分析婚前医学检查对孕产妇死亡的影响。结果:孕产妇死亡率呈逐年缓慢下降的趋势,当婚检率变化较大时,孕产妇死亡率有显著变化(P<0.05)。结论:婚前检查是一级预防措施,应引导广大青年自觉接受婚前医学检查,接受优生优育指导,从而减少孕产妇死亡风险。%Objective:To explore the prevention guidance function and effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality. Methods:The premarital medical examination and maternal death data from 1998 to 2013 in Rizhao City were analyzed.The effect of premarital medical examination on maternal mortality was analyzed.Results:The maternal mortality was a slow downward trend year by year.When the premarital examination rate change was large,there was significant change in maternal mortality(P<0.05). Conclusion:Premarital examination is primary prevention measure.We should guide the youth to consciously accept the premarital medical examination,and accept the eugenic and superior nurture guidance,to reduce the risk of maternal death.

  17. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-02-01

    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.

  18. Isolation and genetic characterization of mother-of-snow-white, a maternal effect allele affecting laterality and lateralized behaviors in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Domenichini

    Full Text Available In the present work we report evidence compatible with a maternal effect allele affecting left-right development and functional lateralization in vertebrates. Our study demonstrates that the increased frequency of reversed brain asymmetries in a zebrafish line isolated through a behavioral assay is due to selection of mother-of-snow-white (msw, a maternal effect allele involved in early stages of left-right development in zebrafish. msw homozygous females could be identified by screening of their progeny for the position of the parapineal organ because in about 50% of their offspring we found an altered, either bilateral or right-sided, expression of lefty1 and spaw. Deeper investigations at earlier stages of development revealed that msw is involved in the specification and differentiation of precursors of the Kupffer's vesicle, a structure homologous to the mammalian node. To test the hypothesis that msw, by controlling Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis, controls lateralized behaviors related to diencephalic asymmetries, we analyzed left- and right-parapineal offspring in a "viewing test". As a result, left- and right-parapineal individuals showed opposite and complementary eye preference when scrutinizing a model predator, and a different degree of lateralization when scrutinizing a virtual companion. As maternal effect genes are expected to evolve more rapidly when compared to zygotic ones, our results highlight the driving force of maternal effect alleles in the evolution of vertebrates behaviors.

  19. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  20. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte; Wright, Dave;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigate gestational age dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. Methods: Data arise from prospective...

  1. Effects of paternal and maternal lifestyle factors on pregnancy complications and perinatal outcome. A population-based birth-cohort study : the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Groen, H.; Buiter-Van der Meer, A.; Sijtsma, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Corpeleijn, E.; Hoek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Do paternal and maternal lifestyle factors influence the risk of hypertensive pregnancy complications, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), spontaneous preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)? Paternal lifestyle factors do not exert an independent effect on the investigated outcomes while

  2. Effect of maternal antibiotic intervention in sows on gut development and microbiota in offspring : report of Feed4Foodure, VDI-2: 2013/2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, de A.; Schokker, D.; Roubos, P.; Ramaekers, P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Bikker, P.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Bree, de F.M.; Bossers, A.; Harders, F.L.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant contribution to microbial colonization of piglets comes from the sow: via vertical transmission of vaginal flora during birth and transmission of mucosal immune memory and flora by feaces, colostrum and milk. In this study we determine the effect of an maternal nutritional intervention

  3. Effect of maternally derived antibodies on the clinical signs and immune response in pigs after primary and secondary infection with an influenza H1N1 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Heinen, P.P.; Bianchi, A.T.J.; Hunneman, W.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against an influenza H1N1 virus in the clinical protection of piglets and especially their effect on the development of the active immunity after an infection with a homologous influenza H1N1 virus. Twenty piglets

  4. Genetic parameters of piglet survival and birth weight from a two-generation crossbreeding experiment under outdoor conditions designed to disentangle direct and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehe, R; Shrestha, N P; Mekkawy, W; Baxter, E M; Knap, P W; Smurthwaite, K M; Jarvis, S; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2010-04-01

    Multivariate Bayesian linear-threshold models were used to estimate genetic parameters of peri- and postnatal piglet survival and individual birth weight of piglets reared under outdoor conditions. Data of 21,835 individual piglet observations were available from a 2-generation crossbreeding experiment selected for direct and maternal genetic effects of postnatal piglet survival on piglet and dam levels, respectively. In the first generation, approximately one-half of the Landrace sires used were selected for large or average breeding values of maternal genetic effects on postnatal piglet survival, whereas in the second generation the Large White sires used were selected for direct genetic effects of the same trait. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.24 and 0.14, and 0.36 and 0.28 for piglet survival at birth and during the nursing period, and individual birth weight, respectively. In particular, direct heritabilities are substantially larger than those from the literature estimated for indoor-reared piglets, suggesting that genetic effects of these traits are substantially greater under outdoor conditions. Direct or maternal genetic correlations between survival traits or with birth weight were small (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17), indicating that peri- and postnatal survival are genetically under rather different control, and survival was only slightly positively influenced by birth weight. There were significant (P piglet survival. Adjustment of traits for litter size or inclusion of genetic groups showed insignificant effects on the magnitude of the estimated genetic parameters. The magnitude of genetic parameters suggested that there is substantial potential for genetic improvement of survival traits and birth weight in direct and maternal genetic effects, especially when piglets are kept under outdoor conditions.

  5. Effectiveness of the linkage of child care and maternity payments to childhood immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Glenda L; MacIntyre, C Raina; Hull, Brynley P; McIntyre, Peter B

    2004-06-01

    In 1998, Australia enacted comprehensive national legislation making receipt of the maternity immunisation allowance (MIA) and the child care benefit (CCB) conditional on evidence of age-appropriate immunisation. We assessed the impact of this policy on immunisation status using a nationally representative population-based case-control study of 589 fully immunised controls and 190 incompletely immunised cases, aged 28-31 months. Immunisation status was significantly associated with parent awareness of the MIA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.28 - 4.91) and CCB (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.30 - 3.34). Only 31% of the 219 control parents who were receiving the CCB reported that they could continue to afford child care without the assistance of the CCB. The use of legislated financial immunisation incentives for parents appears to be widely accepted among Australian parents and to have had an impact on immunisation uptake. The policy may serve as a model for other comparable countries. PMID:15149795

