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Sample records for maternal effect

  1. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  2. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  3. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  4. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  5. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross...

  6. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  7. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that mate

  8. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Akerud, H; Kaihola, H; Pawluski, J L; Skalkidou, A; Högberg, U; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are

  9. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  10. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Dunifon; Anne Toft Hansen; Sean Nicholson; Lisbeth Palmhøj Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child's first three and first 15 years on that child's grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employmen...

  11. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  12. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work......Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...

  13. Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaglen, S.A.E.; Bijma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated using 677,975 calving ease records from second calving. Particular emphasis was given to the presence and impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances on the estimated direct-maternal genetic

  14. Effects of maternal smoking on neonatal morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Pley, EA de; Wouters, EJ; Jong, PA de; Voorhorst, FJ; Stolte, SB; Kurver,

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a prospective study of the association between maternal smoking and neonatal morbidity variables is presented. Caucasian nulliparous women (n = 115)were studied throughout pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal period. Birthweight(-centiles), Apgar scores, mode of delivery, umbilical arte

  15. Effects of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Programming: Molecular Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Caterina; Edlow, Andrea G

    2015-09-03

    Maternal obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Obesity and a high-fat diet have been shown to have deleterious effects on fetal programming, predisposing offspring to adverse cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although large epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal obesity and adverse outcomes for offspring, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Molecular approaches have played a key role in elucidating the mechanistic underpinnings of fetal malprogramming in the setting of maternal obesity. These approaches include, among others, characterization of epigenetic modifications, microRNA expression, the gut microbiome, the transcriptome, and evaluation of specific mRNA expression via quantitative reverse transcription polmerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in fetuses and offspring of obese females. This work will review the data from animal models and human fluids/cells regarding the effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment and cardiometabolic outcomes, with a particular focus on molecular approaches.

  16. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  17. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anaemia on foetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sikka, M; Sood, S K

    1995-07-01

    One hundred and two pregnant women and their neonates were examined to evaluate the effect of maternal haemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc) and iron deficiency anaemia on the placental weight and the foetal outcome. Haematological and serum ferritin values were determined. It was observed that 34.3% of the pregnant women were anaemic. Maternal Hb conc. and serum ferritin showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most important cause of anaemia amongst them. The maternal Hb conc. showed a significant correlation with placental weight (p < 0.05), birth weight (p < 0.01), Apgar score (p < 0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (p < 0.001). The study did not reveal any association between high Hb and adverse foetal outcome.

  18. Effects of maternal diabetes on trophoblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition characterizedby hyperglycemia over a prolonged period. There arethree main types of DM: DM type 1 (DM1), DM2 andgestational DM (GDM). Maternal diabetes, which includesthe occurrence of DM1 and DM2 during pregnancy orGDM, increases the occurrence of gesttionalcomplicationsand adverse fetal outcomes. The hyperglycemic intrauterineenvironment affects not only the fetus but alsothe placental development and function in humans andexperimental rodents. The underlying mechanisms arestill unclear, but some evidence indicates alterationsin trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control in diabetes. A proper coordination of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion is required for placental development. Initially, increased expression of proliferative markers in junctional and labyrinth zones of rat placentas and villous cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, stromal cells and fetal endothelial cells in human placentas is reported among diabetics. Moreover, reduced apoptotic index and expression of some apoptotic genes are described in placentas of GDM women. In addition, cell cycle regulators including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors seem to be affected by the hyperglycemic environment. More studies are necessary to check the balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in trophoblast cells during maternal diabetes.

  19. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n = 12) were untreated (n = 6), or received either a Wt-GHRH (n = 2), or H...

  20. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  1. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  2. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  3. Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population

    OpenAIRE

    Fouqueray, Timothée D.; Daniel T. Blumstein; Raquel Monclús; Martin, Julien G. A.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones may have profound effects on later behavior and fitness and have been reported under both laboratory and field conditions. Anogenital distance is a non-invasive measure of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones. While we know that intra-uterine position and litter sex ratio influence anogenital distance, there are other, heretofore unstudied, factors that could influence anogenital distance, including maternal effects. We capitalized on...

  4. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L.; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator ...

  5. The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Felicity

    2010-06-01

    Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.

  6. Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile

    2013-09-01

    Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects.

  7. Fetal cardiac effects of maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Niamh; Brazil, Derek P; McAuliffe, Fionnuala

    2009-06-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with increased teratogenesis, which can occur in pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cardiac defects and with neural tube defects are the most common malformations observed in fetuses of pregestational diabetic mothers. The exact mechanism by which diabetes exerts its teratogenic effects and induces embryonic malformations is unclear. Whereas the sequelae of maternal pregestational diabetes, such as modulating insulin levels, altered fat levels, and increased reactive oxygen species, may play a role in fetal damage during diabetic pregnancy, hyperglycemia is thought to be the primary teratogen, causing particularly adverse effects on cardiovascular development. Fetal cardiac defects are associated with raised maternal glycosylated hemoglobin levels and are up to five times more likely in infants of mothers with pregestational diabetes compared with those without diabetes. The resulting anomalies are varied and include transposition of the great arteries, mitral and pulmonary atresia, double outlet of the right ventricle, tetralogy of Fallot, and fetal cardiomyopathy.A wide variety of rodent models have been used to study diabetic teratogenesis. Both genetic and chemically induced models of type 1 and 2 diabetes have been used to examine the effects of hyperglycemia on fetal development. Factors such as genetic background as well as confounding variables such as obesity appear to influence the severity of fetal abnormalities in mice. In this review, we will summarize recent data on fetal cardiac effects from human pregestational diabetic mothers, as well as the most relevant findings in rodent models of diabetic cardiac teratogenesis.

  8. Effect of Maternal Steroid on Developing Diaphragm Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Song; Demmer, Denise L.; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Tina Lavin; MacMillan, Mia V.; Pillow, Jane J.; Anthony J Bakker

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected fo...

  9. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered.

  10. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lepe

    Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.

  11. Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Altink, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Xu, X.; Franke, B; Sergeant, J.A.; Faraone, S V; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather than being a pure environmental effect, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to smoking on attentional control, taking into account the effects of both maternal and paternal...

  12. Effectiveness of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care in increasing uptake of skilled maternity care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda

    2016-01-01

    Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations’ use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations’ access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. PMID:27190222

  13. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  14. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  15. Maternal and fetal effects after inhalation of the herbicide flumetralin

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    Priscila Boneventi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Farm workers at Brazilian tobacco plantations are frequently exposed to toxic chemicals and eventually became contaminated with these products. Flumetralin is a inhibitor of axillary bud growth on tobacco and the effects of gestational exposure should be investigated since many pesticides cross the placental barrier and cause birth defects. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and fetal effects caused by inhalation of Flumetralin. Pregnant Swiss mice inhaled Flumetralin for 10 or 20 minutes on the seventh day of pregnancy. On the 18th day, animals were euthanized and subjected to laparotomy for removal of the uterus and embryos. The uterus was weighed and the embryos were examined. Fetuses of both treatments showed visceral changes in the uterus, kidney and liver. Skeletal abnormalities included hydrocephalus and incomplete skull ossification in both groups. In addition, the treatment of 20 minutes exposure caused anomalies in the occipital bone and the 13rd rib besides internal bleeding. There was reduction in maternal weight gain and impaired intrauterine development of the fetus. The weight of heart, liver, kidneys and testicles of fetuses were significantly decreased. Inhalation of flumetralin proved to be potentially teratogenic in both treatments, with greater damage in the group treated for 20 minutes.

  16. Effect of maternal transmissions on clinical manifestations of myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, I.; Koike, R.; Onodera, O. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The mutation of myotonic dystrophy (DM) has been identified as unstable expansions of trinucleotide CTG repeat, located on chromosome 19q13-3. Although previous investigations have emphasized the strong association of the sizes of the CTG repeat with ages of onset as well as the clinical manifestations, effects of the paternal or maternal transmissions other than CTG repeats on the clinical manifestations in DM have not been evaluated in detail. To investigate how parental transmission affect the DM phenotype, we analyzed 15 cases of paternal transmission and 25 cases of maternal transmission. We have classified DM patients into 4 clinical grades. As in accordance with previous reports, there is a good correlation on sizes of the CTG repeat with their clinical features. The sizes of the CTG repeat in congenital DM patients (4.13{plus_minus}0.221 kbp) (Mean {plus_minus}SEM), who inherited mutant genes from their mothers, were not significantly larger than those of non-congenital DM patients (3.65 {plus_minus}0.36 kbp). As it has been well established that congenital DM patients are born to affected mothers, we investigated to see if there are any parental bias on the clinical manifestations in non-congenital DM. We classified each case into 4 classes depending on the size ranges of the CTG repeat (0 to 1.5 kbp, 1.5 to 3.0 kbp, 3.0 to 4.5 kbp, 4.5 kbp<). In each group of the size ranges of the CTG repeat, the distribution of cases among grades I to III were compared between paternally and maternally transmitted cases. There were statistically significant differences in the distributions of cases among grades I to III for the size ranges of 3 to 4.5 kbp expansions (p<0.01) and over 4.5 kbp expansions (p<0.05) on {chi}{sup 2} test, respectively. The results revealed that maternally transmitted cases tend to show severe phenotypes compared to paternally transmitted ones even if they have similar sizes of CTG repeat.

  17. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

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    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  18. [Effect of exercise in water on maternal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Saegusa, S; Yamada, A; Suzuki, M; Noguchi, M; Niwa, S; Nakanishi, M

    1994-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of exercise in water on the maternal circulation, twenty normal pregnancies were examined under the following three conditions; 1) on the land at rest, 2) during water immersion and 3) after the exercise in water. Their gestational ages were from 25 to 37 weeks (31 +/- 4 weeks, mean +/- S.D., n = 20). We examined the blood pressure, the urine volume throughout the examination, CBC and the levels of vasopressin, plasma renin activity and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). The blood volume calculated from the Hb and Ht were significantly (p water immersion (105.8 +/- 2.5%), even after the exercise (101.6 +/- 2.9%). Vasopressin was decreased during the water immersion and increased after the exercise, but plasma renin activity was decreased in these two conditions. The hANP concentration was significantly (p exercise in water and correlated with the urine volume (ml/hour) during the examination. These results show that the decline in blood pressure and the increase in the urine volume during the maternal swimming were caused by the decreased plasma renin activity and the increased hANP concentration resulted from the blood volume expansion during the exercise in water.

  19. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Santos Müller

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

  20. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  1. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdhadip Dey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging, are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to

  2. Maternal effects in an insect herbivore as a mechanism to adapt to host plant phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Margriet; Julkunen-Tiito, Riita; Visser, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    P>1. Maternal effects may play an important role in shaping the life history of organisms. Using an insect herbivore, the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) feeding on oak (Quercus robur), we show that maternal effects can affect seasonal timing of egg hatching in an herbivore in an adaptive way. 2.

  3. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild.

  4. Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altink, M.E.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Fliers, E.A.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Xu, X.; Franke, B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather tha

  5. Testing causal effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's externalizing and internalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Geels, L.M.; Vink, J.M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Neale, M.C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to

  6. Maternal dietary effects on embryonic ovarian development in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogenesis begins early in fetal development with peak numbers of follicles present in bovine fetal ovaries in the second trimester of gestation and may be altered by maternal nutrition. The objective was to determine whether maternal dietary energy intake by replacem...

  7. Maternal depression and the learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech: Roles of maternal sensitivity, depression diagnosis, and speech acoustic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S; Danko, Christina M; Cejka, Anna M; Everhart, Kevin D

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the associative learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech (IDS) depend on infants' social experience was tested in a conditioned-attention paradigm with a cumulative sample of 4- to 14-month-old infants. Following six forward pairings of a brief IDS segment and a photographic slide of a smiling female face, infants of clinically depressed mothers exhibited evidence of having acquired significantly weaker voice-face associations than infants of non-depressed mothers. Regression analyses revealed that maternal depression was significantly related to infant learning even after demographic correlates of depression, antidepressant medication use, and extent of pitch modulation in maternal IDS had been taken into account. However, after maternal depression had been accounted for, maternal emotional availability, coded by blind raters from separate play interactions, accounted for significant further increments in the proportion of variance accounted for in infant learning scores. Both maternal depression and maternal insensitivity negatively, and additively, predicted poor learning.

  8. Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C V; Geels, L; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Neale, M C; Bartels, M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.

  9. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne; Nicholson, Sean

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work......Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance....

  10. Idiosyncratic evolution of maternal effects in response to juvenile malnutrition in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, R K; Kawecki, T J

    2015-04-01

    Maternal effects often affect fitness traits, but there is little experimental evidence pertaining to their contribution to response to selection imposed by novel environments. We studied the evolution of maternal effects in Drosophila populations selected for tolerance to chronic larval malnutrition. To this end, we performed pairwise reciprocal F1 crosses between six selected (malnutrition tolerant) populations and six unselected control populations and assessed the effect of cross direction on larval growth and developmental rate, adult weight and egg-to-adult viability expressed under the malnutrition regime. Each pair of reciprocal crosses revealed large maternal effects (possibly including cytoplasmic genetic effects) on at least one trait, but the magnitude, sign and which traits were affected varied among populations. Thus, maternal effects contributed significantly to the response to selection imposed by the malnutrition regime, but these changes were idiosyncratic, suggesting a rugged adaptive landscape. Furthermore, although the selected populations evolved both faster growth and higher viability, the maternal effects on growth rate and viability were negatively correlated across populations. Thus, genes mediating maternal effects can evolve to partially counteract the response to selection mediated by the effects of alleles on their own carriers' phenotype, and maternal effects may contribute to evolutionary trade-offs between components of offspring fitness.

  11. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  12. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  13. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ibanez

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10-20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children's health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children's early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development.We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children's cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children's cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%.The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed.

  14. Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vivas

    Full Text Available The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress.

  15. Maternally derived egg hormones, antibodies and antimicrobial proteins: common and different pathways of maternal effects in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  16. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  17. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  18. Genomic imprinting and maternal effect genes in haplodiploid sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Zande, L; Verhulst, E C

    2014-01-01

    The research into the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining system has been at the basis of all further research on insect sex determination. This further research has made it clear that, for most insect species, the presence of sufficient functional Transformer (TRA) protein in the early embryonic stage is essential for female sexual development. In Hymenoptera, functional analysis of sex determination by knockdown studies of sex-determining genes has only been performed for 2 species. The first is the social insect species Apis mellifera, the honeybee, which has single-locus complementary sex determination (CSD). The other species is the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, the jewel wasp. Nasonia has a non-CSD sex-determining system, described as the maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination system (MEGISD). Here, we describe the arguments that eventually led to the formulation of MEGISD and the experimental data that supported and refined this model. We evaluate the possibility that DNA methylation lies at the basis of MEGISD and briefly address the role of genomic imprinting in non-CSD sex determination in other Hymenoptera.

  19. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  20. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  1. Effect of health insurance on the use and provision of maternal health services and maternal and neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Alison B; Peterson, Lauren A; Hatt, Laurel E

    2013-12-01

    Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and consultation with experts in healthcare financing and maternal health. Twenty-nine articles met the review criteria of focusing on health insurance and its effect on the use or quality of maternal health services, or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Sixteen studies assessed demand-side effects of insurance, eight focused on supply-side effects, and the remainder addressed both. Geographically, the studies provided evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 11), Asia (n = 9), Latin America (n = 8), and Turkey. The studies included examples from national or social insurance schemes (n = 7), government-run public health insurance schemes (n = 4), community-based health insurance schemes (n = 11), and private insurance (n = 3). Half of the studies used econometric analyses while the remaining provided descriptive statistics or qualitative results. There is relatively consistent evidence that health insurance is positively correlated with the use of maternal health services. Only four studies used methods that can establish this causal relationship. Six studies presented suggestive evidence of over-provision of caesarean sections in response to providers' payment incentives through health insurance. Few studies focused on the relationship between health insurance and the quality of maternal health services or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The available evidence on the quality and health outcomes is inconclusive, given the differences in measurement, contradictory findings

  2. The effects of women's education on maternal health: Evidence from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Abigail

    2017-03-06

    This article examines the causal effect of women's education on maternal health in Peru, a country where maternal mortality has declined by more than 70% in the last two and a half decades. To isolate the effects of education, the author employs an instrumented regression discontinuity that takes advantage of an exogenous source of variation-an amendment to compulsory schooling laws in 1993. The results indicate that extending women's years of schooling reduced the probability of several maternal health complications at last pregnancy/birth, sometimes by as much as 29%. Underlying these effects, increasing women's education is found to decrease the probability of short birth intervals and unwanted pregnancies (which may result in unsafe abortions) and to increase antenatal healthcare use, potentially owing to changes in women's cognitive skills, economic resources, and autonomy. These findings underscore the influential role of education in reducing maternal morbidity and highlight the contributions of women's education to population health and health transitions.

  3. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  4. The Effect of Maternal Touching on Infant Social Referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Whether maternal touching of the infant while speaking to him or her about a stranger facilitates or interferes with social referencing is investigated in this study. Thirty-three 10-month-olds received positive or neutral nonverbal messages when their mothers spoke to them about a stranger. Infants whose mothers did not touch them while speaking…

  5. The effect of maternal diabetes on pre- and postnatal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoud, NM

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: The abnormal intrauterine environment in case of maternal diabetes results in impaired perinatal outcome. In this thesis we investigated factors that were related to altered fetal growth and growth during childhood. Methods: A cohort of women with pregnancies complicated by

  6. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  7. The observed association between maternal anxiety and adolescent asthma: children of twin design suggest familial effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Havland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that maternal anxiety is associated with asthma in the adolescent child, but mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal anxiety and maternal, self- and register-based report of asthma in the adolescent child, and whether the association remains after control of familial confounding (shared environmental and genetic factors. METHOD: From the Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden, 1691 mothers (1058 twins and their adolescent child were included. The association between maternal self-reported anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP somatic or psychic anxiety and asthma based on subjective (maternal or child report or objective (register-based diagnosis and medication measures were analysed using logistic regression. The children-of-twins design was used to explore whether genes or environment contribute to the association. RESULTS: Maternal BAI anxiety (OR 2.02, CI 1.15-3.55 was significantly associated with adolescent asthma reported by the mother. Maternal KSP somatic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.04-2.91 and psychic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.05-2.86 was significantly associated with breathlessness reported by the adolescent child. In contrast, maternal anxiety was not associated with increased risk for the register-based outcomes of asthma diagnosis or medication. The results remained also after adjusting for covariates and the children-of-twins analyses which indicate that the association was due to familial confounding. CONCLUSIONS: We found some associations between maternal anxiety and subjectively reported offspring asthma or breathlessness which may be due to familial effects. A likely candidate for explaining this familial confounding is heritable personality traits associated with both anxiety and subjective measures of asthma.

  8. Cytoplasmic factors do not contribute to a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, C; Gilliam, D

    1999-01-01

    Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. This mating pattern produced four embryonic genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and D2D2 litters and hybrid B6D2 and D2B6 litters. To examine the role of maternal egg cytoplasm as the source of variation that could account for a maternal effect, B6D2 and D2B6 F1 females were mated back to B6 males, which produced two additional embryonic genotypes: B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6. Dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg of ethanol or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin on day 9 of pregnancy. On day 18 of pregnancy, dams were sacrificed, fetuses were removed, weighed, sexed, and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was prepared for either skeletal or soft tissue analysis. Results showed a higher rate of teratogenesis in the B6D2 group compared to the genetically similar D2B6 group, which indicates an influence of maternal genotype on susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis. The percentage of affected male and female fetuses did not differ, which suggests that sex-linked factors are not responsible for the maternal effect. The backcross B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6 litters did not differ significantly for any measure of teratogenesis, suggesting that differences in maternally transmitted cytoplasmic material are not the cause of the maternal effect. Factors that could account for the maternal effect are differences in the maternal uterine environment and genomic imprinting. Separating maternal from fetal-mediated mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis is needed for identifying mothers and infants at risk.

  9. Chronic exposure to light reverses the effect of maternal separation on proteins in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimatelis, J J; Stein, D J; Russell, V A

    2013-11-01

    Animals subjected to maternal separation display behavioural and endocrine disturbances, as well as structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of maternal separation and treatment with either chronic constant light exposure or anti-depressant (escitalopram) on proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Four experimental groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to (1) normal rearing, (2) maternal separation (3 h per day from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P14), (3) maternal separation followed by chronic light exposure (P42-P63) or (4) maternal separation followed by treatment with the anti-depressant drug, escitalopram (P68-P100). Groups 1-3 were treated with saline as vehicle control for the escitalopram-treated group. At P101, all rats were decapitated, and the prefrontal cortex was collected and stored at -80 °C. Tissue from three rats per group was pooled and proteins determined by isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal separation led to disruptions in the prefrontal cortex that included hypometabolism by decreasing energy-related proteins (creatine kinase B, aconitate hydratase), decreased cell signalling (synapsin I, calmodulin, 14-3-3 protein epsilon) and impaired plasticity (spectrin, microtubule-associated protein). Maternal separation also increased dihydropyrimidinase-related protein/collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) and myelin proteolipid protein. Exposure of maternally separated animals to constant light during adolescence reversed the hypometabolic state by increasing energy-related proteins in the prefrontal cortex and increasing cell signalling and cytoskeletal proteins and decreasing the expression of CRMP. Escitalopram had similar effects to light by increasing ATP synthase in maternally separated rats and dissimilar effects by increasing 2',3'-cyclic

  10. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  11. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data.

  12. Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tracey; Cahalan, Christine; Ap Dewi, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days) and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1-2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P >0.05). As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

  13. Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05. As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

  14. Effectiveness of a normative nutrition intervention (diet, physical activity and breastfeeding) on maternal nutrition and offspring growth: the Chilean maternal and infant nutrition cohort study (CHiMINCs).

    OpenAIRE

    Garmendia, ML; Corvalan, C; Araya, M.; Casanello, P; Kusanovic, JP; Uauy, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity before and during pregnancy predicts maternal and infant risks of obesity and its associated metabolic conditions. Dietary and physical activity recommendations during pregnancy as well as weight monitoring are currently available in the Chilean primary health care system. However some of these recommendations are not updated and most of them are poorly implemented. We seek to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that enhances the implementation of updated n...

  15. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  16. Global progress and potentially effective policy responses to reduce maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, Michael T; Say, Lale

    2012-10-01

    Reducing maternal mortality within significant margins is a global imperative that reflects attainment of development goals. Progress in reducing maternal mortality, in particular among countries with notably high maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), has been substantially slower than the Millennium Development Goal target of an annual rate of 5.5% decline. The latest UN maternal mortality estimates show a reduction in MMR in a number of countries between 1990 and 2008. Understanding the factors associated with progress in countries that have reduced maternal mortality provides other countries and development partners with opportunities to consider and implement policies and interventions that could help accelerate progress. This paper reviews 6 countries that have demonstrated marked progress. The policies that have been effective include innovative financing measures; investment in human resources both in terms of strengthening pre-service education and emphasizing in-service training for healthcare providers; strengthening obstetric care by enhancing infrastructure and upgrading equipment, as well as improving quality of services; and investing in the broader determinants of maternal mortality, particularly family planning and women's education and socioeconomic empowerment. This range of actions, which includes a combination of facility and community-based approaches, provides a list of potentially effective strategies that could be considered when developing programs in other countries with slower progress. Strong political will and multistakeholder involvement and interventions are key in the development and implementation of these policies and actions.

  17. A systematic review on the effects of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring′s blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence proposes that maternal calcium (Ca supplement during pregnancy may be inversely associated with the off spring′s blood pressure (BP level. It is suggested that increased maternal Ca intake during pregnancy may result in lower BP in the off spring. The reduction in the incidence of hypertension in mothers is documented but the effects on the off spring are uncertain. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary Ca intake during pregnancy and the BP in the off spring. In this systematic review, relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, a reviewer extracted the data while the other one checked the extracted data. We summarized the information regarding the association of maternal Ca intake either by food or supplements with BP in the off spring. Results: Four randomized trials and three observational studies were included in this review. The results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1-9 years where a higher maternal Ca intake was associated with a reduction in the off spring′s systolic BP. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of elevated BP in 7-year-old children [relative risk (RR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.39-0.90]. Conclusion: Overall, our findings confirm the beneficial effects of maternal Ca intake during pregnancy for the off spring′s BP level.

