WorldWideScience

Sample records for maternal age employment

  1. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMIsedentary lifestyle, 57.2%. The percentage of non-intact families was 23.5%. Approximately 48.7% of the mothers had a non-acceptable educational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.66) is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time......-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I fi nd no eff ect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age (SGA). To rule out the possibility that health...

  5. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  6. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  7. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  8. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  9. Single versus Dual Paycheck: Married Parents' Attitudes about Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebusch, Jenna-Lyn; Miller, Heather; Fulmer, Kimberly; Fontanez, Mary; Ellis, Trisha; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Carey, Brandi; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment.…

  10. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  11. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the asso......INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess...

  12. Maternal employment and childhood obesity in China : evidence from the China health and nutrition survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Using five waves from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we investigate the association between maternal employment and obesity in children aged 3 - 17 in both rural and urban China. Using BMI and waist circumference as measures for pediatric adiposity, we provide scant evidence for its relation to maternal employment. We also find no strong association between maternal employment and our measures for children's diet and physical activity. Our study also suggests that grandparentin...

  13. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  14. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  15. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Dunifon; Anne Toft Hansen; Sean Nicholson; Lisbeth Palmhøj Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child's first three and first 15 years on that child's grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employmen...

  16. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj; Hansen, Anne Toft

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work......Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance. (JEL J13, J22)...

  17. Changes in Attitudes toward Maternal Employment during the Past Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Kirsten; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Farrell, Debbi; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Dous, Julie-Anne; Black, Aimee; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study replicated an earlier study that examined the differences between attitudes toward maternal employment among young adult male and female respondents in 1990 and 2000. Responses of undergraduates were obtained in 1990 and 2000 on the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) and author-devised items…

  18. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2017-04-06

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  20. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T J; Law, C; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  1. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahereh; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers’ medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant’s details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Results: Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency

  2. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  3. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  4. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  5. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First Seven Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, age 4½, and first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, we address three main questions. First, what associations exist between first-year maternal employment and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children over the first seven years of life? Second, to what extent do any such associations vary by the child’s gender and temperament, or the mother’s occupation? Third, to what extent do mother’s earnings, the home environment (maternal depressive symptoms, sensitivity, and HOME scores), and the type and quality of child care mediate or offset any associations between first-year employment and child outcomes, and what is the net effect of first-year maternal employment once these factors are taken into account? We compare families in which mothers worked full time (55%), part time (23%), or did not work (22%) in the first year for non-Hispanic white children (N=900) and for African-American children (N=113). Comparisons are also made taking into account the timing of mothers’ employment within the first year. A rich set of control variables are included. OLS and SEM analyses are constructed. With regard to cognitive outcomes, first, we find that full-time maternal employment in the first 12 months of life (but not part-time employment) is associated with significantly lower scores on some, but not all, measures of cognitive development at age 3, 4 ½, and first grade for non-Hispanic white children, but with no significant associations for the small sample of African-American children Part-time employment in the first year is associated with higher scores than full-time employment for some measures. Employment in the second and third year of life is not

  6. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First Seven Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, age 4½, and first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, we address three main questions. First, what associations exist between first-year maternal employment and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children over the first seven years of life? Second, to what extent do any such associations vary by the child's gender and temperament, or the mother's occupation? Third, to what extent do mother's earnings, the home environment (maternal depressive symptoms, sensitivity, and HOME scores), and the type and quality of child care mediate or offset any associations between first-year employment and child outcomes, and what is the net effect of first-year maternal employment once these factors are taken into account? We compare families in which mothers worked full time (55%), part time (23%), or did not work (22%) in the first year for non-Hispanic white children (N=900) and for African-American children (N=113). Comparisons are also made taking into account the timing of mothers' employment within the first year. A rich set of control variables are included. OLS and SEM analyses are constructed. With regard to cognitive outcomes, first, we find that full-time maternal employment in the first 12 months of life (but not part-time employment) is associated with significantly lower scores on some, but not all, measures of cognitive development at age 3, 4 ½, and first grade for non-Hispanic white children, but with no significant associations for the small sample of African-American children Part-time employment in the first year is associated with higher scores than full-time employment for some measures. Employment in the second and third year of life is not associated

  7. Breastfeeding and maternal employment: results from three national nutritional surveys in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal employment and breastfeeding (both duration and status) in Mexican mothers using data from three National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1999, 2006 and 2012. We analyzed data from the 1999 National Nutrition Survey, the 2006 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the 2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNS-1999, NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012) on 5,385 mothers aged 12-49 years, with infants under 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between breastfeeding and maternal employment adjusted for maternal and infant's socio-demographic covariates. Maternal formal employment was negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers with infants under 1 year. Formally employed mothers were 20 % less likely to breastfeed compared to non-formally employed mothers and 27 % less likely to breastfeed compared to unemployed mothers. Difference in median duration of breastfeeding between formally employed and unemployed mothers was 5.7 months for NNS-1999, 4.7 months for NNHS-2006 and 6.7 months for NNHS-2012 respectively (p breastfeeding duration. Maternal employment has been negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers of <1 year infants at least for the last 15 years. For Mexicans involved in policy design, implementation or modification, these data might offer robust evidence on this negative association, and can be used confidently as basis for conceiving a more just legislation for working lactating women.

  8. Paid parental leave supports breastfeeding and mother-infant relationship: a prospective investigation of maternal postpartum employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Advanced Maternal Age Worsens Postpartum Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude S. Morton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life. We hypothesized that pregnancy at an advanced maternal age would lead to postpartum vascular dysfunction. We used a reproductively aged rat model to investigate vascular function in never pregnant (virgin, previously pregnant (postpartum and previously mated but never delivered (nulliparous rats at approximately 13.5 months of age (3 months postpartum or equivalent. Nulliparous rats, in which pregnancy was spontaneously lost, demonstrated significantly reduced aortic relaxation responses (methylcholine [MCh] Emax: 54.2 ± 12.6% vs. virgin and postpartum rats (MCh Emax: 84.8 ± 3.5% and 84.7 ± 3.2% respectively; suggesting pregnancy loss causes a worsened vascular pathology. Oxidized LDL reduced relaxation to MCh in aorta from virgin and postpartum, but not nulliparous rats, with an increased contribution of the LOX-1 receptor in the postpartum group. Further, in mesenteric arteries from postpartum rats, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH-mediated vasodilation was reduced and a constrictive prostaglandin effect was apparent. In conclusion, aged postpartum rats exhibited vascular dysfunction, while rats which had pregnancy loss demonstrated a distinct vascular pathology. These data demonstrate mechanisms which may lead to worsened outcomes at an advanced maternal age; including early pregnancy loss and later life cardiovascular dysfunction.

  10. Welfare as Maternity Leave? Exemptions from Welfare Work Requirements and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D

    2012-03-01

    In some states, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program offers the equivalent of paid maternity leave without job protection to low-income, single mothers of infants. Age-of-youngest-child (AYC) exemptions waive work requirements for TANF recipients after the birth of a child, generally for 3-12 months, depending on the state. This study uses data from the Current Population Survey (1998-2008) to examine whether the availability and length of AYC exemptions are predictive of rates of employment, work, and full-time work among low-educated single mothers with infants. The analysis uses the difference-in-differences (DD) technique, a comparison of outcomes under different policy treatments and between treatment and comparison groups. The results suggest that AYC exemptions are not related to employment or work rates but that living in a state with no AYC exemption is strongly and positively associated with rates of full-time work among low-educated mothers with infants.

  11. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of ...

  12. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  13. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Maternal Employment during Early Childhood and the Elementary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Kirsten; Gelband, Amy; Farrell, Debi; Black, Aimee; Szuchyt, Jamie; Aivazian, Casey; Lang, Allison; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Thomas, Amy; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Zohe, Dorothoy; Cane, Susan; Chambliss, Catherine

    Noting the lack of research into the effects of maternal employment on the cognitions of a young adult sample, this study examined the relationship between maternal employment and college students' beliefs about the consequences of maternal employment and their own plans for future workplace involvement. Participating in the study were 635…

  14. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  15. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  16. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial employment characteristics and postpartum maternal mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  19. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kalewad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age are considered high risk for Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. A proper preconception consultation and intensive antenatal care assessment can individualize and potentially reduce the risks for women with advanced maternal age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1929-1935

  20. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  1. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  2. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age Discrimination, Social Closure and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Mong, Sherry; Byron, Reginald; Tester, Griff

    2007-01-01

    Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility…

  4. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time...... for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function...

  5. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pcannabis across 17 years, including later desistance post-partum and increasing/chronic use. Other substance use and chronic depressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers 40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  7. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometrics...... and population projections for scenario analyses of future employment patterns up to 2021. Compared to a “benchmark scenario” based on projections of the working age population, we find that predicted regional labour market outcomes tell a much richer story if a combination of estimation results and population...

  8. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki;

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometrics...... and population projections for scenario analyses of future employment patterns up to 2021. Compared to a “benchmark scenario” based on projections of the working age population, we find that predicted regional labour market outcomes tell a much richer story if a combination of estimation results and population...

  9. An Aging Workforce: Employment Opportunities and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Professor, Institute of Economic Sciences

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed significant changes in the structure of unemployment in the global labour market. This is corroborated by the fact that the global workforce is rapidly aging and the share of people aged 50 and over in the structure of the labour market is increasing. In line with this trend, unemployment issues should be considered as a global problem that cannot be fully resolved at the level of any individual country separately.The main objective of this paper is to throw some light on the aging workforce and the elderly population’s opportunity to realise their right to work and be treated equally with younger age groups. Hence, the paper simultaneously focuses on the age and gender discrimination of elderly population in terms of their employment prospects. The aim of our research is not only to point out certain stereotypes concerning the elderly labour force, but also to stress that unless preconditions for overcoming these stereotypes are created and employment opportunities are given to this segment of the labour force, full employment as an ultimate goal of global economic policy cannot be achieved. It is in accordance with these considerations that we offer a model to achieve this goal.

  10. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne; Nicholson, Sean

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work......Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set...... part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance....

  11. Maternal employment in child-care institutions and the risk of infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, L.G.; Benn, C.S.; Simonsen, J.B.;

    2008-01-01

    this hypothesis, we studied the incidence of wheezing and atopic dermatitis (AD) in infants of mothers employed in child-care institutions - and thus presumably being highly exposed to infections and microbes - compared with infants of mothers not so employed. A total of 31471 mother-child pairs enrolled...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information on wheezing episodes, AD, maternal employment, and other variables were collected by interview at 12 and 30 wk of gestation, and 6 and 18 months of age, and by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Child-care Database......% CI: 1.05-1.77), and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81-1.31), respectively, for first-born infants of mothers employed in child-care institutions compared with infants of mothers not so employed. There was no effect of maternal employment in child-care institutions among infants with older siblings. In conclusion...

  12. Married Parents' Perceptions of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Fronheiser, April; Baker, Kathleen; Fontanez, Mary; Fulmer, Kim; Ryckebusch, Jenna; Ellis, Trisha; Miller, Heather; Carey, Brandi; Gorton, Laura; Chambliss, Catherine

    This investigation explored parents' attitudes about the risks and benefits associated with maternal employment. The responses of husbands and wives from single paycheck versus dual paycheck families were compared. Participants in this study were 109 mothers and 96 fathers given a survey assessing their views on maternal employment. This study…

  13. Young Adults' Perceptions of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Hillary; Farrell, Debi; Fronheiser, April; DiBlasi, Paul; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Denis, Lauren; Hemperly, Megan; Strauss, Aviva; Maggi, Leigh; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the influence of maternal employment on perceptions of the specific costs and benefits to children associated with mothers working outside the home and professional ambition among young adults. A sample of 90 college students completed a survey including the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children…

  14. College Students' Views of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronheiser, April; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Brogan, Maureen; Kosakowski, Jill; Hess, Auden; Alleger, Lindsay; Sosnowski, Jane; Sternberg, Tamar; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated college students' perceptions of the specific costs and benefits to children associated with maternal employment outside the home. Respondents were grouped on the basis of their own mothers' maternal employment status. Attitudes about psychological, academic, behavioral, and environmental risks associated with maternal…

  15. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  16. Mechanisms for the Association Between Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    John Cawley; Feng Liu

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has found that maternal employment is associated with worse child performance on tests of cognitive ability. This paper explores mechanisms for that correlation. We estimate models of instrumental variables using a unique dataset, the American Time Use Survey, that measure the effect of maternal employment on the mother's allocation of time to activities related to child cognitive development. We find that employed women spend significantly less time reading to their children,...

  17. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  19. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Wohlfahrt, J; Christens, P

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history.......To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history....

  20. Female Labour Supply and Household Employment Shocks : Maternity Leave as an Insurance Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Tominey, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of unpaid maternity leave in providing household insurance against paternal employment shocks. The main outcome is the timing of a mothers’ return to work after having a child. Exploiting the US Family and Medical Leave Act, we find that mothers eligible for maternity leave speed up their return to work in response to a paternal shock, with the conditional probability of being in work 49% higher than in households with no unpaid maternity leave. Further eviden...

  1. Associação entre estrutura familiar, nível de escolaridade e emprego da mãe com estilo de vida sedentário em crianças em idade escolar primária Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-04-01

    level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. METHOD: Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5th percentile 95th percentile. For the analysis, overweight was defined as BMI at or above the 85th percentile for each gender. Adjusted odds ratios (adjusted ORs for physical inactivity were determined using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 40.7%, and of sedentary lifestyle, 57.2%. The percentage of non-intact families was 23.5%. Approximately 48.7% of the mothers had a non-acceptable educational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.04-2.66 is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. CONCLUSION: Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  2. The Relationship between Parenting Style and Maternal Employment in Families with Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Rebecca; And Others

    Research has suggested that parenting practices have an influence on children's subsequent adjustment. It was hypothesized that maternal employment would be associated with both maternal and paternal parenting style, and that family SES would mediate these effects. A sample of 94 families (from the Philadelphia region) with children under the age…

  3. The Relationship between Parenting Style and Maternal Employment in Families with Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly; And Others

    The relationship between maternal employment and maternal and paternal parenting styles is investigated in this study. Subjects included 117 two-parent families with elementary school children. Responses were obtained from 111 mothers and 24 fathers. The survey was conducted by a telephone interview lasting 10-15 minutes in duration. Questions…

  4. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related behaviours among German children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.

  5. Maternal movements to part time employment: what is the penalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J

    2010-01-01

    In Britain, part time employment is typically used to combine work and motherhood: 60% of employed mothers in Britain work part time, and this usually involves a transition from full time employment around the first childbirth. Part time jobs are often situated in lower level occupational groups and so a transition from full to part time employment may reduce the wage. Using the British Household Panel Survey this study investigates the wage impact of switching from full to part time employme...

  6. Intent and Choice Regarding Maternal Employment Following Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbel, James

    1998-01-01

    A study of 70 pregnant working mothers before and six months after childbirth found that traditional gender-role values and perceived spousal preference influenced their employment intention before giving birth. Employment intention and spouse's income influenced return to employment after childbirth. (SK)

  7. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  8. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa-Horta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.

  9. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géa-Horta, Tatiane; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Ortiz, Renzo Joel Flores; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were utilized as the regression method. After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR=3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80) and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR=1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42). Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR=1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77). Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-wage maternal employment and outcomes for children: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Driscoll, A K

    1997-01-01

    Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels. The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply these generalizations based on these findings to families forced into employment by welfare reform.

  11. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2008-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  12. Influence of advanced age of maternal grandmothers on Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Nallur B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal anomaly associated with mental retardation. This is due to the occurrence of free trisomy 21 (92–95%, mosaic trisomy 21 (2–4% and translocation (3–4%. Advanced maternal age is a well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In India three children with DS are born every hour and more DS children are given birth to by young age mothers than by advanced age mothers. Therefore, detailed analysis of the families with DS is needed to find out other possible causative factors for nondisjunction. Methods We investigated 69 families of cytogenetically confirmed DS children and constructed pedigrees of these families. We also studied 200 randomly selected families belonging to different religions as controls. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Results Out of the 69 DS cases studied, 67 were free trisomy 21, two cases were mosaic trisomy 21 and there were none with translocation. The number of DS births was greater for the young age mothers compared with the advanced age mothers. It has also been recorded that young age mothers (18 to 29 years born to their mothers at the age 30 years and above produced as high as 91.3% of children with DS. The logistic regression of case- control study of DS children revealed that the odds ratio of age of grandmother was significant when all the four variables were used once at a time. However, the effect of age of mother and father was smaller than the effect of age of maternal grandmother. Therefore, for every year of advancement of age of the maternal grandmother, the risk (odds of birth of DS baby increases by 30%. Conclusion Besides the known risk factors, mother's age, father's age, the age of the maternal grandmother at the time of birth of the mother is a risk factor for the occurrence of Down syndrome.

  13. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  14. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  15. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  16. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  17. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  18. Maternity Leave in Australia: Employee and Employer Experiences. Report of a Survey. Australian Institute of Family Studies Monograph No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Helen

    A study was made to obtain a broad overview of the operation of maternity leave in Australia from the perspectives of employees and employers. The study included: (1) an employee survey exploring the use and non-use of maternity leave and identifying determinants of taking maternity leave and of retaining women in the labor force after childbirth;…

  19. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  20. Maternal Employment and Development of the Father-Infant Relationship in the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grych, John H.; Clark, Roseanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigated links between maternal employment, marital satisfaction, and fathers' parenting during their child's infancy. Found that fathers whose wives worked part time or less were more sensitive and responsive when more involved in caregiving; men whose wives worked full time showed more negative affect and behavior when more involved in child…

  1. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  2. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  3. Changing maternal role of Ghanaian women; impacts of education, migration and employment.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Working paper reporting on the impact of the education of women, migration and employment on social roles and social status of Ghanaian women. Based on 60 interviews, covers women workers, rural women, marriage, maternity and fertility trends, family and child-rearing roles, birth control, abortion and cultural factors. Bibliography and tables.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (..., such as childhood socio-economic characteristics—a confounder we hypothesized would exaggerate the young maternal age–adverse outcomes association but mask the older maternal age–adverse outcome association. Results There was a U-shaped association of maternal age with risk of preterm birth (lowest risk age 24......–30 years) and SGA (lowest risk age 26–30 years) in cohort analyses. In analyses with sister control, there was a J-shaped association of maternal age with preterm birth, with a monotonic increase in risk across the maternal age range from 24 years of maternal age. For SGA, risk increased across the age...

  5. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  6. How do employers cope with an ageing workforce?: Views from employers and employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How age-conscious are human resource policies? Using a survey of Dutch employers, we examine how employers deal with the prospect of an ageing work force. We supplement our analysis with an additional survey of Dutch employees to compare human resource policies to practices. Results show that a small minority of employers are taking measures to enhance productivity (training programmes or bring productivity in line with pay (demotion. Personnel policies tend to 'spare' older workers: giving them extra leave, early retirement, or generous employment protection: older workers who perform poorly are allowed to stay, whereas younger workers under similar conditions are dismissed.

  7. Decrease in expression of maternal effect gene Mater is associated with maternal ageing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-qing; He, Xie-chao; Zheng, Ping

    2016-04-01

    What factors in mouse oocytes are involved in the ageing-related decline in oocyte quality? The maternal effect gene Mater is involved in ageing-related oocyte quality decline in mice. Premature loss of centromere cohesion is a hallmark of ageing-related oocyte quality decline; the maternal effect gene Mater (maternal antigen that embryos require, also known as Nlrp5) is required for preimplantation embryo development beyond the 2-cell stage, and mRNA expression of Mater decreases with maternal ageing. Mater protein expression level in mature oocytes from 7 young (5-8 weeks old) to 7 old mice (41-68 weeks old) was compared by immunoblotting analysis. Wild-type and Mater-null mice were used to examine whether Mater is necessary for maintaining normal centromere cohesion by means of cytogenetic karyotyping, time-lapse confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Mater protein is decreased in mature oocytes from old versus young mice (P = 0.0022). Depletion of Mater from oocytes leads to a reduction in centromere cohesion, manifested by precocious sister chromatid separation, enlargement of sister centromere distance and misalignment of chromosomes in the metaphase plate during meiosis I and II. This study was conducted in mice. Whether or not the results are applicable to human remains further elucidation. In addition, we were unable to confirm if the strain of mice (C57BL/6XSv129) at the age of 41-68 weeks old has the 'cohesin-loss' phenotype. Investigating Mater's functional mechanisms could provide fresh insights into understanding how the ageing-related oocyte quality decline occurs. N/A. This work was supported by the research grant from Chinese NSFC to P.Z. (31071274). We have no conflict of interests to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The study of maternal employment in South Korea: cultural and structural constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores factors in the low rates of maternal employment in South Korea through a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey dataset, the Korea Labour and Income Panel Study (KLIPS). This thesis elaborates Western debates and theories of women’s labour market participation within Korean contexts, develops hypotheses on a theoretical basis accommodating both individual factors such as human capital, children and spouse factors and structural factors like the workplace and class ...

  9. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  10. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  11. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age standardization, black and Hispanic women were more likely to have higher parity as compared to whites. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in parity patterns among the main racial and ethnic populations in the United States. These results may help in formulating strategies that will serve as templates for optimizing resource allocation across the different racial/ethnic subpopulations in the United States.

  12. Experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing of women of advanced maternal age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kyoko; Turale, Sue; Skirton, Heather; Doris, Faye; Tsujino, Kumiko; Ito, Misae; Kutsunugi, Saeko

    2016-03-01

    The number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age has increased worldwide. Women in this group have an increased chance of fetal abnormality. To explore Japanese women's experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing, we conducted a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women aged 35 years or over who had given birth within the previous three months to a healthy, term infant. Thematic analysis of transcribed interview data was performed and three major themes were identified: inadequate understanding of genetic risks; insufficiently informed choice regarding prenatal testing; and need for more information from health professionals. Some participants were not aware of maternal age-specific risks to the fetus. Many took their cues from health professionals and did not raise the topic themselves, but would have considered prenatal testing if made aware of the risks. Nurses, midwives and other health professionals need to adequately inform pregnant women about the genetic risks to the fetus and offer testing at an appropriate stage early in the pregnancy.

  13. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  14. Maternal employment and perceptions of young children: Bronfenbrenner et al. revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, E; O'Neil, R

    1992-04-01

    238 mothers and 116 fathers provided checklist descriptions of their 3-4-year-old's behavior; a smaller sample of parents and teachers also assessed the child's behavior 2 years later. There was no evidence of a key finding from a related study by Bronfenbrenner, Alvarez, and Henderson linking part-time employment with more positive maternal perceptions of sons. Indeed, maternal employment (typically, conditioned by mothers' level of education and child gender) was more strongly associated with fathers' and teachers' perceptions of children than with mothers' perceptions, and, in some cases, especially with fathers' and teachers' perceptions of daughters. Fathers perceived their 5-6-year-old as having more problem behaviors when mothers were currently employed full time; fathers and teachers viewed children's behavior as more problematic when less-educated mothers had been employed during more years of the child's lifetime. Interpreting these and other findings, we emphasize differences between samples and changes in the ecology of family life. This study underscores the notion that socially "relevant" research is likely to be highly responsive to time and social context.