  6. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  7. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  8. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  9. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  10. The effects of birth weight and maternal care on survival of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lions were listed as endangered following a collapse of the western distinct population beginning in the late 1970s. Low juvenile survival has been implicated as a factor in the decline. I conducted a multistate mark-recapture analysis to estimate juvenile survival in an area of the western population where sea lions are showing signs of recovery. Survival for males and females was 80% between 3 weeks and 1 year of age. Approximately 20% of juveniles continued to be nursed by their mothers between ages 1 and 2 and 10% between ages 2 and 3. Survival for juveniles that suckled beyond 1 year was 88.2% and 89.9% to ages 2 and 3, respectively. In contrast, survival for individuals weaned by age 1 was 40.6% for males and 64.2% for females between ages 1 and 2. Birth mass positively influenced survival for juveniles weaned at age 1 but had little effect on individuals continuing to suckle. Cumulative survival to age 4 was double that estimated during the population decline in this region. Evidence suggests that western Steller sea lions utilize a somewhat different maternal strategy than those in the eastern distinct population. Western adult females generally invest more in their pups during the first year but wean offspring by age 1 more often. This results in better survival to age 1, but greater mortality between ages 1 and 3 compared to the eastern population. Different maternal strategies may reflect density dependent pressures of populations at opposite levels of abundance.

  11. Effects of Maternal Chromium Restriction on the Long-Term Programming in MAPK Signaling Pathway of Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    It is now broadly accepted that the nutritional environment in early life is a key factor in susceptibility to metabolic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of maternal chromium restriction in vivo on the modulation of lipid metabolism and the mechanisms involved in this process. Sixteen pregnant C57BL mice were randomly divided into two dietary treatments: a control (C) diet group and a low chromium (L) diet group. The diet treatment was maintained through gestation and lactation period. After weaning, some of the pups continued with either the control diet or low chromium diet (CC or LL), whereas other pups switched to another diet (CL or LC). At 32 weeks of age, serum lipid metabolism, proinflammatory indexes, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant markers, and DNA methylation status in adipose tissue were measured. The results indicated that the maternal low chromium diet increased body weight, fat pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). There was a decrease in serum reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio at 32 weeks of age in female offspring. From adipose tissue, we identified 1214 individual hypomethylated CpG sites and 411 individual hypermethylated CpG sites in the LC group when compared to the CC group. Pathway analysis of the differential methylation genes revealed a significant increase in hypomethylated genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the LC group. Our study highlights the importance of the MAPK signaling pathway in epigenetic changes involved in the lipid metabolism of the offspring from chromium-restricted dams. PMID:27517955

  12. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A.; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos. PMID:25540130

  13. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  14. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1 and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos.

  15. Effects of Maternal Chromium Restriction on the Long-Term Programming in MAPK Signaling Pathway of Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    It is now broadly accepted that the nutritional environment in early life is a key factor in susceptibility to metabolic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of maternal chromium restriction in vivo on the modulation of lipid metabolism and the mechanisms involved in this process. Sixteen pregnant C57BL mice were randomly divided into two dietary treatments: a control (C) diet group and a low chromium (L) diet group. The diet treatment was maintained through gestation and lactation period. After weaning, some of the pups continued with either the control diet or low chromium diet (CC or LL), whereas other pups switched to another diet (CL or LC). At 32 weeks of age, serum lipid metabolism, proinflammatory indexes, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant markers, and DNA methylation status in adipose tissue were measured. The results indicated that the maternal low chromium diet increased body weight, fat pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). There was a decrease in serum reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio at 32 weeks of age in female offspring. From adipose tissue, we identified 1214 individual hypomethylated CpG sites and 411 individual hypermethylated CpG sites in the LC group when compared to the CC group. Pathway analysis of the differential methylation genes revealed a significant increase in hypomethylated genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the LC group. Our study highlights the importance of the MAPK signaling pathway in epigenetic changes involved in the lipid metabolism of the offspring from chromium-restricted dams. PMID:27517955

  16. Maternal and neonatal effects of nalbuphine given immediately before induction of general anesthesia for elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although nalbuphine was studied extensively in labour analgesia and was proved to be acceptable analgesics during delivery, its use as premedication before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nalbuphine given before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section on quality of general anesthesia, maternal stress response, and neonatal outcome. Methods: Sixty full term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section, randomly classified into two equal groups, group N received nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of normal saline (n=30, and group C placebo (n=30 received 10 ml of normal saline 1 min before the induction of general anesthesia. Maternal heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction, during surgery, and after recovery. Neonates were assisted by using APGAR0 scores, time to sustained respiration, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Result: Maternal heart rate showed significant increase in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (88.2±4.47 versus 80.1±4.23, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (90.8±2.39 versus 82.6±2.60, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. MABP increased in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (100.55±6.29 versus 88.75±6.09, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (98.50±2.01 versus 90.50±2.01, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. APGAR score was significantly low at one minute in nalbuphine group than control group (6.75±2.3, 8.5±0.74, respectively, P=0.0002 (27% of nalbuphine group APGAR score ranged between 4-6, while 7% in control group APGAR score ranged between 4-6 at one minute. All neonates at five minutes showed APGAR score ranged between 9-10. Time to sustained respiration was significantly longer in nalbuphine group than control group (81.8

  17. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  18. Effect of maternal and neonatal factors on cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal G Lakshminarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Cord blood Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (CBTSH level is an accepted screening tool for CH. Objectives: To study CBTSH profile in neonates born at tertiary care referral center and to analyze the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on their levels. Design: Cross retrospective sectional study. Methods: Study population included 979 neonates (males = 506 to females = 473. The CBTSH levels were estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Cobas analyzer. Kit based cut-offs of TSH level were used for analysis. All neonates with abnormal CBSTH levels, were started on levothyroxine supplementation 10 μg/Kg/day and TSH levels were reassessed as per departmental protocol. Results: The mean CBTSH was 7.82 μIU/mL (Range 0.112 to 81.4, SD = 5.48. The mean CBTSH level was significantly higher in first order neonates, neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, delivered at term or preterm, neonates with APGAR score 16.10 and 16.1 μIU/mL was significantly higher in neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, term and preterm neonates, APAGR score of 16.10 and <1.0 led to a recall of 5.41% of neonates which is practicable given the scenario in our Country. The mode of delivery and perinatal stress factors have a significant impact on CBTSH levels and any rise to be seen in the light of these factors. The prevalence rate of CH after recall was ~3 in 1000 live births.