  18. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  19. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  20. A maternal effect mediates rapid population divergence and character displacement in spadefoot toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, David W; Martin, Ryan A

    2009-04-01

    Despite long-standing interest in character displacement, little is known of its underlying proximate causes. Here, we explore the role of maternal effects in character displacement. We specifically investigated whether differences in maternal body condition mediate divergence in the expression of resource-use traits between populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) that occur in sympatry with a heterospecific competitor and those that occur in allopatry. In sympatry, S. multiplicata is forced by its competitor onto a less profitable resource. As a result, sympatric females mature in poorer condition and invest less into offspring. Consequently, their offspring produce a resource-use phenotype that minimizes competition with the other species and that also differs from the phenotype produced in allopatry. These differences in trait expression between allopatry and sympatry disappear once mothers are equilibrated in body condition in the laboratory. Thus, a condition-dependent maternal effect mediates population divergence and character displacement. Such effects potentially buffer populations from extinction (via competitive exclusion) while genetic changes accumulate, which produce divergent traits in the absence of the maternal effect. Maternal effects may therefore often be important in determining the initial direction and rate of evolution during the early stages of character displacement.

  1. Maternal Self-Efficacy and Experimentally Manipulated Infant Difficulty Effects on Maternal Sensory Sensitivity: A Signal Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Wilberta; Leavitt, Lewis; Taylor, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    The impact of differences in maternal self-efficacy and infant difficulty on mothers' sensitivity to small changes in the fundamental frequency of an audiotaped infant's cry was explored in 2 experiments. The experiments share in common experimental manipulations of infant difficulty, a laboratory derived measure of maternal efficacy (low,…

  2. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  3. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  4. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

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    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  5. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Krogh, Marianne Thode;

    2016-01-01

    (79%) of the clinical mothers were no longer, or not again, depressed. These results may indicate that maternal depression can have an acute, concurrent effect on infant cognitive development as early as at four months postpartum. At the same time, in the absence of other risk factors, this effect may......This study examined early and long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression on cognitive, language, and motor development in infants of clinically depressed mothers. Participants were 83 mothers and their full-term born children from the urban region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of this group, 28...... mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression three to four months postpartum in a diagnostic interview. Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition, when the infants were 4 and 13 months of age. We found that maternal...

  6. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  7. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

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    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  8. Variations in the postnatal maternal environment in mice: effects on maternal behaviour and behavioural and endocrine responses in the adult offspring.

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    Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Würbel, Hanno

    2008-01-28

    According to the maternal mediation hypothesis, brain and behavioural development in rodents is affected by environment-dependent variations in maternal care. Thus, it has been shown that early handling results in reduced behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and that these effects are associated with increased maternal care received during infancy. To investigate this further in mice, we chose a less artificial paradigm that is not confounded by human manipulation and reflects a more natural form of early environmental variation. We housed lactating C57BL/6 dams and their litters in cage systems composed of a nest cage (NC) and a foraging cage (FC) connected by a tunnel, and varied the dams' access to food by providing food either in the NC (NC dams) or FC (FC dams) until postnatal day 14. FC dams were more frequently observed in the FC than NC dams, and although the frequency of the dams being in physical contact with the pups did not differ between the two treatments, FC dams showed lower levels of active nursing than NC dams during the first week of lactation. These environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour had sex-specific effects on the adult offspring's behavioural and HPA responses to stressors and altered their social behaviour in the home cage, with NC offspring showing higher levels of socio-positive behaviours than FC offspring. These results provide further independent evidence for the maternal mediation hypothesis and demonstrate that even subtle variations of the maternal environment can affect maternal care and induce persistent changes in offspring phenotype.

  9. Effects of REM sleep restriction during pregnancy on rodent maternal behavior

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    Gabriel N. Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the effects of sleep restriction during pregnancy on maternal care and maternal aggression in a rodent model.Methods:Twenty-three female Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups: control (n=12 or sleep restriction (n=11 during the entire pregnancy. At the fifth postpartum day, the animals were subjected to the resident-intruder paradigm and to the pup retrieval test.Results:Sleep restriction during pregnancy had no direct effects on maternal care. Regarding aggressive behavior, defensive aggression was increased by sleep loss, with a lower responsiveness threshold to hostile environmental stimuli. Sleep deprivation during gestation also reduced self-grooming behavior.Conclusion:Taking increased self-grooming as a behavioral correlate of anxiety in rodents, this study provides evidence that lactating dams were in a condition of reduced anxiety. From an adaptive perspective, this pattern of stress response may function to ensure proper maternal behavior, thereby guaranteeing the survival and viability of the litter. Under a translational perspective, the present article confronts the importance of biological and adaptive features to rodent maternal behavior with the relevance of sociocultural factors to the human mother-infant relationship and to the onset of postpartum depression.

  10. Effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure during gestation on both maternal and offspring behavior.

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    Kazuya eTomihara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption during gestation impairs the physical and behavioral development of offspring. However, it is unclear whether endocrine disruption also impairs maternal behavior and in turn further contributes to the developmental and behavioral dysfunction of offspring. We orally administered the synthetic non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES to pregnant female C57BL/6J mice from gestation day 11–17 and then investigated the maternal behavior of mothers. In addition, we examined the direct effects of in utero DES exposure and the indirect effects of aberrant maternal behavior on offspring using the cross-fostering method. In mothers, endocrine disruption during gestation decreased maternal behavior. In addition, endocrine disruption of foster mother influenced anxiety-related behavior and passive avoidance learning of pups regardless of their exposure in utero. The influence of DES exposure in utero, irrespective of exposure to the foster mother, was also shown in female offspring. These results demonstrate the risks of endocrine disruptors on both mother as well as offspring and suggest that developmental deficits may stem from both in utero toxicity and aberrant maternal care.

  11. Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Midgestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traglia, Michela; Croen, Lisa A.; Lyall, Kristen; Windham, Gayle C.; Kharrazi, Marty; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Torres, Anthony R.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large-scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the midpregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project. Levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether) congeners showed high maternal and fetal estimated SNP-based heritability (h2g) accounting for 39–99% of the total variance. Genome-wide association analyses identified significant maternal loci for p,p′-DDE (P = 7.8 × 10−11) in the CYP2B6 gene and for BDE-28 (P = 3.2 × 10−8) near the SH3GL2 gene, both involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Fetal genetic loci contributed to the levels of BDE-100 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and PCB187 (P = 2.8 × 10−8), near the potential metabolic genes LOXHD1 and PTPRD, previously implicated in neurodevelopment. Negative associations were observed for BDE-100, BDE153, and the sum of PBDEs with ASD, partly explained by genome-wide additive genetic effects that predicted PBDE levels. Our results support genetic control of midgestational biomarkers for environmental exposures by nonoverlapping maternal and fetal genetic determinants, suggesting that future studies of environmental risk factors should take genetic variation into consideration. The independent influence of fetal genetics supports previous hypotheses that fetal genotypes expressed in placenta can influence maternal physiology and the transplacental transfer of organohalogens. PMID:28235828

  12. Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality

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    Deeks Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

  13. Parity and litter size effects on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shen-Jin; Yang, Yan; Li, Fu-Kuan

    2016-03-01

    The effects of parity and litter size on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep was investigated at Linyi University, China. Sixty-eight ewes were observed from parturition to weaning. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviors. Ewe feces were collected every 2 days and estradiol concentration was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at 35 days of age. Parity increased sucking, following, grooming, low-pitched bleat, head-up and udder-refusal behavior and decreased aggressive behavior (P primiparous ewes at birth (P primiparous ewes. Parity and litter size may have effects on maternal behavior during lactation. Ewes that have 2-3 lambs may be more suitable for production of Small Tail Han sheep in China.

  14. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families.

  15. The effect of maternal stress on birth outcomes: exploiting a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of research highlights that in utero conditions are consequential for individual outcomes throughout the life cycle, but research assessing causal processes is scarce. This article examines the effect of one such condition-prenatal maternal stress-on birth weight, an early outcome shown to affect cognitive, educational, and socioeconomic attainment later in life. Exploiting a major earthquake as a source of acute stress and using a difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternal exposure to stress results in a significant decline in birth weight and an increase in the proportion of low birth weight. This effect is focused on the first trimester of gestation, and it is mediated by reduced gestational age rather than by factors affecting the intrauterine growth of term infants. The findings highlight the relevance of understanding the early emergence of unequal outcomes and of investing in maternal well-being since the onset of pregnancy.

  16. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  17. Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2013-05-01

    Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.

  18. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

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    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  19. Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example

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    Browning A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

  20. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

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    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  1. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  2. Predation risk-mediated maternal effects in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freinschlag, Julia; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, physiology, life history and/or behavior. As a prime stressor, predation risk may even induce trans-generational alterations, called maternal effects. Accordingly, maternal predation risk during offspring production may influence offspring life history and anti-predator behavior. Here, we assessed whether different levels of predation risk, posed by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, induce graded maternal effects in its prey, the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, we generated four types of predation risk-stressed spider mite mothers by exposing them to living predators, direct and indirect predator cue combinations or no predator cues, respectively. Then, we investigated the life history (offspring developmental time, sex) and anti-predator response (activity, position on the leaf) of their offspring on leaves with and without direct and indirect predator cues. Maternal stress, no matter of the predation risk level, prolonged the offspring developmental time, as compared to offspring from unstressed mothers. This pattern was more pronounced on leaves with than without predator cues. Offspring from stressed mothers resided more likely on the leaf blade than close to the leaf vein. Offspring sex ratio and activity were not influenced by maternal predation risk but activity was higher on leaves with than without predator cues. We argue that the prolonged developmental time is non-adaptive, yet the changed site preference is adaptive because reducing the encounter likelihood with predators. Our study represents a key example for predation risk-mediated maternal effects on developmental trajectories of offspring.

  3. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  4. The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

    This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

  5. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; JY; Sung

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021,a Chinese herbal formula,and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS:JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials.All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia(2005).In a neonatal maternal separation(NMS)model,male SpragueDawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14,or no specific handling(NH).Starting from postnatal day 60,rats...

  6. Effect of maternal diabetes on longevity in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, M; Wada, M; Shinohara, N; Yoshizumi, H; Yoshinari, M; Fujishima, M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of maternal diabetes induced by neonatal streptozotocin treatment on the longevity of the male offspring in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Maternal diabetes significantly decreased the survival in the offspring as compared with the control (p death was 14.9 +/- 0.6 months in the offspring from the diabetic dams and 17.9 +/- 1.1 months in that from the control. The life span was significantly correlated with the birth weight (rs = 0.55, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that a diabetic pregnancy may accelerate an age-related degenerative process of the offspring in SHR.

  7. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  8. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low, poverty reduction must be accompanied by effective behavior change communication to prevent child stunting and to protect women from unhealthy weight gain.

  9. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Wendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  10. Maternal obesity has little effect on the immediate offspring but impacts on the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vicky; Dakin, Rachel S; Liu, Lincoln; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Walker, Brian R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Norman, Jane E; Drake, Amanda J

    2013-07-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring, a phenomenon attributed to developmental programming. Programming effects may be transmissible across generations through both maternal and paternal inheritance, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Using a mouse model, we explored the effects of moderate maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) on weight gain and glucose-insulin homeostasis in first-generation (F1) and second-generation offspring. DIO was associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia before pregnancy. Birth weight was reduced in female offspring of DIO mothers (by 6%, P = .039), and DIO offspring were heavier than controls at weaning (males by 47%, females by 27%), however there were no differences in glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, or hepatic gene expression at 6 months. Despite the relative lack of effects in the F1, we found clear fetal growth restriction and persistent metabolic changes in otherwise unmanipulated second-generation offspring with effects on birth weight, insulin levels, and hepatic gene expression that were transmitted through both maternal and paternal lines. This suggests that the consequences of the current dietary obesity epidemic may also have an impact on the descendants of obese individuals, even when the phenotype of the F1 appears largely unaffected.

  11. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...

  12. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  13. The Effects of Increased Maternal Visual Regard of Neonate Upon the Neonate-Mother Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christina M.; And Others

    This study attempts to investigate the effects of increased maternal visual regard on neonatal social visual behavior and upon patterns of mother-neonate interaction within the context of a learning theory paradigm. Subjects were 3-day-old neonates and their mothers; with 10 of the 15 mother-neonate pairs as the experimental group, and 5 as the…

  14. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  15. The Effects of Parental Work and Maternal Nonemployment on Children's Reading and Math Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of data from 1,067 9- to 12-year olds indicated that the most important determinants of children's reading and math achievement are their personal characteristics (such as gender, race, birth weight, number of siblings) and maternal cognitive ability. Parental work does not have a strong direct effect on achievement. (SK)

  16. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  17. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van Strien, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N = 121, aged

  18. The effects of Ghana's national health insurance scheme on maternal and infant health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); Breebaart, L. (Lyn); De Poel, E.V. (Ellen Van)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIncreasing equitable access to health care is a main challenge African policy makers are facing. The Ghanaian government implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2004 and the aim of this study is to evaluate its early effects on maternal and infant healthcare use. We exploit d

  19. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL. In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL. The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76 and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99 were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight: A multi-country evaluation of effect and heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvand, P.; Parker, J.; Bell, M.L.; Bonzini, M.; Brauer, M.; Darrow, L.A.; Gehring, U.; Glinianaia, S.V.; Gouveia, N.; Ha, E.-H.; Leem, J.H.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Jalaludin, B.; Jesdale, B.M.; Lepeule, J.; Morello-Frosch, R.; Morgan, G.G.; Pesatori, A.C.; Pierik, F.H.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Rich, D.Q.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Seo, J.; Slama, R.; Strickland, M.; Tamburic, L.; Wartenberg, D.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Woodruff, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weig

  2. Using Genetic Variation to Explore the Causal Effect of Maternal Pregnancy Adiposity on Future Offspring Adiposity: A Mendelian Randomisation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); J.F. Felix (Janine); T.M. Palmer (Tom); R. Gaillard (Romy); G. Mcmahon (George); Davey Smith, G. (George); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Lawlor, D.A. (Debbie A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body ma

  3. Environmental induction and phenotypic retention of adaptive maternal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Kevin P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of complex adaptations is one of the most controversial questions in biology. Environmental induction of novel phenotypes, where phenotypic retention of adaptive developmental variation is enabled by organismal complexity and homeostasis, can be a starting point in the evolution of some adaptations, but empirical examples are rare. Comparisons of populations that differ in historical recurrence of environmental induction can offer insight into its evolutionary significance, and recent colonization of North America by the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus provides such an opportunity. Results In both native (southern Arizona and newly established (northern Montana, 18 generations populations, breeding female finches exhibit the same complex adaptation – a sex-bias in ovulation sequence – in response to population-specific environmental stimulus of differing recurrence. We document that, in the new population, the adaptation is induced by a novel environment during females' first breeding and is subsequently retained across breeding attempts. In the native population, first-breeding females expressed a precise adaptive response to a recurrent environmental stimulus without environmental induction. We document strong selection on environmental cue recognition in both populations and find that rearrangement of the same proximate mechanism – clustering of oocytes that become males and females – can enable an adaptive response to distinct environmental stimuli. Conclusion The results show that developmental plasticity induced by novel environmental conditions confers significant fitness advantages to both maternal and offspring generations and might play an important role not only in the successful establishment of this invasive species across the widest ecological range of extant birds, but also can link environmental induction and genetic inheritance in the evolution of novel adaptations.

  4. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  5. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Michel

    Full Text Available Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring.

  6. Effective noninvasive zygosity determination by maternal plasma target region sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently very few noninvasive molecular genetic approaches are available to determine zygosity for twin pregnancies in clinical laboratories. This study aimed to develop a novel method to determine zygosity by using maternal plasma target region sequencing. METHODS: We constructed a statistic model to calculate the possibility of each zygosity type using likelihood ratios ( Li and empirical dynamic thresholds targeting at 4,524 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs loci on 22 autosomes. Then two dizygotic (DZ twin pregnancies,two monozygotic (MZ twin pregnancies and two singletons were recruited to evaluate the performance of our novel method. Finally we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the model in silico under different cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA concentration and sequence depth. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: We obtained 8.90 Gbp sequencing data on average for six clinical samples. Two samples were classified as DZ with L values of 1.891 and 1.554, higher than the dynamic DZ cut-off values of 1.162 and 1.172, respectively. Another two samples were judged as MZ with 0.763 and 0.784 of L values, lower than the MZ cut-off values of 0.903 and 0.918. And the rest two singleton samples were regarded as MZ twins, with L values of 0.639 and 0.757, lower than the MZ cut-off values of 0.921 and 0.799. In silico, the estimated sensitivity of our noninvasive zygosity determination was 99.90% under 10% total cff-DNA concentration with 2 Gbp sequence data. As the cff-DNA concentration increased to 15%, the specificity was as high as 97% with 3.50 Gbp sequence data, much higher than 80% with 10% cff-DNA concentration. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the feasibility to noninvasively determine zygosity of twin pregnancy using target region sequencing, and illustrates the sensitivity and specificity under various detecting condition. Our method can act as an alternative approach for zygosity determination of twin pregnancies in clinical

  7. Effects of maternally-derived antibodies on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digangi, Brian A; Levy, Julie K; Griffin, Brenda; Reese, Michael J; Dingman, Patricia A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dubovi, Edward J

    2012-02-01

    The optimal vaccination protocol to induce immunity in kittens with maternal antibodies is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally-derived antibody (MDA) on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens. Vaccination with a modified live virus (MLV) product was more effective than an inactivated (IA) product at inducing protective antibody titers (PAT) against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). IA vaccination against feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) was more effective in the presence of low MDA than high MDA. Among kittens with low MDA, MLV vaccination against FCV was more effective than IA vaccination. A total of 15%, 44% and 4% of kittens had insufficient titers against FPV, FHV and FCV, respectively, at 17 weeks of age. Serologic response to vaccination of kittens varies based on vaccination type and MDA level. In most situations, MLV vaccination should be utilized and protocols continued beyond 14 weeks of age to optimize response by all kittens.

  8. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Tharner, Anne

    Background: It is well documented that maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has the potential to disrupt aspects of caregiving known to be critical for healthy child development. However, with regard to long term effects of PPD on global indices of infant development measured by standardized...... instruments, findings across studies have been inconsistent. Some studies have found small, but significant effects, and other studies found no long term effects, even for vulnerable subgroups. Given that PPD onset for the majority is within 3 months postpartum, and given that most women recover in 6-7 months...... postpartum, it is possible that potential adverse effects of PPD on infant development for a large part have diminished or buffered by protective factors at the time when infant development is measured. However, little is known about how the concurrent exposure to maternal depressed mood impacts on infant...

  9. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior: A pilot study of effects at 10–27 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Paster, Rachel L.; Papandonatos, George D.; Niaura, Raymond; Salisbury, Amy L.; Battle, Cynthia; Lagasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior at 10–27 days. Study design Participants were 56 healthy infants (28 smoking-exposed, 28 unexposed) matched on maternal social class, age, and alcohol use. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was determined by maternal interview and maternal saliva cotinine. Postnatal smoke exposure was quantified by infant saliva cotinine. Infant neurobehavior was assessed through the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Results Smoking-exposed infants showed greater need for handling and worse self-regulation (p <.05) and trended toward greater excitability and arousal (p <.10) relative to matched, unexposed infants (all moderate effect sizes). In contrast to prior studies of days 0–5, no effects of smoking-exposure on signs of stress/abstinence or muscle tone emerged. In stratified, adjusted analyses, only effects on need for handling remained significant (p<.05, large effect size). Conclusions Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy at 10–27 days are subtle and consistent with increased need for external intervention and poorer self-regulation. Along with parenting deficits, these effects may represent early precursors for long-term adverse outcomes from maternal smoking during pregnancy. That signs of abstinence shown in prior studies of 0–5 day-old newborns did not emerge in older newborns provides further evidence for the possibility of a withdrawal process in exposed infants. PMID:18990408

  10. Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirrat LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of maternal obesity has increased significantly in recent years, and obesity is currently the most common comorbidity of pregnancy. Pregnancies of obese women are often defined as "high-risk" for the purposes of clinical care, with many well documented risks to the mother and developing baby. Maternal physiology and metabolism is dysregulated in the context of obesity, which may contribute to some of the adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Furthermore, maternal obesity has been hypothesized to cause harmful effects for the developing baby through "early life programming." This review will examine evidence from human studies for outcomes of offspring from obese women during pregnancy, during labor, during the neonatal period, and later in life. Keywords: pregnancy, short-term, physiology, metabolism, early life programming, neonatal complications, adverse intrauterine environment

  11. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  12. Effect of Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia on the Iron Store of Newborns in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Asaye; Nigussie, Paulos; Tsegaye, Aster

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women is a widespread problem in developing countries including Ethiopia, though its influence on neonatal iron status was inconsistently reported in literature. This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare hematologic profiles and iron status of newborns from mothers with different anemia status and determine correlation between maternal and neonatal hematologic profiles and iron status in Ethiopian context. We included 89 mothers and their respective newborns and performed complete blood count and assessed serum ferritin and C-reactive protein levels from blood samples collected from study participants. Maternal median hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were 12.2 g/dL and 47.0 ng/mL, respectively. The median hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels for the newborns were 16.2 g/dL and 187.6 ng/mL, respectively. The mothers were classified into two groups based on hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels as iron deficient anemic (IDA) and nonanemic (NA) and newborns of IDA mothers had significantly lower levels of serum ferritin (P = 0.017) and hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.024). Besides, newborns' ferritin and hemoglobin levels showed significant correlation with maternal hemoglobin (P = 0.018; P = 0.039) and ferritin (P = 0.000; P = 0.008) levels. We concluded that maternal IDA may have an effect on the iron stores of newborns. PMID:25734012

  13. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pprimiparous ewes (Pprimiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size, interacting with parity, can affect the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.

  14. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Min Woo Kim; Ki Hoon Ahn; Ki-Jin Ryu; Soon-Cheol Hong; Ji Sung Lee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Min-Jeong Oh; Hai-Joong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplement...

  15. Direct and maternal genetic effects for carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass measurements were taken on 1,537 steers produced over four generations in a rotational crossbreeding study. Breed direct and maternal additive and heterotic genetic effects were estimated for hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Angus (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), and Hereford (H) breeds were involved in straightbred, first-cross, and two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbred matings with each crossbred combination including the B. Breed direct (Ig) and maternal (Mg) additive genetic effects and direct (Ih) and maternal (Mh) heterotic genetic effects were estimated using a multiple-regression model. The Ig and Mg effects were expressed as deviations from the overall mean. The IgC effects (Ig for C breed) were significant for HCWT, RY, and LM and resulted in leaner, heavier carcasses. The IgA and IgH effects were, in general, negative (P carcass traits studied.

  16. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood : prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and behaviou

  17. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  18. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  19. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

    2013-09-01

    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  20. The effects of maternal eating disorders on offspring childhood and early adolescent psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Micali, Nadia; De Stavola, Bianca; Ploubidis, George B.; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveThere is evidence that parental psychiatric disorders are associated with offspring psychiatric disorder. Very few small studies have investigated the effect of maternal eating disorders on offspring psychopathology throughout childhood and early adolescence. We aimed to investigate psychiatric disorders at age 7, 10, and 13 years in offspring of women with eating disorders prior to pregnancy and investigate the relative contribution of other psychiatric disorders.MethodWomen (N = 12...

  1. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

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    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  2. Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Sue J Goldie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants. Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold ( approximately 23%-35% without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC. An integrated and stepwise approach was

  3. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

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    Anna Fodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers’ stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  5. A comparison of three vasopressors for tight control of maternal blood pressure during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: Effect on maternal and fetal outcome

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    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Results: The umbilical pH was comparable in all the three groups (P > 0.05. The mean SBP from spinal block until delivery was similar over time for all the three groups. The incidence of reactive hypertension was more in group M (P < 0.05 than in group E and group P. Total drug consumption to meet target blood pressure till delivery was 39.3 ± 14.6 mg in group E, 1.7 ± 0.9 mg in group M, and 283.6 ± 99.8 mcg in group P. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in the three groups. Conclusion: All the three vasopressors were equally effective in maintaining maternal blood pressure as well as umbilical pH during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section without any detrimental effects on fetal and maternal outcome.