  15. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  16. Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Kooij, T.A.M.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the aging workforce from the employment relationship perspective. This innovative book specifically focuses on how organizations can ensure their aging workers remain motivated, productive and healthy. In 15 chapters, several experts on this topic describe how organizations thro

  17. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  18. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  19. Feto-maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of gestational age and maternal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, S; Mauri, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2016-10-01

    Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well-being, the effect of pre-gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto-maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client-owned pregnant bitches of different pre-gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well-being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  1. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal serum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, M; Tormettino, B; Zurzolo, V; Labriola, D; Ambrosio, D; Stradella, L; Schettino, M T; De Franciscis, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the performance of two-stage first-trimester combined screening based on maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum sample "free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A)". A combined screening for chromosomal anomalies was performed in 713 singleton pregnancies. We performed a two-stage screening with the blood taken at 8+0 to 10+6 weeks and the measurement of NT performed at 12+0 to 12+6 weeks. The maternal age related risk for trisomy 21 was calculated and adjusted according to the gestational age at the time of screening to derive the a-priori risk. The measured free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) for gestational age, adjusted for maternal weight, smoking status, ethnicity, method of conception (spontaneous or IVF) and parity. The measured NT was assessed in relationship of mesasure of CRL. Finally, the risk resulting by NT thickness and biochemical markers were multiplied by the a-priori risk to derive the patient-specific risk. The ultrascreen was considered positive in the case where the risk was greater than 1:250. In this case it was suggested the study of the fetal karyotype through an invasive test. In our study we had 23 positive cases after the combined screening: all patients have opted for the study of fetal karyotype, and in 5 cases the result was abnormal (trisomy 21). We had 1 case where the test was negative but the fetal karyotype was abnormal (trisomy 21). We have calculated sensitivity and false positive rate of the test. In our study there were 707 cases with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby and 6 cases with trisomy 21. The detection rate of the first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies was 83% with a false positive rate of 3,2%. The aim of the study was estimated the

  2. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.

  3. Individual and organisational predictors influencing ageing workers’ employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, A.A.M.; Breukers, A.; Wittpoth, M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    An important way to improve ageing workersʼ employability is through participation in formal and informal human resource development (HRD) activities. However, older workers remain underrepresented in most forms of training and development, and company policies are hardly directed at improving older

  4. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina

    2016-01-01

    -linked with national medical birth registries. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 300,085 singleton deliveries: 39,919 after ART and 260,166 after SC. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), placenta previa, cesarean delivery, preterm birth (PTB; ... weeks), low birth weight (LBW; placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  5. Maternal depressive symptoms and low literacy as potential barriers to employment in a sample of families receiving welfare: are there two-generational implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, M J; Hair, E C; Dion, M R; Ahluwalia, S K; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the role of maternal depressive symptoms and low maternal literacy in predicting outcomes in two generations in families receiving welfare: mothers' employment and children's development. The sample consists of 351 African-American families, each with a preschool-age child, in which the mother had applied for or was receiving welfare. Close to the start of the study, 52.6 percent of the mothers in the sample had scores indicating lower literacy, 39.5 percent reported moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms, and 24.6 percent had a co-occurrence of these. Using continuous scores, in multivariate analyses of variance, neither level of literacy, extent of depressive symptoms, nor the interaction of these, were found to predict two measures of subsequent employment (any employment across the two year follow-up period, and current employment at the time of the follow-up). However, when cut points were used (low literacy; moderate to high depressive symptoms), mothers with low literacy were found less often to be employed approximately two years later. Multivariate analyses of variance examining the set of child outcomes (cognitive school readiness and behavior problems) in light of mothers' depressive symptoms and literacy level found a statistically significant interaction of literacy level and extent of depressive symptoms: children of mothers with more depressive symptoms had less favorable developmental outcomes only in the presence of low maternal literacy. Structural equation models provide evidence that parenting behavior mediates the relationship between the predictor variables and child outcomes, and that the pathways from depressive symptoms through parenting to child outcomes are stronger when maternal depressive symptoms co-occur with low maternal literacy.

  6. Maternal age-specific risk of non-chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, M; Dolk, H; Morris, J K;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the excess risk of non-chromosomal congenital anomaly (NCA) among teenage mothers and older mothers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based prevalence study using data from EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 23 regions of Europe in 15 countries, covering a total of 1......, and relative risk (RR) of NCA and 84 standard NCA subgroups compared with mothers aged 25-29. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of all NCA was 26.5 per 1000 births in teenage mothers (... and 22.6 for mothers 40-44 years. The RR adjusted for country for teenage mothers was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06-1.17); 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02) for mothers 35-39; and 1.01 (95% CI 0.95-1.07) for mothers 40-44. The pattern of maternal age-related risk varied significantly between countries: France, Ireland...

  7. The Meaning of Maternal Employment for Mothers and Their Perceptions of Their Three-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, William F.

    1985-01-01

    The relationships between features of the maternal employment situation and mothers' positive descriptions of their three-year-old children were investigated in a sample of 152 White, two-parent families. Employed mothers' positive motivation for working, low role conflict, and gains in self-worth were all associated with mothers' favorable…

  8. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steegers Eric AP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM SCREENING ON THE AMNIOCENTESIS RATE IN WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A; HERINGA, MP

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effect of maternal serum screening on the amniocentesis (AC) rate in women of advanced maternal age. The AC rate after maternal serum screening was compared in two groups of women with a singleton pregnancy, 855 women of 30-35 years and 98 of 36 years and older. In our population

  10. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  11. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rudäng, R.; Mellström, D.; Clark, E.; Ohlsson, C; Lorentzon, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring. Introduction In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has steadily increased during the last three decades. It has been previously reported that advancing mate...

  12. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  13. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild.

  14. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.

  15. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results s...

  16. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  17. Young Adults from Single versus Two-Parent Households: Attitudes toward Maternal Employment and Quality of Current Relationships with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine

    To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…

  18. Maternal Employment Experiences Affect Children's Behavior via Mood, Cognitive Difficulties, and Parenting Behavior: A Reply to Otto and Atkinson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwen, Karyl E.; Barling, Julian

    1994-01-01

    Reacts to commentary by Otto and Atkinson concerning MacEwen and Barling's 1991 article on effects of maternal employment experiences on children's behavior. Argues that analyses reported in original article did appropriately test hypotheses outlined in paper and that conclusions were appropriate and substantively similar to conclusions presented…

  19. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  20. Employer Branding and Talent Management in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MIHALCEA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the digital age, organizations need to reinvent themselves at a structural level and to become agiler. Digital maturity of human resources management implies a shift from traditional paradigm on workplace towards engagement, learning and development of employees and search for talent. This paper focuses on identifying the major trends and strategies concerning talent management programs and development of digital skills for employees and managers. The study reveals that in an open talent economy, employer brand is very important in recruiting and retention of high potential employees and must be focused on learning & leadership development, mobility, rewards and competency systems. At present, in order to obtain a business value, one of the major challenges that HR needs to face is the development of digital skills for managers and employees.

  1. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys......% of potential gains in RALE. Conclusions: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.......Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...

  2. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations with health as childbearing for adults. This 'tipping point' may vary by the underlying physical and nutritional health of girls

  3. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthar, Suniya S; Sexton, Chris C

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children's early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers' everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children's lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children's externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy.

  6. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  7. Is advanced maternal age a risk factor for congenital heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Kate E; Rankin, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Studies have reported that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD), but none of these have been performed in the United Kingdom. Currently, women in the United Kingdom are not referred for specialist fetal echocardiography based on maternal age alone. The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence in the North of England. Singleton cases of CHD notified to the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey and born between January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, were included. Cases with chromosomal anomalies were excluded. The relative risk (RR) of CHD according to maternal age at delivery was estimated using Poisson regression. There were 4024 singleton cases of nonchromosomal CHD, giving a prevalence of 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8-8.3) per 1000 live and stillbirths. There was no association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence (p = 0.97), with no evidence of an increased risk of CHD in mothers aged ≥35 compared to aged 25 to 29 (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09). There were no significant associations between maternal age at delivery and severity III CHD (p = 0.84), severity II CHD (p = 0.74), or severity I CHD (p = 0.66), although there was a slight increased risk of severity I CHD in mothers aged ≥35 (RR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.83-1.95). We found little evidence that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for CHD. There is no evidence that women in the United Kingdom should be referred for specialist prenatal cardiac screening based on their age. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:461-467, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  9. Pathways of the association between maternal employment and weight status among women and children: Qualitative findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Surkan, Pamela J; Hurley, Kristen M; Lowery, Caitlin; de Ponce, Silvia; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2017-05-02

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined by the coexistence of undernutrition and overweight, is well documented in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms by which employment may be related to maternal and child weight status in low- and middle-income countries are not well understood. We conducted in-depth interviews among 20 mothers who participated in Project MIEL, a contemporary trial which evaluated the effects of an integrated micronutrient supplement and parenting intervention in rural Guatemala. We utilized semi-structured interviews to explore the pathways by which maternal employment might influence bodyweight. Interviews were structured to explore the factors that mothers considered when deciding whether or not to participate in the labor force and how mothers perceived the influence of employment on determinants of their own bodyweight and that of their children. Themes were used to develop a conceptual framework. Mothers described four pathways through which employment could lead to changes in weight status: changes in food purchasing; improved household well-being; changes in time allocation; and psychological effects. Mothers described purchasing increased quantities and more varied types of food, as well as the purchase of energy-dense foods. Less time to devote to food preparation resulted in mothers preparing quicker meals and relying on substitute childcare. Mothers also expressed feelings of worry and neglect in relation to being employed, and perceived that these feelings would affect weight. A better understanding of these mechanisms is important for developing policies and programs to support women in the workplace and also reducing maternal and child overweight in Guatemala. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  11. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached.

  12. Impact of the maternal age-related risk in first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, H; Lüthgens, K; Hoopmann, M; Kagan, K O

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of the maternal age-related risk in first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21. Prospective assessment of risk for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal NT thickness and maternal serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 11+0 to 13+6 weeks of gestation between April 2002 and February 2007. Screening for trisomy 21 by patient-specific risks based on the maternal and gestational age-related risk multiplied by a likelihood ratio for NT and for maternal serum biochemistry were compared with a screening policy that is only based on the combined likelihood ratio for fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry. The study population consisted of 38,603 euploid pregnancies and 109 fetuses with trisomy 21. In screening for trisomy 21 by fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry in combination with and without maternal age with a fixed false-positive rate of 3%, the detection rate was 82.6 and 79.8%, respectively. In the group of women with a maternal age of less than 30 years and between 30 and 35 years, there was no difference in the detection rate. For women with a maternal age of 35 years or older, the detection rate increased from 77.1% without maternal age to 94.3% with maternal age, respectively. The overall difference between first-trimester screening based on fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry with and without maternal age is about 3%. In screening with a fixed cut-off, the maternal age-related risk keeps the false-positive rate low in younger women and increases the detection rate in older women. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  15. Employment Discrimination--Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967--Bona Fide Occupational Qualification--Hodgson v. Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Susan Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Examines the circuit court's decision in favor of Greyhound in a suit alleging that the company's refusal to accept applications for bus driver from persons under 35 violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). Submits that the decision frustrates congressional intent by permitting arbitrary and unreasonable age discrimination. (JT)

  16. Looking at Employment through a Lifespan Telescope: Age, Health, and Employment Status of People with Serious Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Corinne; Schmeidler, Emilie; Todorov, Alexander

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined employment issues for people with serious visual impairments. The study reviewed data from the 1994 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey that included 128,001 people (ages 18-69) with and without visual impairments. Chapter 1 highlights age (seen as lifestage) and health status as…

  17. The effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Borrell, Antoni; Garcia-Posada, Raul; Borobio, Virginia; Muñoz, Miriam; Creus, Montserrat; Soler, Anna; Sanchez, Aurora; Balasch, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Is there any effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage? There was no significant difference in the chromosome abnormality rate between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage but the chromosome abnormality rate increased significantly with maternal age. About 50-70% of non-recurrent miscarriages occur because of a chromosomal anomaly, but no agreement about the effect of either maternal age or the number of previous miscarriages on the chromosomal anomaly rate has been reached. A retrospective cohort of 353 miscarriages successfully karyotyped in the same center between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to the number of miscarriages and maternal age. Among the 353 women, 153 were below 35 years (73 with sporadic, 48 with two and 32 with recurrent miscarriage) and 200 were 35 years or more (81 with sporadic, 55 with two and 64 with recurrent miscarriage). The chromosomal anomaly rate and the anomaly spectrum were compared between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, within the two maternal age groups, using the chi-square test and the Bonferroni correction for all the P-values. Risk of chromosomal anomaly was estimated for maternal age, number of miscarriages and previous live births by multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Sporadic and recurrent miscarriage did not show significantly different chromosomal anomaly rates (68 versus 60%) and maternal age was the only statistically significant predictor of the chromosomal anomaly risk we identified. Some trends were observed in the chromosomal anomaly spectrum when sporadic was compared with recurrent miscarriage: recurrent miscarriage exhibited a decrease in viable trisomies (37 versus 11%) and an increase in non-viable trisomies (38 versus 57%) in women >35 years, together with an increase in unbalanced structural anomalies (4.9 versus 29%) in younger women. The mixed origin of our study population, and the limited number of recurrent miscarriages, particularly in

  18. Age Differences in the Impact of Employment on Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    While research suggests that working more than 20 hr weekly is associated with greater antisocial behavior among middle- and upper-class youth, some have argued that employment benefits at-risk youth and leads to desistance from crime among youthful offenders. This study investigates the relation between hours worked, school attendance, and…

  19. Age at first febrile seizure correlates with perinatal maternal emotional symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault-Dagher, Fanny; Herba, Catherine M; Séguin, Jean R; Muckle, Gina; Lupien, Sonia J; Carmant, Lionel; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Fraser, William D; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and fever are factors lowering seizure threshold in animal models. The fever effect on seizure threshold is well documented in human infants, however the associations between maternal perinatal stress and infants' susceptibility to seizures is unknown. This is the first study in humans to investigate longitudinally, whether in humans, the effect of maternal perinatal emotional symptoms such as stress, anxiety and depression that may trigger a biological stress response on age at first seizure occurrence. The study sample is a subgroup drawn from a longitudinal follow up cohort (3D cohort study: Design, Develop, Discover, N=2366 mother-infant dyads). Twenty-nine otherwise healthy infants who had a febrile seizure (FS) episode before the last follow-up visit (around 24 months of age) were studied. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their emotional health at each pregnancy trimester and at three months postpartum. The link between maternal emotional symptoms and infant age at first FS was assessed through correlations and multiple regressions. We found that maternal anxiety symptoms during the second trimester of pregnancy are linked to the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.459, p=0.021) and explain 21.1% of its variance. Postnatal maternal depression symptoms at 3 months postpartum were also associated with the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.587, p=0.002) and explained an additional 17.6% of variance. Together, the variables explained 38.7% of the variance in age at first FS. Maternal perceived stress symptoms at 3 months postpartum were also linked to the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.418, p=0.038), however, stress did not significantly contribute to the variance of age at first FS.. Our results suggest a link between increased perinatal maternal emotional symptoms and the age at first FS. An earlier age at first FS may be the manifestation of a lower seizure threshold. Early first seizure occurrence is a risk factor for compromised neurological

  20. New findings for maternal mortality age patterns: aggregated results for 38 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann K Blanc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. METHODS: We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. FINDINGS: The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A "J" shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns.

  1. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  2. Maternal age at childbirth and risk for ADHD in offspring: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Almqvist, Catarina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women who give birth at younger ages (e.g. teenage mothers) are more likely to have children who exhibit behaviour problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not clear whether young maternal age is causally associated with poor offspring outcomes or confounded by familial factors. Methods: The association between early maternal age at childbirth and offspring ADHD was studied using data from Swedish national registers. The sample included all children born in Sweden between 1988 and 2003 (N = 1 495 543), including 30 674 children with ADHD. We used sibling- and cousin-comparisons to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding. Further, we used a children-of-siblings model to quantify the genetic and environmental contribution to the association between maternal age and offspring ADHD. Results: Maternal age at first birth (MAFB) was associated with offspring ADHD. Teenage childbirth (ADHD. The association attenuated in cousin-comparison, suggesting unmeasured familial confounding. The children-of-siblings model indicated that the association between MAFB and ADHD was mainly explained by genetic confounding. Conclusions: All children born to mothers who bore their first child early in their reproductive lives were at increased risk of ADHD. The association was mainly explained by genetic factors transmitted from mothers to their offspring that contribute to both age at childbirth and ADHD in offspring. Our results highlight the importance of using family-based designs to understand how early life circumstances affect child development. PMID:25355726

  3. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-09

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  4. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte (Joke); N.W.E. Schuitemaker (Nico); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); J. van Roosmalen (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become

  5. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte (Joke); N.W.E. Schuitemaker (Nico); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); J. van Roosmalen (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant

  6. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  7. Increasing the minimum age of marriage program to improve maternal and child health in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjarwati

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the article is to review the importance of understanding the adolescent reproductive health, especially the impact of early marriage to have commitment for health maintenance by increasing the minimum age of marriage. There are countless studies describing the impact of pregnancy at a very young age, the risk that young people must understand to support the program of increasing minimum age of marriage in Indonesia. Increasing the minimum age of marriage is as one of the government programs in improving maternal and child health. It also supports the Indonesian government's program about a thousand days of life. It is required that teens understand the impact of early marriage to prepare for optimal health for future generations. The maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high because health is not optimal since the early period of pregnancy. These studies reveal that the increased number of early marriages leads to rising divorce rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality and intensifies the risk of cervical cancer. The increase in early marriage is mostly attributed to unwanted pregnancy. It is revealed that early marriage increases the rate of pregnancy at too young an age with the risk of maternal and child health in Indonesia.

  8. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  9. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  10. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Hunter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  11. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  12. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. METHODS: We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n...... = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. RESULTS: PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20...... to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. CONCLUSIONS: PTB rates increased...

  13. Maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and the association with small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John M D; Wall, Clare; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2010-06-01

    Maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy is important for the growth and development of the fetus. The effects of pre-pregnancy nutrition (estimated by maternal size) are well documented. There is little information in today's Western society on the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the fetus. The aim of the study was to describe dietary patterns of a cohort of mothers during pregnancy (using principal components analysis with a varimax rotation) and assess the effect of these dietary patterns on the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby. The study was a case-control study investigating factors related to SGA. The population was 1714 subjects in Auckland, New Zealand, born between October 1995 and November 1997, about half of whom were born SGA ( < or = 10th percentile for sex and gestation). Maternal dietary information was collected using FFQ after delivery for the first and last months of pregnancy. Three dietary patterns (traditional, junk and fusion) were defined. Factors associated with these dietary patterns when examined in multivariable analyses included marital status, maternal weight, maternal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, mothers who had higher 'traditional' diet scores in early pregnancy were less likely to deliver a SGA infant (OR = 0.86; 95 % CI 0.75, 0.99). Maternal diet, particularly in early pregnancy, is important for the development of the fetus. Socio-demographic factors tend to be significantly related to dietary patterns, suggesting that extra resources may be necessary for disadvantaged mothers to ensure good nutrition in pregnancy.

  14. Why is chromosome segregation error in oocytes increased with maternal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2011-10-01

    It is well documented that female fertility is decreased with advanced maternal age due to chromosome abnormality in oocytes. Increased chromosome missegregation is mainly caused by centromeric cohesion reduction. Other factors such as weakened homologous recombination, improper spindle organization, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) malfunction, chromatin epigenetic changes, and extra-oocyte factors may also cause chromosome errors.

  15. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  16. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  17. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  18. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults.

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    Christina A Markunas

    Full Text Available Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child's DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers' age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7. These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother's age at pregnancy could affect her child's health through epigenetic mechanisms.

  19. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  20. Relationship between gestational age and endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Simmi Kharb; Tiwari, R; Nanda, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor placentation at early gestational age is an important predisposing condition for the development of preeclampsia. The present study was designed to study the relationship of gestational age with endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood of normal and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: The present study was conducted in fifty pregnant women that were grouped as: group 1 (control, n=25) comprising of normotensive women immediately after delivery, group 2 (study group, n=25) comp...

  1. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

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    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  2. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

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    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  3. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported chi...

  4. Screening for trisomy 21 with maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a regional experience from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, P; Pruggmayer, M; Schwerdtfeger, R; Muhlhaus, K; Scharf, A

    2006-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of first trimester screening for trisomy 21 using a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT), maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in a regional setting [maternity unit of the Women's University Hospital, Hannover Medical School (study center); two regional private centers for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics; laboratory for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics]. Fetal NT, crown-rump length, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Risk calculation was carried out using the FMF computer algorithm. The patients were informed and counseled about possible invasive test options if the risk was 1 in 300 or greater. Fetal outcome was obtained by questionnaires given to the patients or sent to their gynecologists. The detection and false-positive rates for the different screening strategies were calculated. Pregnancy outcome was obtained in 2,497 cases, of which 2,196 cases had completed first trimester screening with NT and maternal serum biochemistry and 301 additional cases had NT measurement only. The median age was 32.5 years. In our population 11 affected fetuses were found. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 was 1 in 300 or greater in 64, 82, 88 and 88% of affected fetuses using maternal age alone, in combination with nuchal translucency, with maternal serum biochemical markers or with both NT and biochemical markers for a false-positive rate of 28.2, 5.1, 15.3 and 4.0%. First trimester screening using maternal age, NT, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A is highly effective for the detection of trisomy 21 and is associated with a sensitivity of about 90% for 5% false-positive patients. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  6. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

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    Aya Hisada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS, which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and primary headache in school-aged children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Carlos E; Barbieri, Marco A; Silva, Antônio M; Gutierrez, Manoel R; Bettiol, Heloisa; Speciali, José G; Rona, Roberto J

    2012-03-01

    It is not known whether smoking by mothers during pregnancy is associated with headache in their offspring. Two prospective cohorts of 869 children aged 10-11 years from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and 805 children aged 7-9 years from São Luís (SL) were studied. Data on maternal smoking were collected at birth. Primary headache was defined as a reporting of ≥2 episodes of headache in the past 2 weeks, without any associated organic symptoms. Prevalence of headache was 28.1% in RP and 13.1% in SL as reported by the mothers and 17.5% in RP and 29.4% in SL as reported by the children. Agreement between mothers' report and children's self-report of primary headache in the child was poor. After adjustment, children whose mothers smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy presented higher prevalence of primary headache than their counterparts in both cohorts, as reported by the mother and in RP as reported by the children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with headache in 7- to 11-year-olds. With one exception, the consistency of the results, despite poor agreement between maternal and children reports of headache, indicates that maternal smoking during pregnancy may contribute to headaches in their children.