  19. The Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on Fetal Rats of FGR and the Expression of Caspase-3 in the Placenta of Maternal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZOU Li

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the fetal rats of FGR and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat; To explore the mechanism of using magnesium sulfate to cure the FGR. Establish model of FGR by a way of passive smoking: giving the maternal rats different agent of magnesium sulfate by subcutaneous injection: low agent group (300 mg/kg),high agent group (600 mg/kg). Concentration of magnesium sulfate was monitored. The expres sion of caspase-3 was measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry technology. Both of the concentrations of magnesium sulfate in high and low agents group are higher than the FGR group (P<0. 01); the weight of the placenta and fetal rat in high agent group are higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 and P<0.01); the expression of mRNA and protein of caspase-3 in the two agent group is higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 respectively); concentration of magnesium sulfate in the maternal rat blood correlate to the weight of fetal rat (r=0. 899, P=0. 038) and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat (r= 0.747, P 0.033; r=-0. 915, P=0.001).The research suggests that the weight of fetal rat could be increased by treatment of magnesium sulfate. Because it would imfrmove the placental function by depressing the expression of caspase-3.

  20. Somatic classification of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference: quantification of the effects of maternal BMI and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Manfred; Zels, Krisztina; Guthmann, Florian; Hesse, Volker; Görlich, Yvonne; Straube, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    We defined neonates as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. We analyzed the effects on the somatic classification of maternal body mass index (BMI) (weight. In the normal maternal weight population SGA rates increased with cigarette consumption: 9.8%, 17.8%, 21.6%, and 25.4% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In non-smoking underweight women the SGA rate was 17.4%. In underweight smokers of ≥ 15 cigarettes daily the SGA rate was 38.5% [odds ratio 5.77, 95% confidence interval 5.10-6.53, compared with normal weight non-smokers]. In the normal maternal weight population, LGA rates were 9.9%, 5.3%, 4.6%, and 3.5% for non-smokers, and smokers of 1-7, 8-14, and ≥ 15 cigarettes daily, respectively. In the obese, LGA rates were 20.9% (non-smokers) and 11.4% (≥ 15 cigarettes). Similar findings were obtained for the somatic classifications based on birth length and head circumference. Results for the various combinations of maternal BMI and smoking status in the three classification systems are described. Our findings may assist in individualized risk assessment for SGA and LGA births. PMID:21526885

  1. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprogramming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. PMID:27632913

  2. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  3. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprogramming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts.

  4. Effectiveness of mHealth interventions for maternal, newborn and child health in low- and middle-income countries:Systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siew Hwa; Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; Nwaru, Bright I; Mukherjee, Mome; Grant, Liz; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).METHODS: 16 online international databases were searched to identify studies evaluating the impact of mHealth interventions on MNCH outcomes in LMIC, between January 1990 and May 2014. Comparable studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis.FINDINGS: Of 8593 unique references screened after de-duplication, 15 research articles and ...

  5. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi;

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat....... The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys...

  6. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  7. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  8. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

  9. The Intergenerational Effects on Birth Weight and Its Relations to Maternal Conditions, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Leide Irislayne Macena da Costa e; Filumena Maria da Silva Gomes; Maria Helena Valente; Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar; Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Parents' birth weight acts as a predictor for the descendant birth weight, with the correlation more strongly transmitted through maternal line. The present research aims to study the correlation between the child's low or increased birth weight, the mother's birth weight, and maternal conditions. Methods. 773 mother-infant binomials were identified with information on both the baby's and the mother's birth weight recorded. Group studies were constituted, dividing t...

  10. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh Beatriz E; Locke Robert; Paul David A; Hoffman Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission ...

  11. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh, Beatriz E; Locke, Robert; Paul, David A; Hoffman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not b...

  12. The effect of nesting material on the nest-building and maternal behavior of domestic sows and piglet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Simecková, M; Kratinová, P

    2011-02-01

    Nest building is an important part of maternal behavior in domestic pigs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nesting material sawdust vs. straw on sow behavior 24 h before and after birth of the first piglet (BFP) and piglet production. Sows, housed in farrowing crates, were randomly divided into 2 treatments: sawdust (n = 12) and straw (n = 13). Sawdust and straw were provided during the pre- and parturient period; after parturition, straw was given to both experimental groups. The prepartum nesting period (the time interval between the first and last nest-building records, including all other activity and resting before BFP), the nesting records (number of nesting records), nesting duration (duration of all nesting records), the start and termination of nesting, and the frequency of prepartum postural changes were collected 24 h before BFP. After BFP, number of nesting records and time to first sucking of the litter were collected. Frequency of postural changes and duration of udder access were collected 24 h after BFP during 3 time periods (during parturition, from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP) and the frequency of nursing during 2 time periods (from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP). Piglet BW gain and mortality were estimated 24 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and the probability of the piglet mortality using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Nesting material did not affect (P > 0.10) most of sow prepartum nesting behavior and had no effect (P > 0.10) on the prepartum frequency of postural changes. Sows from the sawdust treatment had a longer nesting period (P 0.10) of the nesting material on piglet BW gain and mortality was found. The results suggest that sawdust compared with straw as nesting material provided to sows before and through parturition does not negatively affect maternal behavior during the 24 h before and after parturition or piglet production. Therefore

  13. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  14. The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadami N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Preterm birth which is defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks was implicated in approximately two thirds of neonatal death. Also preterm labors are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of infants in recent years and it costs high prices for health system. We evaluate the relationship between prepregnancy maternal body mass Index (BMI and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth."n"n Methods: This study included 250 healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors of preterm birth, were classified into categories that were based on their body mass index. Association between BMI, weight gain and rout of delivery were examined. Rates of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth were compared."n"n Results: Obese women delivered at a more advanced gestational age. (38/34±1/66 weeks vs 37/61±2/44, p=0/006. Obese patients had significantly lower incidence of spontaneous preterm birth at < 37 weeks of gestation (16/8% vs 31/2% p=0/008. Obese women had larger infants (3354/95±596/75 vs 311.24±558/357 p=0/001, and had more frequent cesarean delivery (69/6% vs 52/8%, p=0/006. Weight gain during pregnancy is poorly correlated with prepregnancy BMI (14/41±7/93 kg vs 13/78±4/94kg, p=0/4 and preterm

  15. Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy: a single-center cohort study of a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Miao Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM, and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ≤ 2500 g, stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. RESULTS: Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P = 0.020; χ2 = 7.345; odds ratio (OR, 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.251-4.024, PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P = 0.002; χ2 = 72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975-9.099, IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, <0.001; χ2 = 13.272; adjusted OR, 3.336; 95% CI, 1.745-6.377, and LBW (1.885% vs. 4.582%, P<0.001; χ2 = 13.558; adjusted OR, 2.919; 95% CI, 1.650-5.163. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that pregnant women with SCH had increased risks of GH and PROM, and their fetuses and infants had increased risks of IUGR and LBW. Thus, routine maternal thyroid function