  6. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake.

  7. The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

    2002-05-14

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species.

  8. Effect of maternal death reviews and training on maternal mortality among cesarean delivery : post-hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zongo, A.; Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, P.; Traore, M.; Kouanda, S.; B. Sondo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the differential effect of a multifaceted intervention on hospital-based maternal mortality between patients with cesarean and vaginal delivery in low-resource settings. Study design: We reanalyzed the data from a major cluster-randomized controlled trial, QUARITE (Quality of care, Risk management and technology in obstetrics). These subgroup analyses were not prespecified and were treated as exploratory. The intervention consisted of an initial interactive workshop and...

  9. The Effects of EITC Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Susan L. Averett; Wang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the largest anti-poverty program in the U.S. In 1993, the EITC benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we employ a triple differences plus Fixed-Effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-e...

  10. The Effect of Neuraxial Anesthesia on Maternal Cerebral Hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ineke R.; van Veen, Teelkien R.; Mears, Scott L.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Haeri, Sina; Belfort, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neuraxial anesthesia is known to reduce sympathetic tone and mean arterial pressure. Effects on cerebral hemodynamics in pregnancy are not well known. We hypothesize that cerebral hemodynamic parameters will change with respect to baseline following regional analgesia/anesthesia. Study Des

  11. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  12. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

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    Chad M. Hunter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  13. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children’s level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother’s authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys. PMID:28377733

  14. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  15. Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Thurston, Sally W; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Duffy, Emeir M; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 g of fish (nine meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children's scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  16. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

  17. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  18. Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Shahla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  19. Effect of the number of Ramadan fasting days on maternal and neonatal outcomes

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    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gynecologists and perinatologists are left with many unanswered questions and concerns regarding fasting during pregnancy and its effects on maternal and neonatal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of Ramadan fasting days and pregnancy outcomes. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive, analytical study, 641 newborns, whose mothers had fasting experience during pregnancy, were enrolled and allocated to three groups, based on the number of maternal fasting days during pregnancy (group A: ≤10 days, group B: 11-20 days, and group C: 21-30 days. Demographic and anthropometric data of neonates and mothers were recorded. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and non-parametric tests were performed for data analysis. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in maternal weight (during the last month of pregnancy, neonatal height, incidence of pre-term labor, or neonatal congenital abnormality in the three groups. Increased number of fasting days was not correlated with decreased neonatal head circumference or weight, while 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores significantly improved (P

  20. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication.

  1. Effect of water temperature on exercise-induced maternal hyperthermia on fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Fitzgerald, H M; Wilson, N C; Taylor, A W

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if water temperature influenced exercise-induced hyperthermia in swim-trained pregnant rats and the resulting fetal development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 weeks pre-pregnancy training were exercised daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation in water that was 34.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C (Cool Water Swimmers--CWS) or 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C (Warm Water Swimmers--WWS), for one hour/day. During this time period another group of pregnant rats was immersed to the neck in warm water (37.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C) (Warm Water Controls--WWC). On day 19 of gestation all animals were sacrificed and fetal development assessed. Maternal exercise in warm water elevated maternal body core temperature by 2.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C above resting values, with an increase in fetal abnormalities compared to the same exercise intensity in cool water. Fifty-eight percent of the abnormal fetuses and 60% of the resorption sites were found in the WWS group. Of the abnormalities determined, 65% were from the WWS group and 45% of these fetuses showed micrencephaly. Results suggest cool water may regulate maternal body temperature during swimming exercise and that swimming in warm water should be avoided during gestation because of potential teratogenic effects.

  2. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-05

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages.

  3. Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; McKay, Talia; Iddins, Erin; Robertson, Christopher; Ramsay, Kristin; Rittmueller, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to: (1) identify the developmental trajectories of infant negative emotions (NE) and regulatory capacity (RC) from 4 to 12 months of age, (2) examine maternal and family factors that may affect NE and RC trajectories, (3) examine transactional associations between developing NE and RC, and (4) examine the effect of infant temperament trajectories on negative parenting when toddlers reached 18 months of age. Mothers from 156 families completed a measure of infant temperament when infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age and completed maternal relationship stress, depression, and family demographics measures when infants were 4 months of age. Information regarding negative parenting was collected when toddlers reached 18 months of age. LGM results suggest that maternal relationship stress and depression influence infant NE development, that high NE early in infancy may compromise the development of infant regulation, and that steeper decreases of infant RC contribute the greatest amount of variance to negative parenting in toddlerhood. The implications for models of early emotion regulation and incorporating changes in temperament over time into developmentally sensitive models (e.g., emerging parenting practices and developmental psychopathology) are discussed.

  4. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (pexosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (pExosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  5. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  6. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on muscle, bone and meat parameters in five month old lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Therkildsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) combined with minimal fat thickness above LD (Meat, M). The male offspring (n=23) from these ewes were studied with regard to production, fibre type, bone parameters and meat quality traits. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation caused a reduced birth weight of the offspring, a low growth...... rate from birth to weaning, yet compensatory growth after weaning. No relation was found between maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and meat quality in terms of proteolytic potential, myofibrillar fragmentation index or shear force measured in meat from 5 month old lambs. The data do...... not support the hypothesis of a long-term programming effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on meat ternderness. However, a long-term effect of maternal nutrient restirction was found for bone trowth. Femur weight was significantly reduced in L-lambs and cortical bone density and mean...

  7. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  8. Non-Mendelian Dominant Maternal Effects Caused by CRISPR/Cas9 Transgenic Components in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genomic editing. The Cas9 endonuclease targets DNA via an experimentally determined guide RNA (gRNA. This results in a double-strand break at the target site . We generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster in which the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to target a GAL4 transgene in vivo. To our surprise, progeny whose genomes did not contain CRISPR/Cas9 components were still capable of mutating GAL4 sequences. We demonstrate this effect was caused by maternal deposition of Cas9 and gRNAs into the embryo, leading to extensive GAL4 mutations in both somatic and germline tissues. This serves as a cautionary observation on the effects of maternal contributions when conducting experiments using genomically encoded CRISPR/Cas9 components. These results also highlight a mode of artificial inheritance in which maternal contributions of DNA editing components lead to transmissible mutant defects even in animals whose genomes lack the editing components. We suggest calling this a dominant maternal effect to reflect it is caused by the gain of maternally contributed products. Models of CRISPR-mediated gene drive will need to incorporate dominant maternal effects in order to accurately predict the efficiency and dynamics of gene drive in a population.

  9. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  10. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid–base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid–base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy. PMID:24810329

  11. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  12. Effectiveness of semi sitting position during 2nd stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes among primigravida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi; Anuratha; Kokilavani

    2012-01-01

    This post-test experimental study was conducted among 50 primigravida mothers - 25 each in experimental and control groups in a maternity centre of Coimbatore (TN) with a view to assess the effect of semi-sitting position during second stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes. It was found that semi sitting position is beneficial in enhancing thrust and directing the uterine contraction force on foetus that lead to fewer late decelerations and increased APGAR score.

  13. Exploring the effects of second stage management from the maternal and midwifery perspectives: are there any benefits to directing women?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of second stage varies considerably, with directed pushing, by recourse to Valsalva Technique or a variation of this, being frequently utilised as a replacement for progression through spontaneous maternal effort. The evidence for directed management versus spontaneous is unclear. \\ud Objectives: This review aims to consider the effects of directed pushing on maternal perspectives of second stage management and to assess midwives’ attitudes in relation to this in di...

  14. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  15. Effects of Home Visitation on Maternal Competencies, Family Environment, and Child Development: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, Susan; Dähne, Verena; Brand, Tilman; Kurtz, Vivien; von Klitzing, Kai; Jungmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Based on the US Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, the German home visiting program "Pro Kind" offered support for socially and financially disadvantaged first-time mothers from pregnancy until the children's second birthday. A multi-centered, longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess its effectiveness on mothers and children. A total of 755 women with multiple risk factors were recruited, 394 received regular home visits (treatment group), while 361 only had access to standard community services (control group). Program influences on family environment (e.g., quality of home, social support), maternal competencies (e.g., maternal self-efficacy, empathy, parenting style), and child development (e.g., cognitive and motor development) were assessed from mothers' program intake in pregnancy to children's second birthday based on self-reports in regular interviews and developmental tests. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models showed small, but significant positive treatment effects on parental self-efficacy, and marginally significant effects on social support, and knowledge on child rearing. Maternal stress, self-efficacy, and feelings of attachment in the TG tend to show a more positive development over time. Subgroup effects were found for high-risk mothers in the TG, who reported more social support over time and, generally, had children with higher developmental scores compared to their CG counterparts. Post hoc analyses of implementation variables revealed the quality of the helping relationship as a significant indicator of treatment effects. Results are discussed in terms of implementation and public policy differences between NFP and Pro Kind.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of clinical decision support system in improving maternal health care in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the cost-effectiveness of a computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS in the identification of maternal complications in Ghana.A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in a before- and after-intervention study. Analysis was conducted from the provider's perspective. The intervention area was the Kassena- Nankana district where computer-assisted CDSS was used by midwives in maternal care in six selected health centres. Six selected health centers in the Builsa district served as the non-intervention group, where the normal Ghana Health Service activities were being carried out.Computer-assisted CDSS increased the detection of pregnancy complications during antenatal care (ANC in the intervention health centres (before-intervention = 9 /1,000 ANC attendance; after-intervention = 12/1,000 ANC attendance; P-value = 0.010. In the intervention health centres, there was a decrease in the number of complications during labour by 1.1%, though the difference was not statistically significant (before-intervention =107/1,000 labour clients; after-intervention = 96/1,000 labour clients; P-value = 0.305. Also, at the intervention health centres, the average cost per pregnancy complication detected during ANC (cost -effectiveness ratio decreased from US$17,017.58 (before-intervention to US$15,207.5 (after-intervention. Incremental cost -effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated at US$1,142. Considering only additional costs (cost of computer-assisted CDSS, cost per pregnancy complication detected was US$285.Computer -assisted CDSS has the potential to identify complications during pregnancy and marginal reduction in labour complications. Implementing computer-assisted CDSS is more costly but more effective in the detection of pregnancy complications compared to routine maternal care, hence making the decision to implement CDSS very complex. Policy makers should however be guided by whether the additional benefit is worth

  17. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts.

  18. PREMIM and EMIM: tools for estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multinomial modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howey Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we present two new computer tools, PREMIM and EMIM, for the estimation of parental and child genetic effects, based on genotype data from a variety of different child-parent configurations. PREMIM allows the extraction of child-parent genotype data from standard-format pedigree data files, while EMIM uses the extracted genotype data to perform subsequent statistical analysis. The use of genotype data from the parents as well as from the child in question allows the estimation of complex genetic effects such as maternal genotype effects, maternal-foetal interactions and parent-of-origin (imprinting effects. These effects are estimated by EMIM, incorporating chosen assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or exchangeability of parental matings as required. Results In application to simulated data, we show that the inference provided by EMIM is essentially equivalent to that provided by alternative (competing software packages such as MENDEL and LEM. However, PREMIM and EMIM (used in combination considerably outperform MENDEL and LEM in terms of speed and ease of execution. Conclusions Together, EMIM and PREMIM provide easy-to-use command-line tools for the analysis of pedigree data, giving unbiased estimates of parental and child genotype relative risks.

  19. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  20. Effect of restricted preen-gland access on maternal self maintenance and reproductive investment in mallards.

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    Mathieu Giraudeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As egg production and offspring care are costly, females should invest resources adaptively into their eggs to optimize current offspring quality and their own lifetime reproductive success. Parasite infections can influence maternal investment decisions due to their multiple negative physiological effects. The act of preening--applying oils with anti-microbial properties to feathers--is thought to be a means by which birds combat pathogens and parasites, but little is known of how preening during the reproductive period (and its expected disease-protecting effects influences maternal investment decisions at the level of the egg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally prevented female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from accessing their preen gland during breeding and monitored female immunoresponsiveness (e.g., plasma lysozyme concentration as well as some egg traits linked to offspring quality (e.g., egg mass, yolk carotenoid content, and albumen lysozyme levels. Females with no access to their preen gland showed an increase in plasma lysozyme level compared to control, normally preening females. In addition, preen-gland-restricted females laid significantly lighter eggs and deposited higher carotenoid concentrations in the yolk compared to control females. Albumen lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between eggs laid by females with or without preen gland access. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results establish a new link between an important avian self-maintenance behaviour and aspects of maternal health and reproduction. We suggest that higher yolk carotenoid levels in eggs laid by preen-gland-restricted females may serve to boost health of offspring that would hatch in a comparatively microbe-rich environment.

  1. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  2. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  3. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sacerdoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  4. Does Maternal BMI Influence Treatment Effect in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether maternal body mass index (BMI) influences the beneficial effects of diabetes treatment in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of women with GDM. Outcomes of interest were elevated umbilical cord c-peptide levels (>90th percentile 1.77 ng/mL), LGA birth weight (>90th percentile), and neonatal fat mass (g). Women were grouped into five BMI categories adapted from the WHO International Classification of normal, overweight, and obese adults. Outcomes were analyzed according to treatment group assignment. Results A total of 958 women were enrolled (485 treated and 473 controls). Maternal BMI at enrollment was not related to umbilical cord c-peptide levels. However, treatment of women in the overweight, Class I, and Class II obese categories was associated with a reduction in both LGA birth weight and neonatal fat mass. Neither measure of excess fetal growth was reduced with treatment in normal weight (BMI <25) or Class III (BMI ≥ 40) obese women. Conclusion There was a beneficial effect of treatment on fetal growth in women with mild GDM who were overweight or Class I and II obese. These effects were not apparent for normal weight and very obese women. PMID:24839145

  5. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raipuria, Mukesh; Bahari, Hasnah; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in

  6. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  7. Heritability and artificial selection on ambulatory dispersal distance in Tetranychus urticae: effects of density and maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyn Valery Bitume

    Full Text Available Dispersal distance is understudied although the evolution of dispersal distance affects the distribution of genetic diversity through space. Using the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we tested the conditions under which dispersal distance could evolve. To this aim, we performed artificial selection based on dispersal distance by choosing 40 individuals (out of 150 that settled furthest from the home patch (high dispersal, HDIS and 40 individuals that remained close to the home patch (low dispersal, LDIS with three replicates per treatment. We did not observe a response to selection nor a difference between treatments in life-history traits (fecundity, survival, longevity, and sex-ratio after ten generations of selection. However, we show that heritability for dispersal distance depends on density. Heritability for dispersal distance was low and non-significant when using the same density as the artificial selection experiments while heritability becomes significant at a lower density. Furthermore, we show that maternal effects may have influenced the dispersal behaviour of the mites. Our results suggest primarily that selection did not work because high density and maternal effects induced phenotypic plasticity for dispersal distance. Density and maternal effects may affect the evolution of dispersal distance and should be incorporated into future theoretical and empirical studies.

  8. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  9. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  10. The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; Tumasonis, C; Briggs, R G; Narang, A S; Narang, R S; Rej, R; Stein, V; McMartin, D N; Kaminsky, L S

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  11. Prevalence of dominant mutations in Spain: effect of changes in maternal age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Herranz, I; Salvador, J; Prieto, L; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Rodríguez-Pinilla, E; Cordero, J F

    1988-12-01

    We studied the birth prevalence of autosomal dominant mutations in Spain and estimated how a decrease in maternal age distribution may lead to reduction in dominant mutations. The data were collected by the Estudio Colaborativo Español de Malformaciones Congénitas from April, 1976, to December, 1985. Among 553,270 liveborn infants monitored during the period, 66 infants with autosomal dominant conditions were identified. These included Apert, Crouzon, Hay-Wells, Treacher-Collins, Robinow, Stickler, Adams-Oliver, and the blepharophimosis syndromes, achondroplasia, cleidocranial dysostosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. The overall rate of autosomal dominant conditions was 1.2 per 10,000 liveborn infants. Thirteen (20%) had an affected relative, and 52 (79%) had a negative family history. One case was excluded because of insufficient family data. The rate of autosomal dominant mutations was 0.9 per 10,000 liveborn infants, or 47 per 1 million gametes. A reduction in the maternal age distribution of mothers age 35 years and older from the current 10.8% to 4.9%, as in Atlanta, Georgia, would reduce the rate of Down syndrome in Spain by 33% and through a change in parternal age distribution may lead to a reduction in dominant mutations of about 9.6%. This suggests that a public health campaign to reduce older maternal age distribution in Spain may also lead to a reduction in dominant mutations and emphasizes the potential that a direct campaign for fathers to complete their families before age 35 years may have a small, but measurable, effect in the primary prevention of dominant mutations.

  12. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour.

  13. Effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and cold stress on neutrophil function of bovine neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, L F; Eckblad, W P; Olson, D P; Bull, R C; Everson, D O

    1980-08-01

    The effects of maternal protein or calorie deprivation (or both) on the bactericidal activity of neutrophils and sera from newborn calves subjected to cold stress were studied. Nutritional deficiencies in the dam had little effect on in vitro bactericidal activity of neutrophils and base-line sera taken at birth. Neutrophils obtained at birth destroyed Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli when incubated with either unheated or heated autologous base-line sera. Heat treatment of base-line sera to inactivate complement did not alter bacterial growth. When incubated in the presence of autologous base-line sera, neutrophils from 3-day-old calves were no more active in the destruction of either bacterium than were neutrophils from newborn calves. However, addition of day 3 (immunoglobulin-containing) sera enabled day 3 neutrophils to destroy E coli (P heat treatment of the sera. Maternal protein deficiency significantly increased (P calves exposed to 1 C or 21 C environmental chambers for 3 days. Also, cold stress-nutritional stress interactions were not detected.

  14. Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Gallardo, Meritxell López; Berzal, Alvaro Llorente; Prada, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-05-01

    Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation [24h, postnatal day 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the neurodevelopmental theory, these behavioral deficits might be mediated by detrimental neurodevelopmental processes that might be associated, at least partially, with stress-induced corticosterone responses. In order to address this hypothesis, we have focused on the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, two brain regions that show high density of glucocorticoid receptors, and analyzed possible neuronal and glial alterations by immunohistochemical techniques. To evaluate the presence of degenerated neurons we used Fluoro-Jade-C (FJ-C) staining and for the study of astrocytes we employed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Within control animals, females showed significantly more GFAP positive cells than males and a trend towards more FJ-C positive cells. Maternal deprivation induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial changes in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats that, in general, were more marked in males. This differential effect may be attributable to a greater vulnerability of males to this kind of early environmental insult and/or to sex-dependent differences in the onset and/or progression of the effects. The present experimental procedure may be instrumental in elucidating sex-dependent mechanisms of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders with a basis in early environmental insults.

  15. Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, R K; Kawecki, T J

    2013-12-01

    Based on ecological and metabolic arguments, some authors predict that adaptation to novel, harsh environments should involve alleles showing negative (diminishing return) epistasis and/or that it should be mediated in part by evolution of maternal effects. Although the first prediction has been supported in microbes, there has been little experimental support for either prediction in multicellular eukaryotes. Here we use a line-cross design to study the genetic architecture of adaptation to chronic larval malnutrition in a population of Drosophila melanogaster that evolved on an extremely nutrient-poor larval food for 84 generations. We assayed three fitness-related traits (developmental rate, adult female weight and egg-to-adult viability) under the malnutrition conditions in 14 crosses between this selected population and a nonadapted control population originally derived from the same base population. All traits showed a pattern of negative epistasis between alleles improving performance under malnutrition. Furthermore, evolutionary changes in maternal traits accounted for half of the 68% increase in viability and for the whole of 8% reduction in adult female body weight in the selected population (relative to unselected controls). These results thus support both of the above predictions and point to the importance of nonadditive effects in adaptive microevolution.

  16. Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Patten, Amy; Cooper, Robert D; Sinervo, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (T b) and preferred temperature (T p). We measured T p of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in T b of adult lizards. Females had higher T p than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to T p of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence T p of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal T p and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced T p of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal T p.

  17. The effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health care at mission health facilities in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthalu, Gerald; Yi, Deokhee; Farrar, Shelley; Nkhoma, Dominic

    2016-11-01

    The Government of Malawi has signed contracts called service level agreements (SLAs) with mission health facilities in order to exempt their catchment populations from paying user fees. Government in turn reimburses the facilities for the services that they provide. SLAs started in 2006 with 28 out of 165 mission health facilities and increased to 74 in 2015. Most SLAs cover only maternal, neonatal and in some cases child health services due to limited resources. This study evaluated the effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health services. The difference-in-differences approach was combined with propensity score matching to evaluate the causal effect of user fee exemption. The gradual uptake of the policy provided a natural experiment with treated and control health facilities. A second control group, patients seeking non-maternal health care at CHAM health facilities with SLAs, was used to check the robustness of the results obtained using the primary control group. Health facility level panel data for 142 mission health facilities from 2003 to 2010 were used. User fee exemption led to a 15% (P facilities. No effects were found for the proportion of pregnant women who made the first ANC visit in the first trimester and the proportion of women who made postpartum care visits. We conclude that user fee exemption is an important policy for increasing maternal health care utilization. For certain maternal services, however, other determinants may be more important.

  18. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  19. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum days 6-8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular.

  20. Potential maternal effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on development and disease severity in a Mediterranean legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Grünzweig

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global change can greatly affect plant populations both directly by influencing growing conditions and indirectly by maternal effects on development of offspring. More information is needed on transgenerational effects of global change on plants and on their interactions with pathogens. The current study assessed potential maternal effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on performance and disease susceptibility of first-generation offspring of the Mediterranean legume Onobrychis crista-galli. Mother plants were grown at three CO2 concentrations, and the study focused on their offspring that were raised under common ambient climate and CO2. In addition, progeny were exposed to natural infection by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. In one out of three years, offspring of high-CO2 treatments (440 and 600 ppm had lower shoot biomass and reproductive output than offspring of low-CO2 treatment (280 ppm. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 offspring. However, some of the findings on maternal effects changed when the population was divided into two functionally diverging plant types distinguishable by flower color (pink, Type P; white Type W. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 progeny in the more disease-resistant (Type P, but not in the more susceptible plant type (Type W. In a low-infection year, maternal CO2 treatments did not differ in disease severity. Mother plants of Type P exposed to low CO2 produced larger seeds than all other combinations of CO2 and plant type, which might contribute to higher offspring performance. This study showed that elevated CO2 potentially exerts environmental maternal effects on performance of progeny and, notably, also on their susceptibility to natural infection by a pathogen. Maternal effects of global change might differently affect functionally divergent plant types, which could impact population fitness and alter plant

  1. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  2. [Effect of maternal genotype on the rate of preimplantation development in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V V; Vakhrusheva, M P

    1981-01-01

    The genetic control of the rate of preimplantation development was studied in the mouse embryos. The number of cells in the embryo and the percentage of embryos at the blastocyst stage were determined on the 3.5 day of pregnancy. The experiments were carried out with CBA, A/He, C57Bl/Mib mice and mice homozygous by the mutant genes white (Miwh), fidget (fi) and ocular retardation (or), congenic with the inbred C57Bl/Mib mice. Contrasting differences were found between C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi mice. The rate of development of the morphologically normal C57Bl/Mib and fi/fi and F1 embryo was shown to depend on the maternal genotype, rather than on the paternal one. The effect of maternal genotype of the rate of preimplantation development was related to differences in the time of beginning of the cleavage. The rate of cleavage is similar for the C57Bl/Mib, fi/fi and F1 embryos.

  3. Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2015-03-01

    The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats.

  4. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  5. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  6. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test...