  8. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

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    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  9. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

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    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders(ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century,while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has alsoincreased. Studies looking for an association between paternalor maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have notbeen conclusive.Objective To assess for possible associations between paternaland maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring.Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100control subjects, each case was matched for age and genderto two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutivesampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited theDevelopmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics OutpatientClinic and private growth and development centers from Januaryto April 2013, while control group were children of the sameage range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatientclinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tractinfection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria.We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternaland paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, historyof asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period,pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternalsmoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed withChi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal ageat pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3;95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significantassociation between maternal age during pregnancy and theincidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were alsoassociated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9;P 0.003, respectively.Conclusion'in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 3.2 times and asphyxia increasedthe risk of ASDs in offspring by 10

  10. The Association of Marital Status and Offers of Employer-based Health Insurance for Employed Women Aged 27-64: United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jessica L; Cohen, Robin A

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey •Among employed women aged 27-64, unmarried women (72.2%) were more likely than married women (69.3%) to have been offered health insurance by their employer. •Among employed married women aged 27-64, 16.8% were offered health insurance only through their spouse's employer. •Considering all offers of health insurance (through a woman's employer or her spouse's employer), employed married women aged 27-64 (86.1%) were more likely than employed unmarried women (72.2%) to have had an employer offer of health insurance. •Regardless of educational attainment, and for most income and racial groups, employed married women aged 27-64 were more likely than employed unmarried women to have been offered health insurance by their employer or their spouse's employer. In 2015, women were less likely than men to have been insured through their own employer and more likely to have been covered as a dependent (1). This report describes the association of marital status and the presence of employer-based health insurance offers among employed women in the United States. Analyses are limited to women aged 27-64 to exclude offers associated with parental employment for those under age 27. An offer of employer-based health insurance includes offers by the woman's employer or her spouse's employer. The presence of an offer does not indicate offer take up. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.

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    Louise C Kenny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004-2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years with women aged 20-29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19% were aged 20-29 years, 62,371(27.63% were aged 30-34 years, 33,966(15.05% were aged 35-39 years and 7,066(3.13% were aged ≥40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR = 1.83, [95% CI 1.37-2.43], pre-term (RR = 1.25, [95% CI: 1.14-1.36] and very pre-term birth (RR = 1.29, [95% CI:1.08-1.55], Macrosomia (RR = 1.31, [95% CI: 1.12-1.54], extremely large for gestational age (RR = 1.40, [95% CI: 1.25-1.58] and Caesarean delivery (RR = 1.83, [95% CI: 1.77-1.90]. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

  12. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals.

  13. Impact of age at onset for children with renal failure on education and employment transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Previous medical research has shown that children with end-stage renal failure experience delay or underachievement of key markers of transition to adulthood. This article analyses 35 qualitative interviews with end-stage renal failure patients, aged 20-30 years, first diagnosed at 0-19 years of age, to explore how far delayed or underachievement in education and employment is related to their age at onset of end-stage renal failure. This study shows how unpredictable failures of renal replacement therapies, comorbidities and/or side effects of treatment in the early life course often coincided with critical moments for education and employment. Entering school, college, work-related training or employment, and disclosing health status or educational underachievement to an employer, were particularly critical, and those who were ill before puberty became progressively more disadvantaged in terms of successful transition into full-time employment, compared with those first diagnosed after puberty.

  14. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds.

  15. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate.

  16. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H

    2017-04-01

    Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    ) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations of male offspring in late middle age. The study is based on 598 Danish males from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (mean age, 55.2 years) with comprehensive historical data from birth. Path analysis is employed to estimate direct and indirect effects. A 10 % higher...

  18. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the ovarian reserve in a woman at a given age associated with her mother's age at menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: We demonstrated a significant, positive association between age at maternal menopause and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC......) in daughters. The rate of decline in serum-AMH level and AFC is also associated with age at maternal menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The association between menopausal age in mothers and daughters has been established through several epidemiological studies. This paper shows that early...... maternal menopause is related to an advanced depletion of the ovarian reserve and that late maternal menopause is related to a delayed depletion. STUDY DESIGN AND SIZE: Cross-sectional data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 863 women. The study comprised 527 participants from...

  19. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  20. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzov-Orlić, Natasa; Egić, Amira; Filimonović, Dejan; Marinković, Maja; Damnjanović-Pazin, Barbara; Milovanović, Zagorka; Joksić, Ivana; Branković, Snezana; Lukić, Relja; Mandić, Vesna; Cerović, Nikola; Mojović, Donka; Plamenac, Sanja; Stanković, Minja; Maglić, Dragana; Mikovć, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively.The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97), Turner syndrome (19), trisomy 18 (28), trisomy 13 (11) and others (14). Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33 +/- 4.9 years, > 35 years in 35% of pregnancies). Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  1. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  2. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

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    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  3. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education.

  4. Delivery of a small for gestational age infant and greater maternal risk of ischemic heart disease.

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    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD. It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006, a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012. The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011 as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025. Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36 years. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD.

  5. Delivery of a small for gestational age infant and greater maternal risk of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Davis, Karen E; Wilson, Peter W F

    2012-01-01

    Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006), a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012). The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011) as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025). Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36) years. Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD.

  6. Prevalence of dominant mutations in Spain: effect of changes in maternal age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Herranz, I; Salvador, J; Prieto, L; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Rodríguez-Pinilla, E; Cordero, J F

    1988-12-01

    We studied the birth prevalence of autosomal dominant mutations in Spain and estimated how a decrease in maternal age distribution may lead to reduction in dominant mutations. The data were collected by the Estudio Colaborativo Español de Malformaciones Congénitas from April, 1976, to December, 1985. Among 553,270 liveborn infants monitored during the period, 66 infants with autosomal dominant conditions were identified. These included Apert, Crouzon, Hay-Wells, Treacher-Collins, Robinow, Stickler, Adams-Oliver, and the blepharophimosis syndromes, achondroplasia, cleidocranial dysostosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. The overall rate of autosomal dominant conditions was 1.2 per 10,000 liveborn infants. Thirteen (20%) had an affected relative, and 52 (79%) had a negative family history. One case was excluded because of insufficient family data. The rate of autosomal dominant mutations was 0.9 per 10,000 liveborn infants, or 47 per 1 million gametes. A reduction in the maternal age distribution of mothers age 35 years and older from the current 10.8% to 4.9%, as in Atlanta, Georgia, would reduce the rate of Down syndrome in Spain by 33% and through a change in parternal age distribution may lead to a reduction in dominant mutations of about 9.6%. This suggests that a public health campaign to reduce older maternal age distribution in Spain may also lead to a reduction in dominant mutations and emphasizes the potential that a direct campaign for fathers to complete their families before age 35 years may have a small, but measurable, effect in the primary prevention of dominant mutations.

  7. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a German multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kaisenberg, C S; Gasiorek-Wiens, A; Bielicki, M; Bahlmann, F; Meyberg, H; Kossakiewicz, A; Pruggmayer, M; Kamin, G; Fritzer, E; Harris, C; Arnold, N

    2002-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum biochemistry using free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11-14 weeks of gestation. This was a multicenter study of screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation, using the methodology developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. The distribution of estimated risks for trisomy 21 was determined and the sensitivity and false-positive rate for a risk cut-off of 1 in 300 were calculated. In total, 3864 singleton pregnancies with live fetuses at 11-14 weeks were examined and the fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases. The median maternal age was 33 (range 15-46) years and, in 1271 (35.8%), the age was 35 years or more, the median gestation at screening was 12 (11-14) weeks and the median fetal crown-rump length was 64 (range 45-84) mm. The fetal NT was above the 95th centile in 73.7% (14 of 19) of trisomy 21 and in 4.8% (169 of 3505) of normal pregnancies. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 based on maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was 1 in 300 or greater in 6.6% (233 of 3505) of normal pregnancies, in 84.2% (16 of 19) of those with trisomy 21 and 88.9% (24 of 27) of those with other chromosomal defects. In Germany, the results of screening for chromosomal defects by measurement of fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry, in centers with appropriately qualified sonographers, are similar to those reported in the UK using the same methodology.

  8. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

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    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  9. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P formed via sequential introducing of later-weaned groups of foals. The most dominant horses were mainly recruited from the first-weaned group of the season, and thus were also the oldest individuals in the herd. Further research is needed to discover the role of foal personality and mare style, and their links to possible dominance behaviors in a herd.

  10. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  11. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

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    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Methods Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 − 0.86, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 − 0.95, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 − 0.90, respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 − 0.96 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 − 0.90, respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Conclusions Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  12. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

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    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  13. Association between delivery at an advanced maternal age and osteoporosis in elderly Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunju; Lee, Jungkwon; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Bo Ha

    2015-11-01

    Although several reproductive factors have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women, few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of delivery at a high-risk maternal age on BMD. Using nationally representative survey data collected from 736 women aged 65 years or older, we evaluated the relationship between delivery during adolescence or at an age of 35 years or older and osteoporosis in elderly women. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle risk factors, reproductive history, and history of osteoporosis and fracture were collected by administration of self-report questionnaires. Anthropometric data and BMD were measured in accordance with standardized guidelines. Independent determinants of BMD were identified by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, and the resulting model was used to evaluate the risk of osteoporosis according to delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age. Of the 736 subjects, 426 (60.1 %) were found to have osteoporosis (T score ≤ -2.5), and 19.2 and 38.9 % reported delivery during adolescence and at an advanced age, respectively. The incidence of delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age was significantly higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in those without osteoporosis. After adjustment for covariates, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly women with a history of delivery at an advanced maternal age are at an increased (2.164-fold greater) risk of osteoporosis (95 % confidence interval 1.109-4.223) compared with elderly women without a history of delivery at an advanced age. However, a history of delivery during adolescence did not affect the risk.

  14. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

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    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  15. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  16. Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Gregory, Kimberly D; Reddy, Uma M; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H; Hibbard, Judith U; Ramirez, Mildred M; Branch, D Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Hatjis, Christos G; Hoffman, Matthew K; Kominiarek, Michelle; Landy, Helain J; Learman, Lee A; Troendle, James; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Wilkins, Isabelle; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Jun

    2010-03-01

    We sought to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. We used electronic medical records data from 10 US institutions in the Consortium on Safe Labor on 115,528 deliveries from 2002 through 2008. Deliveries were divided by labor onset type (spontaneous, elective induction, indicated induction, unlabored cesarean). Neonatal and maternal outcomes were calculated by labor onset type and gestational age. Neonatal intensive care unit admissions and sepsis improved with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks (P labor was associated with a lower risk of ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.53), sepsis (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26-0.49), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.48-0.57) compared to spontaneous labor. The relative risk of hysterectomy at term was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.08-9.54) with elective induction, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.24-5.58) with indicated induction, and 6.57 (95% CI, 1.78-24.30) with cesarean without labor compared to spontaneous labor. Some neonatal outcomes improved until 39 weeks. Babies born with elective induction are associated with better neonatal outcomes compared to spontaneous labor. Elective induction may be associated with an increased hysterectomy risk. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome.

  18. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Heitmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high......OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...

  19. Egg length of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae according to oviposition rate and maternal age

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    Isabel C. Boleli

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of the entire egg, micropile and vitellus regions of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were measured during all opposition period. Obtained values were compared among them and with oviposition rate. The smallest eggs were produced during the first 35 oviposition days, period where the highest oviposition rate occured. The decrease in egg length was found to be due to a descrease in the vitellus region. Micropile length was found to be pratically constant throughout oviposition. Furthermore, no relationship between maternal age and length was detectable.

  20. Employment and absenteeism in working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Amber; Thomas, Nina; Tyry, Tuula; Cutter, Gary; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-05-01

    To better understand the impact of the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability on employment, absenteeism, and related factors. This study included respondents to the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry spring 2015 update survey who were US or Canadian residents, aged 18-65 years and reported having relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), or primary progressive MS (PPMS). The RRMS and SPMS participants were combined to form the relapsing-onset MS (RMS) group and compared with the PPMS group regarding employment status, absenteeism, and disability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between employment-related outcomes and factors that may affect these relationships. Of the 8004 survey respondents, 5887 (73.6%) were 18-65 years of age. The PPMS group (n = 344) had a higher proportion of males and older mean age at the time of the survey and at time of diagnosis than the RMS group (n = 4829). Female sex, age, age at diagnosis, cognitive and hand function impairment, fatigue, higher disability levels, ≥3 comorbidities, and a diagnosis of PPMS were associated with not working. After adjustment for disability, the employed PPMS sub-group reported similar levels of absenteeism to the employed RMS sub-group. Limitations of the study include self-report of information and the possibility that participants may not fully represent the working-age MS population. In MS, employment status and absenteeism are negatively affected by disability, cognitive impairment, and fatigue. These findings underscore the need for therapies that prevent disability progression and other symptoms that negatively affect productivity in persons with MS to enable them to persist in the workforce.

  1. Maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure in childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R J; Leary, S D; Smith, G Davey; Ness, A R

    2005-11-01

    Associations between maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure (BP) at age 7(1/2) were investigated in 7623 singletons from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In models adjusted for age and sex there was an inverse relationship between maternal age and BP in children: beta = -0.06 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.10 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for systolic BP and beta = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for diastolic BP. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors: beta = -0.02 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.07 to 0.04, P = 0.5) for systolic BP and beta = -0.03 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01, P = 0.2) for diastolic BP. We conclude that there is no evidence of a relationship between maternal age in pregnancy and childhood BP in this contemporary birth cohort.

  2. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain: Mediterranean area

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    E. Cortés Castell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal age is a preponderant variable in the epidemiological analysis of the premature birth. Studies show that in the extreme ages of the maternal life there is a risk of premature birth that generates a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Objetives: Determine the effect on the extreme ages of women residents in the province of Alicante on the total of the premature births. Method: An explanatory, retrospective case-control study was conducted during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. The study was based on the revision of the newborn registers from the Neonatal Screening Center of the province of Alicante. All the preterm were included, this means between 22 & 36 complete weeks of pregnancy (5,295 out of 78,391 newborn which represents 6.75% of prematurity, and a random sample of the deliveries with 37 weeks or more of pregnancy (control group. The age of the mother was studied as independent variable and the prematurity as dependent variable. Results: Clearly shows an increased risk of prematurity among teenage mothers compared to the age group nearest to them, which is confirmed by a squared Chi test which gives a significantly different distribution (p < 0,0001 and an OD for very preterm of 2,41 (1,51-3,24 and of preterm of 1,71 (1,32-2,19. This probability is also higher among mothers over 40 years old with an OD of 1,86 (1,39-2,48 and 1,66 (1,44-1,91 for very preterm newborns and preterm newborns respectively. Discussion: The results clearly manifest that teenagers and older pregnant mothers are at higher prematurity and low birth weight risk, therefore imposes the need to trace educational interventions to minimize this problem from the results in this research.

  3. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  4. Who is affected by neighbourhood income mix? gender, age, family, employment and income differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at

  5. In search for suitable age management practices for lifelong employability and career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, C.M.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; Rocco, T.S.; Thijssen, J.G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Despite an increasing dependence of the market on older workers, organizations still do not pay enough attention to their (broad) development. In this study, potential factors of age management are explored, specifically with regard to the development of specific and broad competences (employability

  6. Recharging or retiring older workers? Uncovering age-based strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen; K. Henkens; M. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We offer an empirically based taxonomy of the human resource policies of European employers in relation to older workers. In particular, 3 age-based strategies are discussed and analyzed in a simultaneous fashion: a focus on exit through retirement, workplace accommodation meas

  7. The Career Transition Process: A Qualitative Exploration of Korean Middle-Aged Workers in Postretirement Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Today's society, shaped by demographic changes and a global economy, has created different employment trends and work lives that result in adults' engaging in postretirement second careers. This phenomenon is a common occurrence in rapidly aging societies like Korea. This qualitative study examined the postretirement career transition process of…

  8. EMPLOYMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN WORKING-AGE POPULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the research carried out by the Sociological Group "Rating" in December 2016, 60% of the respondents were employed, 40% - unemployed. Among the unemployed, one-third (32%) – pensioners, 27% – housekeeping and childcare, 13% – students, 21% – unemployed and looking for work, 6......% - unemployed and not looking for work. When analyzing their working conditions, the majority of the employed respondents mentioned, on the one hand, an absence of vibration, noise, air pollution, minor physical effort, and on the other, comfortable lighting and temperature. Along with that, almost half....... 88% of the respondents were hired workers, 12% – self-employed (businessmen, family business etc.). Higher rate of self-employment was recorded among married individuals, the middle-aged group, and respondents with high income. The majority (89%) of the respondents worked full time, 11% – part time...

  9. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis......, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies...... and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome....

  10. The Relationship of Maternal Age, Quickening, and Physical Symptoms of Pregnancy on the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    submit to coitus from a sense of duty to the male. Zemlick and Watson (1974) studied 15 white, married, primiparous patients and found that mothers who...studied 100 primiparous women and used Cranley’s Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFA) to test three hypotheses: 1. There is a negative relationship

  11. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  12. Association between maternal vascular murmur and the small-for-gestational-age fetus with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riknagel, Diana; Farlie, Richard; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal vascular murmurs (MVMs) and fetal growth restriction (defined as small-for-gestational-age [SGA] fetus) and abnormal Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine and/or umbilical arteries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women aged 18...

  13. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  14. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  15. Lack of emergence of associations between selected maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Sam D; Brion, Marie-Jo; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2013-04-01

    A recent review found little evidence for substantial effects of modifiable maternal exposures on offspring blood pressure (BP), but this may have been because almost all the studies reported on BP in early and mid-childhood. This study uses data on 4723 mother-child pairs, collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, England between 1991 and 1997; associations between three maternal variables (smoking during pregnancy, age at childbirth and prenatal diet) and offspring BP at approximately 15 years were assessed. Comparisons of maternal and paternal associations with offspring BP were carried out as a way of evaluating whether prenatal exposures exerted an influence through intrauterine effects. The selected maternal exposures were not associated with offspring BP, after minimal or full adjustment for potential confounders. Maternal and paternal associations with offspring BP for each exposure were found to be similar. The findings of this study suggest that associations between the selected maternal exposures and offspring BP do not emerge with age up to adolescence.

  16. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  17. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... on maternal BMI disclosed that the association was restricted to pregnancies with a pre-pregnancy BMI >23 kg/m2 below that we found no association.  Conclusion: The association between glycosylated haemoglobin and birth of a LGA baby seems to be restricted to women with BMI >23 kg/m2....... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...

  18. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of Working Age Population Who Are Employed by Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the employment rate, or the percent of the population aged 16-64 who have worked in the past 12 months. The employment rate is a...

  20. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal st

  1. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  2. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  3. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, A R A; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...... and the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). SETTING: Schools in Odense, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1271 and 678 mothers of school children participated with information in the accuracy studies of BW and GA, respectively. The reliability sample of BW was composed of 359 women. METHOD: The agreement between...... the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high...

  4. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  5. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. From Race to Age: The Expanding Scope of Employment Discrimination Law.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) goes beyond the model of racial discrimination in prohibiting discrimination on a ground not recognized in the Constitution. As a consequence, the individuals protected by the ADEA differ sharply from those protected by earlier statutes such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. An examination of empirical data reveals that claims under the ADEA are brought predominantly by white males who hold relatively high-status and high-paying jobs...

  7. Maternal and perinatal characteristics of small-for-gestational-age newborns: Ten-year experience of a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin Uysal, Nihal; Gülümser, Çağrı; Bilgin Yanık, Filiz

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the maternal and perinatal characteristics of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) newborns in singleton pregnancies managed at our hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. The study (n=456) and control (n=4925) groups included pregnancies resulting in SGA and AGA newborns, respectively. Additionally, two SGA subgroups were defined according to abnormal (n=34) and normal (n=57) Doppler findings. Maternal demographic features; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies; gestational age at delivery; birth weight; major congenital anomalies, karyotype abnormalities, and genetic syndromes; maternal and obstetric problems such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, oligohydramnios, preterm birth; admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and perinatal mortality were recorded, and the two groups were compared with respect to these parameters. Mean maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, and birthweight were significantly lower; the frequencies of ICSI pregnancies, hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios, preterm delivery, major congenital anomalies, karyotype abnormalities and genetic syndromes, admission to the NICU and perinatal mortality were significantly higher in the study group (p0.05). The association of SGA with ICSI pregnancies, hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios, preterm delivery, congenital/chromosomal anomalies, NICU admission and perinatal mortality may be important in perinatal care. Clinical suspicion of SGA necessitates appropriate monitorization and management. Although obstetric outcomes were not significantly different between the two SGA subgroups with abnormal and normal Doppler findings in this study, this finding must be evaluated with caution due to the small sizes.

  8. The impact of maternal obesity, age, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity by mode of delivery-a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ekblad, Ulla; Gissler, Mika; Alanen, Anna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the rate of severe maternal morbidity related to delivery by delivery mode and to assess if the impact of studied risk factors varies by delivery mode. A register-based study including all women having singleton delivery in Finland in 2007-2011, n = 292,253, data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Registry and Hospital Discharge Registry. Diagnoses and interventions indicating a severe maternal complication were searched and the mode of delivery was assessed by data linkage. The impact of obesity, maternal age 35 years or more, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity (all severe complications, severe infections and severe) was studied in each mode of delivery and calculated as Odds ratios. The overall incidence of severe complications was 12.8/1,000 deliveries. The total complication rate was lowest in vaginal deliveries (VD) in all risk groups. Obesity increased the risk for all severe complications and severe infections in the total population, but not significantly in specific delivery modes. Age increased the risk of hemorrhage in VD. Pre-eclampsia increased the risk for hemorrhage in all deliveries except elective CS. In women with pre-eclampsia, overall morbidity was similar in VD, attempted VD and elective CS. The presence of any studied risk factor increased the risk for complications within the risk groups by the high proportion of emergency CS performed. An attempt of VD is the safest way to deliver even for high-risk women with the exception of women with pre-eclampsia, who had a similar risk in an attempt of VD and elective CS.