  16. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  17. A single dose of S-ketamine induces long-term antidepressant effects and decreases oxidative stress in adulthood rats following maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Carlessi, Anelise S; Titus, Stephanie E; Abelaira, Helena M; Ignácio, Zuleide M; da Luz, Jaine R; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Quevedo, João

    2015-11-01

    Ketamine, an antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, has produced rapid antidepressant effects in patients with depression, as well as in animal models. However, the extent and duration of the antidepressant effect over longer periods of time has not been considered. This study evaluated the effects of single dose of ketamine on behavior and oxidative stress, which is related to depression, in the brains of adult rats subjected to maternal deprivation. Deprived and nondeprived Wistar rats were divided into four groups nondeprived+saline; nondeprived+S-ketamine (15 mg/kg); deprived+saline; deprived+S-ketamine (15 mg/kg). A single dose of ketamine or saline was administrated during the adult phase, and 14 days later depressive-like behavior was assessed. In addition, lipid damage, protein damage, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in the rat brain. Maternal deprivation induces a depressive-like behavior, as verified by an increase in immobility and anhedonic behavior. However, a single dose of ketamine was able to reverse these alterations, showing long-term antidepressant effects. The brains of maternally deprived rats had an increase in protein oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, but administration of a single dose of ketamine reversed this damage. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced in the deprived rat brains. However, ketamine was also able to reverse these changes. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a single dose of ketamine is able to induce long-term antidepressant effects and protect against neural damage caused by oxidative stress in adulthood rats following maternal deprivation. PMID:25728399

  18. Developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal stress on post-operative pain in Sprague-Dawley rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Knaepen

    Full Text Available Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system. Therefore, the present study investigated long-term effects of maternal adversity and/or SSRI medication use on nociception of adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, taking into account involvement of the HPA system. Dams were subject to stress during gestation and were treated with fluoxetine (2×/5 mg/kg/day prior to parturition and throughout lactation. Four groups of adult male offspring were used: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Control+Fluoxetine, 3. Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, 4. Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Results show that post-operative pain, measured as hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli after hind paw incision, was decreased in adult offspring subject to prenatal stress alone and increased in offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine alone. Moreover, post-operative pain was normalized in prenatally stressed offspring exposed to fluoxetine. This was paralleled by a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG levels in prenatally stressed offspring and a normalization of serum CBG levels in prenatally stressed offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine. Thus, developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal adversity on post-operative pain in offspring and these effects may be due, in part, to the involvement of the HPA system.

  19. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality........ Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths...

  20. Maternal-effect genes as the recording genes of Turing-Child patterns: sequential compartmentalization in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Yoram

    2012-05-01

    The early embryo is often a two-dimensional surface. The fate map is the subdivision of this surface into regions which give rise to parts of the phenotype. It is shown for Drosophila that the fate map is generated by the spontaneous and sequential formation of Turing-Child (TC) eigenfunction patterns. These patterns are recorded by the maternal-effect genes. The addition of the nodal lines of the TC patterns yields the correct number, positions, sequences and symmetries of regional boundaries. A simplest nontrivial 'homeotic transformation' is suggested and explained. A single mutation converts a region in one end of the fate map to a mirror-symmetric image of a nonadjacent region in the other end of the fate map, and this is attributed to the geometry of the TC patterns. This geometry also determines the initial shape of the zygotic gene expression. The vision of William Bateson that biological form is shaped like Chladni's patterns in acoustics and music is justified. A similar sequence of TC patterns occurs in the normal development of all organisms, and it is suggested that artificial intervention which completes the full sequence of TC patterns can be useful in the context of regenerative medicine and this is illustrated with the sea urchin. PMID:22564772

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

  2. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  3. Study protocol: realist evaluation of effectiveness and sustainability of a community health workers programme in improving maternal and child health in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, T; Etiaba, E; Ebenso, B; Uzochukwu, B; Manzano, A.; Onwujekwe, O; Huss, R; Ezumah, N; Hicks, JC; Newell, J; Ensor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Achievement of improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes continues to be an issue of international priority, particularly for sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. Evidence suggests that the use of Community Health Workers (CHWs) can be effective in broadening access to, and coverage of, health services and improving MCH outcomes in such countries. Methods/design In this paper, we report the methodology for a 5-year study which aims to evaluate the context, process...

  4. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Candace R; Kelsey eStaudinger; Lena eScheck; M Foster eOlive

    2013-01-01

    The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA) of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH) causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects...

  5. Effects of endurance exercise on expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein in developing rats with maternal infection-induced cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common white matter lesion affecting the neonatal brain. PVL is closely associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and characterized by increase in the number of astrocytes, which can be detected by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Change in myelin basic protein (MBP) is an early sign of white matter abnormality. Maternal or placental infection can damage the neonatal brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill w...

  6. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Chen; Bai Jin; Jun Xia; Xincheng Tao; Xiaoping Huang; Lu Sun; Qingxin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24–28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), placenta pr...

  7. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  8. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  9. Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

  10. Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular e perinatais (peso e prematuridade da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22 e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19 de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx, volume sistólico (VS e débito cardíaco (DC. Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0% e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0% e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5 e DC de (13,5 para 15,1; no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity and perinatal (weight and prematurity effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random

  11. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few experime

  12. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Ppiglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed.

  13. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Cisternas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling).

  16. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety leve

  17. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

  18. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  19. Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

  20. Effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone on brain inflammation in fetal sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kuypers (Elke); R.K. Jellema (Reint); D.R.M.G. Ophelders (Daan); J. Dudink (Jeroen); M. Nikiforou (Maria); T.G.A.M. Wolfs (Tim); I. Nitsos (Ilias); J.J. Pillow (Jane); G.R. Polglase (Graeme); M.W. Kemp (Matthew); M. Saito (Masatoshi); J.P. Newnham (John); A.H. Jobe (Alan); S.G. Kallapur (Suhas); B.W. Kramer (Boris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are

  1. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.