  7. Roles of maternal effects and nuclear genetic composition change across the life cycle of crop-wild hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen M; Emry, D Jason; Pace, Brian A; Kost, Matthew A; Sparks, Kathryn A; Mercer, Kristin L

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: The fitness of an offspring may depend on its nuclear genetic composition (via both parental genotypes) as well as on genetic maternal effects (via only the maternal parent). Understanding the relative importance of these two genetic factors is particularly important for research on crop-wild hybridization, since traits with important genetic maternal effects (e.g., seed size) often differ among crops and their relatives. We hypothesized that the effects of these genetic factors on fitness components would change across the life cycle of hybrids.• Methods: We followed seed, plant size, and reproductive traits in field experiments with wild and four crop-wild hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which differed in nuclear genetic composition and maternal parent (wild or F1 hybrid).• Key results: We identified strong genetic maternal effects for early life cycle characteristics, with seeds produced on an F1 mother having premature germination, negligible seed dormancy, and greater seedling size. Increased percentages of crop alleles also increased premature germination and reduced dormancy in seeds produced on a wild mother. For mature plants, nuclear genetic composition dominated: greater percentages of crop alleles reduced height, branching, and fecundity.• Conclusions: Particular backcrosses between hybrids and wilds may differentially facilitate movement of crop alleles into wild populations due to their specific features. For example, backcross seeds produced on wild mothers can persist in the seed bank, illustrating the importance of genetic maternal effects, whereas backcross individuals with either wild or F1 mothers have high fecundity, resulting from their wild-like nuclear genetic composition.

  8. Serotonergic and noradrenergic lesions suppress the enhancing effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on learning and memory in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2008-02-19

    The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.

  9. Clinical study of placenta previa and its effect on maternal health and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Advancing maternal age, multiparity, prior cesarean section, and prior abortions are independent risk factors for placenta previa. Placenta praevia remains a risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The detection of placenta previa should encourage a careful evaluation with timely delivery to reduce the associated maternal and perinatal complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3496-3499

  10. Effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, fetal and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-07-01

    Gestational hypertensive disorders are the second leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, WHOLIS, PAHO and Cochrane Library. Only randomised trials were included in the review. Data were extracted into a standardised Excel sheet. Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and birthweight. Other neonatal outcomes such as neonatal mortality, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight were also evaluated. A total of 15 randomised controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of pre-eclampsia by 52% [relative risk (RR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34, 0.67] and that of severe pre-eclampsia by 25% (RR 0.75 [95% CI 0.57, 0.98]). There was no effect on incidence of eclampsia (RR 0.73 [95% CI 0.41, 1.27]). There was a significant reduction for risk of maternal mortality/severe morbidity (RR 0.80 [95% CI 0.65, 0.97]). Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction in risk of pre-term birth (RR 0.76 [95% CI 0.60, 0.97]). There was an extra gain of 85 g in the intervention group compared with control (mean difference 85 g [95% CI 37, 133]). There was no effect of calcium supplementation on perinatal mortality (RR 0.90 [95% CI 0.74, 1.09]). There was a statistically non-significant increased risk of urolithiasis in the intervention group compared with control (RR 1.52 [95% CI 0.06, 40.67]). In conclusion, calcium supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in risk of gestational hypertensive disorders and pre

  11. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, David

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors influence fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for (1) ethanol dose, (2) maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and (3) fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fe...

  12. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lepe; M. Bacardí Gascón; L. M. Castañeda-González; M.ª E. Pérez Morales; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by h...

  13. Effects of Maternal Diet During Pregnancy on the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Behnaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Homa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children that can be affected by maternal diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal dietary risk factors of ALL. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Springer Link, Wiley Online, Science Direct, Mosby, ISI Web of Science, OVID, ProQuest, and Scopus from database inception until February 2, 2016. Two reviewers scanned titles, abstracts, and keywords of articles after excluding duplicates. We included case-control studies evaluating the relationship between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood ALL. The search resulted in 2,940 papers, of which 11 full-text articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review and were analyzed. The finding of these studies suggest that maternal diet composed largely of vegetables, fruits, and protein sources before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of ALL in offspring. Maternal alcohol intake had no effect. Nevertheless, inherent limitations of case-control studies like measurement error, random error, recall bias, and selection bias preclude conclusive evidence. Persuading pregnant women to follow a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and protein may reduce the risk of childhood ALL. Avoiding alcohol intake seems prudent.

  14. Individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation processes: the effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and children's physiological regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-07-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (Delta RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children's physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children's emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology x Baseline RSA x Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children's capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology.

  15. [The maternal effect in infantile autism: elevated DNA damage degree in patients and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porokhovnik, L N; Kostyuk, S V; Ershova, E S; Stukalov, S M; Veiko, N N; Korovina, N Yu; Gorbachevskaya, N L; Sorokin, A B; Lyapunova, N A

    2016-05-01

    Infantile autism is a common disorder of mental development, which is characterized by impairments in the communicative, cognitive and speech spheres and obsessional stereotyped behaviour. Although in most cases, pathogenic factors remain unclear, infantile autism has a significant hereditary component, however, its etiology is also under the influence of environmental factors, including the condition of the mother's body during pregnancy ("maternal effect"). Oxidative stress is assumed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of infantile autism. It is known that oxidative stress has a prominent genotoxic effect, which is realized through inducing single and double strand breaks of the nuclear DNA. We evaluated the degree of DNA damage in patients with infantile autism and their mothers using DNA comet assay. The comet tail moment and DNA per cent ratio in the tail were assessed for each individual. The two parameters appeared to be strongly correlated (r=0.90). Mean and median values of both parameters were considerably higher in the sample of autistic children, than in age-matching healthy controls. Interestingly, these parameters were also elevated in healthy mothers of autistic children, with no difference from the values in the group of autistic children. The control group of healthy women of reproductive age, who had no children with autism, differed by the DNA comet tail moment from the group of mothers of autistic children, but did not differ significantly from the control group of healthy children. The results suggest that there are genotoxic factors in mentally healthy mothers of autistic children, which can determine the pathological process in the foeti via environmental "maternal effect" during gestation.

  16. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting.

  17. Could maternal exposure to the antidepressants fluoxetine and St. John's Wort induce long-term reproductive effects on male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Milene Leivas; Hamada, Renata Yumi; Gonzaga, Natalia Ignácio; Bacchi, Andre Demambre; Barbieri, Mainara; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Mesquita, Suzana de Fátima Paccola; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2013-01-01

    Based on the limited number of studies that have investigated the adverse effects of maternal treatment with antidepressants on the development of male descendents, this study was carried out in rat in order to evaluate if maternal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX) or St. John's Wort (SJW) could disrupt the development of male offspring. The dams were treated daily, by gavage, with 7.5 mg/kg of FLX or 100 mg/kg SJW during pregnancy and lactation. The reproductive and behavior parameters were analyzed in male pups. Results showed decreases in the weight of the full seminal vesicle and in the number of spermatozoa. Moreover, FLX-exposed pups presented reduced seminiferous epithelium height and diameter of seminiferous tubules. The present study shows that maternal exposure to FLX, but not SJW could interfere on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

  18. Evolutionary implications of interspecific variation in a maternal effect: a meta-analysis of yolk testosterone response to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Alexandra B; Becker, Daniel J; Navara, Kristen J

    2016-11-01

    Competition between conspecifics during the breeding season can result in behavioural and physiological programming of offspring via maternal effects. For birds, in which maternal effects are best studied, it has been claimed that exposure to increased competition causes greater deposition of testosterone into egg yolks, which creates faster growing, more aggressive offspring; such traits are thought to be beneficial for high-competition environments. Nevertheless, not all species show a positive relationship between competitive interactions and yolk testosterone, and an explanation for this interspecific variation is lacking. We here test if the magnitude and direction of maternal testosterone allocated to eggs in response to competition can be explained by life-history traits while accounting for phylogenetic relationships. We performed a meta-analysis relating effect size of yolk testosterone response to competition with species coloniality, nest type, parental effort and mating type. We found that effect size was moderated by coloniality and nest type; colonial species and those with open nests allocate less testosterone to eggs when in more competitive environments. Applying a life-history perspective helps contextualize studies showing little or negative responses of yolk testosterone to competition and improves our understanding of how variation in this maternal effect may have evolved.

  19. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.;

    2011-01-01

    and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains......Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered...

  20. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Pabusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of addicted mothers (Pabuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care. PMID:27853327

  1. Maternal filaggrin mutations increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in children: an effect independent of mutation inheritance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esparza-Gordillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD. We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36, we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8. Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i carrying a mutation and ii having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels, suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring

  2. Maternal effects, malaria infections and the badge size of the house sparrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip L.G.Birget; Stephen D.Larcombe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The evolution of sexual signals is not only determined by immediate sexual selection but also by selection arising from the environment and the interaction with developmental effects.In this study we aimed to investigate how the badge size of male house sparrows(Passer domesticus) is correlated to avian malaria infections as well as to prenatal testosterone exposure,measured as the 2D:4D digit ratio.The rationale behind this study is that the immunosuppressive effect of maternal testosterone deposition combined with the fitness cost imposed by parasites may cause important trade-offs to the development of secondary sexual signals.Methods: Assuming that vector abundance is a key variable associated with infection risk by avian malaria,we caught adult male sparrows from eight different populations in the Camargue,France,four of which were located in a vector-controlled area,and the other four in an untreated area.For each bird we measured its badge size,digit ratio and took blood to determine its infections status.We used PCR to identify the malaria parasite species and strain that caused the infection.Results: Contrary to our expectation,prevalence of disease did not differ across the vector-treatment regions,with around 80 % of birds being infected in both areas,and those infections were caused largely by a single strain,Plasmodium relictum SGS1.Although infected birds had a badge size not significantly different from uninfected males,there was a condition-dependent association between badge size,infection status and maternal testosterone deposition.Conclusions: This study illustrates that the complexity of temporal and ecological dimensions makes the relationships between disease,testosterone-related traits and secondary sexual signals that have been previously reported less general than thought.

  3. The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Disorders (Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation on Skin Development in Wistar Rat Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amerion

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormones are necessary for normal development of many organs and because of the importance of skin as the largest and the most important organ in human body protection in spite of external environment, the study of thyroid hormones effects on skin development is considerable. In this survey we have tried to study the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on skin development in fetus during pregnancy and lactation by immunohistochemistry technique.   Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, hypothyroids, hyperthyroids, hypothyroids are treated with levothyroxin and a control group. The rat mothers were exposed to PTU with 50 mg/lit dosage and levothyroxin with 1 mg/lit dosage and PTU and levothyroxin simultaneously and with the same dosage respectively in hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and treated hypothyroids with levothyroxin groups. After 14 days, blood sample was taken from mothers, and if thyroid hormones level had change well, mating was allowed. After pregnancy and delivery, 1th day dorsal skin (as the sample for pregnancy assay and 10th day skin (as for lactation assay was used for immunohystochemical and morphometric studies. Results: In this study it was observed that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant increase in laminin expression, in most areas of skin, and maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant decrease in laminin expression. Also significant decrease was observed in hair follicles number and epidermis thickness in hypothyroidism groups. Conclusion: This study showed maternal hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in epidermis thickness and hair follicles number and it causes less hair in fetus. Also maternal hypothyroidism causes large changes in laminin expression in different parts of skin. At the same time,maternal hyperthyroidism causes opposite results. In fact, thyroid hormones

  4. Maternal Effects on Seed and Seedling Phenotypes in Reciprocal F1 Hybrids of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jugpreet; Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Lee, Hyungwon; Vallejos, C. Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Maternal control of seed size in the common bean provides an opportunity to study genotype-independent seed weight effects on early seedling growth and development. We set out to test the hypothesis that the early heterotrophic growth of bean seedlings is determined by both the relative amount of cotyledon storage reserves and the genotype of the seedling, provided the hybrid genotype could be fully expressed in the seedlings. The hypothesis was tested via comparison of seed weight and seedling growth phenotypes of small-seeded (wild, ~0.10 g) and large-seeded (landrace, ~0.55 g) parents and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. Akaike's Information Criteria were used to estimate growth parameters and identify the phenotypic model that best represented the data. The analysis presented here indicates that the hybrid embryo genotype is not fully expressed during both seed and seedling growth and development. The analysis presented here shows that seed growth and development are controlled by the sporophyte. The strong similarity in seed size and shape of the reciprocal hybrid seed with seeds of the maternal parents is evidence of this control. The analysis also indicates that since the maternal sporophyte controls seed size and therefore the amount of cotyledon reserves, the maternal sporophyte indirectly controls early seedling growth because the cotyledons are the primary nutrient source during heterotrophic growth. The most interesting and surprising results indicated that the maternal effects extended to the root architecture of the reciprocal hybrid seedlings. This phenomenon could not be explained by seed size, but by alterations in the control of the pattern of gene expression of the seedling, which apparently was set by a maternally controlled mechanism. Although seed weight increase was the main target of bean domestication, it also had positive repercussions on early-growth traits and stand establishment. PMID:28174586

  5. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems...

  6. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during mid-gestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; ...

  7. Male and female helper effects on maternal investment and adult survival in red-winged fairy-wrens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejeune, Léa; van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew; Louter, Marina; Brouwer, Lyanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite its importance for the evolution of cooperative breeding, it has proven difficult to determine whether helpers improve their recipients’ fitness. Helpers affect fitness in multiple ways, both positive and negative, but their effects can also be concealed through reduced maternal investment.

  8. ST-analysis in electronic foetal monitoring is cost-effective from both the maternal and neonatal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van ’t Hooft, Janneke; Vink, Maarten; Opmeer, Brent C.; Ensing, Sabine; Kwee, Anneke; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Electronic foetal monitoring (EFM) together with non-invasive ST-analysis (STAN) has been suggested as a superior technique to EFM alone for foetal surveillance to prevent metabolic acidosis. This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of these two techniques from both maternal (sho

  9. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, V S; Prentice, A; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn=25,) and low (LIn=25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P≤0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P=0.04] and from 24wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P=0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [-21% (4%) RU/mL, P≤0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P≤0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [-0.5% (0.5%), P=0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets requires further research.

  10. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  11. Early maternal deprivation and neonatal single administration with a cannabinoid agonist induce long-term sex-dependent psychoimmunoendocrine effects in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Arranz, Lorena; Marco, Eva-María; Moreno, Enrique; Puerto, Marta; Guaza, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2007-07-01

    Maternal deprivation [24h on postnatal day 9] might represent an animal model of schizophrenia and behavioural and neurochemical alterations observed in adulthood may be mediated by hippocampal impairments induced by abnormally increased glucocorticoids due to neonatal stress. We aimed to provide new data for psychoimmunoendocrine characterization of this animal model by evaluating its effects in adolescent rats of both genders. In previous studies we found that cannabinoid compounds counteracted the enhanced impulsivity of maternally deprived animals and that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 showed neuroprotective properties in neonatal rats. So, we hypothesised that this compound could counteract at least some of the detrimental effects that we expected to find in maternally deprived animals. Accordingly, the drug was administered immediately after the maternal deprivation period. Maternally deprived males showed significantly decreased motor activity in the holeboard and the plus-maze. The cannabinoid agonist induced, exclusively in males, a significant anxiogenic-like effect, which was reversed by maternal deprivation. In the forced swimming test, both treatments independently induced depressive-like responses. Maternal deprivation reduced immunological function whereas the drug exerted tissue-dependent effects on the immune parameters analysed. Maternally deprived females showed reduced corticosterone levels whereas the cannabinoid agonist increased hormone concentration in all groups. In general, the results show detrimental effects of both treatments as well as intriguing interactions, notably in relation to emotional behaviour and certain immunological responses.

  12. Effects of maternal starvation on some blood metabolites, liver glycogen, birth weight and survival of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, M O

    1981-12-01

    Pregnant crossbred sows were assigned to three treatments during the third trimester of gestation for an evaluation of the effects of maternal starvation on fetal development and piglet survival. Two groups of sows were taken off feed (water and trace mineralized salt only) on days 93 and 107 of gestation, respectively; the third group was fed 1.82 kg of complete sow diet/day and served as the control. Litter size, gestation length and pig birth weight in the 7-day and 21-day starvation groups were not different from those in the control group (P less than .05). Liver weight was depressed (P greater than .05) among the 7-day and 21-day progeny. However, liver glycogen concentrations and total liver glycogen were unaffected. Maternal blood glucose decreased to a fasting but steady level, while free fatty acid (FFA) increased in the two starved groups. Blood glucose and FFA at birth were similar for all treatment groups; however, FFA increased in the progeny of sows in the 7-day (P greater than .05) and 21-day (P greater than .01) starvation groups at 48 hr of age. Blood glucose at 48 hr did not vary (P less than .05), but the control progeny showed a faster glucose utilization, suggesting a greater dependence on carbohydrate metabolism than in the progeny of starved dams. Survival rate at 72 hr of age was higher among 21-day (43.8%) and 7-day (37.5%) progeny than among control progeny (8.5%). The increased plasma FFA level observed with fasting in the progeny of starved dams might indicate a shift toward lipid metabolism, which would account for the improved survival observed among the progeny of treated dams.

  13. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  14. Effects of maternal enflurane exposure on NR2B expression in the hippocampus of their offspring

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    Fo-Quan Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the pathogenesis of learning and memory impairment in offspring rats resulting from maternal enflurane anesthesia by focusing on the expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit 2B (NR2B in the hippocampus of the offspring. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C group, 4 h enflurane exposure (E1 group, and 8 h enflurane exposure (E2 group groups. Eight to ten days after the initiation of pregnancy, rats from the E1 and E2 groups were allowed to inhale 1.7% enflurane in 2 L/min oxygen for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Rats from the C group were allowed to inhale 2 L/min of oxygen only. The Morris water maze was used to assay the learning and memory function of the offspring on postnatal days 20 and 30. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were then used to measure the mRNA levels and protein expression of NR2B, respectively. Relative to offspring rats from the C group, those from the E1 and E2 groups exhibited longer escape latencies, lesser number of crossings over the platform, and less time spent in the target quadrant in the spatial exploration test (P 0.05 in terms of mRNA levels and protein expression of NR2B. The cognitive function of the offspring is impaired when maternal rats are exposed to enflurane during early pregnancy. A possible mechanism of this effect is related to the down-regulation of NR2B expression.

  15. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

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    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  16. Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation.

  17. Revisiting the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring birthweight: a quasi-experimental sibling analysis in Sweden.

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    Sol Pía Juárez

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester, the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify

  18. Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy

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    Paulo eZielinsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten prcent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and antiinflamatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus constriction.Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal ductus arteriosus patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal ductus arteriosus after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet.

  19. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

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    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    , the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  20. Effects of maternal nutrition and arginine supplementation on postnatal liver and jejunal oxygen consumption and hypothalamic neuropeptide content in ovine offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation exerts long-term effects on offspring health and performance. Energy utilized by fetal visceral tissues can be altered in response to changes in maternal feed intake. Prolonged nutritional changes during early pregnancy can impact hypothalamic neuropept...

  1. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  2. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  3. Assimilation effects on infant mortality among immigrants in Norway: Does maternal source country matter?

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    Jonas Kinge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assimilation models of infant outcomes among immigrants have received considerable attention in the social sciences. However, little effort has been made to investigate how these models are influenced by the source country. Objective: We investigate the relationship between infant mortality and the number of years since maternal migration and whether or not this relationship varies with maternal source country. Methods: We use an extensive dataset which includes all of the births in Norway between 1992-2010, augmented by information on the source country and other maternal characteristics. By measuring the source country infant mortality rate at the time the mother came to Norway, we are able to account for circumstances in the country the mother left behind. We apply assimilation models which allow for interactions between source country characteristics and maternal years since migration. We also fit models in which age at maternal migration replaces maternal years since migration. Results: Our analyses generated three main findings. First, an assimilation process has taken place, as the infant mortality rate declined with the number of years since maternal migration. Second, maternal source country characteristics are significantly associated with infant mortality rates in Norway. Mothers from countries with high infant mortality rates (e.g., countries in Africa and Asia had higher infant mortality rates than mothers from countries with low infant mortality rates (e.g., countries in Europe. Third, the assimilation process varied by maternal source country: i.e., the assimilation process was more pronounced among mothers from countries with high infant mortality rates than among those from countries with low infant mortality rates. Conclusions: The source country is an important predictor of the assimilation profiles. This studycontributes to the existing literature on assimilation by emphasising the significance ofthe source

  4. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

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    Elizabeth L Prado

    Full Text Available Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT, a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9 of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010, and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031. Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039 and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007 mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  5. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  6. Effects of Maternal Hypoxia during Pregnancy on Bone Development in Offspring: A Guinea Pig Model

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    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with reduced bone mass and density in adult life. However, effects of maternal hypoxia (MH on offspring bone development are not known. Objective. The current study investigated the effects of fetal growth restriction induced by MH during the last half of gestation on bone structure and volume in the offspring of the fetus near term and the pup in adolescence. Methods. During 35–62-day gestation (term, 69d, guinea pigs were housed in room air (21% O2; control or 12% O2 (MH. Offspring femur and tibia were collected at 62d gestation and 120d after birth. Results. MH decreased fetal birth weight but did not affect osteogenic potential pools in the fetal bone marrow. Histological analysis showed no effects of MH on tibial growth plate thickness in either fetal or postnatal offspring, although there was increased VEGF mRNA expression in the growth plate of postnatal offspring. MH did not change primary spongiosa height but lowered collagen-1 mRNA expression in postnatal offspring. There was increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related gene (FABP4 in bone from the MH postnatal offspring. Conclusion. MH during late gestation did not change the pool of osteogenic cells before birth or growth plate heights before and after birth. However, MH reduced expression of bone formation marker (collagen-1 and increased expression of fat formation marker (FABP4 in postnatal offspring bone.

  7. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  8. The effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, canthaxanthin, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of progeny ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z Z; Wang, J P; Zeng, Q F; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Luo, Y H; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-03-01

    This trial studied the effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, and the mixture of canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on the performance of progeny ducklings. Four maternal diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (Regular and High; High premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than the Regular premix), and with or without the addition of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). Cherry Valley duck breeders (38-wk-old) were fed with corn-wheat flour-soybean meal-based diets for 8 wk, and then eggs were collected and hatched. Healthy ducklings (equal number of female and male) from each maternal group were randomly selected and received the same commercial starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 35 d) pellet diet for 35 d. Maternal High vitamin premix increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P = 0.001), BW (1 d, P growth performance and antioxidant status of ducklings.

  9. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum Days 6–8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of ster...

  10. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Ozanne, S. E.;

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the child's risk of developing obesity and obesity‐related diseases later in life. Key components in foetal programming of metabolic risk remain to be identified; however, chronic low‐grade inflammation associated with obesity might be responsible...... for metabolic imprinting in the offspring. We have therefore surveyed the literature to evaluate the role of maternal obesity‐induced inflammation in foetal programming of obesity and related diseases. The literature on this topic is limited, so this review also includes animal models where maternal...... inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An LPS challenge results in an immunological response that resembles the obesity‐induced immune profile, although LPS injections provoke a stronger response than the subclinical obesity‐associated response. Maternal LPS or cytokine...

  11. Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

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    Abd E. Hefnawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Samples of allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver, kidney, maternal plasma and liver were collected from 30 ewes and classified into either early or late gestation and copper concentrations were measured. Approach: The Cu concentrations in the maternal plasma, allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and kidney increased significantly (pResults: Significant positive relationships were recorded between age of the fetus and Cu concentrations in the allantoic and amniotic fluid (r = 0.71-0.83, pConclusion: A significant negative correlation was recorded between the Cu concentrations in the maternal liver and fetal age (r = -0.74, p<0.01. Strong fetal-maternal relationships in Cu concentration were evident throughout the gestational period and dams seem to sacrifice Cu levels in order to maintain that in the fetus. Cu concentrations in the amniotic and allantoic fluids could be used as a possible indicator of the Cu status of the fetus throughout gestation.

  12. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  13. Maternal B vitamins: effects on offspring weight and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition during early fetal development can create permanent alterations in the offspring, leading to poor health outcomes. While nutrients involved in one-carbon cycle metabolism are important to fetal growth, associations with specific nutrients remain inconsistent. This study estimates associations between maternal vitamins B12, B6 (pyridoxal phosphate [PLP] and 4-pyridoxic acid [PA]), and homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, offspring weight (birth weight and...