  9. Maternal Responsiveness as a Predictor of Self-Regulation Development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms Across Preschool Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Schloß, Susan; Becker, Katja

    2017-04-12

    Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms. A sample of 125 preschoolers and their families were seen at the ages of 4 and 5 years. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity was assessed via home observations, RRC by neuropsychological tasks, and ADHD symptoms by a structured clinical parent interview. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicted RRC development. The negative link between maternal responsiveness/sensitivity at 4 years and ADHD symptoms at 5 years was mediated by RRC performance at 5 years. Preschoolers showing ADHD symptoms combined with low RRC capacity in particular might benefit from responsive/sensitive parenting.

  10. Justifiability of amniocentesis on the basis of positive findings of triple test, ultrasound scan and advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav Bukvic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities based on maternal age (≥35 years, positive ultrasound findings or a positive triple test. Materials and methods. Retrospective six-year study. The pregnant women routinely underwent established clinical and laboratory practice at the Department of Medical Genetics between 1997 and 2003. The women’s case notes were examined to identify indications for karyotyping, gestation period and the outcome of karyotyping and pregnancy. Results. Invasive antenatal tests were performed on 1440 cases, 1168 (81.11% age 35(a, 72 (5.00% positive triple test (b, 24 (1.67% positive ultrasound scanning (c and 176 (12.2% other (psychological, personal reasons, etc (d. The overall positive predictive value was 1.67% (1.6%(a, 1.4% (b, 12.5% (c, 0.0% (d. The constructed model of logistic regression gave an odds-ratio of 8.647 for the “positive ultrasound result vs. maternal age ≥35” indication, while the odds-ratio for the triple test vs. maternal age ≥35 was 0.854. Conclusions. Amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis of foetal karyotype should be presented as a diagnostic possibility to all women over 35 years. The application of biochemical markers was far from the expected results. If we compare results for indication positive ultrasound scanning vs. maternal age, an oddsratio of ~9 was obtained. These results demonstrate that the likelihood of obtaining positive results (i.e. the presence of chromosome alterations from an amniocentesis having this indication is almost 9 times higher than from having an amniocentesis performed solely for advanced maternal age.

  11. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate

  12. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. METHODS: The study population consisted

  13. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. The study population consisted of 3684 Dutch chi

  14. Advanced maternal age increases the risk of very preterm birth, irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, U; Cnattingius, S; Vixner, L; Norman, M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. Population-based registry study. Swedish Medical Birth Register. First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for year of birth, education, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, and history of preterm birth. Age-related risks of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births were also investigated. Very preterm (22-31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32-36 weeks) births. Risks of very preterm birth increased with maternal age, irrespective of parity: adjusted ORs in first, second, and third births ranged from 1.18 to 1.28 at 30-34 years, from 1.59 to 1.70 at 35-39 years, and from 1.97 to 2.40 at ≥40 years. In moderately preterm births, age-related associations were weaker, but were statistically significant from 35-39 years in all parity groups. Advanced maternal age increased the risks of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, irrespective of parity, especially very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older, expecting their first, second, or third births, should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth, irrespective of parity. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Won; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Chun Kyu; Seo, Ju Tae; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years. The rates of fertilization, high-quality embryos, clinical pregnancy, and delivery were compared across maternal age groups between the OA and NOA groups. The rates of fertilization and high-quality embryos were not significantly different among the maternal age groups. Similarly, the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were not significantly different. The fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group than in the NOA group (p<0.05). Age-group analysis revealed that the fertilization and high-quality embryo rates were significantly different between the OA and NOA groups in patients aged 27 to 31 years old, but not for the other age groups. Although the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates differed between the OA and NOA groups across all age groups, significant differences were not observed. In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure.

  16. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiy, Alice M; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Luca, Ana K C De; Corrente, José E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern of low birth weight preterm infants born to hypertensive mothers, the occurrence of growth disorders, and risk factors for inadequate growth at 24 months of corrected age (CA). Cohort study of preterm low birth weight infants followed until 24 months CA, in a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight of 1,500-2,499 g. multiple pregnancies, major congenital anomalies, and loss to follow up in the 2nd year of life. The following were evaluated: weight, length, and BMI. growth failure and risk of overweight at 0, 12, and 24 months CA. Student's t-test, Repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression were used. A total of 80 preterm low birth weight infants born to hypertensive mothers and 101 born to normotensive mothers were studied. There was a higher risk of overweight in children of hypertensive mothers at 24 months; however, maternal hypertension was not a risk factor for inadequate growth. Logistic regression showed that being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the first 12 months of life were associated with poorer growth at 24 months. Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Germline mosaicism does not explain the maternal age effect on trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

    2013-10-01

    A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions.

  19. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Dias Aldrighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. METHOD Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. RESULTS Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. CONCLUSION From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs.

  20. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

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    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  1. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests.

  2. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Martin; Heijboer, A.C.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Vugt, J.M.G. van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. METHODS: In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal

  3. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  4. Communication about HIV and death: Maternal reports of primary school-aged children's questions after maternal HIV disclosure in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Lubbe, Anina M; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Bland, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of HIV and death in epidemic regions is under-researched. We investigated children's death-related questions post maternal HIV-disclosure. Secondary aims examined characteristics associated with death-related questions and consequences for children's mental health. HIV-infected mothers (N = 281) were supported to disclose their HIV status to their children (6-10 years) in an uncontrolled pre-post intervention evaluation. Children's questions post-disclosure were collected by maternal report, 1-2 weeks post-disclosure. 61/281 children asked 88 death-related questions, which were analysed qualitatively. Logistic regression analyses examined characteristics associated with death-related questions. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), linear regression analysis examined differences in total CBCL problems by group, controlling for baseline. Children's questions were grouped into three themes: 'threats'; 'implications' and 'clarifications'. Children were most concerned about the threat of death, mother's survival, and prior family deaths. In multivariate analysis variables significantly associated with asking death-related questions included an absence of regular remittance to the mother (AOR 0.25 [CI 0.10, 0.59] p = 0.002), mother reporting the child's initial reaction to disclosure being "frightened" (AOR 6.57 [CI 2.75, 15.70] p=questions children asked following disclosure indicate some understanding of HIV and, for almost a third of children, its potential consequence for parental death. Level of maternal disclosure and stability of financial support to the family may facilitate or inhibit discussions about death post-disclosure. Communication about death did not have immediate negative consequences on child behaviour according to maternal report. In sub-Saharan Africa, given exposure to death at young ages, meeting children's informational needs could increase their resilience. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  5. Education Attainment and Parity Explain the Relationship Between Maternal Age and Breastfeeding Duration in U.S. Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Mackenzie D M

    2017-02-01

    Prior research in high-income countries finds that young mothers tend to breastfeed their infants for shorter durations than older mothers; however, there are gaps in our understanding of the processes by which age influences breastfeeding. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to test the mediating effects of parity and education attainment on the association between maternal age and two breastfeeding outcomes: total duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. This study was a secondary data analysis of the IFPS II, a prospective, longitudinal study of ~ 4,900 American mothers. Robust and bias-corrected regression analyses tested the direct effect of age and the indirect effects of age through parity and education for each outcome of interest. Parity and education attainment together explain nearly all of the association between maternal age and both measures of breastfeeding duration. The mediating role of education is significantly larger than parity for both outcomes. These findings indicate that maternal age primarily indexes parity and education but contributes minimally to breastfeeding duration via a direct effect. The findings have implications for intervention development and targeting strategies.

  6. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  7. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

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    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  8. Mediational pathways connecting secondary education and age at marriage to maternal mortality: A comparison between developing and developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel Joy; Bae, DaYoung; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown that maternal mortality rates have been improving worldwide, rates are still high across developing nations. In general, poor health of women is associated with higher maternal mortality rates in developing countries. Understanding country-level risk factors can inform intervention and prevention efforts that could bring high maternal mortality rates down. Specifically, the authors were interested in investigating whether: (1) secondary education participation (SEP) or age at marriage (AM) of women were related to maternal mortality rates, and (2) adolescent birth rate and contraceptive use (CU) acted as mediators of this association. The authors add to the literature with this current article by showing the relation of SEP and AM to maternal mortality rates globally (both directly and indirectly through mediators) and then by comparing differences between developed and developing/least developed countries. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model using country level longitudinal data from 2000 to 2010 obtained from United Nations publications, World Health Organization materials, and World Bank development reports. Findings include a significant correlation between SEP and AM for developing countries; for developed countries the relation was not significant. As well, SEP in developing countries was associated with increased CU. Women in developing countries who finish school before marriage may have important social capital gains.

  9. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

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    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  10. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  11. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and intelligence quotients in the offspring at 8 years of age: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Pearson, Rebecca M; Emmett, Pauline; Heron, Jon; Smith, Andrew D A C; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-03-02

    Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee." The offspring's IQ at 8 years of age was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Models, using variables correlated to IQ data, were performed to impute missing values. Linear regression models were employed to investigate associations between the maternal clusters and IQ in childhood. Children of women who were classified in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster during pregnancy had lower average verbal (β = -1.74; p vegetables cluster in imputed models of IQ and all confounders, after adjustment for a wide range of known confounders including maternal education. The pregnant women who were classified in the fruit and vegetables cluster had offspring with higher average IQ compared with offspring of mothers in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster.

  12. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarius, Laetitia Joanna Clara Antonia; Strieder, Thea G A; Loomans, Eva M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J; van Eijsden, Manon

    2017-03-01

    The onset of behavioral problems starts in early life. This study examined whether excessive infant crying (maternal ratings) is a determinant of emotional and behavioral problems at age 5-6 years. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a large prospective, observational, population-based multiethnic birth cohort, excessive infant crying (crying for three or more hours per 24 h day over the past week) during the 13th week after birth (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks), maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior (either angry speaking, or physical aggression) was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's behavioral and emotional problems at the age of 5-6 were assessed by Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), by the subscale of generalized anxiety of the preschool anxiety scale (PAS), and by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Inclusion criterion was singleton birth. Exclusion criteria were preterm born babies or congenital disorders. Among 3389 children, excessive infant crying (n = 102) was associated with a twofold increased risk of the overall problem behavior, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6 [ORs between 1.75 (95 % CI 1.09-2.81) and 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30-3.46)]. This association was mediated by maternal burden of infant care (change in odds' ratio 1-17 %) and maternal aggressive behavior (change in odds' ratio 4-10 %). There was no effect modification by the child's gender or maternal parity. Excessive infant crying was not associated with general anxiety problems. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of behavioral, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6, as reported by their mother. Maternal burden of infant care partially mediates the association between excessive crying and behavioral and mood problems. Special care for mothers with a high burden of care for their excessive crying infant, notwithstanding their own good

  13. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

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    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  14. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  15. Breastfeeding and lung function at school age: does maternal asthma modify the effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Cristian M; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Spycher, Ben D; Frey, Urs; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Silverman, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-04-15

    The evidence for an effect of breastfeeding on lung function is conflicting, in particular whether the effect is modified by maternal asthma. To explore the association between breastfeeding and school-age lung function. In the Leicestershire Cohort Studies we assessed duration of breastfeeding (not breastfed, ≤3 months, 4-6 months, and >6 months), other exposures, and respiratory symptoms by repeated questionnaires. Post-bronchodilator FVC, FEV(1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced midexpiratory flow (FEF(50)), and skin prick tests were measured at age 12 years. We performed multivariable linear regression and tested potential causal pathways (N = 1,458). In the entire sample, FEF(50) was higher by 130 and 164 ml in children breastfed for 4 to 6 months and longer than 6 months, respectively, compared with those not breastfed (P = 0.048 and 0.041), with larger effects if the mother had asthma. FVC and FEV(1) were associated with breastfeeding only in children of mothers with asthma (P for interaction, 0.018 and 0.008): FVC was increased by 123 and 164 ml for those breastfed 4 to 6 months or longer than 6 months, respectively (P = 0.177 and 0.040) and FEV(1) was increased by 148 and 167 ml, respectively (P = 0.050 and 0.016). Results were unchanged after adjustment for respiratory infections in infancy and asthma and atopy in the child. In this cohort, breastfeeding for more than 4 months was associated with increased FEF(50) and, in children of mothers with asthma, with increased FEV(1) and FVC. It seems that the effect is not mediated via avoidance of early infections or atopy but rather through a direct effect on lung growth.

  16. Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fassett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (. Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%. From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, -value for trend <.001, Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, -value for trend <.001, Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, -value for trend <.001, and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, -value for trend <.001. The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%, term 138% (108%–173%], for Blacks [preterm 24% (−9%–81%, term 62% (30%–101%], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%, term 135% (114%–159%], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%, term 145% (109%–188%]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation.

  17. Asian/White differences in the relationship of maternal age to low birth weight: Analysis of the PRAMS Survey, 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine (a maternal age patterns of low birth weight (LBW; birth weight < 2,500 g for non-Hispanic (N-H Asian and N-H White women, and (b Asian–White gaps in LBW risk by maternal age and their mechanisms. Logistic regression analyses were performed on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data of N-H Asian and N-H White women who delivered their first singleton birth without birth defects in 13 states between 2004 and 2011. Age- and race/ethnicity-specific LBW risk was estimated, unadjusted and adjusted for maternal risk factors (e.g., marital status, maternal education, pregnancy intention, stress, maternal morbidities, smoking, and prenatal care and their interactions with maternal age or race/ethnicity. The interaction between maternal age and race/ethnicity was statistically significant (p < .0001 with covariates and interactions held constant. N-H Asian women showed a reverse W-shaped maternal-age pattern of LBW with the highest risk in their late 30s (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.26, 1.94] whereas N-H White women experienced a maternal age-related increase in LBW. N-H Asian women were more likely to deliver LBW infant than their N-H White counterparts between their late 20s and late 30s, with the greatest racial/ethnic gap in their late 20s (OR = 4.19, 95% CI [3.33, 5.29]. Preventive strategies should be developed targeting N-H Asian women aged 25 to 39 years to reduce the Asian–White disparities in LBW. Considering the known maternal risk factors failed to explain such disparities, future research is warranted to explore other risk factors unique to this at-risk population.

  18. Maternal PUFA Status but Not Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure Is Associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles12

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, J.J.; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S.; McAfee, Alison J.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E.; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M.W.; McSorley, Emeir M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were mea...

  19. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, George M; Walker, Kate; Morris, Joan K

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Records of prenatal and postnatal diagnoses from seven UK regional congenital anomaly registers and two Australian registers covering 4.5 million births included 975 diagnoses of trisomy 13 and 2254 of trisomy 18. Prevalence at birth in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination was calculated by adjusting for prenatally diagnosed pregnancies that were terminated according to their likelihood of surviving to term. The live birth prevalence in the absence of prenatal screening and selective termination in England and Wales from 1997 to 2004 was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) per 10 000 births for trisomy 13 and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) for trisomy 18. It has increased since 1989-1996, by 13% for trisomy 13 and 25% for trisomy 18. These increases are consistent with those predicted due to increases in maternal age. This study provides the first estimates of maternal age-specific prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 for women aged 16-45. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  2. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  3. Comprehensive embryo analysis of advanced maternal age-related aneuploidies and mosaicism by short comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Mariona; Daina, Gemma; Obradors, Albert; Ramos, Laia; Velilla, Esther; Fernández, Sílvia; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-01-01

    The short comparative genomic hybridization (short-CGH) method was used to perform a comprehensive cytogenetic study of isolated blastomeres from advanced maternal age embryos, discarded after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), detecting aneuploidies (38.5% of which corresponded to chromosomes not screened by 9-chromosome FISH), structural aberrations (31.8%), and mosaicism (77.3%). The short-CGH method was subsequently applied in one PGS, achieving a twin pregnancy.

  4. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A

    2016-01-22

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  5. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2016-10-15

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  6. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status during early pregnancy and children’s risk of problem behaviour at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.M.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.; Schelling, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; van Eijsden, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively investigate the association between maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status and ratio during pregnancy and children's risk of problem behavior at 5 years of age. Study design Maternal LCPUFA status in plasma phospholipids during pregnancy (M = 13.3,

  7. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuili Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas in a Chinese minority area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ. Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. RESULTS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002 and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009. The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005. Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056 in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094 or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least

  8. Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, maternal age and the risk of gastroschisis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw; Cai, Yi; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate that gastroschisis is associated with maternal age, ethnicity, and acculturation. This analysis was conducted to further define the associations between gastroschisis and parental Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, and to determine whether such associations vary by maternal age. This study was based on data from mothers of 753 gastroschisis cases and 6,496 control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. The relationships between gastroschisis and both parental Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, within maternal age strata (Hispanic ethnicity or acculturation. Among mothers ≥20 years old, US-born non-Hispanic white parents had a lower risk of gastroschisis in offspring as compared to either US-born Hispanic (odds ratios [ORs] ranging from 0.55 to 0.60) or English-speaking Hispanic (ORs ranging from 0.58 to 0.65) parents. Further, compared with US born Hispanic women ≥20 years, the risk of gastroschisis was lower for Hispanic women who had lived in the US evidence that gastroschisis risk is associated with ethnicity and some aspects of acculturation. Additionally, these associations were limited to the offspring of women who are ≥20 at the time of conception. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Rumi Kataguiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ≥ 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3% presented markers and 758 (82.7% did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P<0.001 and structural malformation (P<0.001 were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age.

  10. Effect of smoking and ABO blood groups on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Cozzoli, E; Neri, A; Bottini, E; Magrini, A

    2011-11-01

    The negative effects of cigarette smoking on human reproduction and on birth weight are well documented. On the other hand ABO system, encoding for glycosyltransferases, contributes to biosynthesis of antigens and oligosaccharide structures involved in blastocyst adhesion and intrauterine selection. In this paper we have searched for possible interaction between ABO system and smoking concerning their effects on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. We have studied 395 consecutive healthy puerperae from the White Caucasian population of Rome. ABO blood group was determined by standard laboratory methods. Three-way contingency table analysis was performed according to Sokal and Rohlf and Chi square test of independence by SPSS programs. The proportion of smokers is higher in A phenotype than in other ABO types among young puerperae (≤ 24 years) while it is lower in A phenotype than in other types among older women. The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in women with A blood group than in women carrying other ABO phenotypes. The interaction between smoking and ABO blood groups concerning their effects on birth weight is influenced by gender of newborn and by maternal age. ABO blood groups and smoking could have a joint influence on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of fish intake.

  13. Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Age, Sex, and Time Differences in Employment Patterns. Report No. 223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Daiger, Denise C.

    Employment data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses were organized using the occupational classification system of John Holland to examine age, sex, and level differences in employment and to detect changes over the 10-year period. Data were organized by both kind and level of work in an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the relative…

  14. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrighi, Juliane Dias; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Souza, Silvana Regina Rossi Kissula; Cancela, Franciane Zabloski Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs. Identificar na literatura como são descritas as experiências das mulheres com idade igual ou superior a 35 anos na gestação. Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SciELO, sem restrição de período. Foram selecionados e analisados 18 estudos que tratavam das experiências das mulheres na gestação em idade avançada. Os estudos evidenciaram quatro categorias temáticas: A busca por informações, que mostrou aspectos como deficit de informações fornecidas pelos profissionais da saúde;Percebendo os riscos, que apontou uma preocupação da mulher com a própria saúde e a do filho;Momento ideal para a maternidade, com diferentes motivos para o adiamento; e Adaptação à nova rotina, com a preocupação em relação às mudanças no cotidiano. A partir dos resultados, foi possível compreender que outros fatores, além dos que incluem os riscos, permeiam as experi

  15. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

  16. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  17. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  18. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  19. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  20. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

    1985-04-01

    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  1. Labour Markets and Employment Practices in the Age of Flexibility: A Case Study of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Flexible employment has accounted for more than half of Silicon Valley's total employment growth in the past 10 years. Flexible employment has become a permanent strategy that may create insecurity for low-skilled workers; it also leads to a high turnover rate among highly skilled workers. (JOW)

  2. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  3. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  4. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body mass...... index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. DESIGN: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal interviews...... during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  5. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  6. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  7. 77 FR 19080 - Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... surrounding facts and circumstances.\\23\\ \\18\\ See 29 CFR 1625.7. \\19\\ Report of the Sec'y of Labor, The Older... Congress to address ``the ] consequences of employment practices, not simply the motivation.'' \\37\\ \\35\\ Id...

  8. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished.

  9. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...

  10. Training and Development for Transitional Employment in Mature-Aged Manual Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current article was to explore perceptions of transitional employment and training and development amongst blue collar workers employed in technical, trade, operations or physical and labour-intensive occupations within the local government system. Methods: The responses of manual workers to two national surveys…

  11. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  12. Maternal periconceptional and gestational low protein diet affects mouse offspring growth, cardiovascular and adipose phenotype at 1 year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Watkins

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in 1 year aging offspring, evaluating mechanisms regulating growth and adiposity. Isocaloric LPD (9% casein or normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD was fed to female MF-1 mice either exclusively during oocyte maturation (for 3.5 days prior to mating; Egg-LPD, Egg-NPD, respectively, throughout gestation (LPD, NPD or exclusively during preimplantation development (for 3.5 days post mating; Emb-LPD. LPD and Emb-LPD female offspring were significantly lighter and heavier than NPD females respectively for up to 52 weeks. Egg-LPD, LPD and Emb-LPD offspring displayed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure at 52 weeks compared to respective controls (Egg-NPD, NPD. LPD females had significantly reduced inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad: body weight ratios compared to NPD females. Expression of the insulin receptor (Insr and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r in retroperitoneal fat was significantly elevated in Emb-LPD females (P<0.05, whilst Emb-LPD males displayed significantly decreased expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 gene compared to NPD offspring. LPD females displayed significantly increased expression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue when compared to NPD offspring. Our results demonstrate that aging offspring body weight, cardiovascular and adiposity homeostasis can be programmed by maternal periconceptional nutrition. These adverse outcomes further exemplify the criticality of dietary behaviour around the time of conception on long-term offspring

  13. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child’s cognitive performance at 6–8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselme Simeon Sanou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child’s cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II and the Children’s Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1 in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls aged 6–8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen’s d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. Results Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518. Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for ‘Atlantis’ (0.27 and ‘Triangle’ (0.29 to moderate effect size difference for ‘Number recall’ (0.72 compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37 at problem solving (CCT-1 test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-‘Atlantis’ (p = 0.03 and ‘Number recall’ (p = 0.0001, and spatial ability tests-‘Triangle’ (p = 0.03; they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002; all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father’s education, mother’s employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-‘Conceptual Thinking’,

  14. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: A multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Gorgievski, M.J.; Lange, A.H. de

    2016-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning

  15. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: a multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Gorgievski, Marjan J.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2015-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning

  16. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: a multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Beatrice van der; Gorgievski, Marjan; Lange, Annet de

    2015-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning character

  17. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: A multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Gorgievski, M.J.; Lange, A.H. de

    2016-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning character

  18. Learning at the workspace and sustainable employability: a multi source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Beatrice van der; Gorgievski, Marjan; Lange, Annet de

    2015-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning character

  19. Maternal risk of breeding failure remained low throughout the demographic transitions in fertility and age at first reproduction in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Liu

    Full Text Available Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero-even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies.

  20. Umbilical cord versus maternal serum leptin and adioponectin levels: a comparative study in small and appropriate for gestational age newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeri HR

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The mechanisms by which fetal weight are regulated during pregnancy are poorly understood. The relation between hormones such as leptin and adiponectin and intrautrine growth is still under investigation. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether fetal growth restriction is associated with alterations of leptin and adiponectin  concentrations in venous umbilical cord blood and maternal serum."n"nMethods: Maternal serum and venous umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA after 36 week of gestational age in 22 women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies with AGA fetuses (group A and in 22 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction but without fetal distress (group B, all with normal body mass index and without history of diabetes, hypertention or maternal cardiac disease."n"nResults: Venous umbilical cord leptin levels were significantly lower in group B compared with group A (8.1±0.8ng/ml versus 39.45±6.8ng/ml; p=0.001. Venous umbilical cord adiponectin levels were also significantly lower in group B compared with group A (28.8±3.5μg/ml versus 43.6±3.7μg/ml; p=0.007. Maternal serum leptin and adiponectin did not differ

  1. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Child Psychosocial Development at 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children’s health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother–child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children’s development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. RESULTS: Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26–3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24–3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80–11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10–8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18–3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09–4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33–2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5–24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child’s birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. PMID:25917989

  2. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's... or with their health and well-being and shall not be deemed to be oppressive child labor....

  3. The Relationship between Perceived Computer Competence and the Employment Outcomes of Transition-Aged Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Smith, Derrick W.; Parker, Amy T.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first…

  4. Gender Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Service Predictors of Successful Competitive Employment for Transition-Aged Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Sánchez, Jennifer; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    As males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience different symptomology, their needs for vocational rehabilitation (VR) are unique as they transition into adulthood. This study examined the effects of gender differences in VR service predictors on employment outcomes for transition-aged individuals with ASD. A total of 1696…

  5. Prevention of maternal aging-associated oocyte aneuploidy and meiotic spindle defects in mice by dietary and genetic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Muhlhauser, Ailene; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2011-07-26

    Increased meiotic spindle abnormalities and aneuploidy in oocytes of women of advanced maternal ages lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Despite the significance of the problem, strategies to sustain oocyte quality with age have remained elusive. Here we report that adult female mice maintained under 40% caloric restriction (CR) did not exhibit aging-related increases in oocyte aneuploidy, chromosomal misalignment on the metaphase plate, meiotic spindle abnormalities, or mitochondrial dysfunction (aggregation, impaired ATP production), all of which occurred in oocytes of age-matched ad libitum-fed controls. The effects of CR on oocyte quality in aging females were reproduced by deletion of the metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thus, CR during adulthood or loss of PGC-1α function maintains female germline chromosomal stability and its proper segregation during meiosis, such that ovulated oocytes of aged female mice previously maintained on CR or lacking PGC-1α are comparable to those of young females during prime reproductive life.

  6. Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured.

  7. Knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Fikreselassie; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Ayana, Mulatu; Amsalu, Endawoke

    2017-01-01

    in Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth with much more maternal morbidity occurring for each maternal death. Good knowledge of women related with direct causes of maternal mortality is important in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age of women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling followed by simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 844 reproductive age women were included in the study. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by 12 data collectors. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into Epi-data, then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed to identify factors related to knowledge of obstetric causes of maternal mortality. The crude and adjusted odds ratios together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. A P-value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. This study found that almost half (49.6%) of respondents have good knowledge level towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality. Significant variables associated with knowledge towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality were; being government employee (AOR=3.6, 95% CI=1.4-8.9), respondents who had additional monthly income from family members (AOR=1.54, 95% CI=1.04-2.27), respondents who attended primary school and above (AOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.13-2.25), distance of health facility in which the time it took less than 20 minutes (AOR=2.25, 95% CI(1.24-4.09), 20-39minutes (AOR=3.06, 95% CI=1.66-5.64), 40-60 minutes (AOR=2.38, 95% CI=1.52-5.26), and previous

  8. Mortality among children under the age of one: analysis of cases after discharge from maternity *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieni Paula dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze infant death after discharge from maternity in the time period between 2000 and 2013. METHOD A cross-sectional retrospective quantitative study in a municipality northward in the state of Paraná. Data were analyzed using the SPSS®, and were subjected to Chi-square test, logistical regression, 95% confidence interval, and a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS Two hundred forty-nine children were born, discharged from maternity and subsequently died; 10.1% in the neonatal period and 89.9% in the post-neonatal period. Pregnancy follow-up, birth, and child monitoring took place mainly in the public health system. There was a statistically significant association between the infant component and place of delivery (p =0.002; RR=1.143; IC95%=1.064-1.229, and a lower number of childcare medical visits (p =0.001; RR=1.294; IC95%=1.039-1.613. The causes of death in the neonatal period were perinatal conditions (40%; external causes (32%; and congenital malformations (20%. In the post-neonatal period, congenital malformations (29.9%, external causes (24.1%; and infectious-parasitic diseases (11.2% were the causes of death. CONCLUSION Virtually all children were born in conditions of good vitality that were worsened due to potentially preventable diseases that led to death.

  9. The maternal age-related first trimester risks for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 based on Danish first trimester data from 2005 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjær; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most currently used age-related risks of T21, T18 and T13 are based on estimates of the live-birth prevalence, and describe an exponential increase of risk by increased maternal age. We investigated the first trimester prevalence of T21, T18 and T13 in a large population of Danish women...

  10. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  11. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: South Korea. Participants: 7228 from fourth wave of

  12. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  13. MATERNAL AGE AT FIRST BIRTH AND OBSTETRIC OUTCOlV[E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both for the teenagers and the elderly primigravidas, however their obstetric outcome is good if utilization ... KEY WORDS: Primigravida, Age, First Birth, Pregnancy Outcome ... socio-biological data: age, education level, occupation and marital.

  14. Job Search in the Age of Internet: Six Jobseekers in Search of Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Offers experiences of six job seekers to illustrate key job-search concepts. Discusses prior planning, selecting the best search methods, identifying various resources, researching potential employers, making cold calls, networking, and interviewing. Provides advice on using the Internet in the job search. (JOW)

  15. The Impact of E-Portfolio Development on the Employability of Adults Aged 45 and over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an evaluative case study that used an electronic portfolio to enhance the employability of older adults. The evaluation sought to identify programme effects and highlight the factors that were instrumental in generating them. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative inquiry methods…

  16. The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

  17. Managing an aging workforce and a tight labor market : views held by Dutch employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remery, Chantal; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop; Ekamper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Despite the strong growth in employment of the past years, the Dutch labor market faces a number of persistent problems. One such problem is the large number of people on disability benefits. Another problem is the low labor force participation of women, not so much in terms of people, but in terms

  18. Career and Employer Change in the Age of the "Boundaryless" Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Narelle; Jepsen, Denise M.; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the direct effect of individual career concerns on career and employer change intention, as well as the buffering influence of organisational commitment on this relationship, based on the AMO model of behavioural change intention. Survey data, collected from 341 employees across industry sectors in Australia, showed that…

  19. The Employment Expectations of Different Age Cohorts: Is Generation Y Really that Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuren, Gerry; Anderson, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    If the existence of Generation Y is a viable explanation of employment behaviour, as is asserted in the burgeoning literature, then people between 18 and 33 (born between 1977 and 1992) will have markedly different approaches to work when compared with Generation X (1962 and 1976) and the Baby Boomers (1946 to 1961). This article reviews the…

  20. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort...... comprising obese mothers (SKOT II, n=184; SKOT, Danish abbreviation of small children's diet and well-being) with a cohort consisting mainly of nonobese mothers (SKOT I, n=329).Subjects/Methods:Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day records, and dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...

  1. Effect of maternal lipid profile, C-peptide, insulin, and HBA1c levels during late pregnancy on large-for-gestational age newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Lin Hou; Huan-Huan Zhou; Xiao-Yang Chen; Xiu-Min Wang; Jie Shao; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns can increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that the levels of maternal blood lipids, connecting peptide (C-peptide), insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly different between LGA and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborns. This study aimed to determine the effect of the levels of maternal lipids, C-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c during late pregnancy on LGA newborns. Methods: This study comprised 2790 non-diabetic women in late pregnancy. Among their newborns, 2236 (80.1%) newborns were AGA, and 554 (19.9%) newborns were LGA. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and their case records. The levels of maternal fasting serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), C-peptide, insulin and blood HbA1c were measured. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables between the AGA and LGA groups, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was made to determine the independent risk factors for LGA newborns. Results: Maternal TG, C-peptide, insulin and HbA1c levels were signifi cantly higher in the LGA group than in the AGA group (P Conclusion: High maternal TG level during late pregnancy is signifi cantly associated with LGA newborns.

  2. Hypersensitivity to certain food and food ingredients in the function of age and employment of customers on a cruise ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been a tendency to use the word 'allergy' to describe all kinds of unexpected reactions to certain foods and food ingredients. The recent literature is plentiful and discusses food allergens and people who are hypersensitive to certain foods. The literature suggests the prevalence of food allergy to specific allergens to be changing with age. The aim of this empirical research was to examine the hypersensitivity to certain foods in relation to age and employment of the population consisting of customers on cruise ships. The study included 404 tourists on a cruise ship who voluntarily filled food sensitivity questionnaires and submitted them to the ship staff. These questionnaires were used to analyze the allergy trends and their connection to age and employment. The procedures of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to process the obtained data. The results of the research suggested that there was a statistically significant relationship between the persons who were hypersensitive to certain foods relative to employment and age.

  3. Parasite and maternal risk factors for malnutrition in preschool-age children in Belen, Peru using the new WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Núñez, Carmen; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-12-01

    Child malnutrition, including wasting, underweight and stunting, is associated with infections, poor nutrient intake, and environmental and socio-demographic factors. Preschool-age children are especially vulnerable due to their high growth requirements. To target interventions for preschool-age children in a community of extreme poverty in Peru, we conducted a household survey between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its risk factors. Of 252 children Child Growth Standards. Risk factors for wasting were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.06, 5.93); (2) hookworm infection (OR 6.67; 95 % CI 1.08, 41.05); (3) age (OR6-month 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.46); (4) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 5.77; 95 % CI 2.38, 13.99); and (5) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.23). Risk factors for underweight were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 1.99, 11.32); (2) age (OR6-month 1.22; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.38); (3) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 2.92; 95 % CI 1.40, 6.12); and (4) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21). Risk factors for stunting were: (1) age (OR6-month 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.27) and (2) decreasing maternal height (OR1 cm 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.20). Overall, risk factors for malnutrition included both child and maternal determinants. Based on these data, locally appropriate and cost-effective dietary, de-worming and educational programmes should be targeted to mothers and preschool-age children.

  4. HIV self-care practices during pregnancy and maternal health outcomes among HIV-positive postnatal mothers aged 18-35 years at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodzo, Lilian Gertrude; Mahaka, Hilda Tandazani; Mukona, Doreen; Zvinavashe, Mathilda; Haruzivishe, Clara

    2017-06-01

    HIV-related conditions are one of the indirect causes of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe and the prevalence rate was estimated to be 13.63% in 2009. The study utilised a descriptive correlational design on 80 pregnant women who were HIV positive at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants comprised a random sample of 80 postnatal mothers. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the respective review boards. Participants signed an informed consent. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and record review from 1 to 20 March 2012. Interviews were done in a private room and code numbers were used to identify the participants. Completed questionnaires were kept in a lockable cupboard and the researcher had sole access to them. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data on demographics, maternal health outcomes and self-care practices. Inferential statistics (Pearson's correlation and regression analysis) were used to analyse the relationship between self-care practices and maternal health outcomes. Self-care practices were good with a mean score of 8 out of 16. Majority (71.3%) fell within the good category. Maternal outcomes were poor with a mean score of 28 out of 62 and 67.5% falling in the poor category. Pearson's correlation indicated a weak significant positive relationship (r = .317, p = <.01). Regression analysis (R(2)) was .10 implying that self-care practices explained 10% of the variance observed in maternal health outcomes. More research needs to be carried out to identify other variables affecting maternal outcomes in HIV-positive pregnant women.

  5. Health impact: longitudinal analysis of employment at middle and old age in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, César; WONG, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study to analyze the relationship between health and labor force participation of population aged 50 years and older in Mexico. The results confirm that health, measured through chronic diseases and difficulty to perform activities of daily living, has a powerful influence on labor force participation. We also find important differences by gender; hypertension and diabetes have effects in both, men and women; heart disease and stroke only in men. We provide concrete evidence on economic participation and highlight the importance of public policies to create adequate jobs for the population at middle and old age. PMID:25722646

  6. Maternal Guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63 described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict. Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.

  7. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day.

  8. Arrested human embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos from women of advanced maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Tao; Liang, Li-Feng; Xian, Ye-Xing; Liu, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than partial chromosome screening, as errors can occur in any chromosome. Currently, chromosome screening for aneuploidy is performed in developing embryos, mainly blastocysts. It has not been performed in arrested embryos and/or compared between developing embryos and arrested embryos from the same IVF cycle. The present study was designed to examine all chromosomes in blastocysts and arrested embryos from the same cycle in patients of advanced maternal ages. Embryos were produced by routine IVF procedures. A total of 90 embryos (45 blastocysts and 45 arrested embryos) from 17 patients were biopsied and analyzed by the Agilent DNA array platform. It was found that 50% of the embryos developed to blastocyst stage; however, only 15.6% of the embryos (both blastocyst and arrested) were euploid, and most (84.4%) of the embryos had chromosomal abnormalities. Further analysis indicated that 28.9% of blastocysts were euploid and 71.1% were aneuploid. By contrast, only one (2.2%) arrested embryo was euploid while others (97.8%) were aneuploid. The prevalence of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in the aneuploid embryos was also higher in the arrested embryos than in the blastocysts. These results indicate that high proportions of human embryos from patients of advanced maternal age are aneuploid, and the arrested embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos.

  9. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  10. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Mortality among children under the age of one: analysis of cases after discharge from maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elieni Paula Dos; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cardelli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Godoy, Christine Bacarat de; Genovesi, Flávia Françoso

    2016-01-01

    To analyze infant death after discharge from maternity in the time period between 2000 and 2013. A cross-sectional retrospective quantitative study in a municipality northward in the state of Paraná. Data were analyzed using the SPSS®, and were subjected to Chi-square test, logistical regression, 95% confidence interval, and a significance level of p parto (p =0,002; RR=1,143; IC95%=1,064-1,229); realizar menos consultas de puericultura (p =0,001; RR=1,294; IC95%=1,039-1,613). As causas de morte no período neonatal foram afecções perinatais (40%), causas externas (32%) e malformações congênitas (20%). No pós-neonatal, malformações congênitas (29,9%), causas externas (24,1%) e doenças infectoparasitárias (11,2%). A quase totalidade das crianças nasceu em boas condições de vitalidade, apresentou agravos por doenças potencialmente preveníveis que culminaram no óbito.

  12. Impact of gender, maternal education, and birth order on the development of language comprehension: a longitudinal study from 18 to 36 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Imac Maria; Ystrom, Eivind; Pons, Francisco

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the impact of child gender, maternal education, and birth order on language comprehension (LC) status at 18 and 36 months of age and on the change in LC between these time points. Gender interactions and interactions between maternal education and birth order are also examined. This study is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Maternal report data on education, birth order, and child language in a sample of 44,921 children were used in linear regression analyses. At 18 and 36 months of age, first-born girls of mothers with high educational attainment had the highest level of LC. Between 18 and 36 months of age, first-born boys of mothers with high educational attainment had the highest increase in LC. Having a highly educated mother contributed more to the increase in LC in boys than in girls. The boys whose mothers had the highest education level had lower scores than the girls whose mothers had the lowest educational level, at both ages. Although significant, the considerable effect of high maternal education was not substantially dependent on birth-order status. Boys develop LC at a faster rate than girls between 18 and 36 months, but girls still remain superior in their level of LC at 36 months of age. Being firstborn or having a highly educated mother does not compensate for this lag.

  13. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria Dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. Determinar a frequência e os fatores de risco de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional em uma maternidade de alto risco. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e caso-controle, realizado em maternidade pública de nível terciário. Foram levantados dados de 998 recém-nascidos e de suas respectivas mães por meio de entrevista e análise de prontuários e de cartões do pré-natal. Algumas placentas foram submetidas à análise anatomopatológica. As variáveis dos recém-nascidos pequenos e não pequenos para idade gestacional e de suas respectivas mães foram comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste paramétrico t de Student, pelo teste exato de Fisher e por odds ratio. O nível de signific

  15. Maternal Thyroid Function during the Second Half of Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Chevrier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy alters fetal neurodevelopment among euthyroid offspring, little data are available from later in gestation. In this study, we measured free T4 using direct equilibrium dialysis, as well as total T4 and TSH in 287 pregnant women at 27 weeks' gestation. We also assessed cognition, memory, language, motor functioning, and behavior in their children at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Increasing maternal TSH was related to better performance on tests of cognition and language at 12 months but not at later ages. At 60 months, there was inconsistent evidence that higher TSH was related to improved attention. We found no convincing evidence that maternal TH during the second half of pregnancy was related to impaired child neurodevelopment.

  16. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne Cc

    2015-01-01

    population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each....../or preterm births in LMIC may be associated with short maternal stature annually. A reduction in this burden requires primary prevention of SGA, improvement in postnatal growth through early childhood, and possibly further intervention in late childhood and adolescence. It is vital for researchers to broaden......BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between...

  17. In search for suitable age management practices for lifelong employability and career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, C.M.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; Rocco, T.S.; Thijssen, J.G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Despite an increasing dependence of the market on older workers, organizations still do not pay enough attention to their (broad) development. In this study, potential factors of age management are explored, specifically with regard to the development of specific and broad competences

  18. Employment in the Field of Aging: A Survey of Professionals in Four Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Wendt, Pamela F.

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed members of professional associations representing social work; counseling; occupational therapy; and health, physical education, recreation, and dance. Results indicated significant changes had occurred in the characteristics, education, and perceptions of professionals working in the field of aging over the last 20 years. (Author/ABL)

  19. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0...

  20. Elective cesarean section or not? Maternal age and risk of adverse outcomes at term: a population-based registry study of low-risk primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstad, Lina; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skjærven, Rolv; Tanbo, Tom; Forsén, Lisa; Åbyholm, Thomas; Vangen, Siri

    2016-08-17

    Maternal age at delivery and cesarean section rates are increasing. In older women, the decision on delivery mode may be influenced by a reported increased risk of surgical interventions during labor and complications with increasing maternal age. We examined the association between maternal age and adverse outcomes in low-risk primiparous women, and the risk of adverse outcomes by delivery modes, both planned and performed (elective and emergency cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery, and unassisted vaginal delivery) in women aged ≥ 35 years. A population-based registry study was conducted using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway including 169,583 low-risk primiparas with singleton, cephalic labors at ≥ 37 weeks during 1999 - 2009. Outcomes studied were obstetric blood loss, maternal transfer to intensive care units, 5-min Apgar score, and neonatal complications. We adjusted for potential confounders using relative risk models and multinomial logistic regression. Most adverse outcomes increased with increasing maternal age. However, the increase in absolute risks was low, except for moderate obstetric blood loss and transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Operative deliveries increased with increasing maternal age and in women aged ≥ 35 years, the risk of maternal complications in operative delivery increased. Neonatal adverse outcomes increased mainly in emergency operative deliveries. Moderate blood loss was three times more likely in elective and emergency cesarean section than in unassisted vaginal delivery, and twice as likely in operative vaginal delivery. Low Apgar score and neonatal complications occurred two to three times more often in emergency operative deliveries than in unassisted vaginal delivery. However, comparing outcomes after elective cesarean section and planned vaginal delivery, only moderate blood loss (higher in elective cesarean section), neonatal transfer to

  1. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed bo...

  2. Maternal Age-Specific Rates for Trisomy 21 and Common Autosomal Trisomies in Fetuses from a Single Diagnostic Center in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruthamsophon, Kanoot; Sriplung, Hutcha; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan; Limprasert, Pornprot

    2016-01-01

    To provide maternal age-specific rates for trisomy 21 (T21) and common autosomal trisomies (including trisomies 21, 18 and 13) in fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed prenatal cytogenetic results obtained between 1990 and 2009 in Songklanagarind Hospital, a university teaching hospital, in southern Thailand. Maternal age-specific rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were established using different regression models, from which only the fittest models were used for the study. A total of 17,819 records were included in the statistical analysis. The fittest models for predicting rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were regression models with 2 parameters (Age and Age2). The rate of T21 ranged between 2.67 per 1,000 fetuses at the age of 34 and 71.06 per 1,000 at the age of 48. The rate of common autosomal trisomies ranged between 4.54 per 1,000 and 99.65 per 1,000 at the same ages. This report provides the first maternal age-specific rates for T21 and common autosomal trisomies fetuses in a Southeast Asian population and the largest case number of fetuses have ever been reported in Asians.

  3. Malaysia's ageing population : Viability of employment trust fund for retirement village

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chwee Tin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the Feasibility of Retirement Village for Malaysia.s Ageing Population. The analysis process involves assessing the level of awareness and opinion in the respondents of the demand for Retirement Village in Malaysia using survey method. At the macro level perspective, an overview analysis of the social, economic, political and technical knowhow of implementing and operating a Retirement Village has been taken into consideration to verify the advantages and disadvanta...

  4. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for pret...

  5. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe? - Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Pal-De Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This

  6. Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leew Shirley

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS. Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current

  7. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  8. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    .01), indicative of dam hunger/metabolic burden in the preceding period. We found no signs of nipple/inflammation problems, evaluated visually and by Infrared Thermography (IRT) measuring surface temperatures of active teats.Dams separated at litter age 7 weeks had higher concentrations of cortisol metabolites...

  9. Late or later? A sibling analysis of the effect of maternal age on children's schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have found that children born to young mothers face handicaps in their educational career. Considerable debate exists as to whether these effects are real age effects, or whether they are due to measured and unmeasured family background effects that are correlated with having children a

  10. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  11. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor dev

  12. Increasing maternal age at first pregnancy planning: Health outcomes and associated costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tromp (Miranda); A.C. Ravelli (Anita); J.B. Reitsma (Johannes); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the consequences in terms of health outcomes, care and associated healthcare costs for three hypothetical cohorts of women planning their first pregnancy at a fixed, different age. Design: Decision model based on data from perinatal registries and the literature.

  13. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  14. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  15. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  16. Loneliness and pregnancy in an urban Latino community: associations with maternal age and unscheduled hospital utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to compare loneliness in a pregnant population to a non-pregnant control group, and to evaluate loneliness and unscheduled hospital visits during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study in a Latino urban community including 53 consecutive pregnant women in their first trimester, and 61 non-pregnant women as a control. The UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3, and demographic information was collected. A chart review after delivery determined total number of unscheduled pregnancy related hospital visits. Appropriate data analysis using t-test and regression analysis was used. Forty-eight women continued to delivery. There was no difference in mean loneliness scores between pregnant (41) and non-pregnant groups (43), or that of normal populations (41). There was a significant association between UCLA loneliness scores and total pregnancy related unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.042, beta = 0.06, r= 0.29. There was a significant association between increasing age and increasing loneliness during pregnancy p = 0.007, beta = 0.21, r= 0.36, not seen in the non-pregnant group p = 0.98. Loneliness, when controlling for age, yielded a stronger association with unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.018, beta = 0.076, and r = 0.40. The findings were that increased loneliness is associated with increased unscheduled pregnancy related hospital utilization during pregnancy. Older pregnant women had higher loneliness scores. Loneliness was more significant than age in predicting higher unscheduled hospital visits. The combination of increased loneliness and younger age predicted the highest number of unscheduled hospital visits.

  17. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  18. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for preterm births, for post-term births (except for primiparous women with schooling ≥12 years, and for low birth weight. When comparing older vs. younger women, higher educational levels ensure similar risks of low Apgar score at 1 min (for primiparous mothers and term births, of low Apgar score at 5 min (for term births, of macrosomia (for non-primiparous women, and of asphyxia. CONCLUSION: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  19. Is maternal nutrition knowledge more strongly associated with the diets of mothers or their school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-08-01

    Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  1. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult" minimu

  2. Maternal attitudes towards tooth decay in children aged 12-18 months in Pelotas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, E R; Dos Santos Costa, F; Azevedo, M S; Romano, A R; Cenci, M S

    2015-10-01

    This was to assess mothers' attitudes towards dental caries in children aged 12-18 months. This study targeted mothers of children aged 12-18 months. Data about demographic and socioeconomic status were collected by interviews with each mother. In addition, the mother was asked about her attitudes regarding caries in her child's primary teeth. A dental examination of each child was also conducted. Chi-square, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 262 mother-child pairs were included, and 18.7 % of the children had dental caries. If a child presented with dental caries in their primary teeth, 93.5 % of the mothers reported that they would take the child to a dentist. Mothers who had only one child and those who had children with dental caries were more likely to report that they did not expect primary dental caries treatment by the dentist. Most mothers reported that they would take their children to a dentist when they presented with dental caries. Despite this positive result, educational measures should continue to be emphasised, especially among mothers of children at a higher risk of caries and among first-time mothers.

  3. Maternal postnatal care utilization and associated factors: A community-based study among women of child-bearing age in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Okafor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and child death rates in the world. Postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended to reduce maternal and newborn deaths globally. The aim of this study is to determine the utilization of postnatal health services and identify the factors which affect this utilization among mothers of under-fives in Lagos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among women of child bearing age in Lagos using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Six hundred women selected by multi stage sampling method were interviewed and data analyzed with EPI-info Version 3.5.1. Results: Two thirds (66.2% of the respondents utilized postnatal health services. Factors which significantly influenced postnatal health services utilization were: number of children (p=0.031, maternal education (p=0.001, religion (Fisher′s exact p= 0.004, number of antenatal care visits (p<0.001 and skilled attendance at birth (p<0.001. Maternal occupation and time taken to the health facility were not significant determinants of utilization. Conclusion: Utilization of postnatal care services was high but not optimal. Interventions to increase family planning use and improve maternal educational status should be undertaken as well as increasing use of focused antenatal care and skilled delivery services.

  4. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  5. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents.

  6. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  7. Maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may program offspring blood pressure, but not adiposity at 20 y of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30 of gest...

  8. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  9. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years....... Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither...... hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure...

  10. Genetic counseling, prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome in the second trimester in women of advanced maternal age: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-wei; JIANG Yu-lin; ZHOU Xi-ya; LIU Jun-tao; YIN Jie; BIAN Xu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of autosomal trisomy in livebirths is strongly dependent on maternal age.Special consideration is given to the provision of prenatal screening and cytogenetic testing to women of advanced maternal age (AMA).The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of second trimester prenatal screening and amniocentesis for Down syndrome (DS) and compare the trends of choice of screening and amniocentesis among AMAwomen.Methods A total of 5404 AMA patients with natural singleton pregnancy were recruited for this prospective study from January 2008 to December 2010.The gestational weeks were from 15 weeks to 20+6 weeks.The patients referred were grouped into a screening group (2107 cases) and an amniocentesis group (3297 cases) by their own decision.The prevalence of DS was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Choice rates for each maternal age with trends were compared by regression analysis.Results There were 18 cases of fetal DS detected in the screening group with a prevalence of 8.54‰ (18/2107).Twentyfive cases of fetal DS were diagnosed in the amniocentesis group with a prevalence of 7.58‰ (25/3297).No statistical difference was observed in the prevalence of DS between the screening and amniocentesis group (P=0.928).The invasive testing rate for DS in the amniocentesis group was 5.54 times higher than that of the screening group (1/131.88 vs.1/23.78).With the increase of the maternal age,the choice of amniocentesis increased while the choice of the screening showed an opposite trend.The choice of the AMA women between the screening and amniocantesis was significantly age relevant (P=0.012).Conclusions The second trimester serum screening in combination with maternal age was more effective than maternal age alone to screen for DS.We suggest educating the patients by recommending AMA women be informed of both screening and amniocentesis options.

  11. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  12. Age-adjusted relative suicide risk by marital and employment status over the past 25 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, T; Fujita, T; Tachimori, H; Takeshima, T; Inagaki, M; Sudo, A

    2013-03-01

    There have been no longitudinal studies in Japan examining national-level data for suicide risk by marital and employment status. We examined the age-adjusted relative suicide risk (RR) by marital and employment status from national data acquired for all suicides in Japan occurring in the past 25 years. All deaths identified as suicides according to ICD-9 and ICD-10 were extracted from vital statistics data of Japan for the years 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Population statistics for Japanese residents aged ≥15 years were obtained from the census. Suicide rates for almost all categories analyzed decreased in both genders between 1985 and 1990 and increased between 1995 and 2000, especially among men. Unemployed and divorced men had a consistently higher RR in each year analyzed. Unemployed and divorced women had a higher risk than those in other categories, especially in 2000 and 2005. In women, particularly in 1980, 1985 and 1990, those who were unemployed and never married had a similar RR to those who were unemployed and divorced. Unemployed and divorced people were at a high risk of suicide over the past 25 years, particularly in 2000 and 2005. Our findings suggest that the effects of divorce and unemployment on suicide risk are synergistic.

  13. Impact of sperm genome decay on Day-3 embryo chromosomal abnormalities from advanced-maternal-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarouch, Ismail; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Madkour, Aicha; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Sefrioui, Omar

    2015-10-01

    Infertile male patients often exhibit unconventional semen parameters, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin dispersion, and aneuploidy-collectively referred to as sperm genome decay (SGD). We investigated the correlation of SGD to embryo chromosomal abnormalities and its effect on clinical pregnancy rates in patients with advanced maternal age (AMA) (>40 years) who were undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-preimplantation genetic screening (ICSI-PGS). Three groups were assessed: patients with AMA and male partners with normal sperm (AMA-N); AMA patients and male partners presenting with SGD (AMA-SGD); and young fertile female patients and male partners with SGD (Y-SGD). We found a significant increase in embryonic chromosomal abnormalities-polyploidy, nullisomy, mosaicism, and chaotic anomaly rates-when semen parameters are altered (76% vs. 67% and 66% in AMA-SGD vs. AMA-N and Y-SGD groups, respectively). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between SGD and aneuploidies of embryonic chromosomes 13, 16, 21, X, and Y, as well as negative clinical outcomes. Incorporation of molecular sperm analyses should therefore significantly minimize the risk of transmission of chromosomal anomalies from spermatozoa to embryos, and may provide better predictors of pregnancy than conventional sperm analyses. We also demonstrated that an ICSI-PGS program should be implemented for SGD patients in order to limit transmission of chromosomal paternal anomalies and to improve clinical outcome.

  14. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  15. Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.

  16. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: using the children of twins design to test causal hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-02-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behavior. It is not clear, however, if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children of siblings and children of twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant monozygotic twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association.

  17. Systemic inflammation in the extremely low gestational age newborn following maternal genitourinary infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Beatty, Noah; Sassi, Rita R. S.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Gestational genitourinary infections are associated with life-long disabilities, but it is unknown if neonatal inflammation is involved. Method Mothers of 914 infants born before 28th gestation week reported cervical/vaginal infection (CVI), and/or urine/bladder/kidney infection (UTI), or neither. Inflammation proteins measured in baby’s blood on postnatal days 1, 7 and 14 were considered elevated if in the top quartile for gestational age. Logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed odds ratios. Results Compared to neither UTI/CVI, mothers with CVI were more likely to have infants with elevated CRP, SAA, MPO, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6R, TNF-α, RANTES, ICAM-3, E-selectin and VEGF-R2 on day 1; those with UTI were more likely to have infants with elevated MPO, IL-6R, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, and RANTES on day 7. Placental anaerobes and genital micoplasma were more common in pregnancies with CVI. Conclusion Gestational UTI/CVI should be targeted for preventing systemic inflammation in the very preterm newborn. PMID:25164433

  18. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  19. Presence and distribution of E-cadherin in the 4-cell golden hamster embryo. Effect of maternal age and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, A; Ambriz, D; Navarro-Maldonado, M C; Mercado, E; Rosado, A

    2008-08-01

    Maternal age dependency of gestation time in hamster and in other mammals is a well demonstrated fact. We have recently shown that adult nulliparous and multiparous hamster females show significant asynchrony and retard on early embryo development (from two blastomeres to morula stages) when compared with nulliparous young females. The number of cell-cell adhesions between blastomeres in early embryo development has been reported to be a good indication of the ability of embryos to cleave and develop. In this work we studied, by indirect immunofluorescence, the presence and distribution of E-cadherin in 4-cell embryos obtained from nulliparous young (NYF), nulliparous adult (NAF) and multiparous adult (MAF) hamster females. Distribution and intensity of fluorescence was observed and registered using confocal microscopy. Staining intensities for E-cadherin were quantified by computed densitometry in the free membrane regions, in the cytoplasm region and in the cell-cell adhesion zones of each embryo. E-Cadherin in all the studied zones was significantly higher (p<0.01) in NYF. Cadherin concentration in the intercellular membranes was always statistically higher (p<0.05) than in the free membrane regions. An appreciable concentration of E-cadherin was found in the cytoplasm of the 4-cell embryos obtained from the three groups of females, but was significantly higher in NYF. No statistical differences were observed in any of the parameters studied between NAF and MAF. Our results seem to indicate that changes in the reproductive behavior related to age and/or multiparity may be correlated with changes in the processes related to intercellular adhesions during early cleavage.

  20. Pre- and postovulatory aging of murine oocytes affect the transcript level and poly(A tail length of maternal effect genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Dankert

    Full Text Available Maternal effect genes code for oocyte proteins that are important for early embryogenesis. Transcription in oocytes does not take place from the onset of meiotic progression until zygotic genome activation. During this period, protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, for example by poly(A tail length. Posttranscriptional regulation may be impaired in preovulatory and postovulatory aged oocytes, caused by delayed ovulation or delayed fertilization, respectively, and may lead to developmental defects. We investigated transcript levels and poly(A tail length of ten maternal effect genes in in vivo- and in vitro- (follicle culture grown oocytes after pre- and postovulatory aging. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using random hexamer-primed cDNA to determine total transcript levels and oligo(dT16-primed cDNA to analyze poly(A tail length. Transcript levels of in vivo preovulatory-aged oocytes remained stable except for decreases in Brg1 and Tet3. Most genes investigated showed a tendency towards increased poly(A content. Polyadenylation of in vitro preovulatory-aged oocytes was also increased, along with transcript level declines of Trim28, Nlrp2, Nlrp14 and Zar1. In contrast to preovulatory aging, postovulatory aging of in vivo- and in vitro-grown oocytes led to a shortening of poly(A tails. Postovulatory aging of in vivo-grown oocytes resulted in deadenylation of Nlrp5 after 12 h, and deadenylation of 4 further genes (Tet3, Trim28, Dnmt1, Oct4 after 24 h. Similarly, transcripts of in vitro-grown oocytes were deadenylated after 12 h of postovulatory aging (Tet3, Trim28, Zfp57, Dnmt1, Nlrp5, Zar1. This impact of aging on poly(A tail length may affect the timed translation of maternal effect gene transcripts and thereby contribute to developmental defects.

  1. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: The Role of Maternal Obesity - Introduction to DORIAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G; Seckl, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    .... Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive...

  2. Idade materna e síndrome de Down no Nordeste do Brasil Maternal age and Down syndrome in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. F. Gusmão

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se, aqui, a associação entre idade materna avançada para procriação e aumento da incidência de progênie com síndrome de Down em amostra populacional do Estado da Bahia. Compararam-se as idades das mães de 220 portadores de síndrome de Down ao grupo-controle composto por mães de mesmo número de nascidos vivos, sem a síndrome de Down. Estimou-se em 43,6% o percentual de síndrome de Down dependente da idade materna indicando uma alta correlação (r = 0,95 entre idade materna e síndrome de Down. Este componente foi, entretanto, significantemente menor do que o percentual de 75% referido na literatura. Estimou-se o componente independente da idade materna em 56,4%, evidenciando a importância de outros fatores, no processo de não-disjunção meiótica associada à trissomia 21. Os resultados encontrados mostram também que, não obstante as características próprias da Região Nordeste, os fatores dependentes e independentes da idade materna apresentam a mesma tendência de distribuição observada na Região Sudeste do Brasil, onde extensivos estudos têm sido realizados.This study analyzes the association between advanced maternal age and increased incidence of Down syndrome in neonates, based on a population sample from the State of Bahia in Northeast Brazil. Age of the mothers of 220 Down syndrome subjects was investigated, and age distribution was compared to that of the population control group, 220 mothers of subjects without Down syndrome. The proportion of Down syndrome infants dependent on advanced maternal age was estimated at 43.6%, thus showing a high correlation (r = 0.95 between advanced maternal age and Down syndrome incidence. However, this component was significantly lower than the 75% reported in the literature. The component independent of maternal age was estimated at 56.4%, indicating the action of other factors on meiotic non-disjunction associated with 21 trisomy. The results also indicate that

  3. Twinning and Multiple Birth Rates According to Maternal Age in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otta, Emma; Fernandes, Eloisa de S; Acquaviva, Tiziana G; Lucci, Tania K; Kiehl, Leda C; Varella, Marco A C; Segal, Nancy L; Valentova, Jaroslava V

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period. The overall average rates of singleton, twin, and multiple births per 1,000 maternities (‰) were 987.43, 11.96 (dizygotic (DZ) rate was 7.15 and monozygotic (MZ) 4.42), and 0.36, respectively. We further regressed maternal age and historical time period on percentage of singleton, twin, and multiple birth rates. Our results indicated that maternal age strongly positively predicted twin and multiple birth rates, and negatively predicted singleton birth rates. The historical time period also positively, although weakly, predicted twin birth rates, and had no effect on singleton or multiple birth rates. Further, after applying Weinberg's differential method, we computed regressions separately for the estimated frequencies of DZ and MZ twin rates. DZ twinning was strongly positively predicted by maternal age and, to a smaller degree, by time period, while MZ twinning increased marginally only with higher maternal age. Factors such as increasing body mass index or air pollution can lead to the slight historical increase in DZ twinning rates. Importantly, consistent with previous cross-cultural and historical research, our results support the existence of an age-dependent physiological mechanism that leads to a strong increase in twinning and multiple births, but not singleton births, among mothers of higher age categories. From the ultimate perspective, twinning and multiple births in

  4. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  5. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  6. O Impacto da Idade Materna Avançada sobre os Resultados da Gravidez Impact of Advanced Maternal Age on the Outcome of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Cecatti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar o efeito da idade sobre os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestações ocorridas em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais. Métodos: comparamos 494 gestantes com mais de 40 anos, com 988 gestantes com idade entre 20 e 29 anos, pareando-as por paridade. Após controlar possíveis variáveis confundidoras pela análise multivariada, a idade materna avançada manteve associação com a maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, parto por cesária, hemorragia puerperal, índice de Apgar baixo, morte perinatal, natimortalidade e sofrimento fetal intraparto. Resultados: a idade materna avançada esteve isoladamente associada à hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, diagnóstico de sofrimento fetal intraparto, parto por cesária e hemorragia puerperal. Com relação aos resultados neonatais, a idade materna avançada estava associada independentemente apenas ao baixo índice de Apgar, morte perinatal e óbito fetal. Conclusões: esses achados mostram a necessidade de assistência obstétrica adequada com atenção especial a esses fatores para procurar melhorar os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestantes com idade avançada.Most authors agree on the negative impact of pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age on maternal and perinatal outcome. However, it is not usual to evaluate if some considered risk factors are only confounders because they are present in women over forty years. In order to identify the isolated effect of age on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women over forty, 494 pregnancies from this age group were compared to 988 pregnancies among women aged 20 to 29 years, matched by parity. After controlling possible confounding variables through multivariate analysis, advanced maternal age maintained its association with a higher prevalence of hypertension, malpresentation, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, low Apgar score, perinatal death, late fetal

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35 Hours of work... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted...

  8. Examination of Veterans Affairs disability compensation as a disincentive for employment in a population-based sample of Veterans under age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    Concerns that disability benefits may create disincentives for employment may be especially relevant for young American military veterans, particularly veterans of the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who are facing a current economic recession and turning in large numbers to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for disability compensation. This study describes the rate of employment and VA disability compensation among a nationally representative sample of veterans under the age of 65 and examines the association between levels of VA disability compensation and employment, adjusting for sociodemographics and health status. Data on a total of 4,787 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans were analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions to compare employed veterans with two groups that were not employed. Two-thirds of veterans under the age of 65 were employed, although only 36 % of veterans with a VA service-connected disability rating of 50 % or higher were employed. Veterans who received no VA disability compensation or who were service-connected 50 % or more were more likely to be unemployed and not looking for employment than veterans who were not service-connected or were service-connected less than 50 %, suggesting high but not all levels of VA disability compensation create disincentives for employment. Results were similar when analyses were limited to veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Education and vocational rehabilitation interventions, as well as economic work incentives, may be needed to maximize employment among veterans with disabilities.

  9. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  10. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....

  11. The interplay of birthweight, DRD4 and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L.; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socio-emotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (7-repeat long-form allele or non 7-repeat short form) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study we examined possible 2- and 3-way interactions between child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Method Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele 7-Repeat. Macro-analytic and a micro-analytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20-minutes of non-feeding interaction followed by a 10-minute divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation Procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. Results Results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6 month maternal attention (frequency of

  12. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  13. Offspring Provisioning Explains Clone-Specific Maternal Age Effects on Life History and Life Span in the Water Flea, Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaistow, Stewart J; Shirley, Christopher; Collin, Helene; Cornell, Stephen J; Harney, Ewan D

    2015-09-01

    Genetic inheritance underpins evolutionary theories of aging, but the role that nongenetic inheritance plays is unclear. Parental age reduces the life span of offspring in a diverse array of taxa but has not been explained from an evolutionary perspective. We quantified the effect that maternal age had on the growth and maturation decisions, life history, rates of senescence, and life span of offspring from three Daphnia pulex clones collected from different populations. We then used those data to test general hypotheses proposed to explain maternal age effects on offspring life span. Three generations of breeding from young or old mothers produced dramatic differences in the life histories of fourth-generation offspring, including significant reductions in life span. The magnitude of the effect differed between clones, which suggests that genetic and nongenetic factors ultimately underpin trait inheritance and shape patterns of aging. Older parents did not transmit a senescent state to their offspring. Instead, offspring from older ancestors had increased early-life reproductive effort, which resulted in an earlier onset of reproductive senescence, and an increased rate of actuarial senescence, which shortened their life span. Our results provide a clear example of the need to consider multiple inheritance mechanisms when studying trait evolution.

  14. The development and psychometric evaluation of a multi-dimensional measurement instrument of employability - and the impact of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijde, van der C.M.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Costa, G.; Goedhart, W.J.A.; Ilmarinen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The employability of workers enables organizations to meet their fluctuating demands for numerical and functional flexibility, two very important factors for organizations to remain competitive in today's dynamic markets. Clear definitions and measurement instruments for the concept of employability

  15. Development of a Theory-based, Sociocultural Instrument to Assess Black Maternal Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Aged 9 to 12 Against HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L; O'Neal, Marcia R; Ivankova, Nataliya V; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could assist in reducing the cervical cancer disparity existing between Black and White women. Understanding factors influencing Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughter is essential in improving vaccination uptake. However, existing instruments do not comprehensively assess factors (e.g., culture) influencing maternal intentions. This paper describes the development of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Survey for Black Mothers with Girls Aged 9 to 12 (HPVS-BM), the first instrument to measure knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, and cultural beliefs relating to Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughters aged 9 to 12 years against HPV. The items and scales were refined using content review by experts, as well as cognitive interviews and pilot testing with target audience participants. The final version of the HPVS-BM was administered to 242 Black mothers with adolescent daughters. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha. An a priori hypothetical model was developed to determine convergent and discriminant validity. All scales of the HPVS-BM had an acceptable internal reliability of 0.70 or higher. The intention scale of HPVS-BM was significantly correlated (p perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and subjective norms, supporting strong convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Exhibiting good psychometrics, this instrument could be used by healthcare researchers and professionals to develop programs to increase HPV vaccination among Black adolescent females aimed at reducing the racial disparities in cervical cancer. Further psychometric testing of this survey tool for understanding factors influencing maternal intentions is warranted.

  16. Age, Sex and Ethnic Trade-Offs in Faculty Employment: You Can't Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, Robert H.

    Age, sex, and ethnic trade-offs in faculty employment in higher education give rise to dilemmas--situations requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives. When an over-age-65 faculty member retains a full time position, someone else--probably a woman, ethnic minority, and/or young person--is deprived of a position. The problem of age…

  17. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  18. Sex of parent transmission effect in Tourette's syndrome: evidence for earlier age at onset in maternally transmitted cases suggests a genomic imprinting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, V; O'Neill, J; Gurling, H M; Robertson, M M

    1997-04-01

    Parent of origin effects caused by genomic imprinting may influence the phenotypic expression of a number of heritable human disorders. To test this phenomenon in Tourette's syndrome (TS), we studied 437 first degree relatives systematically ascertained through 57 probands. We compared age at onset, age at diagnosis, and phenotypic expressions as observed in the diagnosis of TS, chronic motor tics, and obsessive compulsive behavior in the offspring of affected males with the offspring of affected females. Of the 437 subjects, 16.7% had matrilineal inheritance and 13.9% had patrilineal inheritance, as determined by family history methodology. Chi-square analysis of the different phenotypic expressions and sex of the transmitting parent failed to provide evidence of significant group differences. We found no significant differences in the age at diagnosis either. However, the maternally transmitted offspring showed a significantly earlier age at onset. This points to a parent of origin effect on the putative TS gene that could be explained by meiotic events or even intrauterine environmental influences. These findings may help explain the hitherto conflicting reports about the nature of genetic transmission in TS, and suggest a need to re-examine family data separately for maternally and paternally transmitted cases, taking into account the possible role of imprinting.

  19. Dependence of maternal serum [AFP]/[hCG] median ratios on age of gestation: comparison of trisomy 21 to euploid pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Braun, N; Birk, O; Manor, E; Segal, D; Harari, G; Toma, I; Shalev, S; Borochowitz, Z U; Yaron, Y; Sharony, R; Itzhaky, D; Shtoyerman, R; Appelman, Z; Braun, G

    2009-12-01

    Current risk calculations for trisomy 21, which are based on multiples of median (MoM), do not take into account possible differences between euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies that may develop with gestational age. In order to optimize the predictive value of screening tests, we calculated the ratio between maternal serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in euploid and in trisomy 21 pregnancies. The medians of the concentration ratios, [AFP]/[hCG] at 16-21 weeks of gestation, were plotted as a function of gestational age for 307 cases of trisomy 21 and were compared with the medians of 30 549 normal karyotype cases. [AFP]/[hCG] ratio medians were independent of body weight and maternal age. There was a significant difference in the [AFP]/[hCG] ratio when comparing trisomy 21 and euploid pregnancies at each week. This difference became greater with advancing gestational age (P hCG] between euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies, which may be used to improve detection rates of Down syndrome screening.

  20. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: Impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol and video gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Linda Wilms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  1. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  2. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  3. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  4. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  5. Heterotrisomy recurrence risk: a practical maternal age-dependent approach for excess trisomy 21 risk calculation after a previous autosomal trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Borobio, Virginia; Sabrià, Joan; Soler, Anna; Borrell, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    A new maternal age-dependent method to estimate absolute excess risks of trisomy 21, either after a previous trisomy 21 (homotrisomy) or after another trisomy (heterotrisomy), is proposed to be added to the estimated risk by conventional screening methods. Excess risk at term for a subsequent trisomy 21 was calculated from midtrimester risks reported by Morris et al., decreasing from 0.49% at 20 years to 0.01% at 46 years at the index pregnancy. Excess risk after a previous uncommon trisomy was derived from data reported by Warburton et al., decreasing from 0.37% at 20 years to 0.01% at 50 years.

  6. Age, pathogen exposure, but not maternal care shape offspring immunity in an insect with facultative family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Körner, Maximilian; Foitzik, Susanne; Meunier, Joël

    2017-03-07

    To optimize their resistance against pathogen infection, individuals are expected to find the right balance between investing into the immune system and other life history traits. In vertebrates, several factors were shown to critically affect the direction of this balance, such as the developmental stage of an individual, its current risk of infection and/or its access to external help such as parental care. However, the independent and/or interactive effects of these factors on immunity remain poorly studied in insects. Here, we manipulated maternal presence and pathogen exposure in families of the European earwig Forficula auricularia to measure whether and how the survival rate and investment into two key immune parameters changed during offspring development. The pathogen was the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum and the immune parameters were hemocyte concentration and phenol/pro-phenoloxidase enzyme activity (total-PO). Our results surprisingly showed that maternal presence had no effect on offspring immunity, but reduced offspring survival. Pathogen exposure also lowered the survival of offspring during their early development. The concentration of hemocytes and the total-PO activity increased during development, to be eventually higher in adult females compared to adult males. Finally, pathogen exposure overall increased the concentration of hemocytes-but not the total-PO activity-in adults, while it had no effect on these measures in offspring. Our results show that, independent of their infection risk and developmental stage, maternal presence does not shape immune defense in young earwigs. This reveals that pathogen pressure is not a universal evolutionary driver of the emergence and maintenance of post-hatching maternal care in insects.

  7. The maternal age-related first trimester risks for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 based on Danish first trimester data from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjaer; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2016-07-01

    Most currently used age-related risks of T21, T18 and T13 are based on estimates of the live-birth prevalence, and describe an exponential increase of risk by increased maternal age. We investigated the first trimester prevalence of T21, T18 and T13 in a large population of Danish women. From the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry we got the information of all pre- and postnatally diagnosed fetuses with T21, T18 or T13 between 2005 and 2014 in Denmark. Information on the total number of births and maternal age at birth were gathered from StatBank Denmark. The total number of included women was 605 853. The total number of T21 cases was 1564, T18 cases was 401 and T13 cases was 157. The overall first trimester prevalence per 10 000 pregnancies was 25.8 for T21, 6.6 for T18 and 2.6 for T13. Boltzmann sigmoidal model (Y = Bottom + (top-bottom / (1 - exp (V50 - X) / slope)) was found to best describe the age-related risk of T21, T18 and T13. We found that the age-related risks are better described by sigmoidal functions, contrary to the widely assumed exponential functions. Our results indicate a lower age-related a priori risk of T21, T18 and T13 compared to widely used risk models. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 75 FR 7212 - Definition of “Reasonable Factors Other Than Age” Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... and rectify acts of sexual harassment of its employees, the court observed that ``what is reasonable... holding as a matter of law that employer did not exercise reasonable care to prevent sexual harassment... principles, the Court noted that an employer may be liable for a supervisor's sexual harassment when...

  9. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  10. Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Seco, F; Mundo-Cid, P; Aguado-Gracia, J; Gaviria-Gómez, A M; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Maternal attachment was evaluated using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire. We considered child variables that could be associated with the clinical course of ADHD, such as symptom severity, age, gender, evolution time, academic level, and current pharmacological treatment; parental variables, such as the mother's psychiatric history, current psychopathology, marital status, academic level, income, and employment, were also considered. We found an association between maternal insecure attachment and comorbid depressive disorder in childhood ADHD. An insecure maternal attachment style must be considered in the assessment and treatment of childhood ADHD with comorbid depression.

  11. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  12. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.

  13. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat.

  15. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  16. Induced abortion: a means of postponing childbirth? Changes in maternal age at induced abortion and child birth in Norway during 1979-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietman, Marianne; Sarfraz, Aashi Ambareen; Eskild, Anne

    2010-12-01

    the maternal age at child birth is increasing. If induced abortion is an important means of postponing childbirth in a population, it is to be expected that in young women the rate of conceived pregnancies is stable over time, but the induced abortion rate is increasing. We studied birth rates, induced abortion rates and the sum of these rates by maternal age during four decades. register-based study. all women 15-49 years living in Norway. we present temporal changes in birth rates and induced abortion rates within age groups during the period 1979-2007. We also estimated the sum rate of births and induced abortions. Data were obtained from national statistics. live births and induced abortions per 1000 women per year. the induced abortion rates have been relatively stable within age groups, except for a decrease in women 15-19 years (from 24.2 in 1979 to 17.0 in 2007) and an increase in women 20-24 years (from 23.2 to 29.5). The birth rates however, have decreased dramatically in women 20-24 years old (from 113.6 to 60.5). Hence, the sum rate of births and induced abortions in women 20-24 years old has decreased from 136.8 to 90.0. In women 30 years old or older, the birth rates have increased. the induced abortion rate has been relatively stable in all age groups over time, suggesting a limited influence of induced abortions on the postponement of childbearing.

  17. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  18. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents’ Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents’ conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers’ reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In...

  19. First-trimester ultrasound screening for trisomy 21 based on maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, and different methods of ductus venosus assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Philipp; Sonek, Jiri; Klein, Jessika; Hoopmann, Markus; Abele, Harald; Kagan, Karl Oliver

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether combining the dichotomous assessment of the a-wave and the ductus venosus (DV) pulsatility index for veins (PIV) measurement improves first-trimester screening performance. Retrospective study performed at the University Hospital of Tuebingen based on singleton pregnancies that underwent first-trimester screening including DV flow assessment. In each case, the risk of trisomy 21 was calculated based on maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, and DV flow either as dichotomous classification of the a-wave, as measurement of the DV PIV, or both. There were 5280 euploid fetuses and 127 fetuses with trisomy 21. The DV a-wave was reversed in 2.3% and 66.1% in the euploid and trisomy 21 cases, respectively. The DV PIV measurements were above the 95th percentile in 8.3% and 77.2% the euploid and trisomy 21 cases, respectively. For a false positive rate of 3%, the detection rate for trisomy 21 based on maternal age, fetal NT, and DV flow is about 87% irrespective of whether DV is examined as a continuous or dichotomous variable. The combination of both resulted in a small decrease at 3% false positive rate. Assessment of the DV a-wave and the DV PIV result in similar DRs. Combining these two approaches does not appear to improve their individual screening performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  1. Incidence of chromosome abnormalities at a second-trimester genetic amniocentesis for Mainland Chinese women of advanced maternal age: a study of 6, 584 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qing-wei; Jiang Yu-lin; Zhou Xi-ya; Liu Jun-tao; Bian Xu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate the expected incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy at second trimester genetic amniocentesis in Mainland China in women aged 35 and older.Methods: We reviewed the genetic amniocenteses data in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2001 to June 2011.The indication for genetic amniocentesis was solely advanced maternal age (AMA).A total of 6,584 cases were included in this study.The AMA women was divided into two groups by maternal age,the group of 35-39 years old and the group of ≥40 years old.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Results: A total of 121 cases were diagnosed to be chromosomally abnormal,giving an overall incidence of 18.38‰ (121/6,584).The abnormal karyotypes included 111 cases of various aneuploidies and 10 cases with various structural abnormalities.The aneuploidies(mosaicism included)were 59 cases of (47,+ 21),25 cases of (47,+ 18),2 cases of (47,+ 13),8 cases of (45,X),3 cases of (47,XXX),13 cases of (47,XXY) and 1 case of (47,XYY).The karyotype of (47,+21) was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality,with an overall incidence of 8.96‰,account for 53.1% of all aneuploidies.Sex chromosome aneuploidies were the next most common,with a total incidence of 3.80‰.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was significantly higher in the group of ≥40 years old than that of the group of 35-39 years old (P=0.047).Conclusions: The incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy found in this study is the first data published for Mainland China and will be helpful for the counseling of pregnant women in this age group.Consideration may be given to prenatal screening versus prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age in Mainland China.

  2. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Baker, A; Sahota, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-06-01

    To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester combined screening by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks in 56,771 singleton pregnancies, including 56,376 cases with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (unaffected group) and 395 cases with trisomy 21. The blood test and ultrasound scan were carried out in the same visit. In each case the maternal age-related risk for trisomy 21 at term was calculated and adjusted according to the gestational age at the time of screening to derive the a-priori risk. The measured NT was transformed into a likelihood ratio using the mixture model of NT distributions. The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) for gestational age, adjusted for maternal weight, ethnicity, smoking status, method of conception and parity, and a likelihood ratio was subsequently calculated. The likelihood ratios for NT and for the biochemical markers were multiplied by the a-priori risk to derive the patient-specific risk. Detection rates and false-positive rates were calculated by taking the proportions with risks above a given risk threshold after adjustment for maternal age according to the distribution of pregnancies in England and Wales in 2000-2002. These standardized rates were compared with detection and false-positive rates estimated using Monte Carlo methods to sample from the modeled Gaussian distributions. The performance of screening based on the model was in good agreement with that observed in our population. In a strategy for first-trimester combined screening where the blood test and scan are carried out in the same visit it was estimated that, for false-positive rates of 3% and 5%, the detection rates were 92% and 94

  3. Chromosomal and cytoplasmic context determines predisposition to maternal age-related aneuploidy: brief overview and update on MCAK in mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Staubach, Nora; Trapphoff, Tom

    2010-12-01

    It has been known for more than half a century that the risk of conceiving a child with trisomy increases with advanced maternal age. However, the origin of the high susceptibility to nondisjunction of whole chromosomes and precocious separation of sister chromatids, leading to aneuploidy in aged oocytes and embryos derived from them, cannot be traced back to a single disturbance and mechanism. Instead, analysis of recombination patterns of meiotic chromosomes of spread oocytes from embryonal ovary, and of origins and exchange patterns of extra chromosomes in trisomies, as well as morphological and molecular studies of oocytes and somatic cells from young and aged females, show chromosome-specific risk patterns and cellular aberrations related to the chronological age of the female. In addition, analysis of the function of meiotic- and cell-cycle-regulating genes in oogenesis, and the study of the spindle and chromosomal status of maturing oocytes, suggest that several events contribute synergistically to errors in chromosome segregation in aged oocytes in a chromosome-specific fashion. For instance, loss of cohesion may differentially predispose chromosomes with distal or pericentromeric chiasmata to nondisjunction. Studies on expression in young and aged oocytes from human or model organisms, like the mouse, indicate that the presence and functionality/activity of gene products involved in cell-cycle regulation, spindle formation and organelle integrity may be altered in aged oocytes, thus contributing to a high risk of error in chromosome segregation in meiosis I and II. Genes that are often altered in aged mouse oocytes include MCAK (mitotic-centromere-associated protein), a microtubule depolymerase, and AURKB (Aurora kinase B), a protein of the chromosomal passenger complex that has many targets and can also phosphorylate and regulate MCAK localization and activity. Therefore we explored the role of MCAK in maturing mouse oocytes by immunofluorescence

  4. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D.

  5. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  6. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline M; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S; Platt, Robert W; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970-2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous observational studies measuring antioxidant levels

  7. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Cohen

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies.To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA.We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970-2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression.We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58 and SGA (n = 9, 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely.Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous observational studies measuring antioxidant

  8. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  9. Práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses e fatores maternos associados Feeding habits of children aged 6 to 12 months and associated maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina D. M. Saldiva

    2007-02-01

    . The foods these children ate were profiled according to the number of children who had been given breastmilk and/or other foods during the previous 24 hours, and based on this data the probability of consumption of each food at each age was estimated by means of probit analysis. RESULTS: It was observed that 50% of the sample were being given breastmilk, 77% other types of milk, 63% porridge, 87% fruit, 78% soups, 64% the family meal, 58% meals including beans and 36% soup or meals containing meat. The probability of a 6-month-old child being given soup is elevated (78%, while for the family meal it is low (39%, and the probability of being fed breastmilk is 59%, lower than for other milks (70% and than for porridge (63%. Associations were observed between milk-based meals and primiparous mothers, mothers employed outside the home and mothers who had spent longer in education. Similar findings were observed for soups, added to maternal age of more than 20 years. The family meal was associated with mothers under 20 years old, mothers who were not employed outside the home, mothers with fewer years' education and multiparous mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive consumption was observed of liquid and semi-solid foods, suggesting that appropriate guidance on complementary feeding is needed, taking into account age, primiparity, education and employed mothers.

  10. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change.

  11. Maternal labour supply and child nutrition in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, P; Sahn, D E

    1998-08-01

    Mothers who work may not have enough time to adequately breast-feed or prepare nutritious foods for their young children, or use public services designed to improve child nutrition. The authors quantify the effects of maternal labor supply and mothers' market labor force participation upon child nutrition using survey data from Conakry, Guinea, and child height, standardized for age and sex, as the indicator of nutritional status. 17% of children under age 5 years in Conakry are chronically malnourished. The conceptual framework and empirical strategy are described, followed by an examination of the data and construction of the labor supply and income measures. Analysis of the data found that additional time devoted by the mother to market work is associated with reductions in height-for-age of children under age 5 years. However, increases in mothers' labor income lead to greater child height. Deleterious impacts of mother's time in market work, controlling for income, were found for both self-employment and wage employment, despite differences in conditions of work and the feasibility of combining child and market-oriented activities. Furthermore, additions to maternal labor income yield larger increases in child height than do equivalent additions to other non-mother household income. It follows that income is not completely pooled within households and preferences differ among family members over the allocation of resources to child health-related goods and services and other uses. Despite the large estimated benefits of maternal income, maternal work overall does not appear to improve child nutrition.

  12. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  13. Depressão materna e a saúde mental de escolares Maternal depression and school-age mental health

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    Ana Vilela Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A depressão materna tem sido apontada como uma condição pouco favorecedora ao desenvolvimento infantil, mostrando-se associada a dificuldades emocionais e comportamentais. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e analisar na literatura indexada artigos que abordem o impacto da depressão materna para as crianças em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se à pesquisa nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, Psyc Info, considerando a produção dos últimos cinco anos (2002-2007. Foram identificados e analisados 30 artigos empíricos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se distribuição semelhante quanto aos delineamentos longitudinais e transversais, características das amostras e formas de avaliação. As coletas de dados foram realizadas em contextos diversos com uma variedade de recursos e informantes. Depressão materna associou-se a dificuldades apresentadas pelas crianças, tais como problemas comportamentais, sintomas depressivos, prejuízos cognitivos e sociais, independentemente do momento de primeira exposição à depressão materna e dos delineamentos adotados, sendo o prejuízo potencializado na presença de comorbidades psiquiátricas. CONCLUSÕES: A depressão materna configurou-se como fator de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil, com impacto negativo para as crianças em idade escolar. Do ponto de vista da saúde mental, considera-se relevante maior atenção às crianças que convivem com tal condição, visando à detecção precoce das eventuais dificuldades como forma de instrumentar práticas preventivas.BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has been identified as a possibly harmful condition for child development, showing to be associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze articles in the indexed literature addressing the impact of maternal depression for school-age children. METHODS: The procedure was made via the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, and Psyc Info

  14. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  15. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  16. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents' Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…

  17. Age-related differences in the relations between individualised HRM and organisational performance: a large-scale employer survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Dorenbosch, L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individualised HRM practices and several measures of organisational performance, including the moderating role of employee age in these relationships. A large-scale representative study among 4,591 organisations in the Netherlands showe

  18. Age-related differences in the relations between individualised HRM and organisational performance: a large-scale employer survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Dorenbosch, L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individualised HRM practices and several measures of organisational performance, including the moderating role of employee age in these relationships. A large-scale representative study among 4,591 organisations in the Netherlands

  19. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y: results from a Danish cohort of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Strøm, Marin; Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Hjort, Line; Kampmann, Freja Bach; Madsen, Camilla Møller; Baun Thuesen, A C; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Vaag, Allan A; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2017-08-01

    Background: Recent years have seen strong tendencies toward high-protein diets. However, the implications of higher protein intake, especially during developmentally sensitive periods, are poorly understood. Conversely, evidence on the long-term developmental consequences of low protein intake in free-living populations remains limited.Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Design: Six hundred eight women with an index pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination including fasting blood samples and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (subset of 650) from which metabolic outcomes were derived. Multivariable analyses were conducted applying a 1:1 substitution of carbohydrates for protein.Results: The mean ± SD protein intake in pregnancy was 93 ± 15 g/d (16% ± 3% of energy) in GDM-exposed women and 90 ± 14 g/d (16% ± 2% of energy) in control women. There were overall no associations between maternal protein intake and offspring fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that maternal total protein intake was associated with a tendency for a higher abdominal fat mass percentage (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.40 SD; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.83 SD; P = 0.07) in GDM-exposed offspring and a tendency for a higher total fat mass percentage among male offspring (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.33 SD; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.66 SD; P = 0.06), but a small sample size may have compromised the precision of the effect estimates. GDM-exposed offspring of mothers with a protein intake in the lowest

  20. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

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    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  1. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics.

  2. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

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    Han-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children's neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2-12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001-2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children's cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ. Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children's levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children's IQ scores. Children's but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these

  3. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Maternal Mortality: Three Case Studies Using Verbal Autopsy with Different Platforms.

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    Siân L Curtis

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of maternal mortality is needed to develop a greater understanding of the scale of the problem, to increase effectiveness of program planning and targeting, and to track progress. In the absence of good quality vital statistics, interim methods are used to measure maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to document experience with three community-based interim methods that measure maternal mortality using verbal autopsy.This study uses a post-census mortality survey, a sample vital registration with verbal autopsy, and a large-scale household survey to summarize the measures of maternal mortality obtained from these three platforms, compares and contrasts the different methodologies employed, and evaluates strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Included is also a discussion of issues related to death identification and classification, estimating maternal mortality ratios and rates, sample sizes and periodicity of estimates, data quality, and cost.The sample sizes vary considerably between the three data sources and the number of maternal deaths identified through each platform was small. The proportion of deaths to women of reproductive age that are maternal deaths ranged from 8.8% to 17.3%. The maternal mortality rate was estimable using two of the platforms while obtaining an estimate of the maternal mortality ratio was only possible using one of the platforms. The percentage of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes ranged from 45.2% to 80.4%.This study documents experiences applying standard verbal autopsy methods to estimate maternal mortality and confirms that verbal autopsy is a feasible method for collecting maternal mortality data. None of these interim methods are likely to be suitable for detecting short term changes in mortality due to prohibitive sample size requirements, and thus, comprehensive and continuous civil registration systems to provide high quality vital statistics are essential

  5. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jessica; Tan, Seang Lin; Hartshorne, Geraldine M; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2015-12-30

    The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI) division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  6. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  7. Coordination difficulties in preschool-aged children are associated with maternal parenting stress: A community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michio; Adachi, Masaki; Takayanagi, Nobuya; Yasuda, Sayura; Tanaka, Masanori; Osato-Kaneda, Ayako; Masuda, Takahito; Nakai, Akio; Saito, Manabu; Kuribayashi, Michito; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-30

    Although coordination difficulties are sometimes observed even in children in the general population, no empirical studies have examined the impact of these difficulties on parenting stress. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between coordination difficulties and parenting stress in a community-based sample of preschool-aged children and their mothers. The study included 1691 families. Mothers with 4- or 5-year-old children completed questionnaires about parenting stress and children's coordination difficulties, as well as traits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that coordination difficulties, and ADHD and ASD traits were each independent predictors of parenting stress. Among the significant predictive factors, impaired general coordination, as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity, showed a strong impact on parenting stress. In addition, a gender difference was observed in the manner in which coordination difficulties influenced parenting stress. Coordination difficulties in preschool-aged children in the general population increased maternal parenting stress (as did ADHD and ASD traits). This highlights the need to provide support for mothers who have children with coordination difficulties, even when there is no clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

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    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  9. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  10. Maternal PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with infant's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Altmäe, Signe; Segura, Maria Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Anjos, Tania; Chisaguano, Maribel; Carmen López-Sabater, M; Entrala, Carmen; Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Agil, Ahmad; Florido, Jesus; Catena, Andres; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand activated transcription factors with crucial functions in lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, anti-inflammatory processes, placental development, and are involved in cognitive functions and neurodegenerative diseases. Polymorphisms in PPAR genes are shown to influence the activity of these receptors. 1) To examine the association of PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism in pregnant women and their offspring on infant's neurodevelopmental outcomes during the first 18 months of life; 2) to determine the influence of Pro12Ala polymorphism on fatty acid concentrations in plasma phospholipids and placental tissue. 138 mother-infant pairs from the PREOBE observational study were genotyped for PPARG Pro12Ala. Plasma phospholipids and placental fatty acid concentrations were measured at delivery. Infants' neuropsychological assessment at 6 and 18 months of age was performed using Bayley III. The effect of Pro12Ala on infant's neurodevelopmental outcomes was detected at 18 months, but not at 6 months of age. 18 months old infants born to mothers with wild-type Pro12 genotype had better cognitive (OR=5.11, 95% CI: 1.379-18.96, p=0.015), language (OR=3.41, 95% CI: 1.35-11.24, p=0.044), and motor development scores (OR=4.77, 95% CI: 1.243-18.33, p=0.023) than the Ala allele carriers. Pro12Ala variants did not seem to affect fatty acids concentrations in blood nor in placenta at delivery. Infants born to mothers with Pro12 genotype have better neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age than Ala allele carriers, indicating a long-term transplacental action of PPARγ variants on foetal brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged ‎‎3-6 years‎

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Doaei; Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Mohammad Hassan Entezari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with childr...

  12. Screening for trisomy 18 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Maiz, N; Pandeva, I; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-09-01

    To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 18 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was performed at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks in 56 893 singleton pregnancies, including 56 376 cases of euploid fetuses, 395 with trisomy 21 and 122 with trisomy 18. The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) and then into likelihood ratios (LR). Similarly, the measured NT was transformed into LRs using the mixture model of NT distributions. In each case the LRs for NT and the biochemical markers were multiplied by the age and gestation-related risk to derive the risk for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Detection rates (DRs) and false-positive rates (FPRs) were calculated by taking the proportions with risks above a given risk threshold. In screening with the algorithm for trisomy 21, at a FPR of 3%, the estimated DRs of trisomies 21 and 18 were 89% and 82%, respectively. The use of an algorithm for trisomy 18 identified 93% of affected fetuses at a FPR of 0.2%. When the algorithm for trisomy 21 was used and screen positivity was fixed at a FPR of 3%, and in addition the algorithm for trisomy 18 was used and screen positivity was fixed at a FPR of 0.2%, the overall FPR was 3.1% and the DRs of trisomies 21 and 18 were 90% and 97%, respectively. A beneficial side effect of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 is the detection of a high proportion of fetuses with trisomy 18. If an algorithm for trisomy 18 in addition to the one for trisomy 21 is used, more than 95% of trisomy 18 fetuses can be detected with a minor increase of 0.1% in the overall FPR.

  13. Influence of employments physical exercises on age-dependent changes and rates of senescence of organism for women 30-50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina S.A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The special program of positive influence is developed on the general state of organism of women. The analysis of the special literature is conducted. In an experiment 26 women took part in age 30-50 years. Practical recommendations are developed in relation to employments by physical exercises. The use at health run and walking, respiratory exercises, exercises under musical accompaniment, engaged in yoga, is offered. Positive changes are fixed in the indexes of the functional state of the cardiovascular system and nervous system.

  14. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-04-01

    Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ≤ 4.1 × 10(-5)) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10(-18)), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

  15. Screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, fetal heart rate, free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl O; Wright, Dave; Valencia, Catalina; Maiz, Nerea; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2008-09-01

    A beneficial consequence of screening for trisomy 21 is the early diagnosis of trisomies 18 and 13. Our objective was to examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal serum-free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal NT, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11(+0)-13(+6) weeks in singleton pregnancies, including 56 376 normal cases, 395 with trisomy 21, 122 with trisomy 18 and 61 with trisomy 13. Risk algorithms were developed for the calculation of patient-specific risks for each of the three trisomies based on maternal age, NT, FHR, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. Detection (DR) and false positive rates (FPR) were calculated and adjusted according to the maternal age distribution of pregnancies in England and Wales in 2000-2002. The DR and FPR were 90% and 3%, respectively, for trisomy 21, 91% and 0.2% for trisomy 18 and 87% and 0.2% for trisomy 13. When screen positivity was defined by an FPR of 3% on the risk for trisomy 21 in conjunction with an FPR of 0.2% on the maximum of the risks for trisomies 13 and 18, the overall FPR was 3.1% and the DRs of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 were 91%, 97% and 94%, respectively. As a side effect of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, approximately 95% of trisomy 13 and 18 fetuses can be detected with an 0.1% increase in the FPR.

  16. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smjt, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Population All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more admitted

  17. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  18. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of Washington state repeated job search services on the employment rate of prime-age female welfare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Boqing; Weeks, Greg

    2008-07-01

    This paper uses an unbalanced panel dataset to evaluate how repeated job search services (JSS) and personal characteristics affect the employment rate of the prime-age female welfare recipients in the State of Washington. We propose a transition probability model to take into account issues of sample attrition, sample refreshment and duration dependence. We also generalize Honoré and Kyriazidou's [Honoré, B.E., Kyriazidou, E., 2000. Panel data discrete choice models with lagged dependent variables. Econometrica 68 (4), 839-874] conditional maximum likelihood estimator to allow for the presence of individual-specific effects. A limited information test is suggested to test for selection issues in non-experimental data. The specification tests indicate that the (conditional on the set of the confounding variables considered) assumptions of no selection due to unobservables and/or no unobserved individual-specific effects are not violated. Our findings indicate that the first job search service does have positive and significant impacts on the employment rate. However, providing repeated JSS to the same client has no significant impact. Further, we find that there are significant experience-enhancing effects. These findings suggest that providing one job search services training to individuals may have a lasting impact on raising their employment rates.

  20. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  1. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  2. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  3. How hot are drosophila hotspots? examining recombination rate variation and associations with nucleotide diversity, divergence, and maternal age in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

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    Brenda Manzano-Winkler

    Full Text Available Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10-100x the background rate called "hotspots." Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample.

  4. Prospective population-based cohort study of maternal obesity as a source of error in gestational age estimation at 11-14weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Geske S; Sperling, Lene; Källén, Karin

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionAn impact of maternal obesity on ultrasound dating of pregnancy at 11-14 gestational weeks is possible and was investigated. Material and methodsA prospective cohort study based on the Danish national population during a 4-year period in which we entered all mothers with singleton...... pregnancies who had a known last menstrual period (LMP), a recorded booking of body mass index (BMI), and a late first trimester ultrasound dating scan using crown-rump-length measurement (gestational age 11(+0)-13(+6)weeks). Almost all scans were performed transabdominally. Transvaginal ultrasound was only.......8% were overweight and 12.3% obese. Ultrasound EDD was 7days later than by LMP in 5.8% of normal-weight women, 7.3% of obese women, and 10.0% of women with morbid obesity. Compared with normal BMI (18.5-24.9), the OR for postponing EDD increased with increasing BMI; BMI 25-29.9 [OR 0.97, 95% confidence...

  5. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA, and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4% were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.. Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22–17.6, as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P<.025. These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.

  6. Maternal age and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in infertile couples at Khartoum, Sudan [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

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    Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was considered as the mainstay of treatment for male infertility. Nowadays, the scope of ICSI has been widened to include other causes of infertility. There are few published data on ICSI in countries with low incomes. Aims A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad AbuAlla and Banoun Centers, Khartoum, Sudan to investigate outcomes of ICSI and to determine the parameters that might predict pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Methods The study included 191 infertile couples who underwent 296 ICSI cycles between 1st April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Results One hundred and ninety one couples (comprising 296 cycles of ICSI were enrolled to the study. The mean (SD number of retrieved oocytes was 9.7 (7.5.  The mean (SD number of transferred embryos was 2.9 (1.0. Out of these, 50 (26.2% and 40 (20.9% had chemical and clinical pregnancy, respectively. Thirty–six couples (18.8% and five couples (2.6% had miscarriage and had ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Under logistic regression, younger age (OR = 0.8, 95% CI= 0.81 ─ 0.96, P = 0.004 and endometrial thickness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI= 1.07─1.60, P = 0.009 were the significant predictors for the success of ICSI in inducing pregnancy. Conclusion                 The rates of successful fertilisation and pregnancy-to-term rates in this setting depend mainly on the maternal age.

  7. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (Psmoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  8. Exploring a causal role of DNA methylation in the relationship between maternal vitamin B12 during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8, cognitive performance and educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caramaschi, Doretta; Sharp, Gemma C; Nohr, Ellen A

    2017-01-01

    An adequate intake of vitamin B12 during pregnancy plays an important role in offspring neurodevelopment, potentially via epigenetic processes. We used a two-step Mendelian randomization approach to assess whether DNA methylation plays a mediating and causal role in associations between maternal...... vitamin B12 status and offspring's cognition. Firstly, we estimated the causal effect of maternal vitamin B12 levels on cord blood DNA methylation using the maternal FUT2 genotypes rs492602:A>G and rs1047781:A>T as proxies for circulating vitamin B12 levels in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents...... Mendelian randomization estimated that maternal vitamin B12 had a small causal effect on DNA methylation in offspring at three CpG sites, which was replicated for one of the sites. The second step Mendelian randomization found weak evidence of a causal effect of DNA methylation at two of these sites...

  9. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  10. 深圳不同胎龄初生儿生长发育与母亲分娩年龄的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis of Newborn Growth with Different Gestational Age and Maternal Childbirth Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李优聪; 何凤梅; 黄素兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the different gestational age newborn growth development and maternal age and correlation , and to explore the relationship between neonatal physical and other mothers ,feeding patterns .Methods Selected hospital delivery of 219 cases of new -born infants as the object of study .According to the gestational age were divided into 93 preterm infants and full-term infants in the observation group ,126 cases were recorded as control group .Contrast two groups of growing condition .Re‐sults The observation group's weight ,height ,sitting height and head circumference were significantly lower than the control group , less than 25 of the proportion of gestation age was higher than that of control group ,age > 30 was lower than the control group , mother education level below junior middle school ,six months before the artificial feeding and the proportion of various complications were significantly higher than that of the control group .The differences were statistically significant (P < 0 .05) .The correlation a‐nalysis showed that higher maternal age ,mother cultural degree in junior high school and above ,six month before the breast feeding mother and complication rate ,the lower the neonatal growth and development of better .At last ,the weight and height of the obser‐vation group were less than those of the control group by the same nursing method ,in 3 ,6 months of age ,the body weight and height data of the observation group were less than the control group ,there was no significant differences between the two groups of newborns in 12 months of age .Conclusion The growth and development of Shenzhen in different gestational age showed dif‐ferent trends ,which significantly better physique in full-term infants ,mother's age and culture degree relatively high point , the breastfeeding and maternal complications of pregnancy ,the lower the percentage of neonatal growth and development better .And after the birth of the newborn ,the use of

  11. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children aged 0-2 years: the role of foetal haemoglobin and maternal antibodies to two asexual malaria vaccine candidates (MSP3 and GLURP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangoye, David Tiga; Nebie, Issa; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Debe, Siaka; Traore, Safiatou; Ouedraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume; Soulama, Issiaka; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred; Marsh, Kevin; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Bejon, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria. A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2) on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography. A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2) did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria. We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation.

  13. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  14. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children aged 0-2 years: the role of foetal haemoglobin and maternal antibodies to two asexual malaria vaccine candidates (MSP3 and GLURP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tiga Kangoye

    Full Text Available Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3 and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP, in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria.A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2 on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography.A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2 did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria.We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation.

  15. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  16. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM): the design of a four-year longitudinal cohort study among 15,118 persons aged 45 to 64 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Geuskens, G.A.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Jolings, C.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in employme

  18. Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM): The Design of a Four-year Longitudinal Cohort Study among 15,118 Persons Aged 45 to 64 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan F.; Geuskens, Goedele A.; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna R M; Joling, Catelijne I.; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in em

  19. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24 months of age and children's expressive language development was assessed during a picture book task at 24 months and with a standardized assessment at 36 months. After controlling for family demographics, child, and maternal characteristics, maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at the 24 month timepoint was associated with lower expressive language ability among African American children concurrently and at 36 months of age. Importantly, the negative association between nonstandard schedules and children's expressive language ability at 24 months of age was mediated by maternal positive engagement and negative work-family spillover, while at 36 months of age, the association was mediated only by negative work-family spillover. These findings suggest complex links between mothers' work environments and African American children's developmental outcomes.

  1. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data.

  2. Estudo da morbidade e da mortalidade perinatal em maternidades: II - mortalidade perinatal segundo peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e hábito de fumar da mãe A study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in maternity hospitals: II - perinatal mortality according to birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and maternal smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a influência de variáveis como peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e tabagismo materno. Do estudo dos 12.999 nascimentos (vivos e mortos ocorridos em nove maternidades no período de um ano, verificou-se que a mortalidade perinatal é muito maior para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso (665,3 ‰ para peso até 1.500 g, diminuindo à medida que aumenta o peso ao nascer. Também nos casos de mães jovens (menores de 15 anos ou mães com idade superior a 35 anos esse coeficiente foi mais elevado (45,5 ‰ para mães com menos de 15 anos e 47,0 ‰ para mães entre 35 a 39 anos. A faixa imediatamente superior - 40 a 44 anos - apresentou a mais alta mortalidade perinatal: 61,3 ‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. O número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal tem importância para a diminuição da gestação de alto risco. Mães que fizeram 7 ou mais consultas no pré-natal tiveram a menor mortalidade no período (17,7‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. Já o hábito materno de fumar influencia a mortalidade quando a quantidade é de mais de 10 cigarros por dia. A mortalidade perinatal dos produtos de mães que fumavam menos de 10 cigarros por dia não diferiu das taxas de mortalidade para as mães não-fumantes.The influence of birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy are analysed. Of 12,999 births (live and stillbirths ocurring in nine maternity hospitals during one year, the greatest perinatal mortality rate (PM was that of low birth weight babies (665.3 ‰ for those weighing less than 1,500 g. The PM decreases with increasing weight. Young mothers (less than 15 years of age and women aged 35 or more also had higher Perinatal Mortality rates - 45.5 ‰ for the former and 47.0 ‰ for the latter. Prenatal care is important for the decrease of high risk in pregnancy. Mothers who had made 7 or more consultations during pregnancy had the lowest PM (17.7 ‰ live and stillbirths

  3. Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Forns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education. Methods: We prospectively studied a population-based birth cohort, which forms part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood Project. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Cattell and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire-12 respectively. Results: We observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included. The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile. In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. Conclusions: The association between maternal intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual occupational social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.Objetivos: Este estudio exploró la relación entre inteligencia y salud mental materna y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad en población normal, teniendo en cuenta la clase social basada en la ocupación y el nivel educativo maternos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de cohortes de nacimiento englobado dentro del proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. El

  4. 高龄孕妇产前筛查与诊断分析%Prenatal diagnostic testing among women referred for advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 黄海锋; 陶春凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence of aneuploidies of chromosomal in pregnant women with advanced maternal age (AMA) as indicator for invasive diagnostic testing.Methods:The results of prenatal diagnosis and clinical data were collected retrospectively,according to the indicator for invasive diagnostic testing.Results:Among the 8771 cases,188 cases (2.14%) of a fetal with aneuploidies of chromosomal were diagnosed,which are trisomy 21 (111 cases),trisomy 18 (27 cases),47,XXY (15 cases),45,X (13 cases),47,XXX (11 cases),trisomy 13 (10 cases),47,XYY (1 case).The detective rate of fetal with aneuploidies of chromosomal was higher in noninvasive prenatal testing (91.677%),followed by Abnormal serum screening and ultrasound findings group (7.01%),abnormal ultrasonic findings group (6.57%),Abnormal serum screening group (1.60%).Conclusion:The incidence of aneuploidies of chromosomal in pregnant women with AMA was high.The incidence was higher in pregnancy with multiple abnormal screening indexes.%目的 了解不同产前诊断指征高龄孕妇的胎儿染色体非整倍体检出情况.方法 回顾分析高龄孕妇产前诊断结果及其临床资料,分析不同指征孕妇胎儿非整倍体发生率.结果 8771例子高龄孕妇中,检出胎儿染色体非整倍体188例(2.14%),其中21三体最多为111例,依次为18三体27例,47,XXY 15例,45,X 13例,47,XXX 11例,13三体10例,47,XYY 1例.无创产前筛查阳性检出率最高为91.67%,其次为血清学筛查高风险+超声异常发现(7.10%)、超声异常发现(6.57%)和血清学筛查高风险(1.60%).结论 高龄妊娠胎儿染色体非整倍体发生率高于一般人群,妊娠合并多项筛查指标异常时,胎儿染色体非整倍体发生的风险增加.

  5. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-01-01

    A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB). Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal ...

  6. Engaging Employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  7. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  8. Analysis On Outcome And Analysis On Outcome And Complication Of Pregnant Women Of AdvancedMaternal Age%高龄孕妇妊娠并发症及妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳华; 侯宗辰

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠情况及妊娠结局与孕妇年龄的关系.方法 随机选取189例高龄孕妇(>35岁,高龄组)和179例适龄孕妇(25-34岁,对照组)进行对照,比较两组妊娠及分娩并发症的发生率、剖宫产率及新生儿的情况并进行回顾性分析.结果 高龄组孕妇的高血压和糖尿病、前置胎盘、产后出血、早产、巨大儿、胎儿窘迫和剖宫产率发生率明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 高龄孕妇高危妊娠并发症发生率较高,临床应予高度重视.%Objective To discuss the relationship between the outcomes,pregnancy complication,maternal age and pregnancy outcome.Methods Totally 189 pregnant women of advanced maternal age(AMA)were selected as a case group,and 179pregnant women aged 25-34(non-AMA)were selected as a control group.The incidences of pregnancy,pregnancy complications,cesarean delivery and the situation of newborns were compared between case and control group to make a retrospective analysis.Result The older pregnant women have higher rates of pregnancy complicationsincluding hypertension,diabetes,placenta praevia,birth asphyxia,premature birth,lager babies,asphyxia neonatorum and cesarean delivery.Conclusion Pregnant women of advanced maternal age(AMA)have a higher rates of pregnancy complications and need better care in the clinical working.

  9. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines.

  10. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  11. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia C

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24(th) and 36(th) weeks of gestation. Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire(1) RESULTS: Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment (poorer body image and worse marital relationship) and poorer maternal attitudes (more negative attitudes to sex) than adult pregnant women. When controlling for socio-demographics, age at pregnancy predicts poorer body image and more negative attitudes to sex, but not a worse marital relationship, more somatic symptoms or negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby. A worse marital relationship was better predicted by living without the partner, and more somatic symptoms and negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby was predicted by higher education. Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment and poorer maternal attitudes than adult pregnant women according to socio-demographics and unfavorable developmental circumstances. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of change in maternal age composition on the incidence of Caesarean section and low birth weight: analysis of delivery records at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, 1999–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact on annual Caesarean section (CS and low birth weight deliveries (LBWT at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Methods We conducted data analysis of 91,699 singleton deliveries that took place in the hospital between 1999 and 2005. The data were extracted from the obstetric data base. Annual proportions of individual age groups were calculated and their trends over the years studied. Multiple logistic analyses were conducted to ascertain trends in the risks of CS and LBWT. The impact of age composition changes on CS and LBWT was estimated by calculating annual numbers of these outcomes with and without the major changes in age composition, all others remaining equal. In all statistics, a p value Results The proportion of teenage mothers (12–19 years progressively decreased over time while that of 30–34 years age group increased. From 1999, the risk of Caesarean delivery increased steadily to a maximum in 2005 [adjusted OR = 1.7; 95%CI (1.6–1.8] whereas that of LBWT declined to a minimum in 2005 (adjusted OR = 0.76; 95% CI (0.71–0.82. The current major changes in age trend were responsible for shifts in the number of CS of up to206 cases per year. Likewise, the shift in LBWT was up to 158 cases per year, but the 30–34 years age group had no impact on this. Conclusion The population of mothers giving birth at MNH is progressively becoming older with substantial impact on the incidence of CS and LBWT. Further research is needed to estimate the health cost implications of this change.

  13. Agency employment

    OpenAIRE

    Tomčíková, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    - Agency Employment For my thesis topic, I have chosen "Agency Employment". It's a relatively young institute, which was incorporated into our legal system only on October 1st, 2004. I believe that Agency Employment topic can be always considered current and positive, because it allows us to flexibly react to the needs of the job market. Since the topic is very broad, the goal of this paper is not a detailed analysis of all aspects of this institute, but only a few of them that I consider to ...

  14. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 27(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks' gestation: maternal and perinatal outcomes according to gestational age by weeks at onset of expectant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrys, Annette E; Barton, John R; Habli, Mounira; Sibai, Baha M

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine perinatal outcome and maternal morbidities based on gestational age (GA) at onset of expectant management in severe preeclampsia (PE) between 27(0/7) and 33 (6/7) weeks. In this retrospective analysis of outcome in patients with severe preeclampsia, we studied 66 patients (71 fetuses) with severe PE at 27 (0)/ (7) to 33(6/ 7). All patients received corticosteroids. Perinatal and maternal complications were analyzed. Five patients had twin gestations. Median for days of prolongation was 5 days (range, 3 to 35). Birth weights of 19 (27%) were or= grade ?). Rate of abruption was significantly higher at 27 to 28 weeks as compared with > 28 weeks (25% vs 6%, p = 0.05). There was no eclampsia, and two had transient renal insufficiency at 27 weeks. Four of 11 (36%) patients with expectant management at >or= 32 weeks had pulmonary edema or hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. During expectant management, rate of respiratory distress syndrome and other serious neonatal complications decrease with increasing GA, supporting a role for such management in early severe preeclampsia. Because there is significant maternal morbidity at >or= 32 weeks with minimal neonatal benefit, consideration should be given for delivery of these pregnancies following corticosteroid administration.

  15. Idade materna como fator de risco para a hipertensão induzida pela gravidez: análise multivariada Maternal age as a risk factor for pregnancy-induced hypertension: multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio de Lima Ferreira Fernandes Costa

    2003-01-01