  2. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  3. Distribution and accumulation of 10 nm silver nanoparticles in maternal tissues and visceral yolk sac of pregnant mice, and a potential effect on embryo growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carlye A; Hinkley, Georgia K; Mishra, Anurag R; Zhang, Qin; Umbreit, Thomas H; Betz, Martha W; E Wildt, Bridget; Casey, Brendan J; Francke-Carroll, Sabine; Hussain, Saber M; Roberts, Stephen M; Brown, Ken M; Goering, Peter L

    2016-08-01

    We examined the distribution of silver in pregnant mice and embryos/fetuses following intravenous injections of 10 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or soluble silver nitrate (AgNO3) at dose levels of 0 (citrate buffer control) or 66 µg Ag/mouse to pregnant mice on gestation days (GDs) 7, 8 and 9. Selected maternal tissues and all embryos/fetuses from control, AgNP- and AgNO3-treated groups on GD10 and control and AgNP-treated groups on GD16 were processed for the measurement of silver concentrations, intracellular AgNP localization, histopathology and gross examination of tissue morphology. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed silver in all examined tissues following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, with highest concentrations of silver in maternal liver, spleen and visceral yolk sac (VYS), and lowest concentrations in embryos/fetuses. For VYS, mean silver concentration following AgNO3 treatment (4.87 ng Ag/mg tissue) was approximately two-fold that following AgNP treatment (2.31 ng Ag/mg tissue); for all other tissues examined, mean silver concentrations following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment were not significantly different from each other (e.g. 2.57 or 2.84 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal liver and 1.61 or 2.50 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal spleen following AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, respectively). Hyperspectral imaging revealed AgNP aggregates in maternal liver, kidney, spleen and VYS from AgNP-treated mice, but not AgNO3-treated mice. Additionally, one or more embryos collected on GD10 from eight of ten AgNP-treated mice appeared small for their age (i.e. Theiler stage 13 [GD8.5] or younger). In the control group (N = 11), this effect was seen in embryos from only one mouse. In conclusion, intravenous injection of 10 nm AgNPs to pregnant mice resulted in notable silver accumulation in maternal liver, spleen and VYS, and may have affected embryonic growth. Silver accumulation in embryos/fetuses was negligible. PMID:26593872

  4. Interaction does Count: A Cross-Fostering Study on Transgenerational Effects of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of female rats influences sensorimotor development and spatial behavior of the offspring, possibly through the changed maternal nurturing. Nevertheless, maternal care could be not the solely responsible for changing offspring developmental trajectories. To disentangle the specific contribution to the transgenerational inheritance of pre- and post-natal factors, a cross-fostering study was performed. Female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while control female rats were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. Immediately after delivery, in- or cross-fostering manipulations were performed so that any foster dams received pups born to another dam of the same (in-fostering) or the opposite (cross-fostering) pre-reproductive rearing condition. In lactating dams maternal care and nesting activities were assessed, while in their male pups spatial abilities were assessed through Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at post-natal day 45. Moreover, the expression of Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor (BDNF) was evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of dams and pups at weaning. Pre-reproductive maternal environmental enrichment, followed by adoption procedures, loosened its potential in modifying maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories, as indicated by the lack of differences between in-fostered groups of dams and pups. In addition, enriched dams rearing standard pups showed the least complex maternal repertoire (the highest sniffing duration and the lowest nest quality), and their pups showed a reduced spatial learning in the MWM. Nevertheless, pre-reproductive maternal enrichment kept influencing neurotrophic pattern, with enriched dams expressing increased frontal BDNF levels (regardless of the kind of fostered pups), and their offspring expressing increased hippocampal BDNF levels. The present

  5. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on maternal odor conditioning in rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Johnson, Asia; McKnight, Logan; Horinek, Maegan; Asbrock, Christina; Burt, Shannon; Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Meserve, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that can have damaging effects on physiologic, motoric and cognitive function. Results from studies on PCBs and behavior have shown that exposure can alter learning and memory processes and that these shifts in cognitive abilities can be related to changes in hormonal and neural function. Little experimentation has been done on the impact of exposure to PCBs on social and emotional development. Previous work has shown t...

  6. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Mayumi eNishi; Noriko eHorii-Hayashi; Takayo eSasagawa

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not ...

  7. The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, L; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C; Schofield, E.; Sack, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

  8. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Robbin Gibb; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group) for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their ho...

  9. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring.

  10. Respiratory impedance in healthy unsedated South African infants: Effects of maternal smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Diane; Czövek, Dorottya; Smith, Emilee; Willemse, Lauren; Alberts, Ane; Gingl, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L.; Heather J. Zar; Peter D Sly; Hantos, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Non-invasive techniques for measuring lung mechanics in infants are needed for a better understanding of lung growth and function, and to study the effects of prenatal factors on subsequent lung growth in healthy infants. The forced oscillation technique requires minimal cooperation from the individual but has rarely been used in infants. The study aims to assess the use of the forced oscillation technique to measure the influence of antenatal exposures on respiratory...

  11. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  12. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  13. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  14. Effects of late introduction of sows to two farrowing environments on the progress of farrowing and maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Jensen, T

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of late introduction to farrowing pens on the progress of farrowing and maternal behavior, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows were allocated randomly to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) early introduction to pen (EP, n = 20) and 2) late introduction to pen (LP, n = 20). To evaluate the difference between loose-housed sows and crated sows when introduced late to the farrowing environment, a third treatment was included: late introduction to farrowing crate (LC, n = 20). Sow behavior and piglet birth intervals were recorded using video recordings from 16 h before the birth of the first piglet (BFP) until 48 h after BFP. Behavioral data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS and the percentage of stillborn piglets and the response of the sow to piglet scream were analyzed using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Before farrowing (16 to 3 h before BFP), sows introduced late to pens had more postural changes per hour than sows introduced early to pens (LP = 12.7, EP = 8.9; P = 0.04), whereas there were no differences between sows introduced late to crates and sows introduced late to pens (LC = 14.2, LP = 12.7; P = 0.53). Interbirth interval (P = 0.04), variation in the interbirth interval (P = 0.01), and percentage of stillborn piglets (P = 0.003) were affected by an interaction between parity and treatment. In multiparous sows there were no differences between treatments (P > 0.18) either in the progress of farrowing or in the percentage of stillborn piglets. For primiparous sows, there were no differences (P > 0.22) between sows that were introduced late to pens and sows that were introduced early to pens. Primiparous sows that were introduced late to crates compared with pens had longer interbirth intervals (LC = 29 +/- 4.9 min, LP = 16 +/- 2.9 min; P = 0.02), a greater variation of these intervals (LC = 35 +/- 8.3 min, LP = 16 +/- 3.6 min; P = 0.006), and a greater percentage of stillborn piglets (LC = 21%; 95% confidence interval ranging 14 to 30%, LP = 5%; 95