  14. Effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone on brain inflammation in fetal sheep.

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    Elke Kuypers

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are unknown. We hypothesized that antenatal glucocorticoids would modulate inflammation in the brain and prevent hippocampal and white matter injury after intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure. METHODS: Time-mated ewes received saline (control, an intra-amniotic injection of 10 mg LPS at 106d GA or 113d GA, maternal intra-muscular betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg maternal weight alone at 113d GA, betamethasone at 106d GA before LPS or betamethasone at 113d GA after LPS. Animals were delivered at 120d GA (term=150d. Brain structure volumes were measured on T2-weighted MRI images. The subcortical white matter (SCWM, periventricular white matter (PVWM and hippocampus were analyzed for microglia, astrocytes, apoptosis, proliferation, myelin and pre-synaptic vesicles. RESULTS: LPS and/or betamethasone exposure at different time-points during gestation did not alter brain structure volumes on MRI. Betamethasone alone did not alter any of the measurements. Intra-amniotic LPS at 106d or 113d GA induced inflammation as indicated by increased microglial and astrocyte recruitment which was paralleled by increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in the SCWM and decreased synaptophysin density in the hippocampus. Betamethasone before the LPS exposure at 113d GA prevented microglial activation and the decrease in synaptophysin. Betamethasone after LPS exposure increased microglial infiltration and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Intra-uterine LPS exposure for 7d or 14d before delivery induced inflammation and injury in the fetal white matter and hippocampus. Antenatal glucocorticoids aggravated the inflammatory changes in the brain caused by pre-existing intra-amniotic inflammation

  15. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Ptotal litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  16. Sex-dependent maternal deprivation effects on brain monoamine content in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; O'Shea, Esther; Gutierrez-Lopez, M Dolores; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Colado, María Isabel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2010-07-26

    Rats subjected to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24h, postnatal days 9-10] show, later in life, behavioural alterations that resemble specific signs of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric signs including increased levels of impulsivity and an apparent difficulty to cope with stressful situations. Some of these behavioural modifications are observable in the periadolescent period. However there is no previous information regarding the possible underlying neurochemical correlates at this critical developmental period. In this study we have addressed the effects of MD on the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and their respective metabolites in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cerebellum of male and female periadolescent Wistar rats. MD rats showed significantly increased levels of 5-HT in all regions studied with the exception of cerebellum. In addition, MD animals showed increased levels of DA in PFC as well as increased levels of DA and a decrease of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios in striatum. The effect of MD on the monoaminergic systems was in several cases sex-dependent.

  17. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm.

  18. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  19. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  20. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  1. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  2. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  3. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring. PMID:27529279

  4. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27% or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%. Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55 and Day 90 of gestation (g90 and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160 and age at puberty period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC, cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2 mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  5. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  6. The effect of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Kuran, M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes. Time of estrus of 3-5 years old Karayaka breed ewes was synchronized and mating was monitored to determine the day 0 of gestation. The ewes had similar body weights (47.8±0.7kg) and loin eye muscle values (thickness; 20.9±1.0mm and fat thickness; 4.7±0.5mm) at mating. The ewes were allocated into two treatment groups at day 30 of gestation; under-fed (UF; n=12) and well-fed (WF; n=13) groups. The ewes in UF group were fed with a diet to provide 50% of their daily requirement from day 30 to day 80 of gestation and 100% of their daily requirement during the rest of the gestation period. The ewes in WF group were fed at least 100% of their daily requirement throughout gestation. The singleton bearing ewes in the UF group had a lesser (Ppregnancies.

  7. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Aksić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9 Wistar rats to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD. At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX, 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX, and 15% in motor cortex (MCX compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition.

  9. Fetal and maternal effects of continual exposure of rats to 970-MHz circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E.; Weil, C.; Phillips, P.A.; Carter, H.B.; House, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually continual exposure to970-MHz microwaves in circularly-polarized waveguides was used to elicit fetal responses in Sprague-Dawley rats during gestation. Two hundred fifty rats were exposed to microwave radiation at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.07, 2.4, or 4.8 W/kg, or concurrently sham-irradiated for 22 h/day from the 1st through the 19th day of gestation. At SAR of 4.8 W/kg, only fetal body weight was significantly altered (-12%, P=.012). Two of twelve rats died during the exposure at SAR of 4.8 W/kg. Bred, but non-pregnant, rats that were exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg had significantly lower body weight gain than sham-irradiated rats; similar lower gain is assumed to have occurred in the pregnant rats exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg, and whose fetuses were significantly smaller. The authors conclude that continual gestational exposure at SAR of 4.8 (but not 2.4 or lower) W/kg induces fetal alterations. Apparently, deleterious maternal effects are associated with these fetal changes. Although colonic temperature was not measured in these rats, it is expected that exposure at 4.8 W/kg was hyperthermal.

  10. Cytotype regulation by telomeric P elements in Drosophila melanogaster: variation in regulatory strength and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Michael W; Chapman, Eric J; Simmons, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Strains carrying the X-linked telomeric P elements TP5 or TP6 varied in their ability to repress hybrid dysgenesis. The rank ordering of these strains was consistent across different genetic assays and was not related to the type of telomeric P element (TP5 or TP6) present. Strong repression of dysgenesis was associated with weak expression of mRNA from the telomeric P element and also with a reduced amount of mRNA from a transposase-producing P element contained within a transgene inserted on an autosome. A strictly maternal component of repression, transmitted independently of the telomeric P element, was detected in the daughters but not the sons of females from the strongest repressing strains. However, this effect was seen only when dysgenesis was induced by crossing these females to males from a P strain, not when it was induced by crossing them to males homozygous for a single transposase-producing P element contained within a transgene. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the P cytotype, the condition that regulates P elements, involves an RNA interference mechanism mediated by piRNAs produced by telomeric P elements such as TP5 and TP6 and amplified by RNAs produced by other P elements.

  11. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  12. Protective effects of arginine on fetal brain under maternal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Enanat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Arginine by regulating the biological activity of the brain plays an important role in reducing stress. Today's, stress is one of the century disease that created many problem.  This study conducted to determine the protective effect of arginine on nitric oxide levels in maternal fetal brain tissue under stress. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (200-250 gr were randomly divided into four groups. With and without stress groups received arginine (200 mg/kg intraperitoneal from 5 – 20 days of pregnancies. Control with and sham without stress received 2 ml of normal saline. The pregnant rats were anesthetized by ketamine (100 mg/kg on the day 20 then the fetuses removed and weighed. Twenty five brain of fetal brain rat from each group were chosen for measuring of forebrain thickness and brain volume. Another 25 brain were chosen for measuring of nitric oxide. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: Nitric oxide Levels reduced in stress rats treated with arginine compared to control group (P<0.05. The mean thickness of forebrain and hippicampal formation decreased in stress rats versus unstressed, but was not significant. The mean weight decreased significantly in stress group compared to the unstressed group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Arginine could protect the brain tissue and fetal weight by reducing the level of oxidative stress in the pregnant rats.

  13. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  14. Tolerance of whitefish embryos to Pseudomonas fluorescens linked to genetic and maternal effects, and reduced by previous exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Siebenthal, Beat A; Jacob, Alain; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Juvenile or adult fish can alter their behaviour and rely on an innate and adaptive immune system to avoid/counteract pathogens, while fish embryos have to depend on egg characteristics and may be partly protected by their developing immune system that is building up from a certain age on. We developed an infection protocol that allows testing the reaction of individual whitefish embryos (Coregonus palaea) to repeated exposures to Pseudomonas fluorescens, an opportunistic bacterial fish pathogen. We used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design to separately test the effects of paternal and maternal contributions to the embryos' susceptibility to different kinds of pathogen exposure. We found that a first non-lethal exposure had immunosuppressive effects: pre-exposed embryos were more susceptible to future challenges with the same pathogen. At intermediate and high levels of pathogen intensity, maternal effects turned out to be crucial for the embryos' tolerance to infection. Paternal (i.e. genetic) effects played a significant role at the strongest level of infection, i.e. the embryos' own genetics already explained some of the variation in embryo susceptibility. Our findings suggest that whitefish embryos are largely protected by maternally transmitted substances, but build up some own innate immunocompetence several days before hatching.

  15. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  16. Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans, was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus, their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and

  17. Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother's and the developing fetus's health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or ant...

  18. Heritability of seed weight in Maritime pine, a relevant trait in the transmission of environmental maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative seed provisioning is an important life-history trait with strong effects on offspring phenotype and fitness. As for any other trait, heritability estimates are vital for understanding its evolutionary dynamics. However, being a trait in between two generations, estimating additive genetic variation of seed provisioning requires complex quantitative genetic approaches for distinguishing between true genetic and environmental maternal effects. Here, using Maritime pine as a long-lived plant model, we quantified additive genetic variation of cone and seed weight (SW) mean and SW within-individual variation. We used a powerful approach combining both half-sib analysis and parent-offspring regression using several common garden tests established in contrasting environments to separate G, E and G × E effects. Both cone weight and SW mean showed significant genetic variation but were also influenced by the maternal environment. Most of the large variation in SW mean was attributable to additive genetic effects (h(2)=0.55-0.74). SW showed no apparent G × E interaction, particularly when accounting for cone weight covariation, suggesting that the maternal genotypes actively control the SW mean irrespective of the amount of resources allocated to cones. Within-individual variation in SW was low (12%) relative to between-individual variation (88%), and showed no genetic variation but was largely affected by the maternal environment, with greater variation in the less favourable sites for pine growth. In summary, results were very consistent between the parental and the offspring common garden tests, and clearly indicated heritable genetic variation for SW mean but not for within-individual variation in SW.

  19. Effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural low concentration of bupivacaine combined with anisodamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural application of 0.125% bupivacaine combined with anisodamine on the labor stage, and modes of delivery and neonatal Apgar's score. Methods A total of 220 primiparaes with full-term pregnancy, monocyesis and fetal head presentation without any obstetrical or systematic complications were chosen and divided into analgesic group and control group (110 in each group). The mixture of bupivacaine and anisodamine was in...

  20. Effects of Maternal Diet and Exercise during Pregnancy on Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Fat of Weanling Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Raipuria; Hasnah Bahari; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high ...

  1. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects.

  2. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  3. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

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    Keisuke Itonaga

    Full Text Available The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability. Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  4. Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, Keisuke; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation) may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing) in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design) during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii). Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability). Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation.

  5. Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus

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    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

  6. MATERNAL MENTALIZING CAPACITY AND PREMATURITY: EFFECTS OF AN INTERVENTION IN NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pinheiro Schaefer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant interactions and their impact on the formation of the psyche are studied by the Attachment Theory, highlighting the maternal mentalizing capacity as a determinant in the formation of a secure attachment. This study aimed to understand how a psychotherapeutic intervention performed with mother-premature baby pairs during hospitalization in NICU affects the maternal mentalizing capacity through a qualitative intervention research, with exploratory and descriptive character, which surveyed multiple cases and assessments before and after the intervention. The research included two mother-premature neonate dyads hospitalized in NICU. Before the intervention, the instruments used were: Socio-Demographic and Clinical Data Sheets and Live History Interview with the mother; after, the instrument used was the Hospitalization History Interview. Data were analyzed according to two themes: a maternal representations of herself; b maternal representations of the baby. There were changes in maternal mentalizing capacity, favoring the mother-baby bond and a possible implementation of interventions aimed at the early relationship mother-premature baby in NICU.

  7. The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Maccani, Matthew A; Francazio, Sarah; McGeary, John E

    2012-11-01

    The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse intrauterine conditions and exposures can influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as the child's future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. Previous studies have associated prenatal smoke exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders later in life. Researchers are now learning that many of the mechanisms whereby maternal smoke exposure may affect key pathways crucial for proper fetal growth and development are epigenetic in nature. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with altered DNA methylation and dysregulated expression of microRNA, but a deeper understanding of the epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy as well as how these epigenetic changes may affect later health and behavior remain to be elucidated. This article seeks to explore many of the previously described epigenetic alterations associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and assess how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development, as well as later child health, behavior, and well-being. We also outline future directions for this new and exciting field of research.

  8. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (Pgroup at 24 and 32 weeks of age (Pgroup. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (Pgroups was also significantly larger than C-C group (Pgroups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (Pgroups (Pgroups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (Pinteraction predisposes the offspring to aberrant glucose metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota in later life. Our study is novel in focusing on the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life.

  9. Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.

  10. Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiyo Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care. However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%. Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%.Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the

  11. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  12. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  13. Population differences in host use by a seed-beetle: local adaptation, phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, Angela R; Fox, Charles W

    2006-11-01

    For insects that develop inside discrete hosts, both host size and host quality constrain offspring growth, influencing the evolution of body size and life history traits. Using a two-generation common garden experiment, we quantified the contribution of maternal and rearing hosts to differences in growth and life history traits between populations of the seed-feeding beetle Stator limbatus that use a large-seeded host, Acacia greggii, and a small-seeded host, Pseudosamanea guachapele. Populations differed genetically for all traits when beetles were raised in a common garden. Contrary to expectations from the local adaptation hypothesis, beetles from all populations were larger, developed faster and had higher survivorship when reared on seeds of A. greggii (the larger host), irrespective of their native host. We observed two host plant-mediated maternal effects: offspring matured sooner, regardless of their rearing host, when their mothers were reared on P. guachapele (this was not caused by an effect of rearing host on egg size), and females laid larger eggs on P. guachapele. This is the first study to document plasticity by S. limbatus in response to P. guachapele, suggesting that plasticity is an ancestral trait in S. limbatus that likely plays an important role in diet expansion. Although differences between populations in growth and life history traits are likely adaptations to their host plants, host-associated maternal effects, partly mediated by maternal egg size plasticity, influence growth and life history traits and likely play an important role in the evolution of the breadth of S. limbatus' diet. More generally, phenotypic plasticity mediates the fitness consequences of using novel hosts, likely facilitating colonization of new hosts, but also buffering herbivores from selection post-colonization. Plasticity in response to novel versus normal hosts varied among our study populations such that disentangling the historical role of plasticity in

  14. A comparative study of evaluate dose related feto-maternal effects of syntocinon during labor

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    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the duration of labor by augmenting labor with slow low regulated dose of syntocinon drip, thus reducing the maternal exhaustion and morbidity due to prolonged labor. There is significant reduction in the operative interference like LSCS, vacuum and forceps delivery, thus reducing maternal morbidity associated with operative interference and anesthesia. It also reduces the cost of medical services. The incidence of fetal distress and LSCS for the same does not increase in the augmentation group, indicating that syntocinon can be safely used for the augmentation. At this time, much attention in the field of obstetrics is focused on attempting to reduce the rate of cesarean section, not only to reduce maternal morbidity, but to lower the cost of medical care. Our finding is that syntocinon administration can significantly reduce the cesarean section rate. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1344-1348

  15. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  16. The effect of teratogens on maternal corticosterone levels and cleft incidence in A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Jones, P; Hansen, D K; Sheehan, D M; Holson, R R

    1992-01-01

    It is unknown whether orofacial clefting, one consequence of teratogenic exposure, results from a direct interaction between the teratogen and the embryonic palate, or indirectly from maternal alterations caused by the teratogen. In the current study pregnant A/J mice were exposed to one of three cleft-inducing agents in order to examine the relationship between drug-induced clefting and the response of maternal plasma corticosterone to drug administration. The agents used, haloperidol (HAL), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), or phenytoin (PHT), were administered in teratogenic doses between 0800 and 0930 on gestational day 10 (GD 10). For corticosterone determinations, mice were dosed on GD 10, and blood was collected at 1, 4, 24, or 48 hr after dosing. For fetal evaluation of cleft lip and/or cleft palate, mice were dosed on GD 10 and killed on GD 18. Phenytoin was the most potent inducer of cleft lip and palate and induced a sustained elevation of plasma corticosterone in maternal animals. The other treatments, in order of decreasing potency to induce clefting and/or cause an elevation of corticosterone in plasma were 2,4,5-T > HAL > controls. Correlations between maternal corticosterone levels and clefting incidence were very high at all time points examined; total exposure (area under the curve) was also highly correlated. A linear relationship between drug-induced increases in maternal corticosterone levels and the incidence of clefting in A/J mice was evident. Based on these findings, we believe that increased maternal corticosterone levels may play a role in orofacial clefting in A/J mice.

  17. The effect of maternal near miss on adverse infant nutritional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce M. Zanardi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender.

  18. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvorsen, C; Brix, S; Ozanne, S E; Hellgren, L I

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the child's risk of developing obesity and obesity-related diseases later in life. Key components in foetal programming of metabolic risk remain to be identified; however, chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity might be responsible for metabolic imprinting in the offspring. We have therefore surveyed the literature to evaluate the role of maternal obesity-induced inflammation in foetal programming of obesity and related diseases. The literature on this topic is limited, so this review also includes animal models where maternal inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An LPS challenge results in an immunological response that resembles the obesity-induced immune profile, although LPS injections provoke a stronger response than the subclinical obesity-associated response. Maternal LPS or cytokine exposures result in increased adiposity and impaired metabolic homeostasis in the offspring, similar to the phenotype observed after exposure to maternal obesity. The cytokine levels might be specifically important for the metabolic imprinting, as cytokines are both transferable from maternal to foetal circulation and have the capability to modulate placental nutrient transfer. However, the immune response associated with obesity is moderate and therefore potentially weakened by the pregnancy-driven immune modulation, dominated by anti-inflammatory Treg and Th2 cells. We know from other low-grade inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, that pregnancy can improve disease state. If pregnancy is also capable of suppressing the obesity-associated inflammation, the immunological markers might be less likely to affect metabolic programming in the developing foetus than otherwise implied.

  19. A narrative review of maternal physical activity during labour and its effects upon length of first stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2013-02-01

    Women in western countries generally lie semi-recumbent during first stage of labour, when perhaps it is more natural to move around. Consequently carers are unaware of what constitutes instinctive behaviours and their outcomes. With this in mind, a structured narrative review of the literature identified what prior research has shown about the impact of maternal movement upon length of first stage; results are ambiguous, with 11 studies reporting no alteration to length and 7 reporting shortening. These studies fail to adequately detail time spent mobilising and what in fact constituted walking, squatting, upright, lying lateral, supine or semi-recumbent, and their direct effects upon progress of first stage. Advancements in knowledge are required to progress understanding about maternal activity during labour and its outcomes.

  20. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  1. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

    1985-04-01

    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  2. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin.

  3. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

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    Barbara Tschirren

    Full Text Available Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens.

  4. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

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    Ryan D Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  5. The effect of maternal undernutrition in early gestation on gestation length and fetal and postnatal growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleal, Jane K; Poore, Kirsten R; Newman, James P; Noakes, David E; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2007-10-01

    In utero undernutrition in humans may result in cardiovascular (CV), metabolic, and growth adaptations. In sheep, maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy, without effects on fetal or birth weight, results in altered CV control in the offspring. Adjustment of gestation length after undernutrition could be a strategy to enhance postnatal health/survival. The aim of this study was to determine in sheep the effect of a 50% reduction in maternal nutrient intake [undernutrition group (U) versus 100%, control group (C)] during 1-31 d of gestation (dGA) on gestation length and offspring size. By 28 dGA, U ewes had gained less weight than C, and twin-bearing ewes had gained less weight than singleton-bearing ewes regardless of group (p<0.05). In different-sex twin pairs, maternal undernutrition resulted in longer gestation compared with C (146.5+/-0.6 versus 144.6+/-0.6 d, p<0.05). Increased weight gain by weaning (20.8+/-0.8 versus 17.9+/-0.8 kg, p<0.05) was observed in U male twins. These findings suggest that the strategy (i.e. growth rate or length of time in utero) adopted by the fetus to enhance immediate survival depends on offspring number and sex. This is likely to reflect the degree of constraint imposed on the fetus.

  6. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

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    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  7. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  8. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  9. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles During Pregnancy on Maternal and Offspring Kidney Injury Markers Using a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jason L; Edwards, Joshua R; Prozialeck, Walter C; Xiong, Judy Q; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are pervasive in many areas of modern life, with little known about their potential toxicities. One commercially important NP is cadmium oxide (CdO), which is used to synthesize other Cd-containing NP, such as quantum dots. Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxicant, but the nephrotoxic potential of CdO NP remains unknown, particularly when exposure occurs during pregnancy. Therefore, pregnant CD-1 mice were used to examine the effects of inhaled CdO NP (230 μg CdO NP/m(3)) on maternal and neonatal renal function by examining urinary creatinine and urinary biomarkers of kidney injury, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Inhalation of CdO NP by dams produced a fivefold increase in urinary Kim-1 with no marked effect on urinary creatinine levels. Kim-1 mRNA expression peaked by gestational day (GD) 10.5, and NGAL expression increased from GD 10.5 to 17.5. In addition, histological analyses revealed proximal tubular pathology at GD 10.5. Neonatal Kim-1 mRNA expression rose between postnatal days (PND) 7 and 14, with mammary glands/milk being the apparent source of Cd for offspring. These studies demonstrate that, similar to what is seen with other Cd forms, Cd associated with inhaled CdO NP results in renal injury to both directly exposed dam and offspring. As commercial uses for nanotechnology continue to expand throughout the world, risks for unintentional exposure in the workplace increase. Given the large number of women in the industrial workforce, care needs to be taken to protect these already vulnerable populations.

  10. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

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    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  11. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  12. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  13. Effects of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we reported increased umbilical artery blood flow in ewes supplemented with melatonin from mid- to late-pregnancy, while maternal nutrient restriction decreased uterine artery blood flow. To further unravel these responses, this study was designed to assess placental cell proliferation an...

  14. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in Pla

  15. Direct, maternal and nurse sow genetic effects on farrowing-pre-weaning- and total piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2002-01-01

    Peri- and postnatal survival data, including birth weights and cross-foster information from two line/farm combinations with 33717 and 29200 piglets, respectively, were analyzed to find the best genetic model to describe piglet survival. This was done in terms of direct (piglet), maternal and nurse

  16. Effects of maternal dietary olive oil on pathways involved in diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Romina; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Musikant, Daniel; Mazzucco, María Belén; White, Verónica; Jawerbaum, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Maternal diabetes induces a pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment related to the induction of congenital anomalies. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether maternal diets supplemented with olive oil, enriched in oleic acid, a PPAR agonist, can regulate the expression of PPAR system genes, levels of lipoperoxidation and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats. The embryos and decidua from diabetic rats showed reduced expression of PPARs and increased concentration of lipoperoxidation, MMPs and TIMPs, whereas the maternal treatments enriched in olive oil increased PPARδ in embryos and PPARγ and PPARγ-coactivator-1α expression in decidua, and increased TIMPs concentrations and decreased lipoperoxidation and MMPs activity in both tissues. Thus, maternal diets enriched in olive oil can regulate embryonic and decidual PPAR system genes expression and reduce the pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory environment during rat early organogenesis.

  17. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  18. Effect of diet-induced maternal obesity on fetal skeletal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maternal environment, in particular nutritional status and diet composition during pregnancy, can alter the developmental trajectory of the fetus and change the risk for chronic disease processes such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer in the offspring. This knowledge suppor...

  19. Long term sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of maternal deprivation and juvenile unpredictable stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, R; Miguel-Blanco, C; Aisa, B; Lachize, S; Borcel, E; Meijer, O C; Ramirez, M J; De Kloet, E R; Viveros, M P

    2011-04-01

    We have analysed the long-term psychoneuroendocrine effects of maternal deprivation (MD) [24 h at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) during the periadolescent period (PND 28 to PND 43) in male and female Wistar rats. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM, anxiety) at PND 44 and in two memory tests, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition (NOT) in adulthood. The expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors, as well as of synaptophysin, neural cell adhesion molecule and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, was analysed by in situ hybridisation in selected hippocampal regions. Endocrine determinations of leptin, testosterone and oestradiol plasma levels were carried out by radioimmunoassay. Young CUS animals showed decreased anxiety behaviour in the EPM (increased percentage of time and entries in the open arms) irrespective of neonatal treatment. Memory impairments were induced by the two stressful treatments as was revealed by the NOT, with males being most clearly affected. Although each stressful procedure, when considered separately, induced different (always decrements) effects on the three synaptic molecules analysed and affected males and females differently, the combination of MD and CUS induced an unique disruptive effect on the three synaptic plasticity players. MD induced a long-term significant decrease in hippocampal GR only in males, whereas CUS tended to increase MR in males and decrease MR in females. Both neonatal MD and periadolescent CUS induced marked reductions in testosterone and oestradiol in males, whereas MD male animals also showed significantly decreased leptin levels. By contrast, in females, none of the hormones analysed was altered by any of the stressful procedures. Taking our data together in support of the 'two-hit' hypothesis, MD during neonatal life and/or exposure to CUS during the periadolescent period induced a permanent

  20. Maternal marijuana use has independent effects on risk for spontaneous preterm birth but not other common late pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemaqz, Shalem Y; Dekker, Gustaaf A; McCowan, Lesley M; Kenny, Louise C; Myers, Jenny E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-07-01

    Widespread legalisation of marijuana raises safety concerns for its use in pregnancy. This study investigated the association of marijuana use prior to and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective cohort of 5588 nulliparous women from the international SCOPE study. Women were assessed at 15±1 and 20±1 weeks' gestation. Cases [278 Preeclampsia, 470 gestational hypertension, 633 small-for-gestational-age, 236 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB), 143 gestational diabetes] were compared separately with 4114 non-cases. Although the numbers are small, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation was associated with SPTB independent of cigarette smoking status [adj OR 2.28 (95% CI:1.45-3.59)] and socioeconomic index (SEI) [adj OR 2.17 (95% CI:1.41-3.34)]. When adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, alcohol and SEI, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation had a greater effect size [adj OR 5.44 (95% CI 2.44-12.11)]. Our data indicate that increasing use of marijuana among young women of reproductive age is a major public health concern.