  15. Effect of Amnioreduction on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Patients with Twin - Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ensari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of amnioreduction on perinatal outcomes in patients with twin %u2013 twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Material and Method: 42 patients with TTTS were enrolled into this study. 14 of 42 patients who underwent amnioreduction formed the study group and 28 of 42 patients who did not undergo amnioreduction formed the control group. Effects of amnioreduction on average week of birth, birth weight, need of neonatal intensive care and perinatal mortality were gathered from medical records retrospectively. P score under 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: Average week of birth of women who underwent amnioreduction was 28.7 ± 4.1 however it was 31.8 ± 4.9 on control group. Although number of births under 32 weeks is 12 (85.7% and under 28 weeks is 10 (71.4% on patients who underwent amnioreduction, it was 12 (43.1% for under 32 weeks and 9 (32.1% for under 28 weeks in control group (P

  16. Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchscherer Margret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 13, low (LP, 6.5%; n = 15, or high (HP, 30%; n = 14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P P P P + cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P P = 0.09 and HP (P P  Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

  17. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  18. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  19. Responses of the Embryonic Epigenome to Maternal Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for neural tube defects, although it is unclear whether the effects are mediated by common pathogenic mechanisms. In this manuscript, we report a genome-wide survey of histone acetylation in neurulation stage embryos from mouse pregnancies with different metabolic conditions: maternal diabetes, and maternal consumption of a high fat content diet. We find that maternal diabetes, and independently, exposure to high-fat diet, are associa...

  20. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  1. The effect of self-hypnosis on duration of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women....... METHODS: A hypnosis group receiving three 1-h lessons in self-hypnosis with additional audio-recordings to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-h lessons in various relaxation methods and mindfulness with audio-recordings for additional training, and a usual-care group receiving only...... the expulsive phase of second stage of labor, the duration of the expulsive phase, or other birth outcomes. Fewer emergency and more elective cesarean sections occurred in the hypnosis group. No difference was seen across the groups for lactation success or caring for the child but fewer women in the hypnosis...

  2. Temporal and maternal effects on reproductive ecology of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    We used mixed-effects models to examine relationships of reproductive characteristics of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) to improve population modeling and conservation planning for this species. Neonates from larger litters had lower mass, and mass of neonates also was affected by random variation among mothers. Length of mother did not affect relative mass of litters; however, our data suggest that longer mothers expended less reproductive effort per offspring than shorter mothers. We detected random variation in length of neonates among mothers, but these lengths were not related to length of mother or size of litter. Mean size of litter varied among years, but little evidence existed for a relationship between size of litter or mass of litter and length of mother. Sex ratios of neonates did not differ from 1:1.

  3. The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children's Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development during Head Start and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Davison, Megan Dunn; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of maternal language and children's gender on bilingual children's vocabulary and emergent literacy development during 2 years in Head Start and kindergarten. Seventy-two mothers and their children who attended English immersion programs participated. Questionnaires administered annually over a 3-year period…

  4. Combined adverse effects of maternal smoking and high body mass index on heart development in offspring : evidence for interaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, M.E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Corpeleijn, E.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Hofstra, R.M.W.; Berger, R.M.F.; Bakker, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of a possible interaction between maternal smoking and high body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of specific congenital heart anomalies (CHA) in offspring. Design Case-control study. Setting Data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands. P

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  6. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  7. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics.

  8. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on muscle, bone and meat parameters in five month old lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Therkildsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    rate from birth to weaning, yet compensatory growth after weaning. No relation was found between maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and meat quality in terms of proteolytic potential, myofibrillar fragmentation index or shear force measured in meat from 5 month old lambs. The data do...

  9. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  10. Effects of maternal obesity on the offspring%母亲肥胖对后代的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段洋; 孙夫强

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. Maternal obesity increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and can lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, the change of cell factor homeostasis. The metabolic status of maternal obesity in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy can alter the level of DNA methylation in the placenta, change the fetal programming, influence the pregnancy outcomes, and increase the risk of obesity related metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases of offspring. Actively preventing and intervening in the maternal obesity can reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes and increase the survival quality of the offspring.%近年来母亲肥胖发病率明显增加,母亲肥胖可导致慢性炎症、氧化应激、细胞因子内稳态的改变,增加妊娠不良结局的危险.怀孕前和怀孕过程中母亲肥胖的代谢状态能够改变胎盘DNA甲基化水平,且会引起胎儿"程序化"改变,影响妊娠结局,增加后代发生肥胖相关的代谢综合征等慢性病风险.积极预防和干预母亲肥胖,可降低不良妊娠结局,提高后代生存质量.

  11. Maternal and ambient environmental effects of light on germination in Plantago lanceolata: correlated responses to selection on leaf length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. Seeds from artificial selection lines were exposed to different maternal and ambient conditions, simulating sunlight and vegetation shade. 2. Lines selected for longer leaves also produced larger seeds, indicating a positive genetic correlation between leaf length and seed size. 3. Light conditio

  12. The Effects of Race and Maternal Education Level on Children's Retells of the Renfrew Bus Story--North American Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleeck, Anne; Lange, Alissa; Schwarz, Amy Louise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Renfrew Bus Story--North American Edition (RBS-NA; C. Glasgow & J. Cowley, 1994) is widely used in clinical and research settings to determine children's language abilities, although possible influences of race and maternal education on RBS-NA performance are unknown. The current study compared RBS-NA retells of 4 groups of children:…

  13. Anger and Positive Reactivity in Infancy: Effects on Maternal Report of Surgency and Attention Focusing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…

  14. Detrimental psychophysiological effects of early maternal deprivation in adolescent and adult rodents: altered responses to cannabinoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Llorente, Ricardo; Laviola, Giovanni; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-04-01

    Environmental rearing conditions during the neonatal period are critical for the establishment of neurobiological factors controlling behavior and stress responsiveness. Early maternal deprivation (MD), consisting of a single 24-h maternal deprivation episode during early neonatal life, has been proposed as an animal model for certain psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Despite first onset of mental disorders usually occur during adolescence, characterization of MD has been mostly developed in adult animals. We review here a series of experiments that were conducted on rats and mice, in which we analyzed the psychoimmunoendocrine outcomes of MD at both adolescence and adulthood. As a whole our results indicate that MD might promote a depressive-like trait that may be present from adolescence to maturity. Maternally deprived adolescent animals also displayed altered locomotor responses, a reduced interest for social investigation and seemed prone for impulsive behavior. Therefore, MD in rodents is further confirmed as a suitable animal model for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders that might become evident during adolescence. Given the increasing consumption of cannabis derivatives among the juvenile population and the reported comorbidity of neuropsychiatric symptoms with cannabis abuse, we also discuss our results indicating altered responses of maternally deprived adolescent animals to cannabinoid compounds.