  1. Effects of multiple maternal relationship transitions on offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence: a cousin-comparison analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Cherlin, Andrew J; Emery, Robert E; Van Hulle, Carol A; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents' multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children's antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6-9-year-old, 6,911 10-13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence.

  2. Maternal behavior priming in virgin and caesarean-delivered Long-Evans rats: effects of brief contact or continuous exteroceptive pup stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J M

    1983-12-01

    The effects of 8 days of prior exposure to pups (Priming) in the form of continuous exteroceptive (smell, sight and sound), or 15 min/day physical access (taste and touch possible) stimulation on the subsequent latency to become maternal during cohabitation with pups (concaveation) was studied in Long-Evans female rats. Brief daily access was effective in hastening the onset of maternal behavior only in those virgins which engaged in pup licking during Priming and in maintaining short-latency maternal responsiveness only in those day 21 pregnancy-terminated, thelectomized rats which initiated maternal behavior during Priming. Exteroceptive stimulation was ineffective in both virgins and caesarean-sectioned rats. These findings stress the importance of physical interactions with pups (unrelated to nipple stimulation) for the development of nurturance.

  3. Effects of maternal undernutrition and exercise on glucose kinetics in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leury, B J; Chandler, K D; Bird, A R; Bell, A W

    1990-09-01

    Fetal glucose kinetics were measured using a combination of isotope-dilution and Fick-principle methodology in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or fed at 0.3-0.4 predicted energy requirement for 7-21 d during late pregnancy. All ewes were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a treadmill at 0.7 m/s on a 10 degree slope for 60 min. Underfed ewes suffered major decreases in fetal total disposal rate, fetal-placental transfer and umbilical net uptake of glucose, each of which were significantly related to declines in maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations respectively. In well-fed ewes, fetal endogenous glucose production was negligible, as indicated by the similarity between fetal utilization rate (total glucose disposal rate minus placental uptake of fetal glucose) and umbilical net uptake of glucose, and by nearly identical fetal and maternal arterial blood specific radioactivities of maternally infused D-[2-3H]glucose. By contrast, in underfed ewes, fetal utilization rate greatly exceeded umbilical net uptake of glucose, and the fetal:maternal [3H]glucose specific activity ratio declined significantly, suggesting induction of a substantial rate of fetal endogenous glucogenesis. Exercise caused increases in fetal total glucose disposal rate and glycaemia in fed and underfed ewes. In underfed ewes only, this was accompanied by increased placental uptake of fetal glucose and umbilical net glucose uptake, unchanged fetal glucose utilization and decreased fetal endogenous glucose production. It is concluded that fetal gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to fetal glucose requirements in undernourished ewes. Increased maternal supply of fetal glucose during exercise substitutes for rather than adds to fetal endogenous glucogenesis.

  4. Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Cogswell, Mary E; Li, Ruowei

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest that children exposed to cigarette smoke in utero are at risk of becoming obese. Few researchers have evaluated the dose-response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity or whether this association varies by maternal race/ethnicity. The authors obtained retrospective cohort data by linking records from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System and the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System on 155,411 low-income children born during 1995-2001 in 9 US states and 2 tribal nations. The authors examined maternal smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking, and both duration and quantity combined. Childhood obesity was based on a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for sex and age, assessed at age 2-4 years. Maternal race/ethnicity modified the association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Among non-Hispanic White mothers, both duration and quantity of smoking were positively associated with childhood obesity in a dose-response manner. Among non-Hispanic Black mothers, only heavy smoking was positively associated with childhood obesity. Among Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific Islanders, smoking was not associated with childhood obesity. The inconsistent association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity across race/ethnicity categories merits further investigation into potential explanations for this variation, which may include confounding, reporting bias, or unexplored biologic mechanisms.

  5. Ovarian and uterine characteristics and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring: effects of maternal diet and selenium supplementation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Neville, Tammi L; Borowczyk, Ewa; Sharma, Akanksha; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P < 0.04) in HSeM than ASeM group, and in stroma was less (P < 0.05) in R and E groups than M group. Maternal diet did not affect the LI of any follicle types. For all groups combined, LI was the greatest (P < 0.001) in antral, less in early antral and secondary, and the least in atretic follicles. Our results demonstrate that maternal diet influenced ovarian but not uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring.

  6. The Effect of Maternal Pertussis Immunization on Infant Vaccine Responses to a Booster Pertussis-Containing Vaccine in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Maertens, Kirsten; Hoang, Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Duong, Thi Hong; Huygen, Kris; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Duc Anh; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Maternal vaccination with an acellular pertussis (aP)–containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in a growing number of industrialized countries, to protect young infants from disease. Little is known on the effect of this strategy in low- and middle-income countries. Following a previous report on the effect of adding a pertussis and diphtheria component to the tetanus vaccination program in pregnant women in Vietnam, we report on infant immune responses to a booster aP vaccin...

  7. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  8. Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-05-01

    Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was

  9. Genetic Analysis of Embryo, Cytoplasm and Maternal Effects and Their Environment Interactions for Isoflavone Content in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soybean seed products contain isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects for the isoflavone content (IC) of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal,embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore,the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability (65.73%) was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability (25.87%) and cytoplasmic heritability (8.39%). Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean. The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

  10. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eFuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces detrimental effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a substitute mother. The maternal care of biological and substitute mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the substitute mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of detrimental and beneficial effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may buffer the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  11. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a

  12. Effect of maternal PCOS and PCOS-like phenotype on the offspring's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. While the exact origin of PCOS is unknown, observations from clinical and animal studies suggest that maternal hyperandrogenism may be a contributing factor. Because women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenism during pregnancy, changes in the gestational endocrine milieu may play a role in the vertical transmission of this syndrome. This review discusses the potential developmental origins of PCOS, the impact of maternal PCOS on the offspring's health and contributions of the postnatal environment, capitalizing on findings from animal models that exhibit a PCOS-like phenotype. In addition, this review highlights the scarcity of data at early gestational stages in humans and the importance of animal experimentation to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the programming of adult diseases, therefore, helping identify therapeutic targets for preventive and treatment strategies.

  13. Chronic fetal and maternal instrumentation in pregnant sheep: effect on gestation length and birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Natalee W; Rurak, Dan W

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to compare gestation length in chronically instrumented (laboratory) pregnant sheep (n = 131) and in the breeding flock (n = 476) that provided the experimental sheep. In the breeding flock, gestation length was normally distributed and varied between 141 and 151 days (mean = 147 +/- 0.1 days). In the laboratory sheep, gestation length varied between 128 and 151 days (mean = 142 +/- 1 day), and was bimodal, with 35.9% delivering preterm (gestation length. The median values for the surgical (15 v. 12), overall complication (6 v. 2), maternal complication (2 v. 0) and fetal complication (2 v. 2) components were significantly greater in the preterm compared with the term groups. There was no relationship between fetal number and gestation length in either group. It is concluded that in chronic pregnant sheep preparations, there is a significant incidence of preterm birth and that this is associated with the severity of the surgical intervention and with several maternal and fetal complications.

  14. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O' Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gladys Ibanez; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Claire Rondet; Hugo Peyre; Anne Forhan; Monique Kaminski; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles

    2015-01-01

    International audience; IntroductionStudies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.MethodsIn the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicat...

  16. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P  0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P  0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were

  17. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  18. Therapeutic abortion in California. Effects of septic abortion and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G K; Goldstein, P J

    1971-04-01

    The impact of the reformed California abortion law, passed in November 1967, is investigated. The law allows interruption of pregnancy in the presence of substantial risk of grave impairment to the mental or physical health of the mother. Septic abortions (complete or incomplete abortion in a patient whose gestation is less than 20 weeks; duration and whose temperature is greater than 100.4 degrees F for more than 4 hours) per 1000 deliveries at San Francisco General Hospital fell from 69 in 1967 to 22 in 1969. The total number of abortions rose from less than 100 per 1000 births in 1968 to more than 250 in 1969. Maternal deaths due to abortion decreased in California per 100,000 live births from 8 to 5 to 3 in 1967, 1968, and 1969. Maternal deaths due to other causes remained relatively fixed in incidence. Maternal deaths have decreased much more markedly in the San Francisco Bay area, where many more therapeutic abortions have been performed, than in the Los Angeles Area, where relatively few therapeutic abortions have been performed. The decrease in septic abortion seems to represent a trend toward decrease in the number of illegal abortions.

  19. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  20. Maternal effects on ethanol teratogenesis in a cross between A/J and C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, David; Valdez, Nate; Branson, Scott; Dixon, Ashley; Downing, Chris

    2011-08-01

    Genetic factors influence adverse pregnancy outcome in both humans and animal models. Animal research reveals that both the maternal and fetal genetic profiles are important for determining the risk of physical birth defects and prenatal mortality. Using a reciprocal-cross breeding design, we investigated whether the mother's genes may be more important than fetal genes in determining risk for ethanol teratogenesis. Examination of possible synergistic genetic effects on ethanol teratogenesis was made possible by using two mouse strains known to be susceptible to specific malformations. Inbred A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice were mated to produce four fetal genotype groups: the true-bred AċA and B6ċB6 genotypes and the genetically identical AċB6 and B6ċA genotypes (the F(1) genotype). Dams were administered either 5.8 g/kg ethanol or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin on day 9 of pregnancy. Fetuses were removed by laparotomy on gestation day 18, weighed, and assessed for digit, vertebral, and kidney malformations. Digit malformations in the genetically identical F(1) ethanol-exposed litters showed a pattern consistent with a maternal genetic effect (AċB6 [2%] and B6ċA [30%]). In contrast, vertebral malformations were similar in all ethanol-exposed litters (AċA [26%], AċB6 [18%], B6ċA [22%], and B6ċB6 [33%]). The percentage of malformations did not differ between male and female fetuses, indicating sex-linked factors are not responsible for the maternal effect. Ethanol exposure decreased litter weights but did not affect litter mortality compared with maltose-exposed controls. This study supports the idea that genes influence malformation risk following in utero alcohol exposure. Specifically, maternal genes influence risk more than fetal genes for some teratogenic outcomes. No evidence supported synergistic genetic effects on ethanol teratogenesis. This research supports the conclusion that uterine environment contributes to determining risk of Fetal

  1. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  2. The Effect of Maternal Pertussis Immunization on Infant Vaccine Responses to a Booster Pertussis-Containing Vaccine in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Kirsten; Hoang, Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Duong, Thi Hong; Huygen, Kris; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Duc Anh; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal vaccination with an acellular pertussis (aP)–containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in a growing number of industrialized countries, to protect young infants from disease. Little is known on the effect of this strategy in low- and middle-income countries. Following a previous report on the effect of adding a pertussis and diphtheria component to the tetanus vaccination program in pregnant women in Vietnam, we report on infant immune responses to a booster aP vaccine dose in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods. Thirty infants of Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis)–vaccinated pregnant women and 37 infants of women vaccinated with a tetanus-only vaccine received a fourth aP-containing vaccine dose in the second year of life. Blood was taken 1 month after the fourth infant dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT), and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results. One month after the booster dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the Tdap group for anti-TT IgG (P antibody titers were comparable for both groups. A rise in antibody concentrations was elicited for all (except DT) antigens after boosting. Conclusions. The present results indicate that the blunting of infant pertussis responses induced by maternal immunization, measured after a primary series of aP vaccines, was resolved with the booster aP vaccine dose. These results add to the evidence for national and international decision makers on maternal immunization as a vaccination strategy for protection of young infants against infectious diseases. PMID:27838673

  3. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M A; Neville, T L; Reed, J J; Taylor, J B; Hallford, D M; Soto-Navarro, S A; Vonnahme, K A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2008-05-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se added as high-Se wheat at 3.0 mg/kg (Se-wheat), or sodium selenate at 3 (Se3) and 15 (Se15) mg/kg of Se. Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). Treatments were initiated at 50 +/- 5 d of gestation. The control, Se-wheat, Se3, and Se15 treatments provided 2.5, 75, 75, and 375 microg/kg of BW of Se, respectively. Ewe jugular blood samples were collected at 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, and 134 d of gestation. Fetal serum samples were collected at necropsy on d 134. In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of control) and dietary Se (adequate Se, 6 microg/kg of BW vs. high Se, 80 microg/kg of BW). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis). Blood samples were collected from the ewes at 62, 76, 90, 104, 118, 132, and 135 d of gestation. Fetal blood was collected at necropsy on d 135. In Exp.1, dietary Se source and concentration had no effect (P > 0.17) on maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations. Selenium supplementation increased (P = 0.06) the T(4):T(3) ratio vs. controls. In Exp. 2, dietary Se had no impact (P > 0.33) on main effect means for maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, T(3), or T(4) concentrations from d 62 to 132; however, at d 135, high-Se ewes had lower (P = 0.01) serum T(4) concentrations than adequate-Se ewes. A nutrition by Se interaction (P = 0.06) was detected for the T

  4. Within-clutch variation in yolk testosterone as an adaptive maternal effect to modulate avian sibling competition: evidence from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-01-01

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in different patterns and may enable mothers to adaptively fine-tune competitive hierarchies within broods. We performed a comparative analysis to investigate this hypothesis using a broad set of avian species. We expected species with small size differences among siblings (arising from small hatching asynchrony or slow growth rates) to aim for survival of the whole brood in good years and therefore compensate last-hatching eggs with relatively more testosterone. We expected species with large size differences among siblings (large hatching asynchrony or fast growth rates) to produce surplus young as insurance against failed offspring and to facilitate elimination of redundant surplus young by bestowing last-hatching eggs with relatively less testosterone. As predicted, we found that maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs is stronger when size differences among siblings become smaller. Maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs also correlated negatively with hatching asynchrony and growth rates. These findings provide evidence for correlated evolution of several maternal effects that together support different maternal reproductive strategies.

  5. Effect of maternal lipid profile, C-peptide, insulin, and HBA1c levels during late pregnancy on large-for-gestational age newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Lin Hou; Huan-Huan Zhou; Xiao-Yang Chen; Xiu-Min Wang; Jie Shao; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns can increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that the levels of maternal blood lipids, connecting peptide (C-peptide), insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly different between LGA and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborns. This study aimed to determine the effect of the levels of maternal lipids, C-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c during late pregnancy on LGA newborns. Methods: This study comprised 2790 non-diabetic women in late pregnancy. Among their newborns, 2236 (80.1%) newborns were AGA, and 554 (19.9%) newborns were LGA. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and their case records. The levels of maternal fasting serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), C-peptide, insulin and blood HbA1c were measured. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables between the AGA and LGA groups, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was made to determine the independent risk factors for LGA newborns. Results: Maternal TG, C-peptide, insulin and HbA1c levels were signifi cantly higher in the LGA group than in the AGA group (P Conclusion: High maternal TG level during late pregnancy is signifi cantly associated with LGA newborns.

  6. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  7. Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects

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    Bouix Jacques

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters.

  8. Assessing the Effect of mHealth Interventions in Improving Maternal and Neonatal Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

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    Stephanie Felicie Victoria Sondaal

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Availability and use of mobile phones is increasing rapidly with 90% of persons in developing countries having a mobile-cellular subscription. Mobile health (mHealth interventions have been proposed as effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal health. This systematic review assessed the effect of mHealth interventions that support pregnant women during the antenatal, birth and postnatal period in LMIC.The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42014010292. Six databases were searched from June 2014-April 2015, accompanied by grey literature search using pre-defined search terms linked to pregnant women in LMIC and mHealth. Quality of articles was assessed with an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Because of heterogeneity in outcomes, settings and study designs a narrative synthesis of quantitative results of intervention studies on maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes, service utilization, and healthy pregnancy education was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized with a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.In total, 3777 articles were found, of which 27 studies were included: twelve intervention studies and fifteen descriptive studies. mHealth interventions targeted at pregnant women increased maternal and neonatal service utilization shown through increased antenatal care attendance, facility-service utilization, skilled attendance at birth, and vaccination rates. Few articles assessed the effect on maternal or neonatal health outcomes, with inconsistent results.mHealth interventions may be effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal service utilization. Further studies assessing mHealth's impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes are recommended. The emerging trend of strong experimental research designs with randomized controlled trials, combined with feasibility research

  9. Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different.

  10. Genetic and maternal effects on valproic acid teratogenesis in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Chris; Biers, Jami; Larson, Colin; Kimball, Alexi; Wright, Hali; Ishii, Takamasa; Gilliam, David; Johnson, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used worldwide to treat epilepsy, migraine headaches, and bipolar disorder. However, VPA is teratogenic and in utero exposure can lead to congenital malformations. Using inbred C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice, we asked whether genetic variation could play a role in susceptibility to VPA teratogenesis. Whereas B6 fetuses were more susceptible than D2 fetuses to digit and vertebral malformations, D2 fetuses were more susceptible to rib malformations. In a reciprocal cross between B6 and D2, genetically identical F1 mice carried in a B6 mother had a greater percentage of vertebral malformations following prenatal VPA exposure than F1 mice carried in a D2 mother. This reciprocal F1 difference is known as a maternal effect and shows that maternal genotype/uterine environment is an important mediator of VPA teratogenecity. VPA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and it is possible that the differential teratogenesis in B6 and D2 is because of strain differences in histone acetylation. We observed strain differences in acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in both embryo and placenta following in utero VPA exposure, but additional studies are needed to determine the significance of these changes in mediating teratogenesis. Our results provide additional support that genetic factors, both maternal and fetal, play a role in VPA teratogenesis. Lines of mice derived from B6 and D2 will be a useful model for elucidating the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to VPA teratogenesis.

  11. Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Schwarz, A; Spinosa, H S; Florio, J C; Bernardi, M M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory suggested that the administration of antihistaminics (H(1) receptor antagonists) to pregnant Wistar rats throughout pregnancy altered brain sexual differentiation and dopaminergic physiology of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 20 mg/kg diphenhydramine (DPH) administration to pregnant rats during the fetal period of pregnancy [Gestation Days (GDs) 16-21], a critical period for brain sexual differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) maturation. Maternal body weight and water and food consumption were measured during pregnancy and offspring physical and behavioral development were evaluated during lactation. Offspring open-field behavior was assessed at 21 and 100 days of age. After the final open-field test, male and female sexual behavior, stereotypy following an apomorphine challenge, striatal content of dopamine (DA), the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. There were no significant treatment-related changes in maternal reproductive parameters, but DPH treatment decreased maternal body weight gain during the treatment period. Offspring physical parameters were not altered in the treated group, and no significant treatment-related changes were found in female open-field measures, sexual behavior or in striatal neurochemical measurements. However, delayed testis descent and altered patterns of sexual behavior occurred in male offspring accompanied by increased striatal DA, decreased striatal DOPAC as well as reduced DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to DPH during the fetal period of rat development altered postnatal CNS maturation and sexual development of male offspring via changes in striatal bioamine systems.

  12. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

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    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Effect of maternal undernutrition on human foetal pancreas morphology in second trimester of pregnancy

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    P Uday Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Results: Significant correlations between maternal and foetal parameters were seen. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the number, size or density and beta cell counts of the pancreas among foetal pancreas of mothers with BMI 18.5 kg/m 2 . Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that nutritional status of the mother may not have profound influence on the morphology of beta cells of foetal pancreas in second trimester of pregnancy. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.

  14. Fitness drivers in the threatened Dianthus guliae Janka (Caryophyllaceae): disentangling effects of growth context, maternal influence and inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, D; Gullo, T; Bernardo, L

    2011-01-01

    We studied inbreeding depression, growth context and maternal influence as constraints to fitness in the self-compatible, protandrous Dianthus guliae Janka, a threatened Italian endemic. We performed hand-pollinations to verify outcomes of self- and cross-fertilisation over two generations, and grew inbred and outbred D. guliae offspring under different conditions - in pots, a common garden and field conditions (with/without nutrient addition). The environment influenced juvenile growth and flowering likelihood/rate, but had little effect on inbreeding depression. Significant interactions among genetic and environmental factors influenced female fertility. Overall, genetic factors strongly affected both early (seed mass, seed germination, early survival) and late (seed/ovule ratio) life-history traits. After the first pollination experiment, we detected higher mortality in the selfed progeny, which is possibly a consequence of inbreeding depression caused by over-expression of early-acting deleterious alleles. The second pollination induced a strong loss of reproductive fitness (seed production, seed mass) in inbred D. guliae offspring, regardless of the pollination treatment (selfing/crossing); hence, a strong (genetic) maternal influence constrained early life-history traits of the second generation. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that self-compatibility does not prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding in D. guliae populations, and may increase the severe extinction risk if out-crossing rates decrease.

  15. The effect of chronic cocaine exposure throughout pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P; Binienda, Z; Gillam, M P; Klein, J; McMartin, K; Koren, G; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gestational cocaine exposure in a nonhuman primate model, pregnant rhesus monkeys were either treated (N = 10) with escalating doses of cocaine up to 7.5 mg/kg (IM), three times per day, 5 consecutive days per week, prior to conception and throughout gestation, or were not treated (N = 10) with cocaine at all. Substantial levels of both cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed in samples of hair taken at birth from mothers and infants of the cocaine-treated group. Despite these differences in cocaine exposure, the experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to maternal outcome, as measured by body weight again during pregnancy and length of pregnancy. On the other hand, the experimental groups did differ significantly with respect to infant outcome, as measured at birth by body weight, overall length, and crown circumference, all of which were decreased in the cocaine-treated group. A variety of reflexes tested at birth were normal in the cocaine-treated group. It was concluded that, in a rhesus monkey model, chronic cocaine exposure throughout pregnancy had no significant effect on maternal outcome, but did significantly affect infant outcome as assessed in this investigation.

  16. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  17. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

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    Ana Paula Muraro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405. Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2% also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59, 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  18. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  19. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

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    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  20. Maternal and Foetal Cardiovascular Effects of the Anaesthetic Alfaxalone in 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the Pregnant Ewe

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    Anna Andaluz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacodynamics effects of the anaesthetic alfaxalone in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in pregnant sheep after the intravenous injection of a 2 mg/kg weight dose. Six pregnant Ripollesa sheep, weighing 47.1 ± 4.4 kg, were used. Twenty-four hours after instrumentation, sheep were anaesthetized with intravenous alfaxalone in cyclodextrin. Time to standing from anaesthesia was 30.0 ± 10.81 min. Foetal heart rate increased significantly during the first 5 min after alfaxalone administration. Significant differences were observed in maternal diastolic arterial blood pressure between minute 10 and minutes 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240. Significant differences were observed for foetal systolic arterial blood pressure between 5 and 30 min after alfaxalone administration. Significant differences in foetal pH were detected during the entire study period, whereas maternal pH returned to baseline values by 60 min after alfaxalone administration. The present study indicated that alfaxalone in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin administered as an intravenous bolus at 2 mg/kg body weight produced minimal adverse effects and an uneventful recovery from anaesthesia in pregnant sheep and their foetus.