  15. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  16. THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HYPEROXIA ON FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, BODY MOVEMENTS AND HEART-RATE VARIATION IN GROWTH RETARDED FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKEDAM, DJ; MULDER, EJH; SNIJDERS, RJM; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In hypoxemic intrauterine growth-retarded fetuses (IUGR) there is a reduction in the incidence of fetal movements and in fetal heart rate variation. A causal relationship with the impairment of fetal oxygenation has been suggested. In 16 IUGR fetuses and in 13 normally grown fetuses maternal hyperox

  17. 母亲肥胖对后代的影响%Effects of maternal obesity on the offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段洋; 孙夫强

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. Maternal obesity increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and can lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, the change of cell factor homeostasis. The metabolic status of maternal obesity in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy can alter the level of DNA methylation in the placenta, change the fetal programming, influence the pregnancy outcomes, and increase the risk of obesity related metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases of offspring. Actively preventing and intervening in the maternal obesity can reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes and increase the survival quality of the offspring.%近年来母亲肥胖发病率明显增加,母亲肥胖可导致慢性炎症、氧化应激、细胞因子内稳态的改变,增加妊娠不良结局的危险.怀孕前和怀孕过程中母亲肥胖的代谢状态能够改变胎盘DNA甲基化水平,且会引起胎儿"程序化"改变,影响妊娠结局,增加后代发生肥胖相关的代谢综合征等慢性病风险.积极预防和干预母亲肥胖,可降低不良妊娠结局,提高后代生存质量.

  18. Effect of iodine supplementation in Indian pregnant women on maternal and newborn thyroid function and cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikrishna, N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Iodine is a key nutrient in neurodevelopment, and the fetus is entirely dependent on the iodine intake of the mother to fulfill this important requirement for proper brain function. While this is clearly known, it is uncertain if maternal iodine

  19. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  20. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Nikniaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (β=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (β=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (β=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

  1. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  2. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 ìg.ml-1 of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 ml.hr-1 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8 required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable& prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine

  3. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  4. Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Guilherme O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is

  5. Reduction of Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Thyolo District, Malawi: The Impact of Obstetric Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas van den Akker; Jair van Rhenen; Beatrice Mwagomba; Kinke Lommerse; Steady Vinkhumbo; Jos van Roosmalen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical incident audit and feedback are recommended interventions to improve the quality of obstetric care. To evaluate the effect of audit at district level in Thyolo, Malawi, we assessed the incidence of facility-based severe maternal complications (severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality) during two years of audit and feedback. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between September 2007 and September 2009, we included all cases of maternal mortality and SAMM t...

  6. 母亲抑郁与青少年认知重评的关系:教养方式的中介作用%Mediating Effects of Parenting on the Relation Between Maternal Depression and Adolescent Cognitive Reappraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊先; 陈杰; 李新影

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships of maternal depression, maternal parenting (nurturant/involving, warmth) and adolescent cognitive reappraisal strategy. Methods: 1212 pairs of adolescent twins were measured by Parenting Style Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and their mothers were assessed by CES-D. Results: ①Maternal depression was negatively correlated with maternal parenting and adolescent cognitive reappraisal, and maternal parenting was positively correlated with adolescent cognitive reappraisal. ②Maternal parenting completely mediated the relation between maternal depression and adolescent cognitive reappraisal. Conclusion: The effect of maternal depression on adolescent cognitive reappraisal strategy can be mediated by maternal parenting.%目的:考察母亲抑郁、母亲教养方式(关切-引导,温暖)与青少年认知重评之间的关系.方法:采用流调中心用抑郁量表,教养方式问卷和情绪调节量表,测量了1212对青少年双生子及其母亲.结果:①母亲抑郁和青少年认知重评显著负相关,母亲教养方式和青少年认知重评显著正相关,母亲抑郁和教养方式显著负相关.②母亲抑郁与青少年认知重评之间的相关可以由母亲教养方式完全介导.结论:母亲抑郁通过其教养方式影响青少年认知重评.

  7. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    Full Text Available Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries.We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses.Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93. The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56.Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

  8. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H; Mortensen, Laust;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women...... provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity...... and comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986 (21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled...

  9. Effect of ethiopia's health extension program on maternal and newborn health care practices in 101 rural districts: a dose-response study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehryar Karim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia's population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles, we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents' background characteristics, and community-level factors. Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03-1.23; the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19-1.44; the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34-1.91; and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02-1.20. Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia's HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and

  10. 人性化护理在产科母婴分离中对产妇的积极作用探究%The Humanistic Nursing in Maternal Separation in Positive Effects on Maternal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2014-01-01

    人性化护理对产科母婴分离时产妇是十分重要的,通过人性化关爱护理,可以使产科母婴分离时产妇保持良好的情绪、树立信心、各种合理的服务需求得到满足。实施人性化护理。对产妇进行全面评估及心理护理;针对性给予产妇必要的知识及技能指导;加强人文关怀,对增加产妇对新生儿疾病的恢复信心率,母乳喂养、婴儿护理知识及技能掌握有显著的提升。本文着重谈一些产科母婴分离时产妇的人性化护理体会。%Humanistic nursing is very important for obstetric maternal separation when the maternal, the humanity care, can make the obstetric maternal separation when the maternal keep good mood, establish confidence, al reasonable service needs are met. The implementation of humanistic care. To conduct a comprehensive assessment and psychological nursing for parturient; the necessary knowledge and skills to maternal guidance; strengthening humanistic care, the increased maternal neonatal diseases to restore confidence, breastfeeding, infant care knowledge and skills have improved. Experience of humanistic nursing obstetric maternal separation when maternal focused on in this paper.