  1. Maternal phenylketonuria

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    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  2. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature

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    Barros Aluisio JD

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, quasi-randomized and cohort studies reporting the relationship between offspring blood pressure or incidence of hypertension and levels of maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy, either from supplements (i.e. pills or food. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library Registry were searched for relevant trials. Results Two randomized trial and three observational studies were identified and included in this review. In 4 of the 5 studies, loss to follow-up was a serious concern. There was heterogeneity between the studies, particularly those conducted on children below 12 month of age. Results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1 to 9 years where a higher maternal calcium intake was associated with a reduction of -1.92 mm Hg (95% CI -3.14 to -0.71 in offspring systolic blood pressure. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of hypertension in 7-year-old children (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90. Conclusion There is evidence in the literature to support an association between maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and offspring blood pressure. However, more research is needed to confirm these finding given the small sample sizes and the methodological problems in many of the studies conducted so

  3. [The usage of individual-oriented model in studies on the role of the maternal effect in the reproductive switch in Cladocera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V R; Kazantseva, T I

    2007-01-01

    An individual-oriented model of the population of Daphnia longispina, an abundant zooplankton species in lakes and temporary water bodies of the Palaearctic temperate zone, is described. The concept of the model is based on the growth and reproduction potential of an individual and its ability to switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenesis, which is determined by the life conditions of three successive generations. The model was used for testing hypotheses on the role of maternal effect in the population dynamics of Daphnia. Several important conclusions are made, including the verification of the importance of this phenomenon for the seasonal adaptations in crustaceans. The possibility of maternal effect accumulation in a series of successive generations probably increases the tolerance of populations to annual oscillations of environmental factors. The model affirms the role of the maternal effect, along with the interpopulational polimorphism, as a mechanism providing for the stability of biological systems at the species (population) level.

  4. Effect of maternal diet on the epigenome: implications for human metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillycrop, Karen A

    2011-02-01

    The rapid increase in the incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases over the past two decades cannot be explained solely by genetic and adult lifestyle factors. There is now considerable evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environment also strongly influences the risk of developing such diseases in later life. Human studies have shown that low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of CVD, type II diabetes, obesity and hypertension, although recent studies have shown that over-nutrition in early life can also increase susceptibility to future metabolic disease. These findings have been replicated in a variety of animal models, which have shown that both maternal under- and over-nutrition can induce persistent changes in gene expression and metabolism within the offspring. The mechanism by which the maternal nutritional environment induces such changes is beginning to be understood and involves the altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. The demonstration of a role for altered epigenetic regulation of genes in the developmental induction of chronic diseases raises the possibility that nutritional or pharmaceutical interventions may be used to modify long-term cardio-metabolic disease risk and combat this rapid rise in chronic non-communicable diseases.

  5. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

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    Madhu Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to

  6. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  7. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

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    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  8. Effective Implement of Maternal Health Education%孕产期健康教育工作的有效实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑凤华

    2012-01-01

    Maternal health education can increase maternal self-care awareness, improve self-care ability, and enhance the confidence of pregnant women on pregnancy. Maternal health education contributes to reducing the complication of pregnancy. It also has positive stimulative effect on improving maternal health and eugenics. But the execution of current prenatal health education still exists many problems such as imperfect system,single education content, weak narrow interaction, consciousness of human care and so on. This article investigates effective implement of maternal health education during the period of preconception, pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, after discharge and related system construction.%孕产期健康教育可增加孕产妇自我保健意识、提高自我监护能力、增强成功分娩信心、降低妊娠合并症及并发症发生率,对提高孕产妇身心健康水平、达到优生优育目的 具有积极促进作用.但目前孕产期健康教育工作仍存在内容狭隘、形式单一、互动缺乏、制度不健全及人文关怀意识淡薄等问题.作者拟就孕产期健康教育工作的有效实施及落实情况等,综述如下.

  9. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  10. Effects of rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's Wort and Thyroxine on maternal and foetal expression of Abcb1 and organ distribution of talinolol in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljé, Karen; Lederer, Kirstin; Oswald, Stefan; Dazert, Eike; Warzok, Rolf; Siegmund, Werner

    2012-08-01

    It is well accepted that ABCB1 plays a critical role in absorption, distribution and elimination of many xenobiotics and drugs. Only little is known about the regulation and function of ABCB1 during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate maternal, placental and foetal Abcb1 expression and function in pregnant rats after induction with rifampicin, dexamethasone, St. John's wort (SJW) or thyroxine. Wistar rats were orally treated with rifampicin (250 mg/kg), SJW (1.0 g/kg), thyroxine (9 μg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or 0.5% methylcellulose suspension (control) for 9 days during late pregnancy (each N = 5). Afterwards, organ mRNA expression and protein content of Abcb1a were determined. Tissue concentrations of the ABCB1 probe drug talinolol were measured after repeated administration of the drug (100 mg/kg, 9 days) and after induction with oral rifampicin (250 mg/kg, 9 days, N = 5). Abcb1 expression was substantially lower in foetal than in maternal organs. Abcb1 was significantly induced by SJW in the maternal jejunum and placenta, by dexamethasone in foetal brain and liver and by thyroxine in the placenta and maternal and foetal brain. Rifampicin induced Abcb1 in all maternal and foetal organs. However, organ distribution of talinolol was not influenced by comedication of rifampicin. In conclusion, maternal and foetal Abcb1 organ expression in pregnant rats is inducible by nuclear receptor agonists. Although rifampicin regulates maternal and foetal Abcb1 expression, organ distribution of talinolol remains unchanged most likely caused by the known inhibitory effect of rifampicin on Abcb1 function.

  11. Evaluating the role of maternal folic acid supplementation in modifying the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms in oral cleft children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; KhorramKhorshid, Hamid Reza; Kamali, Koorosh; Zeinabadi, Mehdi Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied the role of maternal folic acid supplementation in modifying the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms in Iranian children with oral clefts. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven newborn infants with orofacial cleft and their mothers were selected randomly. Mothers were matched regarding dietary folate intake. The genotyping on venous blood was carried out. Consistency between maternal and child genotypes was analyzed. Results: Genotype consistency was not statistically significant in both C677T and A1298C gene variants (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Maternal folic acid consumption may not have any significant effect on modifying C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in children. PMID:27904604

  12. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Prezotto, L D; Bauer, M L; Freetly, H C; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; n = 6) and nutrient restriction (RES; 60% of CON; n = 4) from Day 30 to 140 (period 1), and thereafter, realimented to CON until Day 198 of gestation (period 2). Uterine BF, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) were obtained from both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine arteries via Doppler ultrasonography. Generalized least square analysis was performed. Ipsilateral uterine BF in both groups increased quadratically (P interaction or treatment effect (P ≥ 0.24) for total BF during either period. Nutrient restriction does not alter total uterine BF, but it may increase vascular resistance. However, up on realimentation, local conceptus-derived vasoactive factors appear to influence ipsilateral uterine BF.

  13. Effects of maternal education on infant mortality and stillbirths in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O; Madsen, Mette

    1999-01-01

    This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113......,814 births. When adjusted for mother's age, parity, and smoking, the stillbirth rate was independent of mother's educational level, but a clear social gradient in infant mortality was observed. Compared with a similar study in 1982-83, infant mortality has decreased most in the highest educational group...... and has increased in the lowest educational group. In conclusion, social inequality in infant mortality in Denmark is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in smoking habits. The social gap between different educational groups has widened during the last decade, but may partly be explained...

  14. Effect of maternal obesity on diabetes development in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Pimenta, Walkyria de Paula; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2007-10-27

    This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal obesity leads to the onset of diabetes in adult Wistar rats offspring. MSG solution neonatally administration induced obesity in rats (F(1)MSG group, n=30); and saline solution was also administrated to control rats (F(1)CON group, n=13). In 3rd month of age, both control and MSG groups were mated for offspring (generation F(2)), named as F(2)CON, n=28 and F(2)MSG groups, n=15; and so both generations were studied until 7th month of life. Lee Index was measured for experimental obesity validation from 5th to 7th month. Glycemia was weekly determined during pregnancy and monthly from 3rd to 7th month. In the end of experimental period all rats were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with estimation of total area under the curve (AUC); and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Rats were then anesthetized and killed. Data were statistically analyzed with significance level of pgenerations showed significant maternal interference in control and MSG groups. OGTT analysis showed higher glycemia in obese rats (F(1)MSG) and their offspring (F(2)MSG) as compared to their respective controls; and MSG groups increased AUC from OGTT. As regards ITT, F(2)MSG showed higher glycemia at 30 and 120 min, suggesting a delay of insulin action decreasing. Although glucose intolerance and insulin resistance clinical conditions represent as a factors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus development, this experimental model proposal was not efficient to induce type 2 Diabetes mellitus, but for obesity developing, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in successive generations of rats.

  15. The effect of recorded maternal voice on perioperative anxiety and emergence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Oh, Y J; Kim, K J; Kwak, Y L; Na, S

    2010-11-01

    This study was performed to test if hearing a recorded maternal voice reduces anxiety, emergence agitation and anaesthetic requirements in children. With written informed consent, children scheduled for cardiac catheterisation under intravenous ketamine anaesthesia and their mothers (n = 46) were randomly assigned to either the mother-voice (MV) or control group. While the MV group (n = 23) listened via headphones to a recording of their mothers' voices during the perioperative period, the control group (n = 23) wore headphones with no auditory stimulation. Ketamine requirements and haemodynamics were recorded. Anxiety of the patients and the parents were measured before and after the procedure with the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Emergence agitation was graded. The demographic and haemodynamic data were comparable, except for a longer procedure time in the MV group. Mothers' State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was not different preoperatively between the groups. Mothers' state and trait anxiety was lower after the procedure in the MV group compared with the preoperative values. In the control group only maternal state anxiety was diminished after the procedure. There was no significant group difference with respect to ketamine requirement (5.1 +/- 1.9 mg vs 4.9 +/- 1.6 mg, P = 0.645). The anxiety score of children was lower in the MV group before the procedure (modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale score 35 +/- 12 vs 28 +/- 9, P = 0.038), but there was no significant difference postoperatively. Emergence agitation was attenuated in the MV group (P = 0.005).

  16. Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Silvis,; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range.

  17. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  18. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, immunological and morphological changes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43 in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8 and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2 mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses.

  19. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  20. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    on the established International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) IPD Collaborative Network, having identified researchers who have conducted randomised dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese, and where ongoing childhood follow-up of participants has been......BACKGROUND: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. METHODS/DESIGN: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  1. Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

    2014-06-01

    The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress.

  2. Effect of thyroid hormones from maternal milk on some measures of body growth and endocrine system in newborn sucklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakulov, Y K; Karimova, S F; Gainutdinov, M K

    1983-10-01

    The effect of thyroidectomy (TX) in lactating mother on the development of sucklings was studied during first 15 days of life. TX resulted in a decrease of thyroxine (T4) level in maternal milk which further resulted in a decrease of the level of T4, insulin and glucose in serum of newborns, and a decrease of body weight and of the glycogen content in liver. It is suggested that the hypoglycemia, decrease of liver glycogen and retardation of body growth under such conditions result from the inhibition of glucogenesis due to a deficiency of T4 and presumably also of GH in sucklings. These investigations showed that changes of glucose and glycogen in newborns during the early postnatal period together with some other measures of the development may be used in the evaluation of their adaptation capability.

  3. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  4. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-02-01

    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.

  5. Effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality in Rizhao City%日照市婚前检查对孕产妇死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永英; 刘杰; 厉君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婚前检查对孕产妇死亡的预防指导作用及效果。方法:分析日照市1998-2013年婚前医学检查和孕产妇死亡资料,分析婚前医学检查对孕产妇死亡的影响。结果:孕产妇死亡率呈逐年缓慢下降的趋势,当婚检率变化较大时,孕产妇死亡率有显著变化(P<0.05)。结论:婚前检查是一级预防措施,应引导广大青年自觉接受婚前医学检查,接受优生优育指导,从而减少孕产妇死亡风险。%Objective:To explore the prevention guidance function and effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality. Methods:The premarital medical examination and maternal death data from 1998 to 2013 in Rizhao City were analyzed.The effect of premarital medical examination on maternal mortality was analyzed.Results:The maternal mortality was a slow downward trend year by year.When the premarital examination rate change was large,there was significant change in maternal mortality(P<0.05). Conclusion:Premarital examination is primary prevention measure.We should guide the youth to consciously accept the premarital medical examination,and accept the eugenic and superior nurture guidance,to reduce the risk of maternal death.

  6. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte; Wright, Dave;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  7. Isolation and genetic characterization of mother-of-snow-white, a maternal effect allele affecting laterality and lateralized behaviors in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Domenichini

    Full Text Available In the present work we report evidence compatible with a maternal effect allele affecting left-right development and functional lateralization in vertebrates. Our study demonstrates that the increased frequency of reversed brain asymmetries in a zebrafish line isolated through a behavioral assay is due to selection of mother-of-snow-white (msw, a maternal effect allele involved in early stages of left-right development in zebrafish. msw homozygous females could be identified by screening of their progeny for the position of the parapineal organ because in about 50% of their offspring we found an altered, either bilateral or right-sided, expression of lefty1 and spaw. Deeper investigations at earlier stages of development revealed that msw is involved in the specification and differentiation of precursors of the Kupffer's vesicle, a structure homologous to the mammalian node. To test the hypothesis that msw, by controlling Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis, controls lateralized behaviors related to diencephalic asymmetries, we analyzed left- and right-parapineal offspring in a "viewing test". As a result, left- and right-parapineal individuals showed opposite and complementary eye preference when scrutinizing a model predator, and a different degree of lateralization when scrutinizing a virtual companion. As maternal effect genes are expected to evolve more rapidly when compared to zygotic ones, our results highlight the driving force of maternal effect alleles in the evolution of vertebrates behaviors.

  8. Effects of paternal and maternal lifestyle factors on pregnancy complications and perinatal outcome. A population-based birth-cohort study : the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Groen, H.; Buiter-Van der Meer, A.; Sijtsma, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Corpeleijn, E.; Hoek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Do paternal and maternal lifestyle factors influence the risk of hypertensive pregnancy complications, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), spontaneous preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)? Paternal lifestyle factors do not exert an independent effect on the investigated outcomes while

  9. Maternal and Burial Environment Effects on Seed Mortality of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and Giant Foxtail (Setaria faberi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed seed mortality in the soil seedbank is likely to be influenced by the maternal environment during seed development because the primary defense against seed mortality, the seed coat, is maternally derived. Our central hypothesis was that relative rates of seed mortality for seed lots of contrast...

  10. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  11. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  12. The development of adolescents' internalizing behavior: longitudinal effects of maternal sensitivity and child inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Anja; Linting, Mariëlle; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Schoenmaker, Christie; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-04-01

    Internalizing symptoms such as withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior are common in adolescence. This prospective longitudinal study helps to gain insight into the development of internalizing behavior, focusing on the role of early parent-child interaction while ruling out genetic similarity as a confounder. More specifically, the central question addressed in this study was whether parental sensitivity and child inhibited temperament predict children's withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. We followed 160 early-adopted children (53 % girls) from infancy to adolescence. Structural equation modeling was used to test relationships both prospectively and concurrently. The results revealed that more sensitive parenting in infancy and middle childhood predicted less inhibited behavior in adolescence, which in turn predicted fewer internalizing problems in adolescence. The findings suggest that maternal sensitivity lowers adolescents' inhibited behavior and decreases the risk for adolescents' internalizing problem behavior indirectly through lower levels of inhibition. Supporting sensitive parenting in the years before adolescence may protect children from developing inhibited behavior and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence.

  13. Genetic parameters of piglet survival and birth weight from a two-generation crossbreeding experiment under outdoor conditions designed to disentangle direct and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehe, R; Shrestha, N P; Mekkawy, W; Baxter, E M; Knap, P W; Smurthwaite, K M; Jarvis, S; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2010-04-01

    Multivariate Bayesian linear-threshold models were used to estimate genetic parameters of peri- and postnatal piglet survival and individual birth weight of piglets reared under outdoor conditions. Data of 21,835 individual piglet observations were available from a 2-generation crossbreeding experiment selected for direct and maternal genetic effects of postnatal piglet survival on piglet and dam levels, respectively. In the first generation, approximately one-half of the Landrace sires used were selected for large or average breeding values of maternal genetic effects on postnatal piglet survival, whereas in the second generation the Large White sires used were selected for direct genetic effects of the same trait. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.24 and 0.14, and 0.36 and 0.28 for piglet survival at birth and during the nursing period, and individual birth weight, respectively. In particular, direct heritabilities are substantially larger than those from the literature estimated for indoor-reared piglets, suggesting that genetic effects of these traits are substantially greater under outdoor conditions. Direct or maternal genetic correlations between survival traits or with birth weight were small (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17), indicating that peri- and postnatal survival are genetically under rather different control, and survival was only slightly positively influenced by birth weight. There were significant (P piglet survival. Adjustment of traits for litter size or inclusion of genetic groups showed insignificant effects on the magnitude of the estimated genetic parameters. The magnitude of genetic parameters suggested that there is substantial potential for genetic improvement of survival traits and birth weight in direct and maternal genetic effects, especially when piglets are kept under outdoor conditions.

  14. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A.; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos. PMID:25540130

  15. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1 and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos.

  16. The effects of birth weight and maternal care on survival of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus.

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    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lions were listed as endangered following a collapse of the western distinct population beginning in the late 1970s. Low juvenile survival has been implicated as a factor in the decline. I conducted a multistate mark-recapture analysis to estimate juvenile survival in an area of the western population where sea lions are showing signs of recovery. Survival for males and females was 80% between 3 weeks and 1 year of age. Approximately 20% of juveniles continued to be nursed by their mothers between ages 1 and 2 and 10% between ages 2 and 3. Survival for juveniles that suckled beyond 1 year was 88.2% and 89.9% to ages 2 and 3, respectively. In contrast, survival for individuals weaned by age 1 was 40.6% for males and 64.2% for females between ages 1 and 2. Birth mass positively influenced survival for juveniles weaned at age 1 but had little effect on individuals continuing to suckle. Cumulative survival to age 4 was double that estimated during the population decline in this region. Evidence suggests that western Steller sea lions utilize a somewhat different maternal strategy than those in the eastern distinct population. Western adult females generally invest more in their pups during the first year but wean offspring by age 1 more often. This results in better survival to age 1, but greater mortality between ages 1 and 3 compared to the eastern population. Different maternal strategies may reflect density dependent pressures of populations at opposite levels of abundance.

  17. Effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on learning and memory via hippocampal BDNF, Arc (Arg3.1) expression in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Zhen; Ning, Li; Tao, Ning; Lian, Yu-Long; Liu, Ji-Wen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-09-01

    The intrauterine environment has a significant long-term impact on individual's life, this study was designed to investigate the effect of stress during pregnancy on offspring's learning and memory abilities and analyze its mechanisms from the expression of BDNF and Arc in the hippocampus of the offspring. A rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy was mating from 3rd day during been subjecting to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The body weights and behavioral changes were recorded, and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The learning and memory abilities of the offspring were measured by Morris water maze testing from PND 42. The expression of hippocampal BDNF and Arc mRNA and protein were respectively measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results indicated that an elevation was observed in the plasma corticosterone level of rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy, a reduction in the crossing and rearing movement times and the preference for sucrose. The body weight of maternal stress's offspring was lower than the control group, and the plasma corticosterone level was increased. Chronic stress during pregnancy had a significant impact on the spatial learning and memory of the offspring. The expression of BDNF mRNA and protein, Arc protein in offspring of maternal stress during pregnancy was attenuated and some relationships existed between these parameters. Collectively, these findings disclose that long-time maternal stress during pregnancy could destroy spatial learning and memory abilities of the offspring, the mechanism of which is related to been improving maternal plasma corticosterone and reduced hippocampal BDNF, Arc of offspring rats.

  18. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  19. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  20. Maternal and neonatal effects of nalbuphine given immediately before induction of general anesthesia for elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although nalbuphine was studied extensively in labour analgesia and was proved to be acceptable analgesics during delivery, its use as premedication before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nalbuphine given before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section on quality of general anesthesia, maternal stress response, and neonatal outcome. Methods: Sixty full term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section, randomly classified into two equal groups, group N received nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of normal saline (n=30, and group C placebo (n=30 received 10 ml of normal saline 1 min before the induction of general anesthesia. Maternal heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction, during surgery, and after recovery. Neonates were assisted by using APGAR0 scores, time to sustained respiration, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Result: Maternal heart rate showed significant increase in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (88.2±4.47 versus 80.1±4.23, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (90.8±2.39 versus 82.6±2.60, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. MABP increased in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (100.55±6.29 versus 88.75±6.09, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (98.50±2.01 versus 90.50±2.01, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. APGAR score was significantly low at one minute in nalbuphine group than control group (6.75±2.3, 8.5±0.74, respectively, P=0.0002 (27% of nalbuphine group APGAR score ranged between 4-6, while 7% in control group APGAR score ranged between 4-6 at one minute. All neonates at five minutes showed APGAR score ranged between 9-10. Time to sustained respiration was significantly longer in nalbuphine group than control group (81.8

  1. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

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    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja

  2. Germline mosaicism does not explain the maternal age effect on trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

    2013-10-01

    A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions.

  3. The effect of maternal caffeine ingestion on pancreatic function in the neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, M; Larkins, R G; Court, J M

    1982-10-01

    Pancreatic function was investigated in neonatal suckling offspring of caffeine-ingesting dams, with or without maternal sucrose supplementation, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In offspring of rats ingesting caffeine without sucrose supplementation, there was initial hyperinsulinaemia, followed by a progressive fall of plasma insulin to subnormal levels. This fall in plasma insulin coincided with depletion of pancreatic insulin stores. Both the fall in plasma insulin and depletion of pancreatic insulin stores were prevented by sucrose supplementation of caffeine-ingesting dams. Offspring of dams fed sucrose alone and control offspring also maintained pancreatic insulin stores and circulating insulin levels over the first 14 days of postnatal life. Pancreases from offspring of caffeine-exposed animals tested in vitro showed enhanced sensitivity of the insulin release process to glucose. This was reflected in the glucose concentration required to elicit half-maximal insulin release (2.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/l for caffeine offspring, 2.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/l for caffeine with sucrose, 3.8 +/- 0.3 mmol/l for sucrose and 4.1 +/- 0.3 mmol/l for control offspring, mean +/- SEM). In contrast, offspring of sucrose-supplemented (with or without caffeine) dams showed increased sensitivity of the proinsulin biosynthetic process to glucose, whereas offspring of dams ingesting caffeine alone showed no significant enhancement of the biosynthetic process compared with control offspring. Thus enhanced sensitivity of the insulin secretory process to glucose without a change in the sensitivity of the biosynthetic process in the offspring of the caffeine ingesting (non-sucrose supplemented) dams could explain the progressive depletion of pancreatic insulin stores and eventual hypoinsulinaemia seen in this group.

  4. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. Methods/design: We will build on the e......Background: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. Methods/design: We will build...... on the established International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) IPD Collaborative Network, having identified researchers who have conducted randomised dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese, and where ongoing childhood follow-up of participants has been...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  5. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI>30kg/m(2) at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  6. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects in Growth Traits of Sangsari Sheep Using Gibbs Sampling

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    Zohreh Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role in livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Knowledge of genetic variation and co-variation among traits is required for both the design of effective sheep breeding programs and the accurate prediction of genetic progress from these programs. Body weight and growth traits are one of the economically important traits in sheep production, especially in Iran where lamb sale is the main source of income for sheep breeders while other products are in secondary importance. Although mutton is the most important source of protein in Iran, meat production from the sheep does not cover the increasing consumer demand. On the other hand, increase in sheep number to increase meat production has been limited by low quality and quantity of forage range. Therefore, enhancing meat production should be achieved by selecting the animals that have maximum genetic merit as next generation parents. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for maximization response to selection for economically important traits, accurate estimates of the genetic parameters and the genetic relationships between the traits are necessary. Studies of various sheep breeds have shown that both direct and maternal genetic influences are of importance for lamb growth. When growth traits are included in the breeding goal, both direct and maternal genetic effects should be taken into account in order to achieve optimum genetic progress. The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components and heritability, for growth traits, by fitting six animal models in the Sangsari sheep using Gibbs sampling. Material and Method Sangsari is a fat-tailed and relatively small sized breed of sheep

  7. Effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural low concentration of bupivacaine combined with anisodamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaoli; Zhou Chunqin; Li Xiaogang; Shen Xiaodong; Zou Yuliang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of labor analgesia on maternal and neonatal outcome by epidural application of 0.125% bupivacaine combined with anisodamine on the labor stage, and modes of delivery and neonatal Apgar's score. Methods A total of 220 primiparaes with full-term pregnancy, monocyesis and fetal head presentation without any obstetrical or systematic complications were chosen and divided into analgesic group and control group (110 in each group). The mixture of bupivaeaine and anisodamine was injected into the epidural space of the parturients in the analgesic group while those patients in the control group did not receive any analgesics. Results The analgesic effect was satisfactory (91.8 %), and no side effects occurred in the second stage of labor. The instrument delivery rate was lower in the analgesic group, and there was no significant difference between the two groups in neonatal Apgar's score. Conclusion The method is feasible in clinic for labor pain relief without increasing the rate of dystocla and complications of delivery.