  11. Gender-dependent cellular and biochemical effects of maternal deprivation on the hippocampus of neonatal rats: a possible role for the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Petrosino, Stefania; Marco, Eva-María; Guaza, Carmen; Prada, Carmen; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Viveros, María-Paz

    2008-09-15

    Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24 h, postnatal days (PND) 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. These behavioral impairments may be related to neuronal loss in the hippocampus triggered by elevated glucocorticoids. Furthermore, our previous data suggested functional relationships between MD stress and the endocannabinoid system. In this study, we addressed the effects of MD on hippocampal glial cells and the possible relationship with changes in plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. In addition, we investigated the putative involvement of the endocannabinoid system by evaluating (a) the effects of MD on hippocampal levels of endocannabinoids (b) The modulation of MD effects by two inhibitors of endocannabinoids inactivation, the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), and the endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor, OMDM-2. Drug treatments were administered once daily from PND 7 to PND 12 at a dose of 5 mg/kg, and the animals were sacrificed at PND 13. MD induced increased CORT levels in both genders. MD males also showed an increased number of astrocytes in CA1 and CA3 areas and a significant increase in hippocampal 2-arachidonoylglycerol. The cannabinoid compounds reversed the endocrine and cellular effects of maternal deprivation. We provide direct evidence for gender-dependent cellular and biochemical effects of MD on developmental hippocampus, including changes in the endocannabinoid system.

  12. Effects of Nano Fertilizer Application and Maternal Corm Weight on Flowering at Some Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Amirnia, Reza; Bayat, Mahdi; TAJBAKHSH, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    To develop saffron planting in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran, a split-split plot experiment based on CRBD was carried out in the Urmia University's research farm for two years . Nanofertilizers (Fe, P, K and nofertilizer (control)) as main plots, saffron ecotypes (Mashhad, Torbat-Heydarieh, Torbat-jam, Gonabad, Ghaen and Birjand) as subplots and maternal corm weight (6, 8, 10 and 12 g) as sub-sub plots were considered. Throughout the two years of the study, results showed significant differenc...

  13. Effect of Maternal Lipopolysaccharide Administration on the Development of Dopaminergic Receptors and Transporter in the Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Moogeh Baharnoori; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Lalit K.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administ...

  14. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Maternal and Child Positive Behaviors in Daily Life Among Youth With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Imami, Ledina; Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Lupro, Toni H.; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent–child interactions. Methods 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10–17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive ...

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  16. Effects of Stressful Life Events, Maternal Depression and 5-HTTLPR Genotype on Emotional Symptoms in Pre-Adolescent Children†

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, Ricardo; Hu, Xianzhang; Heron, Jon; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Evans, Jonathan; Lewis, Glyn; Nutt, David; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    There has been a large but inconsistent literature on interactions between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and adversity on emotional disorders. We investigated these interactions in 4,334 children from a birth longitudinal cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We measured emotional symptoms at 7 years with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mothers rated stressful life events between ages 5 and 7 years. Maternal depressio...

  17. Doubts and Concerns about Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia may have detrimental effects on both mother and foetus. Nonetheless, this condition is still far from being universally accepted as a separate thyroid disease, and a standard definition of this state of mild thyroid underfunction is still lacking. We will review the biochemical criteria used to define isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia, together with current methodological issues related to FT4 assays. We will also discuss its epidemiological impact in both iodine-deficient and-sufficient areas, and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis on maternal thyroid function and neuropsychomotor development in offspring.

  18. Maternal testosterone and placental function: Effect of electroacupuncture on placental expression of angiogenic markers and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Romina; Hu, Min; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Carr, David; Billig, Håkan; Jansson, Thomas; Manni, Luigi; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-09-15

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating androgens during pregnancy and are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal androgen excess decrease placental and fetal growth, and placental expression of markers of steroidogenesis, angiogenesis and sympathetic activity, and that acupuncture with low-frequency electrical stimulation prevents these changes. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or testosterone on gestational day (GD)15-19. Low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) or handling, as a control for the EA procedure, was given to control or testosterone exposed dams on GD16-20. On GD21, blood pressure was measured and maternal blood, fetuses and placentas collected. Placental steroid receptor expression and proteins involved in angiogenic, neurotrophic and adrenergic signaling were analyzed. EA did not affect any variables in control rats except maternal serum corticosterone, which was reduced. EA in testosterone exposed dams compared with controls increased systolic pressure by 30%, decreased circulating norepinephrine and corticosterone, fetal and placental weight and placental VEGFR1 and proNGF protein expression, and increased the VEGFA/VEGFR1 ratio, mature NGF (mNGF) and the mNGF/proNGF ratio. In conclusion, low-frequency EA in control animals did not have any negative influence on any of the studied variables. In contrast, EA in pregnant dams exposed to testosterone increased blood pressure and impaired placental growth and function, leading to decreased fetal growth. PMID:27208621

  19. Effects of Danshensu on maternal syndrome in phosphatidyleserine/ phosphatidylcholine micro vesicle induced-mouse model: is it a candidate for preeclampsia remedy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yang; HU Ya-li; ZHANG Yan; WANG Jing-mei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Up to date, there is few satisfactory pharmacotherapy, except for aspirin and heparin, to stop the preeclampsia progression. Although the mechanism of preeclampsia is poorly understood, it has been proven to be associated with coagulation activation. Researches on prophylactic and therapeutic application of anticoagulants may benefit the clinical aspects of preeclampsia individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Danshensu on maternal syndrome in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylcholine (PS/PC) microvesicle induced-mouse model. Methods Sixty-six preeclampsia-like pregnant mice, induced by PS/PC microvesicle administration, were randomly divided into six groups. From days 5.5 to 16.5 of pregnancy, each group was respectively treated as follows: a) mice in group C (n=12, control group) were injected with 100 μl of filtered phosphate-buffered saline into the tail vein every day; b) group PE (n=15, preeclampsia model group) were injected in the same way with 100 μl of filtered PS/PC vesicle suspension; c) group H (n=9, group treated with heparin) were injected with 1 unit heparin together with PS/PC vesicle suspension; d) group A (n=10, group treated with aspirin) were injected with 20 μg/g aspirin-DL lysine as well; e) group LD (n=10, group treated with low-dose Danshensu) were injected with 10 μg/g Danshensu; and f) group HD (n=10, group treated with high-dose Danshensu) were injected with 30 μg/g Danshensu. Systolic blood pressure, total urinary protein levels, blood tests for some hemostatic function parameters (mean platelet counts, plasma antithrombin III activity (AT-Ⅲ), D-D dimmer levels, and thrombin time), fibrin deposition by phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining, and thrombomodulin expression by immunohistochemistry staining in placentas were examined as indices for maternal syndrome. Results Heparin showed significant effects on maternal syndrome of preeclampsia such as hypertension and proteinuria, and different doses of

  20. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.