  8. Effects of maternal separation on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference and subsequent learning and memory in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaveri, Fatemeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili; Sheibani, Vahid

    2017-02-03

    Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. The place preference test was performed with nicotine (0.6mg/kg,s.c.) or vehicle over a period of 6 conditioning trials during adolescence. Spatial learning and memory performance was evaluated by using Morris water maze (MWM). In our study, adolescent female rats exposed to MS180 shown a significantly greater preference for a nicotine-paired compartment during the testing phase than the MS15 group. Nicotine altered the MS-induced spatial learning defects in the MS180 group. These findings suggest that MS may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine and also it is possible to suggest that nicotine administration may influence learning dysfunction induced by MS in adolescent female rats.

  9. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprogramming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts.

  10. The Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on Fetal Rats of FGR and the Expression of Caspase-3 in the Placenta of Maternal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZOU Li

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the fetal rats of FGR and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat; To explore the mechanism of using magnesium sulfate to cure the FGR. Establish model of FGR by a way of passive smoking: giving the maternal rats different agent of magnesium sulfate by subcutaneous injection: low agent group (300 mg/kg),high agent group (600 mg/kg). Concentration of magnesium sulfate was monitored. The expres sion of caspase-3 was measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry technology. Both of the concentrations of magnesium sulfate in high and low agents group are higher than the FGR group (P<0. 01); the weight of the placenta and fetal rat in high agent group are higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 and P<0.01); the expression of mRNA and protein of caspase-3 in the two agent group is higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 respectively); concentration of magnesium sulfate in the maternal rat blood correlate to the weight of fetal rat (r=0. 899, P=0. 038) and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat (r= 0.747, P 0.033; r=-0. 915, P=0.001).The research suggests that the weight of fetal rat could be increased by treatment of magnesium sulfate. Because it would imfrmove the placental function by depressing the expression of caspase-3.

  11. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  12. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi;

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat....... The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys...

  13. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  14. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  15. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

    2008-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life.

  16. Long-term effects of maternal arginine supplementation and colostrum intake on pre- and postweaning growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Ramaekers, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is vital for prenatal development and for piglet survival around parturition but may also be important for long-term growth. A total of 21 multiparous sows in 2 series, with 13 and 8 sows, respectively, were fed standard gestation and lactation diets supplied with 25 g arginine....... In conclusion, long-term growth performance was related to maternal arginine supplementation and piglet colostrum intake....

  17. The effect of nesting material on the nest-building and maternal behavior of domestic sows and piglet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Simecková, M; Kratinová, P

    2011-02-01

    Nest building is an important part of maternal behavior in domestic pigs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nesting material sawdust vs. straw on sow behavior 24 h before and after birth of the first piglet (BFP) and piglet production. Sows, housed in farrowing crates, were randomly divided into 2 treatments: sawdust (n = 12) and straw (n = 13). Sawdust and straw were provided during the pre- and parturient period; after parturition, straw was given to both experimental groups. The prepartum nesting period (the time interval between the first and last nest-building records, including all other activity and resting before BFP), the nesting records (number of nesting records), nesting duration (duration of all nesting records), the start and termination of nesting, and the frequency of prepartum postural changes were collected 24 h before BFP. After BFP, number of nesting records and time to first sucking of the litter were collected. Frequency of postural changes and duration of udder access were collected 24 h after BFP during 3 time periods (during parturition, from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP) and the frequency of nursing during 2 time periods (from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP). Piglet BW gain and mortality were estimated 24 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and the probability of the piglet mortality using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Nesting material did not affect (P > 0.10) most of sow prepartum nesting behavior and had no effect (P > 0.10) on the prepartum frequency of postural changes. Sows from the sawdust treatment had a longer nesting period (P 0.10) of the nesting material on piglet BW gain and mortality was found. The results suggest that sawdust compared with straw as nesting material provided to sows before and through parturition does not negatively affect maternal behavior during the 24 h before and after parturition or piglet production. Therefore

  18. Effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency and different ways of zinc supplementation for offspring on learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of different ways of zinc supplementation on spatial learning and memory remains unclear. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of two ways of zinc supplementation – oral use and intravenous transfusion – in zinc-deficient offspring rats on learning and memory. Design: Rats were randomly divided into six groups on the first day of pregnancy (n=12: control (CO, pair fed (PF, zinc deprived (ZD, oral zinc supplementation (OZS, injection zinc supplementation (IZS, and injection control. The offspring's spatial learning and memory were tested at postnatal day 35 using Morris water maze (MWM. Maternal rats’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 21, while pups’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 35. Results: Compared with the CO and PF groups, pups in ZD group spent more time finding the latent platform and swam longer distances (p0.05. However, compared with ZD groups, pups in IZS did not show any improvement in the indexes of MWM (p>0.05 although their zinc serum concentration increased significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: These results indicate that mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy and lactation leads to the impairment of learning and memory function in offspring, and that OZS, instead of intravenous transfusion zinc supplementation, can recover the impairment of spatial learning and memory function.

  19. Protective effect of maternal uteroplacental insufficiency on oxygen-induced retinopathy in offspring: removing bias of premature birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Silke; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Baifeng; Brown, Randy; Han, Xiaokun; Lane, Robert H.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    To address the hypothesis that maternal uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) increases severity of retinopathy of prematurity, we developed a composite rat model of UPI and oxygen-fluctuations and removed premature birth as a confounding factor. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation or anesthesia (control) at e19.5. Full-term pups developed in room air (RA) or an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Isolectin-stained retinal flat-mounts were analyzed for percent of areas of avascular/total retina (AVA) and of intravitreal neovascular/total retina (IVNV). Pup weights and serum and mRNA of liver and kidney VEGF, IGF-1, and erythropoietin (EPO) were determined. Multivariable mixed effects linear regressions and Pearson correlations were performed using STATA14. Postnatal growth restriction occurred in pups in UPI/RA, but not in UPI/OIR. Weight gain was similar between UPI/OIR and control/OIR pups. AVA was reduced and a trend toward reduced IVNV was seen in UPI/OIR compared to control/OIR. No difference in birth weights of UPI/OIR vs. control/OIR pups occurred. Serum and renal IGF-1 and EPO were significantly increased in UPI/OIR compared to control/OIR pups. In the absence of prematurity, UPI increased angiogenic factors in association with reduced OIR severity, suggesting that ischemia from UPI could yield protective angiogenic effects by offspring. PMID:28195189

  20. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Poil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed.

  1. Sex of parent transmission effect in Tourette's syndrome: evidence for earlier age at onset in maternally transmitted cases suggests a genomic imprinting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, V; O'Neill, J; Gurling, H M; Robertson, M M

    1997-04-01

    Parent of origin effects caused by genomic imprinting may influence the phenotypic expression of a number of heritable human disorders. To test this phenomenon in Tourette's syndrome (TS), we studied 437 first degree relatives systematically ascertained through 57 probands. We compared age at onset, age at diagnosis, and phenotypic expressions as observed in the diagnosis of TS, chronic motor tics, and obsessive compulsive behavior in the offspring of affected males with the offspring of affected females. Of the 437 subjects, 16.7% had matrilineal inheritance and 13.9% had patrilineal inheritance, as determined by family history methodology. Chi-square analysis of the different phenotypic expressions and sex of the transmitting parent failed to provide evidence of significant group differences. We found no significant differences in the age at diagnosis either. However, the maternally transmitted offspring showed a significantly earlier age at onset. This points to a parent of origin effect on the putative TS gene that could be explained by meiotic events or even intrauterine environmental influences. These findings may help explain the hitherto conflicting reports about the nature of genetic transmission in TS, and suggest a need to re-examine family data separately for maternally and paternally transmitted cases, taking into account the possible role of imprinting.

  2. Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy: a single-center cohort study of a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Miao Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM, and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ≤ 2500 g, stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. RESULTS: Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P = 0.020; χ2 = 7.345; odds ratio (OR, 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.251-4.024, PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P = 0.002; χ2 = 72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975-9.099, IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, <0.001; χ2 = 13.272; adjusted OR, 3.336; 95% CI, 1.745-6.377, and LBW (1.885% vs. 4.582%, P<0.001; χ2 = 13.558; adjusted OR, 2.919; 95% CI, 1.650-5.163. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that pregnant women with SCH had increased risks of GH and PROM, and their fetuses and infants had increased risks of IUGR and LBW. Thus, routine maternal thyroid function

  3. Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

  4. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  5. Late or later? A sibling analysis of the effect of maternal age on children's schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have found that children born to young mothers face handicaps in their educational career. Considerable debate exists as to whether these effects are real age effects, or whether they are due to measured and unmeasured family background effects that are correlated with having children a

  6. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression.

  7. Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation and ethanol intake on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7days: PD22-29 and PD59-66. Half of the animals were sacrificed, while the others were exposed to acute stress (AS) for 2h and then they were killed. RMS+ cold stress: a) increased voluntary ethanol intake in adolescent and adult rats; b) reduced protein expression (Western measurements) in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus (Hyp) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in hippocampus (Hic) while increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in Hic; c) decreased plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and increased corticosterone (COR) levels in HPA axis, d) adult rats exposure a new AS incremented ACTH and COR levels. However, this modification did not alter the HPA axis capacity to respond to a new type of stressor. These results demonstrate the consequences of early life stress on the vulnerability of ethanol consumption and HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor in adult rats.

  8. Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB. PMID:21637510

  9. A study of vitamin D levels and associated deficiency in pregnancy and its effect on maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Dave

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: From conception the embryo is dependent on the mother for all nutritional requirements until birth. Vitamin D deficiencies have adverse effect on pregnancy outcome result in poor growth, prematurity, NTD, even congenital anomalies. The aim and objectives of the study was to assess the prevalence of deficiencies among pregnant woman attending M.Y. Hospital and assess the correlation with the pregnancy complications. Methods: Total 110 patients were studied for vitamin d levels and associated obstetrical complications and risk factors over a period of six months. 53 pregnant women were found to be deficient with vitamin D. Results: 53 pregnant women out of total of 110 were deficient in vitamin D levels. Maximum patients belonged to group (21-30yr of age. Vitamin D deficiency was more in housewives (65.3% and in urban(86.8%. Low birth weight<2.5kg were born 50(45.5% and 2 IUD. 2 were diagnosed NTD in USG reports. 80% low birth weight babies were born in vitamin D deficient women. Conclusions: Our study fails to show a causal relation between low vitamin D level and adverse maternal and fetal outcome in terms of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, oligo and diabetes. There was a relation between vitamin D deficiency and low birth weight babies.

  10. Effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on cytokine genes in the hippocampus of maternal separation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong Woo

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects of an essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on early life stress, using maternal separation (MS) rats and a microarray method to analyze the changes in gene expressions caused by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared with the untreated MS rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In the microarray analysis, we found that EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and also confirmed that using reverse transcriptase - PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, protein expression was also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulates cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats.

  11. Maternal transfer and sublethal immune system effects of brevetoxin exposure in nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from western Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bauman, Katherine D; Greenan, Taylor M; Blum, Patricia C; Henry, Michael S; Walsh, Catherine J

    2016-11-01

    Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals. From May-July 2014, one year after the last red tide bloom, we collected blood from nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Casey Key, Florida USA. These organisms show both strong nesting and foraging site fidelity. The plasma was analyzed for brevetoxin concentrations in addition to a number of health and immune-related parameters in an effort to establish sublethal effects of this toxin. Lastly, from July-September 2014, we collected unhatched eggs and liver and yolk sacs from dead-in-nest hatchlings from nests laid by the sampled females and tested these samples for brevetoxin concentrations to determine maternal transfer and effects on reproductive success. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all plasma samples from nesting females tested positive for brevetoxin (reported as ng brevetoxin-3[PbTx-3] equivalents [eq]/mL) exposure (2.1-26.7ng PbTx-3eq/mL). Additionally, 100% of livers (1.4-13.3ng PbTx-3eq/mL) and yolk sacs (1.7-6.6ng PbTx-3eq/mL) from dead-in-nest hatchlings and 70% of eggs (turtles.

  12. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  13. CpG Methylation, a Parent-of-Origin Effect for Maternal-Biased Transmission of Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Lise; Lanni, Stella; López-Castel, Arturo; Franck, Silvie; Spits, Claudia; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Seneca, Sara; Tomé, Stephanie; Miron, Ioana; Letourneau, Julie; Liang, Minggao; Choufani, Sanaa; Weksberg, Rosanna; Wilson, Michael D; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Gagnon, Cynthia; Musova, Zuzana; Chitayat, David; Shannon, Patrick; Mathieu, Jean; Sermon, Karen; Pearson, Christopher E

    2017-03-02

    CTG repeat expansions in DMPK cause myotonic dystrophy (DM1) with a continuum of severity and ages of onset. Congenital DM1 (CDM1), the most severe form, presents distinct clinical features, large expansions, and almost exclusive maternal transmission. The correlation between CDM1 and expansion size is not absolute, suggesting contributions of other factors. We determined CpG methylation flanking the CTG repeat in 79 blood samples from 20 CDM1-affected individuals; 21, 27, and 11 individuals with DM1 but not CDM1 (henceforth non-CDM1) with maternal, paternal, and unknown inheritance; and collections of maternally and paternally derived chorionic villus samples (7 CVSs) and human embryonic stem cells (4 hESCs). All but two CDM1-affected individuals showed high levels of methylation upstream and downstream of the repeat, greater than non-CDM1 individuals (p = 7.04958 × 10(-12)). Most non-CDM1 individuals were devoid of methylation, where one in six showed downstream methylation. Only two non-CDM1 individuals showed upstream methylation, and these were maternally derived childhood onset, suggesting a continuum of methylation with age of onset. Only maternally derived hESCs and CVSs showed upstream methylation. In contrast, paternally derived samples (27 blood samples, 3 CVSs, and 2 hESCs) never showed upstream methylation. CTG tract length did not strictly correlate with CDM1 or methylation. Thus, methylation patterns flanking the CTG repeat are stronger indicators of CDM1 than repeat size. Spermatogonia with upstream methylation may not survive due to methylation-induced reduced expression of the adjacent SIX5, thereby protecting DM1-affected fathers from having CDM1-affected children. Thus, DMPK methylation may account for the maternal bias for CDM1 transmission, larger maternal CTG expansions, age of onset, and clinical continuum, and may serve as a diagnostic indicator.

  14. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.

    2015-01-01

    by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed......Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect...... depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed...

  15. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  16. Maternal high fat feeding and gestational dietary restriction: effects on offspring body weight, food intake and hypothalamic gene expression over three generations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Silvia Q; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Proctor, Lindsey; Wickwire, Kathie; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and maternal obesity have both been associated with increased incidence of obesity and metabolic disorder in offspring in both humans and animal models. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether mild gestational food restriction during the third trimester (GFR) would alter food intake and growth parameters of offspring, (2) whether effects of GFR depended on diet (high fat [HF] vs chow), (3) whether effects of excessive gestational weight gain (WG) would become magnified across generations, and (4) whether diet and GFR would alter hypothalamic gene expression in adult offspring. Three generations of female C57BL/6 mice were fed chow or HF diet, mated at 11 weeks of age and assigned to ad libitum feeding or 25% GFR. Offspring were fed the same diet as their mothers. Results showed (1) maternal gestational WG was positively correlated with offspring WG. (2) HF offspring weighed less (p<0.01) at weaning (WWT) but gained more during the 8 weeks after weaning than chow-fed offspring (p<0.05), resulting in higher final body weights (BW) (p<0.01). (3) HF males from GFR mothers had higher WWT (p<0.05), but subsequent WG and final BW were less (p<0.05) compared to males from ad lib mothers. (4) In the HF group, GFR also resulted in decreased FI (p<0.05) and FE (p<0.07) in offspring, compared to offspring from ad lib mothers. (5) In generation 3, hypothalamic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was lower in HF males from GFR mothers compared to HF males from ad lib mothers (p<0.05). In conclusion, gender and maternal GFR had independent effects on growth and FI, and hypothalamic gene expression was dependent on both gender and maternal GFR in HF offspring. Even mild food restriction of obese mothers during pregnancy may have beneficial effects in reducing the risk or degree of obesity in offspring.

  17. Effects of maternal administration of endoxan, vitamin A and vitamin B12 on the development of the fetal spinal cord of the albino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawar, N N; Sakla, F B; Mahran, Z Y

    1979-01-01

    The effects of maternal administration of endoxan, vitamin A and vitamine B12 were studied on the cervical fetal spinal cord of the albino mouse. Endoxan caused dorsal and ventral herniation of the spinal cord, chromatolysis and degeneration of the neuroblasts together with neuroglial proliferation. Vitamin A and B12 resulted in an increase in the surface areas of both grey and white matter and an increase in the volume of the neuroblasts. The possible mechanisms concerned were discussed.

  18. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  19. Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular e perinatais (peso e prematuridade da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22 e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19 de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx, volume sistólico (VS e débito cardíaco (DC. Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0% e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0% e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5 e DC de (13,5 para 15,1; no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity and perinatal (weight and prematurity effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random

  20. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few experime

  1. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling).

  2. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety leve

  3. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  4. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  5. Healthy Maternal Ambivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the psychoanalytic omission in theorizing maternal subjectivity and the subsequent idealisation of the early mother-baby bond that excludes negative maternal feelings. It suggests that painful maternal experiences of resentment, persecution and hatred remain under-explored. Perhaps, even more alarming, this exclusion compels mothers to hide conflictual and shameful feelings from professionals – and from themselves. The paper suggests that healthy maternal ambival...

  6. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  7. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  8. The effects of Earned Income Tax Credit payment expansion on maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications.

  9. Antenatal exercise in overweight and obese women and its effects on offspring and maternal health: design and rationale of the IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Obesity Via Exercise) randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. Methods/Design The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) aged 18–40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise. Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial. The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and

  10. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  11. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Cisternas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

  12. Effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone on brain inflammation in fetal sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kuypers (Elke); R.K. Jellema (Reint); D.R.M.G. Ophelders (Daan); J. Dudink (Jeroen); M. Nikiforou (Maria); T.G.A.M. Wolfs (Tim); I. Nitsos (Ilias); J.J. Pillow (Jane); G.R. Polglase (Graeme); M.W. Kemp (Matthew); M. Saito (Masatoshi); J.P. Newnham (John); A.H. Jobe (Alan); S.G. Kallapur (Suhas); B.W. Kramer (Boris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are

  13. Engagement and guidance: The effects of maternal parenting practices on children's development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramonte, L.; Gauthier, A.H.; Willms, D.

    2015-01-01

    Problems with inattention, physical aggression, and poor cognitive skills when children enter school can have long-term negative effects on their development. In this study, we address the issues of whether and how parental engagement and guidance are related to children’s behavioral and cognitive p

  14. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant...

  15. Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

  16. Effect of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on maternal lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Feng; Bao-Xia Chen; Xi Ren; Hong-Xia Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on the lactation and neonates.Methods:The puerpera who were underwent cesarean section with different analgesia methods were observed. The included puerpera were performed with the cesarean section under combined spinal epidural anesthesia. A total of 30 puerpera who were given ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after operation were served as the observation group, while 30 cases who were intermittently given intramuscular injection of pethidine after operation were served as the control group. The postpartum analgesic effects in the two groups were observed. The radioimmunoassay was used to detect the plasma PRL level. The postpartum colostrum time, 24 h lactation number, and NBNA scores in the two groups were compared.Results:The postoperative VAS score in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the plasma PRL level was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The postoperative colostrum time in the observation group was significantly earlier than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the lactation number was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section can effectively alleviate the postoperative pain, and improve the lactation, with no obvious adverse reactions on the neonates and reliable effects.

  17. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  18. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.

  19. Effects of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on early infant neurocognitive outcomes: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kapanee, Aruna Rose Mary; Ramthal, Asha; Bellinger, David C; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-06-29

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. However, findings from studies on the association between maternal B12 status and child cognitive functions have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral B12 supplementation (50 µg) beginning at B12 supplementation on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age on Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III). One hundred eighty-three pregnant women received vitamin B12, and 183 received placebo. Nine-month BSID-III development score was available in 178 infants. There were no significant differences in maternal sociodemographic characteristics and baseline biochemical measures between infants who underwent BSID-III evaluation and infants who were not evaluated. There were no significant differences in any of the subscales of BSID-III between infants born to mothers who received B12 supplementation (n = 78) vs. placebo (n = 100). On multiple regression analysis, elevated maternal total homocysteine (tHcy) levels adjusted for treatment group, birthweight, parity, income and home environment at second trimester of pregnancy were significantly negatively associated with expressive language (β = 3.13 points, P B12 supplementation were seen on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age, elevated maternal tHcy levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance in some of the subdomains of BSID-III. In pregnant women with elevated tHcy levels and or B12 deficiencies, it may be worthwhile to study the impact of longer term maternal supplementation on infant cognitive outcomes.

  20. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  1. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  2. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring.

  3. Correlation between maternal and neonatal blood vitamin D levels and its effect on the newborn anthropometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulraj Sathish

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the south Indian pregnant women and their newborns. Vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of low birth weight neonate and it also had an effect on the length of the baby, head circumference and chest circumference. This public health problem needs urgent attention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 2983-2988

  4. Effect of sufentanil combined with different concentrations of ropivacaine for labor analgesia on maternal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-He Wang; Min-Jia Jiang; Wan-Dong Liao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sufentanil combined with different concentration of ropivacaine for stepped analgesia on stage of labor, stress indexes and blood coagulation function.Methods:A total of 178 cases of full-term singleton primiparas who awaited delivery and received epidural labor analgesia in our hospital from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected and randomly divided into stepped analgesia group and routine analgesia group, and the stage of labor, levels of stress hormones and pain mediators during childbirth and blood coagulation function indexes after childbirth were observed between two groups.Results: The duration of latent phase of labor of stepped analgesia group was shorter than that of routine analgesia group while the duration of active phase of labor, the duration of second stage of labor and the duration of third stage of labor were not significantly different from those of routine analgesia group; serum PRL level of stepped analgesia group was significantly higher than that of routine analgesia group while PA, NE, E, DYN,β-EP, SP, PGE2, 5-HT, TF, TFPI, FPA, AT-III and DD levels were not significantly different from those of routine analgesia group.Conclusions: Sufentanil combined with different concentration of ropivacaine for stepped analgesia is with equivalent effect to routine analgesia, and can shorten the latent phase of labor and reduce the inhibitory effect of pain on prolactin without affecting the degree of stress during childbirth and the blood coagulation function after childbirth.

  5. Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, David

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors influence fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for (1) ethanol dose, (2) maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and (3) fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fetal genotype effect is to utilize embryo transfers. This study is the first to examine ethanol teratogenesis - fetal weight deficits and mortality, and digit, kidney, and vertebral malformations - in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) fetuses that were transferred as blastocysts into B6 and D2 dams. We hypothesized that, following maternal alcohol exposure, B6 and D2 fetuses gestating within B6 mothers, as compared to D2 mothers, will exhibit a higher frequency of malformations. On day 9 of pregnancy, females were intubated (IG) with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or maltose-dextrin (MD). Other females were mated within strain and treated with either ethanol or maltose, or were not exposed to either treatment. Implantation rates were affected by genotype. Results show more B6 embryos implanted into D2 females than B6 females (p teratogenesis for B6 fetuses. One of the questions remaining is the how the B6 uterine environment affects D2 teratogenesis. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because too few viable D2 litters were produced.

  6. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen i