WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials-unified soil classification

  1. Combination of soil classification and some selected soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage in the combined use of soil classification and top soil analysis for explaining crop yield variation was examined. Soil properties and yields of maize (Zea mays L) on different soil types were measured on farmers' fields for 2 years. Yield prediction improved from 2 per cent at the Order and Association levels to ...

  2. Characterization and Classification of Soils along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries, where research funds are limited, the availability of pedogenic information and proper classification of soils will be of great importance. The soils of Kindo Koye watershed were fully characterized along east and west facing toposequences that formed a catena and classified according to the Soil ...

  3. morphological characteristics and classification of soils derived

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ekwueme

    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF. SOILS DERIVED FROM DIVERSE PARENT MATERIALS IN CENTRAL. CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. 271. M. E. NSOR and I. J. IBANGA. (Received 5 October 2007; Revision Accepted 5 December 2007). ABSTRACT. Variation in soil characteristics ...

  4. Project implementation : classification of organic soils and classification of marls - training of INDOT personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This is an implementation project for the research completed as part of the following projects: SPR3005 Classification of Organic Soils : and SPR3227 Classification of Marl Soils. The methods developed for the classification of both soi...

  5. Recognition of the Slovenian soil classification types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Repe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia does not rank among the important agricultural countries. But recently, we hear more and more about self-supply and self-sufficiency, particularly in relation to all the negative trends from climate changes, fossil fuel prices rising and urban sprawl. All, including geographers, have often problems with soil identification in the field. In this article we will show a simple method of soil type determination according to Slovene soil classification, highlight issues which and where are those natural soils, the most important for food production and local self-sufficiency, and require the highest level of protection, where are restrictions on other natural soil types and how can indicator plants help in soil characteristics determination.

  6. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  7. Learning soil classification with the Kayapó indians

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper,Miguel; Teramoto,Edson Roberto; Vidal-Torrado,Pablo; Sparovek,Gerd

    2005-01-01

    The Kayapó Xicrin do Cateté (Xicrin) indigenous reserve is located within the Amazon forest in Pará (Brazil). The Xicrins have developed a soil classification system that is incorporated in their language and culture. The etymology of their classification system and its logical structure makes it similar and comparable with modern soil classification. The etymology of the Xicrin's language is based on the junction of radicals to form words for different soil names. The name of the soil is for...

  8. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  9. Clay-illuvial soils in the Polish and international soil classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabała Cezary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil with a clay-illuvial subsurface horizon are the most widespread soil type in Poland and significantly differ in morphology and properties developed under variable environmental conditions. Despite the long history of investigations, the rules of classification and cartography of clay-illuvial soils have been permanently discussed and modified. The distinction of clay-illuvial soils into three soil types, introduced to the Polish soil classification in 2011, has been criticized as excessively extended, non-coherent with the other parts and rules of the classification, hard to introduce in soil cartography and poorly correlated with the international soil classifications. One type of clay-illuvial soils (“gleby płowe” was justified and recommended to reintroduce in soil classification in Poland, as well as 10 soil subtypes listed in a hierarchical order. The subtypes may be combined if the soil has diagnostic features of more than one soil subtypes. Clear rules of soil name generalization (reduction of subtype number for one soil were suggested for soil cartography on various scales. One of the most important among the distinguished soil sub-types are the “eroded” or “truncated” clay-illuvial soils.

  10. Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification Relational Database ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the problems associated with classification, storage and retrieval of information on soil data, such as the incompatibility of soil data semantics; inadequate documentation, and lack of indexing; hence it is pretty difficult to efficiently access large database. Consequently, information on soil is very difficult ...

  11. Learning soil classification with the Kayapó indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kayapó Xicrin do Cateté (Xicrin indigenous reserve is located within the Amazon forest in Pará (Brazil. The Xicrins have developed a soil classification system that is incorporated in their language and culture. The etymology of their classification system and its logical structure makes it similar and comparable with modern soil classification. The etymology of the Xicrin's language is based on the junction of radicals to form words for different soil names. The name of the soil is formed by the main noun radical "puka", to which adjectives referring to soil morphological attributes are added. Modern classification systems are also based on similar morphological variables, and analytical support for defining boundaries of chemical or physical soil attributes are important only in lower hierarchical levels. Soil scientists have developed a soil classification system that is sensitive for the restrictions and potentialities the soil will show for modern agriculture. The Xicrins classify soils for what is important for their life style, i.e. a harmonic and friendly life with the resources they gain from the forest.

  12. New developments in soil classification World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachtergaele, F.O.; Spaargaren, O.; Deckers, J.A.; Ahrens, B.

    2000-01-01

    It has been a matter of great concern that after hundred years of modern soil science a generally accepted system of soil classification has not yet been universally adopted [Dudal, R., 1990. Progress in IRB preparation. In: Rozanov, B.G. (Ed.), Soil Classification. Reports of the International

  13. Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification Relational Database ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    engineering, several developers were asked what rules they applied to identify ... classification is actually a part of all good science. As Michalski ... by a large number of soil scientists. .... and use. The calculus relational database processing is.

  14. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOILS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Detailed soil survey (scale 1:25 000) was conducted to classify, characterise and determine status of the soils of ... and fauna and geological resources (Nievergelt et al., 1998). ...... suggesting a presence of downward movements of solutes.

  16. Revised Soil Classification System for Coarse-Fine Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Junghee; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Soil classification systems worldwide capture great physical insight and enable geotechnical engineers to anticipate the properties and behavior of soils by grouping them into similar response categories based on their index properties. Yet gravimetric analysis and data trends summarized from published papers reveal critical limitations in soil group boundaries adopted in current systems. In particular, current classification systems fail to capture the dominant role of fines on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils. A revised soil classification system (RSCS) for coarse-fine mixtures is proposed herein. Definitions of classification boundaries use low and high void ratios that gravel, sand, and fines may attain. This research adopts emax and emin for gravels and sands, and three distinctive void ratio values for fines: soft eF|10  kPa and stiff eF|1  MPa for mechanical response (at effective stress 10 kPa and 1 MPa, respectively), and viscous λ⋅eF|LL for fluid flow control, where λ=2log(LL−25) and eF|LL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. For classification purposes, these void ratios can be estimated from index properties such as particle shape, the coefficient of uniformity, and the liquid limit. Analytically computed and data-adjusted boundaries are soil-specific, in contrast with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Threshold fractions for mechanical control and for flow control are quite distinct in the proposed system. Therefore, the RSCS uses a two-name nomenclature whereby the first letters identify the component(s) that controls mechanical properties, followed by a letter (shown in parenthesis) that identifies the component that controls fluid flow. Sample charts in this paper and a Microsoft Excel facilitate the implementation of this revised classification system.

  17. Revised Soil Classification System for Coarse-Fine Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Junghee

    2017-04-17

    Soil classification systems worldwide capture great physical insight and enable geotechnical engineers to anticipate the properties and behavior of soils by grouping them into similar response categories based on their index properties. Yet gravimetric analysis and data trends summarized from published papers reveal critical limitations in soil group boundaries adopted in current systems. In particular, current classification systems fail to capture the dominant role of fines on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils. A revised soil classification system (RSCS) for coarse-fine mixtures is proposed herein. Definitions of classification boundaries use low and high void ratios that gravel, sand, and fines may attain. This research adopts emax and emin for gravels and sands, and three distinctive void ratio values for fines: soft eF|10  kPa and stiff eF|1  MPa for mechanical response (at effective stress 10 kPa and 1 MPa, respectively), and viscous λ⋅eF|LL for fluid flow control, where λ=2log(LL−25) and eF|LL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. For classification purposes, these void ratios can be estimated from index properties such as particle shape, the coefficient of uniformity, and the liquid limit. Analytically computed and data-adjusted boundaries are soil-specific, in contrast with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Threshold fractions for mechanical control and for flow control are quite distinct in the proposed system. Therefore, the RSCS uses a two-name nomenclature whereby the first letters identify the component(s) that controls mechanical properties, followed by a letter (shown in parenthesis) that identifies the component that controls fluid flow. Sample charts in this paper and a Microsoft Excel facilitate the implementation of this revised classification system.

  18. Characterization and Classification of Soils along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muler

    along east and west facing toposequences that formed a catena and classified according to the Soil Taxonomy and the. WRB Legend ..... Morphological features and physical properties of the soils along the toposequences at Kindo Koye watershed. Horizon. Depth. (cm). Color (moist). Field texture. Structure*. Consistence.

  19. Soil texture classification algorithm using RGB characteristics of soil images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil texture has an important influence on agriculture, affecting crop selection, movement of nutrients and water, soil electrical conductivity, and crop growth. Soil texture has traditionally been determined in the laboratory using pipette and hydrometer methods that require a considerable amount o...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soil classifications and bearing capacity. 3285.202 Section 3285.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  1. Soil classification using CPTu in Fort McMurray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbanna, M. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Nanaimo, BC (Canada); El Sabbagh, M. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Sharp, J. [ConeTec Investigations Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluated 4 piezocone penetration testing (CPTu) classification methods using data from 3 different sites near Fort McMurray in northern Alberta. For comparative purposes, other in-situ tests, field observations, and laboratory tests were performed at all sites in close proximity to the CPTu soundings. The study evaluated pleistocene sand and sand till deposits with low fines content. Profiling these deposits is necessary because they are often used as filler material for earth retaining structures in many oilsands projects. The study also evaluated pleistocene clay and clay tills that are often used as low permeability material for seepage control. In thick layers, pleistocene clay is known to cause foundation problems. CPTu with dissipation data was shown to be a useful tool in geotechnical engineering practice to provide near continuous soil profiling and material properties. CPTu tip resistance and sleeve friction combined with pore pressure measurement provided useful evaluation of subsurface soil types. It was concluded that although all of the CPTu classification charts provided reasonable soil classification in typical soil conditions, local experience and understanding of soil behaviour is needed to make an appropriate selection of the most applicable charts in a given geological condition. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  2. The nature and classification of Australian soils affected by sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian; Greene, Richard; Harms, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Australia are affected by the processes of salinity and sodicity and they are important processes to understand as they can result in the degradation of agricultural lands used for both intensive cropping and extensive grazing practices. Sodic soils are defined as those having ESP of at least 6% in Australia. Northcote and Skene (1972) estimated that of Australia's total area of 770 M ha, 39 M ha was affected by salinity and 193-257 M ha by sodicity. However, in a more recent publication, Rengasamy (2006), quoted the areas of saline and sodic soils as 66 M ha and 340 M ha respectively. The soils affected by sodium in Australia include a large group of contrasting soils (Northcote and Skene 1972). Based on the Australian soil classification, included are: • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic clay soils with uniform texture profiles - largely Vertosols 666 400 km2 • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic coarse and medium textured soils with uniform and gradational texture profiles - largely Calcarosols 600 700 km2 • Alkaline strongly sodic to sodic texture contrast soils - largely Sodosols 454 400 km2 • Non-alkaline sodic and strongly sodic neutral texture contrast soils - largely Sodosols 134 700 km2 • Non-alkaline sodic acid texture contrast soils - Sodosols and Kurosols 140 700 km2 Many Australian sodic soils have not developed by the traditional solonetz process of leaching of a solonchak, but rather have developed by the accumulation of sodium on the cation exchange complex in preference to the other exchangeable cations without any recognisable intermediate saline phase occurring. This is especially the case for the sodic, non-alkaline texture contrast soils or Sodosols. The major sodic soil group in WRB is the Solonetz soils. These require the presence of a Natric horizon which has to contain illuviated clay and at least 15% ESP. However, there is provision for Sodic qualifiers with at least 6% ESP for many other reference Soil Groups

  3. Image Analysis and Classification Based on Soil Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Impact Hammer, which is light, easy to operate, and cost effective . The Clegg Impact Hammer measures stiffness of the soil surface by drop- ping a... effect on out-of-scene classifications. More statistical analy- sis should, however, be done to compare the measured field spectra, the WV2 training...DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Ci- tation of trade names does not

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS SOILS URBOECOSYSTEMS OF DNEPROPETROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T.F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The functioning of the city, as artificially created system of the result of the anthropogenic activity, promotes degradation and, sometimes, destruction of the environment, with change it to the technogenic replacement. First of all suffers the soil, as a basic component of any ecosystem, where the circulation of materials close, because it is a powerful biogeochemical barrier to their migration, able to deposit toxicants a long time through its protective functions. The leading role of the formation of the urban soil plays an anthropogenic factor, which is able to influence directly – the destruction of the soil profile due to construction activity and indirectly – with aerogenic or hydrogenous pollution xenobiotics contained in the emissions and discharges of the industrial enterprises; and it is determined by the type of economic use and history of area developing. The variability of using the urban soil is reflected in the soil profile and contributed to the creation of the organic-mineral layer by the mixing, mound, burial and (or contamination of the different substances on the surface. Therefore, classification of the urban soils by the anthropogenic destruction degree of the soil profile is very important scientific and practical task for the urban ecology to the achievement standards of the ecological safety of the modern city, because the restoring of their protective functions is impossible without knowledge of the morphological structure. Purpose. Classify the anthropogenical soils of city Dnipropetrovsk disturbed by the construction activities by the determining of the morphological characteristics of the soil profile structure with separation of the anthropogenic and technogenic surface formations compared to the zonal soil – ordinery chernozem. Conclusion. Within urboecosystem city Dnipropetrovsk long-term human impact to the zonal soil – chernozem led to its transformation into urbanozem witch

  5. Territorial pattern and classification of soils of Kryvyi Rih Iron-Ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Dolina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors developed the classification of soils and adapted it to the conditions of Krivyi Rih industrial region. It became the basis for determining the degree of soil cover transformation in the iron-ore basin under technogenesis. The classification represents the system of hierarchical objects of different taxonomic levels. It allows determination of relationships between objects and their properties. Researched patterns of soil cover structures’ distribution were the basis for the relevant mapping and classification of soils. The classification is adapted to highly-influential industrial conditions of soils formation in the region. The adaptation measures were specific classification levels and units, which provided more detailed differentiation of soils. The authors proposed to separate the soils by the degree of soil formation potential realization for super-divisions. The potential determination allowed predicting the outcome of soil formation and identification of transformation degree of soil cover structures in the region. The results indicated that the main type of soil structures in the industrial region was represented by primitive soils (indicated as a separate type. These soils were determined as dynamic elements in the structure of industrial region soil cover. The article indicated that presence of soil cover structures with the domination of technogenic soils, particularly post-technogenic soils, was the marker of the soil cover in Krivyi Rih Iron-Ore Basin

  6. USDA soil classification system dictates site surface management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Success or failure of site surface management practices greatly affects long-term site stability. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil classification system best documents those parameters which control the success of installed practices for managing both erosion and surface drainage. The USDA system concentrates on soil characteristics in the upper three meters of the surface that support the associated flora both physically and physiologically. The USDA soil survey first identifies soil series based on detailed characteristics that are related to production potential. Using the production potential, land use capability classes are developed. Capability classes reveal the highest and best agronomic use for the site. Lower number classes are considered arable while higher number classes are best suited for grazing agriculture. Application of ecological principles based on the USDA soil survey reveals the current state of the site relative to its ecological potential. To assure success, site management practices must be chosen that are compatible with both production capability and current state of the site

  7. Estimation of Compaction Parameters Based on Soil Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Muis, Z. A.; Hastuty, I. P.; Siregar, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Factors that must be considered in compaction of the soil works were the type of soil material, field control, maintenance and availability of funds. Those problems then raised the idea of how to estimate the density of the soil with a proper implementation system, fast, and economical. This study aims to estimate the compaction parameter i.e. the maximum dry unit weight (γ dmax) and optimum water content (Wopt) based on soil classification. Each of 30 samples were being tested for its properties index and compaction test. All of the data’s from the laboratory test results, were used to estimate the compaction parameter values by using linear regression and Goswami Model. From the research result, the soil types were A4, A-6, and A-7 according to AASHTO and SC, SC-SM, and CL based on USCS. By linear regression, the equation for estimation of the maximum dry unit weight (γdmax *)=1,862-0,005*FINES- 0,003*LL and estimation of the optimum water content (wopt *)=- 0,607+0,362*FINES+0,161*LL. By Goswami Model (with equation Y=mLogG+k), for estimation of the maximum dry unit weight (γdmax *) with m=-0,376 and k=2,482, for estimation of the optimum water content (wopt *) with m=21,265 and k=-32,421. For both of these equations a 95% confidence interval was obtained.

  8. An indigenous soil classification system for Bellona Island - a raised atoll in the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of evaluating existing traditional farming systems is to combine local knowledge and modern scientific methods and terminology. This requires an evaluation of indigenous soil classification in modern terms. This paper focuses on an indigenous soil classification system...... perceive the same four out of seven soil types as highly useful for cultivation and rank these soil types similarly according to their suitability for different crops such as yam, watermelon, cassava and sweet potato. It is concluded that the indigenous soil classification is in line with the soil...... production potential and useful for land evaluation on Bellona....

  9. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zinck J Alfred; Bautista Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the...

  10. Removal of transuranics from Johnston Island soil by fractional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached as a result of the research conducted with the TRUclean process on Johnston Island: Processed materials will have a total TRU activity of less than 500 Bq/Kg. Approximately 90% of the TRU activity in coral/soil is removed by a single pass through the fractional classification process. A volume reduction of greater than 90% of the original contaminated volume can be achieved with the returned ''clean'' volume less than or equal to the cleanup criteria. Reprocessing or multiple staging of the process units will yield overall efficiencies of greater than 90%. Continued testing at Nevada Test Site confirmed these conclusions

  11. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  12. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  13. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    the general texture classifications. 2. Another source for soil information, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO...is to use another soils dataset that contains soil properties for the areas of interest, such as the Digital Soil Map of the World provided by the...www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/soils/survey/ NOTE: The contents of this technical note are not to be used for advertising

  14. Territorial pattern and classification of soils of Kryvyi Rih Iron-Ore Basin

    OpenAIRE

    О. О. Dolina; О. М. Smetana

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed the classification of soils and adapted it to the conditions of Krivyi Rih industrial region. It became the basis for determining the degree of soil cover transformation in the iron-ore basin under technogenesis. The classification represents the system of hierarchical objects of different taxonomic levels. It allows determination of relationships between objects and their properties. Researched patterns of soil cover structures’ distribution were the basis for the relev...

  15. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  16. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinck J Alfred

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. Results On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. Conclusions The Maya soil classification (MSC is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  17. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Zinck, J Alfred

    2010-02-13

    Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. The Maya soil classification (MSC) is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  18. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  19. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  20. Local soil classification and crop suitability: Implications for the historical land use and soil management in Monti di Trapani (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Corselli, Rocco; Bonet, María Teresa; Lopapa, Giuseppe; Pillitteri, Valentina; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    In the past, the lack of technologies (e.g. synthetic fertilizers) to overcome biophysical limitations has played a central role in land use planning. Thus, landscape management and agronomic practices are reactions to local knowledge and perceptions on natural resources, particularly soil. In the framework of the European research project MEMOLA (FP7), the role of local farmers knowledge and perceptions on soil for the historical land use through the spatial distribution of crops and the various management practices have been assessed in three different areas of Monti di Trapani region (Sicily). The identification of the soil classification systems of farmers and the criteria on which it is based, linked to the evaluation of the farmers' ability to identify and map the different soil types, was a key step. Nevertheless, beyond the comparison of the ethnopedological classification approach versus standard soil classification systems, the study also aims at understanding local soil management and land use decisions. The applied methodology was based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining soil science methods and participatory appraisal tools, particularly: i) semi-structured interviews; ii) soil sampling and analysis; iii) discussion groups; and iv) a workshop with local edafologists and agronomists. A rich local glossary of terms associated with the soil conditions and an own soil classification system have been identified in the region. Also, a detailed soil map, including process of soil degradation and soil capability, has been generated. This traditional soil knowledge has conditioned the management and the spatial distribution of the crops, and therefore the configuration of the landscape, until the 1990s. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union project MEMOLA (Grant agreement no: 613265).

  1. Evaluation of Different Methods for Soil Classifications by Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Sanaeinejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an important factor that affects plant growth and reduces production of plantat different growth stages Remote sensing technology and GIS have a great potential for monitoring dynamic soil processes such as salinity. In the present study the efficiency of remote sensing technology and its integration with GIS was examined to estimate soil salinity for Neyshabour basin. Different classification methods for soil salinity were also investigated. We used 6 bands of LandSat ETM+ for this study. Classification results obtained from applying mathematical models for the images were compared with different band combinations results. The area of saline and non saline soil classes were identified in the study area based on the both methods and also based on the combination of the two methods. The results showed that the best method for soil classification was using of the two methods in the first stage to separate two classes of saline and non saline soils and then classifying the non saline soils in the second stage. As the variation in the numerical values of the image for different soil salinity in the study area was small, it was concluded that there is a limit potential of LandSat ETM+ images for identifying and classification of soil salinity in such an area.

  2. Soil classification based on cone penetration test (CPT) data in Western Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriyono, Arwan; Yanto, Santoso, Purwanto Bekti; Sumiyanto

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a modified friction ratio range for soil classification i.e. gravel, sand, silt & clay and peat, using CPT data in Western Central Java. The CPT data was obtained solely from Soil Mechanic Laboratory of Jenderal Soedirman University that covers more than 300 sites within the study area. About 197 data were produced from data filtering process. IDW method was employed to interpolated friction ratio values in a regular grid point for soil classification map generation. Soil classification map was generated and presented using QGIS software. In addition, soil classification map with respect to modified friction ratio range was validated using 10% of total measurements. The result shows that silt and clay dominate soil type in the study area, which is in agreement with two popular methods namely Begemann and Vos. However, the modified friction ratio range produces 85% similarity with laboratory measurements whereby Begemann and Vos method yields 70% similarity. In addition, modified friction ratio range can effectively distinguish fine and coarse grains, thus useful for soil classification and subsequently for landslide analysis. Therefore, modified friction ratio range proposed in this study can be used to identify soil type for mountainous tropical region.

  3. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  4. The History of Soil Mapping and Classification in Europe: The role of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Early systematic soil mapping in Europe dates back to the early times of soil science in the 19th Century and was developed at National scales mostly for taxation purposes. National soil classification systems emerged out of the various scientific communities active at that time in leading countries like Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, United Kingdom and many others. Different scientific communities were leading in the various countries, in some cases stemming from geological sciences, in others as a branch of agricultural sciences. Soil classification for the purpose of ranking soils for their capacity to be agriculturally productive emerged as the main priority, allowing in some countries for very detailed and accurate soil maps at 1:5,000 scale and larger. Detailed mapping was mainly driven by taxation purposes in the early times but evolved in several countries also as a planning and management tool for farms and local administrations. The need for pan-European soil mapping and classification efforts emerged only after World War II in the early 1950's under the auspices of FAO with the aim to compile a common European soil map as a contribution to the global soil mapping efforts of FAO at that time. These efforts evolved over the next decades, with the support of the European Commission, towards the establishment of a permanent network of National soil survey institutions (the European Soil Bureau Network). With the introduction of digital soil mapping technologies, the new European Soil Information System (EUSIS) was established, incorporating data at multiple scales for the EU member states and bordering countries. In more recent years, the formal establishment of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) hosted by the European Commission, together with a formal legal framework for soil mapping and soil classification provided by the INSPIRE directive and the related standardization and harmonization efforts, has led to the operational development of advanced

  5. A Brief History of Soil Mapping and Classification in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Hartemink, Alfred E.

    2014-05-01

    Soil maps show the distribution of soils across an area but also depict soil science theory and ideas on soil formation and classification at the time the maps were created. The national soil mapping program in the USA was established in 1899. The first nation-wide soil map was published by M. Whitney in 1909 and showed soil provinces that were largely based on geology. In 1912, G.N. Coffey published the first country-wide map based on soil properties. The map showed 5 broad soil units that used parent material, color and drainage as diagnostic criteria. The 1913 national map was produced by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham and showed broad physiographic units that were further subdivided into soil series, soil classes and soil types. In 1935, Marbut drafted a series of maps based on soil properties, but these maps were replaced as official U.S. soil maps in 1938 with the work of M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. A series of soil maps similar to modern USA maps appeared in the 1960s with the 7th Approximation followed by revisions with the 1975 and 1999 editions of Soil Taxonomy. This review has shown that soil maps in the United States produced since the early 1900s moved initially from a geologic-based concept to a pedologic concept of soils. Later changes were from property-based systems to process-based, and then back to property-based. The information in this presentation is based on Brevik and Hartemink (2013). Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil Maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390.

  6. Classification of soil respiration in areas of sugarcane renewal using decision tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Viana Vieira Farhate

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of data mining is a promising alternative to predict soil respiration from correlated variables. Our objective was to build a model using variable selection and decision tree induction to predict different levels of soil respiration, taking into account physical, chemical and microbiological variables of soil as well as precipitation in renewal of sugarcane areas. The original dataset was composed of 19 variables (18 independent variables and one dependent (or response variable. The variable-target refers to soil respiration as the target classification. Due to a large number of variables, a procedure for variable selection was conducted to remove those with low correlation with the variable-target. For that purpose, four approaches of variable selection were evaluated: no variable selection, correlation-based feature selection (CFS, chisquare method (χ2 and Wrapper. To classify soil respiration, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software package. Our results showed that data mining techniques allow the development of a model for soil respiration classification with accuracy of 81 %, resulting in a knowledge base composed of 27 rules for prediction of soil respiration. In particular, the wrapper method for variable selection identified a subset of only five variables out of 18 available in the original dataset, and they had the following order of influence in determining soil respiration: soil temperature > precipitation > macroporosity > soil moisture > potential acidity.

  7. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Soil Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the particles are held together by a chemical agent, such as calcium carbonate, such that a hand-size sample cannot be crushed into powder or individual soil particles by finger pressure. Cohesive soil means... quantitative and qualitative information as may be necessary to identify properly the properties, factors, and...

  8. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  9. Characteristics and Classification of Soils Developed Over Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-detailed soil survey of the land of Ikwuano Local Government Area Abia State South East Nigeria was made with the aid of the digitized map. Pedons in the identified mapping units were sampled and studied for their morphology, physical and chemical properties (e.g. soil colour, texture, pH, CEC, %OC, base ...

  10. Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subangular blocky in the surface and changes to angular blocky in .... have angular blocky structure at the surface and changes to ... The soils in TUP 3 were brown in colour (2.5YR 4/6) in ..... erosion and enhance and maintain soil quality and.

  11. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  12. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  13. Final hazard classification for the 116-F-4 (Terra Stor) soil retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the final hazard classification for the remediation activities described in the Work Plan for the Retrieval of Contaminated Soil from the 116-F-4 Storage Unit. Based upon total inventories calculated from the characterization data, a preliminary hazard categorization of less than Hazard Category 3 was assigned. Based upon the material-at-risk, a final hazard classification of radiological was assigned

  14. Using proximal soil sensors and fuzzy classification for mapping Amazonian Dark Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Söderström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested if hand-carried field proximal soil sensing (PSS can be used to map the distribution of anthropogenic Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE. ADE soils are rich in archaeological artefacts, nutrients, organic matter and carbon in the very stable form of pyrogenic carbon, also referred to as black carbon or biochar. To test the capacity of PSS to detect signature ADE properties we measured electrical conductivity (ECa, magnetic susceptibility (MSa and gamma ray data by transect sampling and compared these readings, using fuzzy classification, with datasets on chemical soil properties from a 28 ha large study area located on the Belterra Plateau of the Lower Amazon in northern Brazil. Results indicate that ECa and MSa measurements were good indicators of ADE signatures, but that the gamma radiation sensor was less useful in the deeply weathered soils. PSS and fuzzy classification can be used for rapid field mapping of ADE for both agricultural and archaeological purposes.

  15. Single and Multi-Date Landsat Classifications of Basalt to Support Soil Survey Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Basalt outcrops are significant features in the Western United States and consistently present challenges to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil mapping efforts. Current soil survey methods to estimate basalt outcrops involve field transects and are impractical for mapping regionally extensive areas. The purpose of this research was to investigate remote sensing methods to effectively determine the presence of basalt rock outcrops. Five Landsat 5 TM scenes (path 39, row 29 over the year 2007 growing season were processed and analyzed to detect and quantify basalt outcrops across the Clark Area Soil Survey, ID, USA (4,570 km2. The Robust Classification Method (RCM using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method and Random Forest (RF classifications was applied to individual scenes and to a multitemporal stack of the five images. The highest performing RCM basalt classification was obtained using the 18 July scene, which yielded an overall accuracy of 60.45%. The RF classifications applied to the same datasets yielded slightly better overall classification rates when using the multitemporal stack (72.35% than when using the 18 July scene (71.13% and the same rate of successfully predicting basalt (61.76% using out-of-bag sampling. For optimal RCM and RF classifications, uncertainty tended to be lowest in irrigated areas; however, the RCM uncertainty map included more extensive areas of low uncertainty that also encompassed forested hillslopes and riparian areas. RCM uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of bright soil reflectance, while RF uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of shadows. Quantification of basalt requires continued investigation to reduce the influence of vegetation, lichen and loess on basalt detection. With further development, remote sensing tools have the potential to support soil survey mapping of lava fields covering expansive areas in the Western United States and other regions of the world with similar

  16. Optimal sample size of signs for classification of radiational and oily soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayev, M.P.; Iskenderov, S.M.; Aghayev, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : This article tells about classification of radiational and oily soils that should be in essence a compact intelligence system which contains maximum information on classes of soil objects in the accepted feature space. The stored experience shows that the volume of the most informative soil signs can make up maximum 7-8 indexes. More correct approach to our opinion for a sample of the most informative (most important) indexes is the method of testing and mistakes, that is the experimental method, allowing to make use a wide experience and intuition of the researcher, or group of the researchers, engaged for many years in the field of soil science. At this operational stage of the formal device of soils classification, to say more concrete, the assessment section of selfdescriptiveness of soil signs of this formal device, in our opinion, is purely mathematized and in some cases even not reflect the true picture. In this case it will be calculated 21 pair of correlative elements between the selected soil signs as a measure of the linear communication. The volume of the correlative row will be equal to 6, as the increase in volume of the correlative row can sharply increase the volume calculation. Pertinently to note that, it is the first time an attempt is made to create correlative matrixes of the most important signs of radiation and oily soils

  17. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  18. characteristics and classification of the soils of gonde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    Nitisols occupied the rolling and undulating slopes marked with reddish, ... Variability in soil characteristics largely depended on drainage, topography and .... raphic patterns, representative pits were opened ... by ammonium acetate method at pH 7 (Jackson, ..... slope positions, respectively, and with steep ..... A Text Book.

  19. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six profiles located in the inland valley soils of central Cross River State were studied. The surface horizon colour of the first four were either dark Grey or dark brown. The last two profiles were grey. All subsurface horizons were either greyish or brownish and highly mottled. The structure of all the profiles were either blocky ...

  20. Morphological Interpretation of Reflectance Spectrum (MIRS using libraries looking towards soil classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Melo Demattê

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for tools to perform soil surveying faster and cheaper has led to the development of technological innovations such as remote sensing (RS and the so-called spectral libraries in recent years. However, there are no studies which collate all the RS background to demonstrate how to use this technology for soil classification. The present study aims to describe a simple method of how to classify soils by the morphology of spectra associated with a quantitative view (400-2,500 nm. For this, we constructed three spectral libraries: (i one for quantitative model performance; (ii a second to function as the spectral patterns; and (iii a third to serve as a validation stage. All samples had their chemical and granulometric attributes determined by laboratory analysis and prediction models were created based on soil spectra. The system is based on seven steps summarized as follows: i interpretation of the spectral curve intensity; ii observation of the general shape of curves; iii evaluation of absorption features; iv comparison of spectral curves between the same profile horizons; v quantification of soil attributes by spectral library models; vi comparison of a pre-existent spectral library with unknown profile spectra; vii most probable soil classification. A soil cannot be classified from one spectral curve alone. The behavior between the horizons of a profile, however, was correlated with its classification. In fact, the validation showed 85 % accuracy between the Morphological Interpretation of Reflectance Spectrum (MIRS method and the traditional classification, showing the importance and potential of a combination of descriptive and quantitative evaluations.

  1. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2010-01-01

    the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature...... field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v......) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME...

  2. The assignment of occupation densities and the rural soil classification in the territorial classification plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez R, Luis Anibal; Largacha R, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Regulations concerning land use density controls in non-urban areas are often ineffective in protecting the rural character of such areas, within the context of Colombia's territorial organization plans What they tend to do is indirectly promote urban expansion through the fixing of minimum plot sizes Rather than question the methods employed in land use classification, the present study uses the case of the rural area of Santa Elena on the outskirts of Medellin and the existing zoning controls as established in the territorial organization plan, and focuses on the regulations established for each land use category as they effect occupation densities and patterns of plot fragmentation. On the one hand a simulation is undertaken of the trends which would result from land occupation in accordance with existing regulations concerning land use classification and plot size This indicates that the overall effect would be to disperse settlement patterns and fragment the landscape Secondly, an alternative scenario is developed based on the modification of minimum plot sizes for each of the three land use classifications established in the existing plan (protection, rural and suburban) In this way, and through the perspective of landscape ecology, It Is shown that in certain cases less dispersion and greater concentration of settlements can be achieved, and in other cases dispersion is minimized The use of GIS is fundamental in the development of such simulation techniques

  3. Classification and Reevaluation on Radionuclide and Activity of Contaminated Soil(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Shon, J. S.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, T. K.; Hong, D. S.; Lee, B. C.; Cho, H. S.; Je, W. G

    2006-03-15

    Radioactive wastes generated during the decommissioning process and contaminated soils were transported and have been stored at the waste storage facility. The radioactivity in the wastes has been decayed a lot. The radionuclide and the activity concentration of stored soil wastes were reevaluated. And using the reevaluation results, the soil wastes were classified as either a regulatory clearance wastes or a radioactive waste. The storage space can be secured by storing regulatory clearance wastes in the extra storage facility and self disposing them. Also, the objective is to protect the environment from contamination by observing the related nuclear regulation and managing the radioactive wastes. Through the reevaluation of radioactivity and classification of contaminated soils, the unnecessary decontamination of uncontaminated soil was prevented. It allowed us to save the cost for decontamination and disposal, also we could secure the pretreatment process techniques such as how to sample and analyze the nuclide.

  4. Classification of andisol soil on robusta coffee plantation in Silima Pungga - Pungga District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbun, P.; Nasution, Z.; Hanum, H.; Karim, A.

    2018-02-01

    The survey study aims to classify the Inceptisol soil on Robusta coffee plantation in Silima Pugga-Pungga District, from Order level to Sub Group level. The study was conducted on location of sample soil profiles which were determined based on Soil Map Unit (SMU) with the main Andisol Order, i.e. SMU 12, SMU 15 and SMU 17 of 18 existing SMU. The soil profiles were described to determine the morphological characteristics of the soil, while the physical and chemical properties were done by laboratory analysis. The soil samples were taken from each horizon in each profile and analyzed in the laboratory in the form of soil texture, bulk density, pH H2O, pH KCl, pH NaF, C-organic, exchangeable bases (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), ZPC (zero point charge), base saturation, cation exchange capasity (CEC), P-retention, Al-Oxalate (Al-O) and Si-Oxalate (Si-O). The results showed that the classification of Andisol soil based on Soil Taxonomy only has one Sub Group namely Typic Hapludand. It is expected that the results of this study can provide information for more appropriate land management in order to increase the production of Robusta coffee plant in Silima Pungga-Pungga Sub district.

  5. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  6. Classification of Effective Soil Depth by Using Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Chan, H. C.; Chen, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Classification of effective soil depth is a task of determining the slopeland utilizable limitation in Taiwan. The "Slopeland Conservation and Utilization Act" categorizes the slopeland into agriculture and husbandry land, land suitable for forestry and land for enhanced conservation according to the factors including average slope, effective soil depth, soil erosion and parental rock. However, sit investigation of the effective soil depth requires a cost-effective field work. This research aimed to classify the effective soil depth by using multinomial logistic regression with the environmental factors. The Wen-Shui Watershed located at the central Taiwan was selected as the study areas. The analysis of multinomial logistic regression is performed by the assistance of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The effective soil depth was categorized into four levels including deeper, deep, shallow and shallower. The environmental factors of slope, aspect, digital elevation model (DEM), curvature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were selected for classifying the soil depth. An Error Matrix was then used to assess the model accuracy. The results showed an overall accuracy of 75%. At the end, a map of effective soil depth was produced to help planners and decision makers in determining the slopeland utilizable limitation in the study areas.

  7. Comparison of Capability of Digitizing Methods to Predict Soil classification According to the Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh mosleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil classification generally aims to establish a taxonomy based on breaking the soil continuum into homogeneous groups that can highlight the essential differences in soil properties and functions between classes.The two most widely used modern soil classification schemes are Soil Taxonomy (ST and World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB.With the development of computers and technology, digital and quantitative approaches have been developed. These new techniques that include the spatial prediction of soil properties or classes, relies on finding the relationships between soil and the auxiliary information that explain the soil forming factors or processes and finally predict soil patterns on the landscape. These approaches are commonly referred to as digital soil mapping (DSM (14. A key component of any DSM mapping activity is the method used to define the relationship between soil observation and auxiliary information (4. Several types of machine learning approaches have been applied for digital soil mapping of soil classes, such as logistic and multinomial logistic regressions (10,12, random forests (15, neural networks (3,13 and classification trees (22,4. Many decisions about the soil use and management are based on the soil differences that cannot be captured by higher taxonomic levels (i.e., order, suborder and great group (4. In low relief areas such as plains, it is expected that the soil forming factors are more homogenous and auxiliary information explaining soil forming factors may have low variation and cannot show the soil variability. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province. According tothe semi-detailed soil survey (16, 120 pedons with approximate distance of 750 m were excavated and described according to the “field book for describing and sampling soils” (19. Soil samples were taken from different genetic horizons, air dried and

  8. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Venegas, C P; Stomph, T J; Verschoor, G; Echeverri, J A; Struik, P C

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The study was framed in ethnopedology: local classifications, preferences, rankings, and soil uses were recorded through interviews and field observations. These communities recognized nine soils varying in suitability for agriculture. They identified anthropogenic soils as most suitable for agriculture, but only one group used them predominantly for their swiddens. As these communities did not perceive soil nutrient status as limiting, they did not base crop-site selection on soil fertility or on the interplay between soil quality and performance of manioc genetic resources.

  9. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  10. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  11. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  12. A GIS-based fuzzy classification for mapping the agricultural soils for N-fertilizers use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, J H; Kalivas, D P; Kollias, V J

    2003-06-20

    Special attention should be paid to the choice of the proper N-fertilizer, in order to avoid a further acidification and degradation of acid soils and at the same time to improve nitrogen use efficiency and to limit the nitrate pollution of the ground waters. Therefore, the risk of leaching of the fertilizer and of the acidification of the soils must be considered prior to any N-fertilizer application. The application of N-fertilizers to the soil requires a good knowledge of the soil-fertilizer relationship, which those who are planning the fertilization policy and/or applying it might not have. In this study, a fuzzy classification methodology is presented for mapping the agricultural soils according to the kind and the rate of application of N-fertilizer that should be used. The values of pH, clay, sand and carbonates soil variables are estimated at each point of an area by applying geostatistical techniques. Using the pH values three fuzzy sets: "no-risk-acidification"; "low-risk-acidification"; and "high-risk-acidification" are produced and the memberships of each point to the three sets are estimated. Additionally, from the clay and sand values the membership grade to the fuzzy set "risk-of-leaching" is calculated. The parameters and their values, which are used for the construction of the fuzzy sets, are based on the literature, the existing knowledge and the experimentation, of the soil-fertilizer relationships and provide a consistent mechanism for mapping the soils according to the type of N-fertilizers that should be applied and the rate of applications. The maps produced can easily be interpreted and used by non-experts in the application of the fertilization policy at national, local and farm level. The methodology is presented through a case study using data from the Amfilochia area, west Greece.

  13. Soil classification in 15 accelerographic stations, using methods based on ambient vibrations and VS30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The techniques H/V, FK and SPAC were applied, all based on the measurement of surface waves main generated by ambient vibrations, for the soil characterization of 15 selected sites. 12 of them corresponding to accelerographic stations of the Laboratorio de Ingenieria Sismica of the Universidad de Costa Rica. 8 sensors (triaxial geophones) were placed for that purpose in circular arrayz, and spectral ratios (from H/V) dispersion curves (from FK) and autocorrelation curves (from SPAC) were obtained for each site considered. The soil type was determined, based on above, according to the site characteristic period (T 0 ) read from H/V. Each site was also classified according to the Seismic Code of Costa Rica (2010) and the parameter Vs30 calculated from the inversion of dispersion curves and autocorrelation. The values of T 0 vary between 0,3 s to 1,5 s and the Vs30 between 244 m/s to 379 m/s have indicated that soils correspond to S 3 (soft soil, 67% of all cases). The discovery of sites whose classification corresponds to S 1 (rock) or S 4 (very soft soil) was discarded. (author) [es

  14. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Classification of Surface and Deep Soil Samples Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Ali, M.; Daud, M.

    2015-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the activity concentrations measured in surface and deep soil samples for natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclides. Soil samples were obtained from 48 different locations in Gilgit, Pakistan covering about 50 km/sup 2/ areas at an average altitude of 1550 m above sea level. From each location two samples were collected: one from the top soil (2-6 cm) and another from a depth of 6-10 cm. Four radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs were quantified. The data was analyzed using t-test to find out activity concentration difference between the surface and depth samples. At the surface, the median activity concentrations were 23.7, 29.1, 4.6 and 115 Bq kg/sup -1/ for 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K respectively. For the same radionuclides, the activity concentrations were respectively 25.5, 26.2, 2.9 and 191 Bq kg/sup -1/ for the depth samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore patterns within the data. A positive significant correlation was observed between the radionuclides /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th. The data from PCA was further utilized in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the classification of surface and depth samples. LDA classified surface and depth samples with good predictability. (author)

  16. Issues relating to classification of colluvial soils in young morainic areas (Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtoniak Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colluvial soils (in Polish: gleby deluwialne are an important part of the soil cover in young morainic landscapes of northern Poland. They evolved as a result of the accumulation of eroded material at the foot of the slopes and bottoms of closed depressions. The aim of this study was to determine the systematic position of colluvial soils commonly found in the Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland. Ten soil pits located in different types of landscapes were selected for testing soil properties. The colluvial material is characterized by diversified properties: thickness, particle-size distribution, organic carbon content, color, pH, and base saturation. As a result, the investigated soils represent broad spectrum of typological units according to Polish Soil Classification (2011. Some of them contain epipedons mollic and meet the criteria of colluvial chernozemic soils. They were found mainly on buried black earths in areas with small slope inclinations. Many pedons contain pale colored acidic colluvial material with low base saturation and low organic carbon content and must be classified as other types: arenosols (in Polish: arenosole or rusty soils (in Polish: gleby rdzawe. These soils occur mostly in areas with intensive relief and overlay the different soil types, including rusty soil and organic soils. They are formed as a result of soils lessivés and rusty soils truncation. An introduction of the additional units of “proper colluvial soils” which have epipedon ochric, and “rusty-colluvial soils” with endopedon sideric to the next edition of Polish Soil Classification would enable a more precise expression of the genesis of these soils in the type rank. Moreover, the definition of chernozemic colluvial soils could be extended to colluvial soils with umbric horizon. Classifying soils derived from colluvial material as soils of other types leads to the disappearance of this units on maps and underestimation of the

  17. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  18. The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombke, J.; Jansch, S.; Didden, W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  20. Decoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier; Colinet, Gilles; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were classifying soils in the field according to physical and morphogenetic characteristics such as texture, drainage class and profile development. Mapping units are defined as a combination of these characteristics but to which modifiers can be added such as parent material, stoniness or depth to substrata. Interpretation of the map towards predicting soil properties seems straight forward. Consequently, since the soil map has been digitized, it has been used for e.g. hydrological modelling or for estimating soil organic carbon content at sub-national and national level. Besides the explicit information provided by the legend, a wealth of implicit information is embedded in the map. Based on three cases, we illustrate that by decoding this information, properties pertaining to soil drainage or soil organic carbon content can be assessed more accurately. First, the presence/absence of fragipans affects the soil hydraulic conductivity. Although a dedicated symbol exits for fragipans (suffix "...m"), it is only used explicitly in areas where fragipans are not all that common. In the Belgian Ardennes, where fragipans are common, their occurrence is implicitly implied for various soil types mentioned in explanatory booklets. Second, whenever seasonal or permanent perched water tables were observed, these were indicated by drainage class ".h." or ".i.", respectively. Stagnic properties have been under reported as typical stagnic mottling - i.e. when the surface of soil peds are lighter and/or paler than the more reddish interior - were not distinguished from mottling due to groundwater gley. Still, by combining information on topography and the occurrence of substratum layers, stagnic properties can be inferred. Thirdly, soils with deep anthropogenic enriched organic matter

  1. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the GEMS soil organic carbon model to land cover land use classification uncertainties under different climate scenarios in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, A.M.; Roy, David P.; Hanan, N.P.; Liu, S.; Hansen, M.; Toure, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit land cover land use (LCLU) change information is needed to drive biogeochemical models that simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Such information is increasingly being mapped using remotely sensed satellite data with classification schemes and uncertainties constrained by the sensing system, classification algorithms and land cover schemes. In this study, automated LCLU classification of multi-temporal Landsat satellite data were used to assess the sensitivity of SOC modeled by the Global Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). The GEMS was run for an area of 1560 km2 in Senegal under three climate change scenarios with LCLU maps generated using different Landsat classification approaches. This research provides a method to estimate the variability of SOC, specifically the SOC uncertainty due to satellite classification errors, which we show is dependent not only on the LCLU classification errors but also on where the LCLU classes occur relative to the other GEMS model inputs.

  3. The use of enchytraeids in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansch, S.; Rombke, J.; Didden, W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In many soils worldwide, enchytraeids (Annelida: Oligochaeta) play a major role in soil functions like the decomposition of organic matter. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and taxonomic as well as ecological knowledge is rapidly increasing (in particular, ecological profiles

  4. The soil classification and the subsurface carbon stock estimation with a ground-penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, K.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems of the Kyoto Protocol is that we have no effective method to estimate the carbon stock of the subsurface. To solve this problem, we propose the application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to the subsurface soil survey. As a result, it is shown that GPR can detect the soil horizons, stones and roots. The fluctuations of the soil horizons in the forest are cleanly indicated as the reflection pattern of the microwaves. Considering the fact that the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each soil layer is almost unique, GPR results can be used to estimate the carbon stock in soil by combining with the vertical soil sample survey at one site. Then as a trial, we demonstrate to estimate the carbon content fixed in soil layers based on the soil samples and GPR survey data. we also compare this result with the carbon stock for the flat horizon case. The advantages of GPR usage for this object are not only the reduction of uncertainty and the cost, but also the environmental friendliness of survey manner. Finally, we summarize the adaptabilities of various antennas having different predominant frequencies for the shallow subsurface zone. (author)

  5. Genesis and classification of soils developed on gabbro in the high reliefs of Maroua region, North Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désiré Tsozué

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the genesis, properties and classification of soils resulting from the weathering of gabbro rock in the high reliefs of Maroua in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The studied soils were ~ 2 m thick, made of four horizons which consisted of coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose loamy clayey horizon and humiferous horizon. From petrographical view point, at the bottom of the soil profile, the preservation of the bedrock structure was marked by numerous remnants of altered plagioclases shapes. The groundmass was characterized by a double spaced fine, ranging to equal, enaulic c/f related distribution pattern. It was yellowish, characterized by weakly separated granular microstructure in the fine saprolite and had a speckled and cloudy limpidity in the loose loamy clayey horizon. Secondary minerals consisted of montmorilonite, kaolinite, goethite, quartz, gibbsite, lepidocrocite, sepiolite, feldspar and calcite. Globally, Si/Al ratio ranged between 2.85 and 3.24. The chemical index of alteration ranged from 50.95 to 55.27 % while the mineralogical index of alteration values were between 1.90 and 10.54 %. Physicochemically, soil pH varied from slightly acidic to slightly above neutral. Soil organic carbon contents were low to very low. Exchangeable bases contents were high, mostly represented by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The CEC of soils and the CEC of clay were also high, ranging respectively between 53.68 and 82.88 cmol(+.kg-1, and 116.80 and 181.38 cmol(+.kg-1. The studied soils were classified as dystric haplustepts clayey isohyperthermic. They were developed in situ by the collapse of primary mineral structures from the bottom of the coarse saprolite, due to leaching as a result of bisiallitisation and monosiallitisation. This is accompanied by a progressive ferruginization of materials, confirmed by the densification under the microscope of goethitic brown veil from the base to the loamy clay horizon and the

  6. Comparison between artificial neural networks and maximum likelihood classification in digital soil mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César da Silva Chagas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil surveys are the main source of spatial information on soils and have a range of different applications, mainly in agriculture. The continuity of this activity has however been severely compromised, mainly due to a lack of governmental funding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of two different classifiers (artificial neural networks and a maximum likelihood algorithm in the prediction of soil classes in the northwest of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Terrain attributes such as elevation, slope, aspect, plan curvature and compound topographic index (CTI and indices of clay minerals, iron oxide and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor imagery, were used as discriminating variables. The two classifiers were trained and validated for each soil class using 300 and 150 samples respectively, representing the characteristics of these classes in terms of the discriminating variables. According to the statistical tests, the accuracy of the classifier based on artificial neural networks (ANNs was greater than of the classic Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC. Comparing the results with 126 points of reference showed that the resulting ANN map (73.81 % was superior to the MLC map (57.94 %. The main errors when using the two classifiers were caused by: a the geological heterogeneity of the area coupled with problems related to the geological map; b the depth of lithic contact and/or rock exposure, and c problems with the environmental correlation model used due to the polygenetic nature of the soils. This study confirms that the use of terrain attributes together with remote sensing data by an ANN approach can be a tool to facilitate soil mapping in Brazil, primarily due to the availability of low-cost remote sensing data and the ease by which terrain attributes can be obtained.

  7. Availability of caesium radionuclides to plants - classification of soils and role of mycorrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drissner, J.; Buermann, W.; Enslin, F.; Heider, R.; Klemt, E.; Miller, R.; Schick, G.; Zibold, G. [Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, D-88241 Weingarten (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    At different locations in spruce stands spread rather homogeneously over southern Baden-Wuerttemberg, samples of soil and plants were taken and the vertical distribution of the caesium radionuclides in the soil was studied. As a direct measure of the bioavailability, the aggregated transfer factor, T{sub ag}, was determined for fern, bilberry, raspberry, blackberry, and clover. The T{sub ag} (in m2 kg{sup -1}) is defined by the specific caesium activity (in Bq kg{sup -1}) of the dry mass of the plants, divided by the total inventory (in Bq m{sup -2}) of the soil. It varies between 0{center_dot}5 and 0{center_dot}001 m2kg{sup -1}, being highest for fern and lowest for blackberry or clover at all sampling sites. Most decisive for the value of the T{sub ag} are kind of humus deposit, thickness and pH value of the humus layers. Also important are the soil properties, whereas geology has only a minor influence on T{sub ag}. At different sampling sites in spruce forests, the T{sub ag} can vary by two orders of magnitude for one plant species. Caesium desorption experiments were performed. We could not find a dependence of the transfer of caesium to the plant on the desorbability of caesium from the soil, which implies a more complex transport mechanism than simple ion exchange in the soil solution. It is suggested that the transport of caesium is mediated by mycorrhiza fungi. Therefore, we studied the density of mycorrhiza hyphae in the O{sub f}, O{sub h} and A{sub h} soil horizons of two sites differing in T{sub ag} by a factor of 10. The densities of mycorrhiza hyphae in the O{sub h} and A{sub h} soil horizons each differ by a factor of 2 for the two sites. Yet, the effect of the hyphae density on radiocaesium uptake has to be a subject of further investigation. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. USCS and the USDA Soil Classification System: Development of a Mapping Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    important to human daily living. A variety of disciplines ( geology , agriculture, engineering, etc.) require a sys- tematic categorization of soil, detailing...suitability and to approx- imate the soil’s response to environmental and management conditions, such as drought or calcium requirements. In water

  9. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation of xenobiotics in soil - a synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview about NER formation and attempts to classify the various types. Xenobiotic NER derived from parent pesticides (or other environmental contaminants) and primary metabolites sorbed or entrapped within the soil organic matter (type I) or covalently bound...

  10. Comparative analysis of tree classification models for detecting fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense (TR4) based on multi soil sensor parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuar, Maria Regina Justina; Victorino, John Noel; Coronel, Andrei; Co, Jerelyn; Tiausas, Francis; Señires, Chiara Veronica

    2017-09-01

    Use of wireless sensor networks and smartphone integration design to monitor environmental parameters surrounding plantations is made possible because of readily available and affordable sensors. Providing low cost monitoring devices would be beneficial, especially to small farm owners, in a developing country like the Philippines, where agriculture covers a significant amount of the labor market. This study discusses the integration of wireless soil sensor devices and smartphones to create an application that will use multidimensional analysis to detect the presence or absence of plant disease. Specifically, soil sensors are designed to collect soil quality parameters in a sink node from which the smartphone collects data from via Bluetooth. Given these, there is a need to develop a classification model on the mobile phone that will report infection status of a soil. Though tree classification is the most appropriate approach for continuous parameter-based datasets, there is a need to determine whether tree models will result to coherent results or not. Soil sensor data that resides on the phone is modeled using several variations of decision tree, namely: decision tree (DT), best-fit (BF) decision tree, functional tree (FT), Naive Bayes (NB) decision tree, J48, J48graft and LAD tree, where decision tree approaches the problem by considering all sensor nodes as one. Results show that there are significant differences among soil sensor parameters indicating that there are variances in scores between the infected and uninfected sites. Furthermore, analysis of variance in accuracy, recall, precision and F1 measure scores from tree classification models homogeneity among NBTree, J48graft and J48 tree classification models.

  11. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from pesticides in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.

    2015-01-01

    undergo turnover processes and can be volatilised, leached to the groundwater, degraded by microorganisms or taken up and enriched by living organisms. Xenobiotic NER may be derived from parent compounds and primary metabolites that are sequestered (sorbed or entrapped) within the soil organic matter...... (type I) or can be covalently bound (type II). Both types may pose a considerably environmental risk of potential release. However, NER resulting from elevated biodegradation, which means the conversion of carbon (or nitrogen) from the compounds into microbial biomass molecules during microbial...

  12. Surface-seismic imaging for nehrp soil profile classifications and earthquake hazards in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    We acquired high-resolution seismic-refraction data on the ground surface in selected areas of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) to help explain the earthquake damage patterns and the variation in ground motion caused by the 17 January 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. We used these data to determine the compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) at 20 aftershock recording sites to 30-m depth ( V??s30, and V??p30). Two other sites, located next to boreholes with downhole Vp and Vs data, show that we imaged very similar seismic-vefocity structures in the upper 40 m. Overall, high site response appears to be associated with tow Vs in the near surface, but there can be a wide rangepf site amplifications for a given NEHRP soil type. The data suggest that for the SFV, if the V??s30 is known, we can determine whether the earthquake ground motion will be amplified above a factor of 2 relative to a local rock site.

  13. Soil classification for seismic site effect using MASW and ReMi methods: A case study from western Anatolia (Dikili -İzmir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savaş

    2018-03-01

    The study area is located in the northern part of Izmir, Western Turkey, prone to an active tectonic extensional regime and includes typical features of sedimentary basins, horst-grabens surrounded by a series of normal and strike-slip faults. In September 1939 the Dikili (Kabakum) earthquake with a magnitude of Mw: 6.6 occurred and after this phenomenon, residents moved from the west of Dikili to the east (i.d. soft sediments to relative to rock area). A proper estimate of the earthquake-related hazard for the area is the main objective of this study. The site effect and soil engineering problems for estimating hazard parameters at the soil surface need to be carefully analyzed for seismic site classification and geo-engineering problems like soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil bearing capacity and soil amplification. To solve the soil static and dynamic problems, shear-wave velocities have been used in a joint interpretation process; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) analyses were conducted on 121 sites with 300 × 300 m grid size in an area of 60 km2. It has been proposed that the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw: 6 occurring within 10 years is 64%, when considering the Gutenberg-Richter model. This puts the region under an important earthquake risk. The estimated Vs30 values are ≤180 m/s in the central and the northernmost part of the study area are showing an E type soil after the classification of NEHRP, where alluvial deposits are dominant. Vs30 values in the north and central part are between 180 ≤ Vs ≤ 360 m/s suggesting a D type soil. In the southernmost part of the study area where volcanic rocks are widely distributed, Vs30 values range between 360 and 908 m/s, corresponding to a C type and B type soil. The results show that soil liquefaction induced settlement and soil amplification are the most important problems in the south and the northernmost part of the study area, which

  14. Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Droogers, P.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Hunink, J.E.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Kauffman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to

  15. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information

  16. 238 series isotopes at different soil depths and disequilibrium over various geology and soil classifications along transects in selected parts of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Hayes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sampling of soils was carried out along linear transects in selected regions of the country, a technique known as Transect Sampling. This was a controlled rather than a random sampling technique. The transects were located in regions which were previously known to contain high levels of the 226 Ra isotope, from the 238 U series. The soil sampling was carried out at selected sites along these transects. At each transect site, two different soil depths were examined and the soil samples collected were identified as the top and bottom soil samples. This transect data set, consisting of the isotope activity levels and the influencing variables transect geology and soil types, provided a data base for investigation. Comparisons were made between the soil isotope activity levels measured at different soil depths. An examination of the 238 U decay series showed the existence of disequilibrium. Relationships between the disequilibrium data and the associated geology and soil types were investigated. (author)

  17. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...

  18. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  19. Soil classification predicts differences in prokaryotic communities across a range of geographically distant soils once pH is accounted for

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Sergio; Trouche, Blandine; Kaminsky, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land is typically managed based on visible plant life at the expense of the belowground majority. However, microorganisms mediate processes sustaining plant life and the soil environment. To understand the role of microbes we first must understand what controls soil microbial community assembly. We assessed the distribution and composition of prokaryotic communities from soils representing four geographic regions on the South Island of New Zealand. These soils are under three dif...

  20. Correction of inaccuracies to article of Stanisław Brożek, „Does Polish soil classification, V edition, refer to all soils in our country“ published in the Soil Science Annual, vol. 63 no. 3/2012: 49–56

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinek Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents correction of inaccuracies to the article entitled .Does Polish soil classification, V edition, refer to all soils in our country. by Stanisław Brożek published in Soil Science Annual, vol. 63, No. 3/2012: 49.56. The article of Stanisław Brożek is not a discussion paper but only a collection of numerous remarks, mostly non-professional, on .Polish soil classification. ed. 5, 2011 (SgP5. Since the article of Stanisław Brożek contains a lot of mistakes and inaccuracies arising from misunderstanding merits of a soil classification, as well as SgP5‘s text assessed, therefore in our paper wider merits discussion has not been taken. Correction of the erroneous statements of Author which relate to SgP5 were shown instead. Moreover, this paper is necessary as the Author is not a specialist in the field of soil classification, and his article was published in a pedological scientific journal.

  1. Classification of archaeological pieces into their respective stratum by a chemometric model based on the soil concentration of 25 selected elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrero, J.A.; Goienaga, N.; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S.; Arana, G.; Madariaga, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that an archaeological ceramic piece has remained buried underground in the same stratum for centuries without being removed. For this purpose, a chemometric model based on Principal Component Analysis, Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy and Linear Discriminant Analysis classification techniques was created with the concentration of some selected elements of both soil of the stratum and soil adhered to the ceramic piece. Some ceramic pieces from four different stratigraphic units, coming from a roman archaeological site in Alava (North of Spain), and its respective stratum soils were collected. The soil adhered to the ceramic pieces was removed and treated in the same way as the soil from its respective stratum. The digestion was carried out following the US Environmental Pollution Agency EPA 3051A method. A total of 54 elements were determined in the extracts by a rapid screening inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. After rejecting the major elements and those which could have changed from the original composition of the soils (migration or retention from/to the buried objects), the following elements (25) were finally taken into account to construct the model: Li, V, Co, As, Y, Nb, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Au, Th and U. A total of 33 subsamples were treated from 10 soils belonging to 4 different stratigraphic units. The final model groups and discriminate them in four groups, according to the stratigraphic unit, having both the stratum and soils adhered to the pieces falling down in the same group.

  2. Development of Tier 1 screening tool for soil and groundwater vulnerability assessment in Korea using classification algorithm in a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K. H.; Kim, K. H.; Ki, S. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The vulnerability assessment tool at a Tier 1 level, although not often used for regulatory purposes, helps establish pollution prevention and management strategies in the areas of potential environmental concern such as soil and ground water. In this study, the Neural Network Pattern Recognition Tool embedded in MATLAB was used to allow the initial screening of soil and groundwater pollution based on data compiled across about 1000 previously contaminated sites in Korea. The input variables included a series of parameters which were tightly related to downward movement of water and contaminants through soil and ground water, whereas multiple classes were assigned to the sum of concentrations of major pollutants detected. Results showed that in accordance with diverse pollution indices for soil and ground water, pollution levels in both media were strongly modulated by site-specific characteristics such as intrinsic soil and other geologic properties, in addition to pollution sources and rainfall. However, classification accuracy was very sensitive to the number of classes defined as well as the types of the variables incorporated, requiring careful selection of input variables and output categories. Therefore, we believe that the proposed methodology is used not only to modify existing pollution indices so that they are more suitable for addressing local vulnerability, but also to develop a unique assessment tool to support decision making based on locally or nationally available data. This study was funded by a grant from the GAIA project(2016000560002), Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, Republic of Korea.

  3. Estimating persistence of brominated and chlorinated organic pollutants in air, water, soil, and sediments with the QSPR-based classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyn, T; Haranczyk, M; Suzuki, N; Sakurai, T

    2011-02-01

    We have estimated degradation half-lives of both brominated and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PCDDs), furans (PBDFs and PCDFs), biphenyls (PBBs and PCBs), naphthalenes (PBNs and PCNs), diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and PCDEs) as well as selected unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments (in total of 1,431 compounds in four compartments). Next, we compared the persistence between chloro- (relatively well-studied) and bromo- (less studied) analogs. The predictions have been performed based on the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) scheme with use of k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier and the semi-quantitative system of persistence classes. The classification models utilized principal components derived from the principal component analysis of a set of 24 constitutional and quantum mechanical descriptors as input variables. Accuracies of classification (based on an external validation) were 86, 85, 87, and 75% for air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments, respectively. The persistence of all chlorinated species increased with increasing halogenation degree. In the case of brominated organic pollutants (Br-OPs), the trend was the same for air and sediments. However, we noticed that the opposite trend for persistence in surface water and soil. The results suggest that, due to high photoreactivity of C-Br chemical bonds, photolytic processes occurring in surface water and soil are able to play significant role in transforming and removing Br-OPs from these compartments. This contribution is the first attempt of classifying together Br-OPs and Cl-OPs according to their persistence, in particular, environmental compartments.

  4. Microscopy analysis of soils at the Phoenix landing site, Mars : Classification of soil particles and description of their optical and magnetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetz, W.; Pike, W.T.; Hviid, S.F.; Madsen, M.B.; Morris, R.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Staufer, U.; Leer, K.; Sykulska, H.; Hemmig, E.; Marshall, J.; Morookian, J.M.; Parrat, D.; Vijendran, S.; Bos, B.J.; El Maarry, M.R.; Keller, H.U.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Drube, L.; Blaney, D.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F.; Reynolds, R.; Smith, P.H.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Tanner, R.

    2010-01-01

    The optical microscope onboard the Phoenix spacecraft has returned color images (4 ?m pixel?1) of soils that were delivered to and held on various substrates. A preliminary taxonomy of Phoenix soil particles, based on color, size, and shape, identifies the following particle types [generic names in

  5. Identification of a dynamic temperature threshold for soil moisture freeze/thaw (F/T) state classification using soil real dielectric constant derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, R.; Berg, A. A.; Warland, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The use of microwave remote sensing for surface ground ice detection has been well documented using both active and passive systems. Typical validation of these remotely sensed F/T state products relies on in-situ air or soil temperature measurements and a threshold of 0°C to identify frozen soil. However, in soil pores, the effects of capillary and adsorptive forces combine with the presence of dissolved salts to depress the freezing point. This is further confounded by the fact that water over this temperature range releases/absorbs latent heat of freezing/fusion. Indeed, recent results from SLAPEx2015, a campaign conducted to evaluate the ability to detect F/T state and examine the controls on F/T detection at multiple resolutions, suggest that using a soil temperature of 0°C as a threshold for freezing may not be appropriate. Coaxial impedance sensors, like Steven's HydraProbeII (HP), are the most widely used soil sensor in water supply forecast and climatological networks. These soil moisture probes have recently been used to validate remote sensing F/T products. This kind of validation is still relatively uncommon and dependent on categorical techniques based on seasonal reference states of frozen and non-frozen soil conditions. An experiment was conducted to identify the correlation between the phase state of the soil moisture and the probe measurements. Eight soil cores were subjected to F/T transitions in an environmental chamber. For each core, at a depth of 2.5 cm, the temperature and real dielectric constant (rdc) were measured every five minutes using HPs while two heat pulse probes captured the apparent heat capacity 24 minutes apart. Preliminary results show the phase transition of water is bounded by inflection points in the soil temperature, attributed to latent heat. The rdc, however, appears to be highly sensitive to changes in the water preceding the phase change. This opens the possibility of estimating a dynamic temperature threshold for

  6. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Potsane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

  7. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  8. Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of some benchmark ... on existing soils information coupled with reconnaissance field soil survey. ... systems i.e. the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Taxonomy and the ...

  9. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  10. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  11. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  12. Mechanics of composite materials: Unified micromechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboundi, J.

    1991-01-01

    Although many books have been written on the mechanics of composite materials, only a vew few have been devoted almost exclusively to the micromechanics aspects. The present monograph is devoted primarily to the micromechanics of fiber and particle reinforced composites with some additional treatment of laminates as well. Thus, this book would probably be more suitable as a reference book than a textbook

  13. Developments and departures in the philosophy of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional soil science curriculums provide comprehensive instruction on soil properties, soil classification, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in soils. This reductionist perspective is sometimes balanced with a more holistic perspective that focuses on soils as natu...

  14. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  15. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  16. Soils [Chapter 4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Johannes W. A. Langeveld

    2015-01-01

    Soils are crucial for profitable and sustainable biomass feedstock production. They provide nutrients and water, give support for plants, and provide habitat for enormous numbers of biota. There are several systems for soil classification. FAO has provided a generic classification system that was used for a global soil map (Bot et al., 2000). The USDA Natural Resources...

  17. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  18. Unravelling the effects of soil and crop management on maize productivity in smallholder agricultural systems of western Kenya - An application of classification and regression tree analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Shepherd, K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    To guide soil fertility investment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding is needed of the relative importance of soil and crop management factors in determining smallholder crop yields and yield variability. Spatial variability in crop yields within farms is strongly influenced by

  19. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  20. Land classification of the standing stone state forest and state park on the eastern highland rim in Tennessee: the interaction of geology, topography, and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; Carlie McCowan; S. David Todd; Phillip M. Morrissey; J. Andrew McBride

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of a land classification system developed by the senior author to the Standing Stone State Forest and State Park (SSSF&SP) on the Eastern Highland Rim. Landtypes are the most detailed level in the hierarchical system and represent distinct units of the landscape (mapped at a scale of 1:24,000) as defined by climate, geology,...

  1. Physio-climatic classification of South Africa's woodland biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available monthly temperature, total plant-available water balance of soil, elevation, landscape topographic position, and landscape soil fertility were used as input classification variables. The map data were submitted to a factor analysis and varimax axis...

  2. Cor do solo: uma abordagem da forma convencional de obtenção em oposição à automatização do método para fins de classificação de solos Soil color: approach to a conventional assessment method in comparison to an automatization process for soil classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Campos

    2004-10-01

    recognized as a primary property of soil identification. Soil physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties can be derived from assessing soil color. The current framework of soil classification, at the second hierarquical level of the Brazilian System of Classification, requires that the soil colour of the diagnostic B horizon be determined by comparison with the Munsell color charts, or equivalent. This process of classification is extremely subjective and time-consuming, limiting the accuracy, transferability, and usefulness of the procedure. This paper aims at a comparison of the conventional soil color determination with the colormeter method to evaluate possible implications in soil classification. Five soil scientists were invited to determine the hue of 80 soil samples by comparison with the Munsell color chart. The hue of the samples was obtained with a colormeter as well, also according to Munsell's notes. The statistical analyses determined correlation coefficients, precision index, clustering forms, and mean tendencies of hue determinations. Correlation coefficients varying from 0.68 to 0.94 showed that soil scientists produced precise data, fundamental for the validity of the study. However, the measurements realized by soil scientists were not coincident, and were quite different from the colormeter measures. The values of Precision Index indicated an agreement of only 8.75 % in moist samples and 17.5 % in dry ones. The divergences in hue determination would lead to mistakes in soil classification. The evaluation of average tendencies indicated that the pedologists overestimated color values in relation to colorimeter, resulting in alterations in soil classification.

  3. Extensive phylogenetic analysis of a soil bacterial community illustrates extreme taxon evenness and the effects of amplicon length, degree of coverage, and DNA fractionation on classification and ecological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sergio E; Cosart, Theodore F; Johnson, Jesse V; Holben, William E

    2009-02-01

    To thoroughly investigate the bacterial community diversity present in a single composite sample from an agricultural soil and to examine potential biases resulting from data acquisition and analytical approaches, we examined the effects of percent G+C DNA fractionation, sequence length, and degree of coverage of bacterial diversity on several commonly used ecological parameters (species estimation, diversity indices, and evenness). We also examined variation in phylogenetic placement based on multiple commonly used approaches (ARB alignments and multiple RDP tools). The results demonstrate that this soil bacterial community is highly diverse, with 1,714 operational taxonomic units demonstrated and 3,555 estimated (based on the Chao1 richness estimation) at 97% sequence similarity using the 16S rRNA gene. The results also demonstrate a fundamental lack of dominance (i.e., a high degree of evenness), with 82% of phylotypes being encountered three times or less. The data also indicate that generally accepted cutoff values for phylum-level taxonomic classification might not be as applicable or as general as previously assumed and that such values likely vary between prokaryotic phyla or groups.

  4. Chernozem. From concept to classification: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vysloužilová, Barbora; Ertlen, D.; Schwartz, D.; Šefrna, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2016), s. 85-95 ISSN 0300-5402 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : chernozem * history of research * soil classification * Central Europe * literature review Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science http://web.natur.cuni.cz/gis/aucg2/index.php/AUC_Geographica/article/download/44/pdf_103

  5. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  6. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  7. Refining soil survey information for a Dutch soil series using land use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Bouma, J.; Veldkamp, A.

    2002-01-01

    Differences in land-use history within soil series, although not influencing soil classification, lead to variability of non-diagnostic soil properties in soil databases. Regional studies that use soil databases are confronted with this considerable variability. This has, for example, been reported

  8. Soil - water relationships in the Weatherley catchment, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Soil water content is influenced by soil and terrain factors, but studies on the predictive value of diagnostic .... Results for particle size analyses (Soil Classification ...... negating the importance of the negative intercept value in.

  9. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  10. Application of machine learning to agricultural soil data

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Sirsat, Manisha

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is a major sector in the Indian economy. One key advantage of classification and prediction of soil parameters is to save time of specialized technicians developing expensive chemical analysis. In this context, this PhD thesis has been developed in three stages: 1. Classification for soil data: we used chemical soil measurements to classify many relevant soil parameters: village-wise fertility indices; soil pH and type; soil nutrients, in order to recommend suitable amounts of ...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  12. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  13. Classificação de solos planossólicos do Sertão do Araripe (PE Classification of planossolic soils from the Sertão do Araripe region, of State Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    , desde que apresente transição abrupta que configure um fraturamento muito nítido com o horizonte que o antecede (A, E ou Bt.Soils with a planic B horizon underlying a textural B horizon and, therefore, not regarded as Planosols in the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SIBCS were characterized and classified. Three representative soil profiles were selected in the county of Ouricuri, Araripina micro-region, within the Sertão Zone of Pernambuco State, an area with a high density of planossolic soils. Soil profiles were morphologically described and disturbed samples taken from each horizon for physical and chemical analyses. Undisturbed samples were collected to determine bulk density. Results showed that the soils, formed by the contribution of two parent materials (sediments and crystalline rocks, demonstrate this double origin with two distinct sections. The top on is formed by A, BA, Bt, and/or Btf horizons, and the bottom one by 2Btbn and 2BCn horizons. The topsoil horizons have colors of higher chromas, lower clay contents, smaller bulk density, higher hydraulic conductivity, and a lower clay activity compared to the subsoil horizons, characterized by high bulk density, low chromas and very low hydraulic conductivity, limiting the downward movement of water. The soils were classified in the SIBCS as: Sodic Planossolic Eutric Argiluvic Plinthosol (profile 1; Solodic Planossolic Eutric Yellow Argisol (profile 2 and Sodic Planossolic Plinthic Eutric Yellow Argisol (profile 3. Changes in the definition of the planic B horizon were suggested to allow the inclusion of the studied soils as follows: a planic B horizon must not obligatorily underlie an A or E horizon nor present an abrupt particle size alteration as long as it presents abrupt transition that is a very clear rupture with the previous A, E or Bt horizon.

  14. Classification of soil systems on the basis of transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to reference plants. Report of the final research coordination meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The IAEA Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection include the general requirement to keep all doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking account of economic and social considerations, within the overall constraint of individual dose limits. National and Regional authorities have to set release limits for radioactive effluent and also to establish contingency plans to deal with an uncontrolled release following an accident or terrorist activity. It is normal practice to assess radiation doses to man by means of radiological assessment models. In this context the IAEA published (1994), in cooperation with the International Union of Radioecologists (IUR), a Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments to facilitate such calculations. The obvious limitation of the Handbook is that the data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides are strictly relevant only to temperate climates. Therefore, the IAEA, together with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the IUR, conducted a coordinated research project (CRP), to obtain similar data in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A conclusion of this research was that some combinations of ecosystems and radionuclides do not behave as might be expected. A consultants meeting held in May 1998 produced a proposal for a CRP to address the issue of identifying such situations in temperate as well as tropical and sub-tropical conditions

  15. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  16. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  17. 1rst Congress of the Cuban Society of Soil Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts from different works presented at the 1st Congress of the Cuban Society of Soil Sciences (Havana, December 1988) are contained in this book. Works have been performed on soil genesis, classification and cartography; soil erosion, conservation and improvement; agrochemicstry; soil physics and technology, and biology of soils

  18. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  19. Fire severity classification: Uses and abuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham

    2003-01-01

    Burn severity (also referred to as fire severity) is not a single definition, but rather a concept and its classification is a function of the measured units unique to the system of interest. The systems include: flora and fauna, soil microbiology and hydrologic processes, atmospheric inputs, fire management, and society. Depending on the particular system of interest...

  20. Accounting for taxonomic distance in accuracy assessment of soil class predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossiter, David G.; Zeng, Rong; Zhang, Gan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of allocation to classes in monothetic hierarchical soil classification systems, including the World Reference Base for Soil Classification, US Soil Taxonomy, and Chinese Soil Taxonomy, is poorly-served by binomial methods (correct/incorrect allocation per evaluation

  1. Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž PRUS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soil, based on detailed soil description and analyses, and to define the appropriate soil classification units. Field examinations revealed that the soil had a stable blocky or subangular structure and did not express substantial hydromorphic forms. Soil pH value was ranging from 6.9 to 7.5. In most locations electroconductivity (ECe did not exceed 2 ds/m. Base saturation was high (up to 99 %, with a majority of Ca2+ ions. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP was ranging from 0.2 to 3.8 %, which is higher compared to other Slovenian soils but does not pose a risk to soil structure. Soil has silty clay loam texture with up to 66 % of silt. Prevailing minerals were quartz, calcite and muscovite/illite. No presence of swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was detected. According to Slovenian soil classification, we classified the examined soil as alluvial soil. According to WRB soil classification, the soil was classified as Cambisol.

  2. Sistemas de classificações geotécnicas de solos: estudo de caso aplicado à rodovia não pavimentada vcs 346, Viçosa, MG Geotechnical soil classification systems: case study applied to the vcs 346 unpaved road, Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano Oliveira da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda uma contribuição às classificações geotécnicas tradicionais de solos Unified Soil Classification System (USC, Transportation Research Board System (TRB e a Metodologia Miniatura, Compactado, Tropical (MCT para um caso aplicado à rodovia municipal não pavimentada VCS 346, no Município de Viçosa, MG, considerando-se várias amostras deformadas de solos coletadas no subleito da referida via. Os principais objetivos deste estudo residem na contribuição de um banco de dados geotécnicos sobre classificações de solos tropicais, bem como na verificação de possíveis agrupamentos entre os sistemas geotécnicos tradicionais de classificação e a metodologia MCT. O programa de laboratório envolveu a realização dos seguintes ensaios: (i granulometria conjunta; (ii limites de Atterberg (LL e LP; (iii massa específica dos grãos do solo; (iv compactação Mini-MCV; e (v perda de massa do corpo-de-prova por imersão em água. Os resultados possibilitaram verificar que, após a classificação das amostras, vários agrupamentos entre os sistemas de classificações geotécnicas tradicionais coincidiram com aqueles já apresentados na metodologia MCT e, considerando a pedogênese da região de Viçosa, MG, para o grupo NG', houve a contribuição dos grupos SC, SM e CL do Sistema USC e do grupo A-4 do Sistema TRB.This paper addresses a contribution to the traditional geotechnical soil classifications systems USC (Unified Soil Classification and TRB (Transportation Research Board, and the MCT methodology (Miniature, Compacted, Tropical applied to a case study involving the laboratory geotechnical characterization of disturbed samples from the subgrade of the VCS 346 municipal unpaved road, located in Viçosa - MG. The main goals of this study are to contribute to the formation of a database directed to the geotechnical classification of tropical soils as well as to verify possible groupings among the traditional

  3. Soil classes and acceleration response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyoncuoglu, U.Y.

    2007-01-01

    It could not enough for determination of only geotechnical properties (soil classification, soil type, bearing capacity etc.) in order to define assessment of areas being settle in terms of suitability of settlement or how settled area is affected from natural disaster and to get necessary precautions. Damages on the engineering structure in the region posses an earthquake hazard are affected one or more site condition from source point to soil of engineering structure

  4. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  5. Integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge on soils: recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    interpretations of indigenous soil classification systems. ... approach that is consistent with decentralised decision making. Understanding the soil resource is central to sound ..... methods recognise seasonal surface water stagnation in these.

  6. influence of soil type differences on the distribution of dtpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Fluvisol at Akaki in Ethiopia, classified according to the FAO-UNESCO Soil Classification System. The. Fluvisol is ... risk anticipated from the movement of metals through the soil ..... The Geology Department of the University of. Saskatchewan ...

  7. A discrimlnant function approach to ecological site classification in northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Fincher; Marie-Louise Smith

    1994-01-01

    Describes one approach to ecologically based classification of upland forest community types of the White and Green Mountain physiographic regions. The classification approach is based on an intensive statistical analysis of the relationship between the communities and soil-site factors. Discriminant functions useful in distinguishing between types based on soil-site...

  8. Structure of diagnostics horizons and humus classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the main humus forms is generally based on the morpho-genetic characters of the A and OH diagnostic horizons. This is the case in the new European key of classification presented in Freiburg on September 2004 (Eurosoil Congress. Among the morpho-genetic characters, the soil structure covers a very important role. In this work, the structure of the diagnostic A and OH horizons has been analysed in terms of aggregation force, diameter and composition of the soil lumps (peds. In order to study the aggregation force, two disaggregating tools have been conceived and used. The diameter of the lumps has been measured by sieving the soil samples with standardised webs. Observing the samples thanks to a binocular magnifying 10X and 50X, the organic or/and mineral composition of the soil aggregates has been determined, data being investigated with ANOVA and Factorial Analysis. The article examines the argument from two points of view: crashing tools for estimating the soil structure (part 1 and the dimensions of the peds given in European key of humus forms classification (part 2. The categories of soil peds diameter and composition seem to be linked to the main humus forms. For instance, aggregates having a diamater larger than 1 mm and well amalgamate organo-mineral composition are more present in the A horizons of the Mull forms than in which of the other forms; contrary to the OH horizon of the Moder or Mor, the OH horizon of the Amphi forms shows an important percent of small organic lumps. Some propositions have been given in order to improve the European key of humus forms classification.

  9. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate ... suitable to model the heterogeneous soil structure with tortuous pore space (Rieu ... so, soil texture determined according to the USDA texture classification.

  10. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  11. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  12. Classification with support hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA new classification method is proposed, called Support Hy- perplanes (SHs). To solve the binary classification task, SHs consider the set of all hyperplanes that do not make classification mistakes, referred to as semi-consistent hyperplanes. A test object is classified using

  13. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  14. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisz Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011. Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types. The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015 could be accepted for this purpose.

  15. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  16. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  17. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  18. Geotechnical Classification of Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the geotechnical classification properties of a Danish Eocene clay known as Søvind Marl. A large development is happening on locations where the soil consists of different varieties Danish Eocene clays. This gives a need for a better understanding of the properties...... and behavior of the clay. The geotechnical properties of the clay are very unique, due to the very high plasticity index of the soil, which is significantly higher than any other known clay. The Søvind Marl is a Tertiary deposit from the Eocene period, deposited under environmental circumstances very similar...

  19. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  20. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  1. Coastal plain soils and geomorphology: a key to understanding forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s, Coile published a simple classification of southeastern coastal soils using three characteristics: drainage class, sub-soil depth, and sub-soil texture. These ideas were used by Warren Stuck and Bill Smith to produce a matrix of soils with drainage class as one ordinate and subsoil texture as the second for the South Carolina coastal plain. Soils...

  2. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  3. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  4. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  5. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  6. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  7. Sustainable agriculture and soil conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Preben; Dubgaard, Alex

    , sandy soils in the West, (that had not been covered by ice) from more fertile soils being mostly sandy loams and finer textured soils covering the Eastern part of the study area. Several geological features such as pitting due to dead ice formation, smaller, terminal moraines in association with melt......, separate the moraine plateau. From the plateau several, minor erosion valleys, formed at the end of the glaciation some 10,000 years ago, feed into the two valleys. Very accurate soil type information is available for the area as intensive measurements within the area has formed the basis for a new...... methodology for soil classification in Denmark. The soil survey included a detailed mapping at field level, using the electromagnetic sensor, EM38. A high-resolution digital elevation model, obtained by use of laser scanning, is available for the study area. The original scanning has a horizontal resolution...

  8. Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž PRUS; Nina ZUPANČIČ; Helena GRČMAN

    2015-01-01

    Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol) were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralog...

  9. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  10. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  11. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  12. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  13. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  14. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  15. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk....... It proposes that the expert bureaucratic practice of classification legitimizes (i) the valorisation that was made in the drafting of the assessment framework for the classification, and (ii) political operationalization when enacted that might have (non-)distributive implications for the allocation of public...

  16. Preliminary Research on Grassland Fine-classification Based on MODIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z W; Zhang, S; Yu, X Y; Wang, X S

    2014-01-01

    Grassland ecosystem is important for climatic regulation, maintaining the soil and water. Research on the grassland monitoring method could provide effective reference for grassland resource investigation. In this study, we used the vegetation index method for grassland classification. There are several types of climate in China. Therefore, we need to use China's Main Climate Zone Maps and divide the study region into four climate zones. Based on grassland classification system of the first nation-wide grass resource survey in China, we established a new grassland classification system which is only suitable for this research. We used MODIS images as the basic data resources, and use the expert classifier method to perform grassland classification. Based on the 1:1,000,000 Grassland Resource Map of China, we obtained the basic distribution of all the grassland types and selected 20 samples evenly distributed in each type, then used NDVI/EVI product to summarize different spectral features of different grassland types. Finally, we introduced other classification auxiliary data, such as elevation, accumulate temperature (AT), humidity index (HI) and rainfall. China's nation-wide grassland classification map is resulted by merging the grassland in different climate zone. The overall classification accuracy is 60.4%. The result indicated that expert classifier is proper for national wide grassland classification, but the classification accuracy need to be improved

  17. Assessment of Index Properties and Bearing Capacities of Soils for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Owoyemi

    on the physical properties and foundation bearing capacity of the soil in this area. This research aimed ... While many new structures are springing up daily in the .... plasticity soil. Most soil samples from both locations classify as A-2 -4 under the AASHTO classification system, rating as good subgrade materials. Bulk density ...

  18. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  19. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-21

    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  20. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  1. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  2. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  3. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  4. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  6. Pedoinformatics Approach to Soil Text Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, J.; Seiter, J.; Davis, A.

    2017-12-01

    The several extant schema for the classification of soils rely on differing criteria, but the major soil science taxonomies, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the international harmonized World Reference Base for Soil Resources systems, are based principally on inferred pedogenic properties. These taxonomies largely result from compiled individual observations of soil morphologies within soil profiles, and the vast majority of this pedologic information is contained in qualitative text descriptions. We present text mining analyses of hundreds of gigabytes of parsed text and other data in the digitally available USDA soil taxonomy documentation, the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database, and the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) soil characterization database. These analyses implemented iPython calls to Gensim modules for topic modelling, with latent semantic indexing completed down to the lowest taxon level (soil series) paragraphs. Via a custom extension of the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK), approximately one percent of the USDA soil series descriptions were used to train a classifier for the remainder of the documents, essentially by treating soil science words as comprising a novel language. While location-specific descriptors at the soil series level are amenable to geomatics methods, unsupervised clustering of the occurrence of other soil science words did not closely follow the usual hierarchy of soil taxa. We present preliminary phrasal analyses that may account for some of these effects.

  7. Vulnerable land ecosystems classification using spatial context and spectral indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Marcello, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Natural habitats are exposed to growing pressure due to intensification of land use and tourism development. Thus, obtaining information on the vegetation is necessary for conservation and management projects. In this context, remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring and managing habitats, being classification a crucial stage. The majority of image classifications techniques are based upon the pixel-based approach. An alternative is the object-based (OBIA) approach, in which a previous segmentation step merges image pixels to create objects that are then classified. Besides, improved results may be gained by incorporating additional spatial information and specific spectral indices into the classification process. The main goal of this work was to implement and assess object-based classification techniques on very-high resolution imagery incorporating spectral indices and contextual spatial information in the classification models. The study area was Teide National Park in Canary Islands (Spain) using Worldview-2 orthoready imagery. In the classification model, two common indices were selected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), as well as two specific Worldview-2 sensor indices, Worldview Vegetation Index and Worldview Soil Index. To include the contextual information, Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) were used. The classification was performed training a Support Vector Machine with sufficient and representative number of vegetation samples (Spartocytisus supranubius, Pterocephalus lasiospermus, Descurainia bourgaeana and Pinus canariensis) as well as urban, road and bare soil classes. Confusion Matrices were computed to evaluate the results from each classification model obtaining the highest overall accuracy (90.07%) combining both Worldview indices with the GLCM-dissimilarity.

  8. Soils in urban and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghardt, W.

    1994-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding rapidly. Therefore the interest in soil science activities on urban and industrial sites grows. The paper gives an overview of the research and mapping activities in Germany. A model of soils in urban ecosystems shows the relationships of development of soils and soil quality to land use. The water regime of soils is influenced by the characteristics of urban landscape and sealing. Of special interest are the typical substrates. Some properties of soils which develop on tipped substrates of natural material are discussed. Of importance are technological substrates as rubble, ash, slag, waste material and sludges in urban environments. Proposals of classification of urban and industrial soils are presented. For proper use by the municipal authorities availability and application of information on urban soils must be a part of research. (orig.) [de

  9. Variability of the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer factor for Japanese soils predicted with soil and plant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Smolders, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Food chain contamination with radiocaesium (RCs) in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident calls for an analysis of the specific factors that control the RCs transfer. Here, soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of RCs for grass were predicted from the potassium concentration in soil solution (mK) and the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) of the soil using existing mechanistic models. The mK and RIP were (a) either measured for 37 topsoils collected from the Fukushima accident affected area or (b) predicted from the soil clay content and the soil exchangeable potassium content using the models that had been calibrated for European soils. An average ammonium concentration was used throughout in the prediction. The measured RIP ranged 14-fold and measured mK varied 37-fold among the soils. The measured RIP was lower than the RIP predicted from the soil clay content likely due to the lower content of weathered micas in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. Also the measured mK was lower than that predicted. As a result, the predicted TFs relying on the measured RIP and mK were, on average, about 22-fold larger than the TFs predicted using the European calibrated models. The geometric mean of the measured TFs for grass in the affected area (N = 82) was in the middle of both. The TFs were poorly related to soil classification classes, likely because soil fertility (mK) was obscuring the effects of the soil classification related to the soil mineralogy (RIP). This study suggests that, on average, Japanese soils are more vulnerable than European soils at equal soil clay and exchangeable K content. The affected regions will be targeted for refined model validation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de la Cruz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.

  11. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  14. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  15. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  16. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  17. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  18. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  19. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  20. An ecological classification system for the central hardwoods region: The Hoosier National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Van Kley; George R. Parker

    1993-01-01

    This study, a multifactor ecological classification system, using vegetation, soil characteristics, and physiography, was developed for the landscape of the Hoosier National Forest in Southern Indiana. Measurements of ground flora, saplings, and canopy trees from selected stands older than 80 years were subjected to TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination....

  1. Morphology and Classification of the Southern Sombreiro -Warri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils of the Southern Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plain surrounded by mangrove forest in Kalabari Kingdom, Eastern Niger Delta were studied to assess their morphological characteristics and classification. Four profile pits were sunk, one in each of the following towns: Degema, Abonnema, Buguma and Tombia.

  2. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... 6Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private .... classification systems for wetlands and other inland aquatic ... of vegetation, soil, inundation and landform features that are ... nised as the fundamental drivers that determine the existence ...... Earth Obs. Remote Sens.

  3. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  4. Over de bodemgesteldheid rondom Wageningen = Soil conditions in the environments of Wageningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buringh, P.

    1951-01-01

    Because of the growing need for more experimental ground for the Agricultural University and the Agricultural Institutes, this study was made to indicate soil qualities around Wageningen and the possibilities of soil improvement (water control). Soil classification was based on the concepts of soil

  5. Caracterização e classificação de solos desenvolvidos de arenitos da formação Aquidauana-MS Characterization and classification of soils developed from sandstone of the Aquidauana formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A formação Aquidauana é constituída por um conjunto de sedimentos com até 500 m de espessura, predominando arenito de granulometria fina a média, intercalado com conglomerado arenoso. Nesse ambiente, o relevo é um dos principais fatores condicionantes na formação de solos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar e classificar os solos desenvolvidos desses arenitos. Para isso, foram estudados quatro perfis ao longo de uma topossequência, de uma pendente representativa das colinas suaves onduladas verificadas na área de estudo. Os perfis localizavam-se no terço superior (P1, terço médio (P2, terço inferior (P3 e sopé de encosta (P4. Eles foram morfologicamente descritos, e os horizontes, caracterizados quanto às propriedades físicas e químicas. Os solos estudados apresentaram predomínio da fração areia (> 680 g kg-1, com textura variando de franco-arenosa (P4 a franco-argiloarenosa. Os valores de pH em água variaram de 4,2 a 6,5. Os valores de capacidade de troca catiônica variaram de 1,6 cmol c kg-1 no P4 a 10,3 cmol c kg-1 no P2, com predomínio dos íons H+ no P1 e P4 e Ca2+ no P2 e P3. Os horizontes subsuperficiais do P1 e P4 são distróficos, enquanto em P2 e P3 verificou-se elevada saturação por bases, evidenciando caráter eutrófico. À exceção do P2, os demais apresentaram argila de baixa atividade. Em todos os perfis verificaram-se atributos morfológicos, físicos, químicos e mineralógicos condicionados pelo material de origem e relevo, demonstrando a influência desses fatores na pedogênese.The Aquidauana geological formation consists of a set of up to 500 m thick sediments predominantly composed of sandstone with fine to medium grain size, interspersed with sandy conglomerates. In this environment, the topography is one of the main conditioning factors of the formation of different soil types in the landscape. The objective of this study was to characterize and classify soils developed from these

  6. Dynamic Study of Soil Erosion in Greater Khingan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Wenyi Fan; Xuegang Mao; Xiaojie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the amended model of RUSLE universal soil loss equation and GIS technology, combined with the natural geographical features of Great Khingan, it has conducted quantitative analysis of the factor in Soil loss equation. Uses 2000 and 2010 years TM images classification are land uses/cover type figure, we gets all factors values of space distribution in the RUSLE model, gets soil erosion volume estimates data and soil erosion strength distribution figure based on grid cell data and obta...

  7. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  8. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  9. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management....... Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  10. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  11. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  12. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  13. Casemix classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, R B

    1999-01-01

    The idea of using casemix classification to manage hospital services is not new, but has been limited by available technology. It was not until after the introduction of Medicare in the United States in 1965 that serious attempts were made to measure hospital production in order to contain spiralling costs. This resulted in a system of casemix classification known as diagnosis related groups (DRGs). This paper traces the development of DRGs and their evolution from the initial version to the All Patient Refined DRGs developed in 1991.

  14. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  15. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  16. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  17. The effects of boron management on soil microbial population and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... germination, flowering and fruiting, water use, nitrogen assimilation and ... development of vascular plants, diatoms and species of marine algal ...... Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys 2nd ed. US. Dept. of ...

  18. The resource soil in Colombia - Inventory and problematic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon Castro; Dimas

    1998-01-01

    Soil survey studies as performed in Colombia, sintethize geographical knowledge both of the natural resource and the land as such. This holistic approach integrals geomorphology, climate, petrography-sediment logy, soils, land cover and land use. The Colombian geographic institute has performed these studies for the last five decades. This article initially summarizes the historical development of Colombian soil survey, continues with the Colombian soil resource knowledge and its application through land interpretative classifications, land use conflicts, soil degradation aspects and Colombian land zonifications. The final discussion emphasizes soil survey issues and perspective

  19. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  20. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  1. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  2. The classification of phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh-Strong, G; Hooper, G

    2003-06-01

    We studied 24 patients with 44 phocomelic upper limbs. Only 11 limbs could be grouped in the classification system of Frantz and O' Rahilly. The non-classifiable limbs were further studied and their characteristics identified. It is confirmed that phocomelia is not an intercalary defect.

  3. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  4. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  5. Classification, confusion and misclassification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classification of objects and phenomena in science and nature has fascinated academics since Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist and zoologist, created his binomial description of living things in the 1700s and probably long before in accounts of others in textbooks long since gone. It must have concerned human ...

  6. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  7. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  8. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  9. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... on characterizing human faces and emphysema disease in lung CT images....

  10. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  11. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with noun classification in Esahie (Kwa, Niger ... phonological information influences the noun (form) class system of Esahie. ... between noun classes and (grammatical) Gender is interrogated (in the light of ..... the (A) argument6 precedes the verb and the (P) argument7 follows the verb in a simple.

  12. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...

  13. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  14. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  15. State-of-the-Art-Review of Collapsible Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. AL-Rawas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible soils are encountered in arid and semi-arid regions. Such soils cause potential construction problems due to their collapse upon wetting. The collapse phenomenon is primarily related to the open structure of the soil. Several soil collapse classifications based on parameters such as moisture content, dry density, Atterberg limits and clay content have been proposed in the literature as indicators of the soil collapse potential. Direct measurement of the magnitude of collapse, using laboratory and/or field tests, is essential once a soil showed indications of collapse potential. Treatment methods such as soil replacement, compaction control and chemical stabilization showed significant reduction in the settlement of collapsible soils. The design of foundations on collapsible soils depends on the depth of the soil, magnitude of collapse and economics of the design. Strip foundations are commonly used when collapsing soil extends to a shallow depth while piles and drilled piers are recommended in cases where the soil extends to several meters. This paper provides a comprehensive review of collapsible soils. These include the different types of collapsible soils, mechanisms of collapse, identification and classification methods, laboratory and field testing, treatment methods and guidelines for foundation design.

  16. NEW CLASSIFICATION OF ECOPOLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROBYOV V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ecopolices are the newest stage of the urban planning. They have to be consideredsuchas material and energy informational structures, included to the dynamic-evolutionary matrix netsofex change processes in the ecosystems. However, there are not made the ecopolice classifications, developing on suchapproaches basis. And this determined the topicality of the article. Analysis of publications on theoretical and applied aspects of the ecopolices formation showed, that the work on them is managed mainly in the context of the latest scientific and technological achievements in the various knowledge fields. These settlements are technocratic. They are connected with the morphology of space, network structures of regional and local natural ecosystems, without independent stability, can not exist without continuous man support. Another words, they do not work in with an ecopolices idea. It is come to a head for objective, symbiotic searching of ecopolices concept with the development of their classifications. Purpose statement is to develop the objective evidence for ecopolices and to propose their new classification. Conclusion. On the base of the ecopolices classification have to lie an elements correlation idea of their general plans and men activity type according with natural mechanism of accepting, reworking and transmission of material, energy and information between geo-ecosystems, planet, man, ecopolices material part and Cosmos. New ecopolices classification should be based on the principles of multi-dimensional, time-spaced symbiotic clarity with exchange ecosystem networks. The ecopolice function with this approach comes not from the subjective anthropocentric economy but from the holistic objective of Genesis paradigm. Or, otherwise - not from the Consequence, but from the Cause.

  17. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  18. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  19. Site Classification using Multichannel Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method on Soft and Hard Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.

  20. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 [AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known as ``registration'' by the U.S...

  1. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  2. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform...

  3. AUTOMATIC APPROACH TO VHR SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kupidura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a proposition of a fully automatic classification of VHR satellite images. Unlike the most widespread approaches: supervised classification, which requires prior defining of class signatures, or unsupervised classification, which must be followed by an interpretation of its results, the proposed method requires no human intervention except for the setting of the initial parameters. The presented approach bases on both spectral and textural analysis of the image and consists of 3 steps. The first step, the analysis of spectral data, relies on NDVI values. Its purpose is to distinguish between basic classes, such as water, vegetation and non-vegetation, which all differ significantly spectrally, thus they can be easily extracted basing on spectral analysis. The second step relies on granulometric maps. These are the product of local granulometric analysis of an image and present information on the texture of each pixel neighbourhood, depending on the texture grain. The purpose of texture analysis is to distinguish between different classes, spectrally similar, but yet of different texture, e.g. bare soil from a built-up area, or low vegetation from a wooded area. Due to the use of granulometric analysis, based on mathematical morphology opening and closing, the results are resistant to the border effect (qualifying borders of objects in an image as spaces of high texture, which affect other methods of texture analysis like GLCM statistics or fractal analysis. Therefore, the effectiveness of the analysis is relatively high. Several indices based on values of different granulometric maps have been developed to simplify the extraction of classes of different texture. The third and final step of the process relies on a vegetation index, based on near infrared and blue bands. Its purpose is to correct partially misclassified pixels. All the indices used in the classification model developed relate to reflectance values, so the

  4. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  5. Classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Pals, G.; van Rijn, R. R.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Cobben, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1979 Sillence proposed a classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) in OI types I, II, III and IV. In 2004 and 2007 this classification was expanded with OI types V-VIII because of distinct clinical features and/or different causative gene mutations. We propose a revised classification of OI

  6. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally....

  7. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  8. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  9. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  10. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  11. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  12. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic...... system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease....

  13. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  14. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soils science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soils physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soils and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality. In the fourth volume of the abstracts were presented papers related to use of fertilizers and herbicides

  15. Granular loess classification based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess

  16. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  18. Decimal Classification Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  19. Decimal Classification Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  20. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  1. Classifications of track structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    When ionizing particles interact with matter they produce random topological structures of primary activations which represent the initial boundary conditions for all subsequent physical, chemical and/or biological reactions. There are two important aspects of research on such track structures, namely their experimental or theoretical determination on one hand and the quantitative classification of these complex structures which is a basic pre-requisite for the understanding of mechanisms of radiation actions. This paper deals only with the latter topic, i.e. the problems encountered in and possible approaches to quantitative ordering and grouping of these multidimensional objects by their degrees of similarity with respect to their efficiency in producing certain final radiation effects, i.e. to their ''radiation quality.'' Various attempts of taxonometric classification with respect to radiation efficiency have been made in basic and applied radiation research including macro- and microdosimetric concepts as well as track entities and stopping power based theories. In this paper no review of those well-known approaches is given but rather an outline and discussion of alternative methods new to this field of radiation research which have some very promising features and which could possibly solve at least some major classification problems

  2. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  3. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Goren, Tom; Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but many of their properties remain uncertain, particularly their response to aerosol variations and to warming. Part of the reason for this uncertainty is the dependence of cirrus cloud properties on the cloud formation mechanism, which itself is strongly dependent on the local meteorological conditions. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus or IC-CIR) is introduced to identify cirrus clouds by the cloud formation mechanism. Using reanalysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated into four main types: orographic, frontal, convective and synoptic. Through a comparison to convection-permitting model simulations and back-trajectory-based analysis, it is shown that these observation-based regimes can provide extra information on the cloud-scale updraughts and the frequency of occurrence of liquid-origin ice, with the convective regime having higher updraughts and a greater occurrence of liquid-origin ice compared to the synoptic regimes. Despite having different cloud formation mechanisms, the radiative properties of the regimes are not distinct, indicating that retrieved cloud properties alone are insufficient to completely describe them. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in GCMs, helping improve future model-observation comparisons and leading to improved parametrisations of cirrus cloud processes.

  4. Approach to the classification of dispersed soil masses for construction Подход к классификации дисперсных и скади грунтовых массивов для строительства

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time classifications of soil in the base of buildings and structures were offered in the soil classification given in All Union State standard "Soil" 25100—2011. The soil masses can consist only of dispersed soil or of rocks and dispersed soil. In the second case strong rocks alternate with the precipitates which haven't received natural hardening. Classification tables are provided for the masses consisting entirely of soil, and also for soil masses of rocks and dispersed soil. For the second class the abbreviated name "SKADI" is offered. For the class of dispersed soil masses the classification by the principle of their origin is used: sedimentary, vulkanogenic-sedimentary, eluvial (aeration products, technogenic. For the class "SKADI", in which soil and rocks come together, the classification is: magmatic, metamorphic, sedimentary, vulkanogen-sedimentary, eluvial and technogenic. Subtypes are also classified by origin. For example, in the sedimentary soil type, the subtypes are: sea origin and continental origin. In the class "SKADI" in sedimentary type we distinguish: sea locally strengthened by nature, continental locally strengthened by nature, sea locally destroyed by aeration to the state of soil, continental locally destroyed by aeration to the state of soil, and mass of rocks with crushing zones. The reasons for the offered classifications are given and discussed. The offered classifications are intended for planning engineering-geological researches for construction. The reason is that the quantity of boreholes, types and number of tests of soil and rocks depend on soil class, type and subtype. The classifications can be useful in case of choosing the method for soil masses simulation to calculate the bases and to preliminary estimate the level of the base model complexity.В развитие классификации грунтов, приведенной в ГОСТ 25100—2011«Грунты. Клас

  5. Soil evaluation for land use optimizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinina, O. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the method of soil classification proposed in the course of the study in which the list of indicators proposed by the existing recommendations is optimized. On the example of one of the river basins within the boundaries of the Belgorod region zoning of the territory was carried out. With this approach, the boundaries of the territorial zones are projected along the natural boundaries of natural objects and the productivity of soils is determined as the main criterion for zoning. To assess the territory by soil properties, the features of the soil cover of the river basin were studied and vectorization of the soil variety boundaries was carried out. In the land evaluation essential and useful for the growth of crops macro- and minor-nutrient elements necessary for the growth of crops were included. To compare the soils each of the indicators was translated into relative units. The final score of soil quality is calculated as the mean geometric value of scores from 0 to 100 points for the selected diagnostic features. Through the imposition of results of soil classification and proposed by the concept of basin nature management - land management activities, five zones were identified according to the degree of suitability for use in agriculture.

  6. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  7. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  8. Multisensor multiresolution data fusion for improvement in classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubeena, V.; Tiwari, K. C.

    2016-04-01

    The rapid advancements in technology have facilitated easy availability of multisensor and multiresolution remote sensing data. Multisensor, multiresolution data contain complementary information and fusion of such data may result in application dependent significant information which may otherwise remain trapped within. The present work aims at improving classification by fusing features of coarse resolution hyperspectral (1 m) LWIR and fine resolution (20 cm) RGB data. The classification map comprises of eight classes. The class names are Road, Trees, Red Roof, Grey Roof, Concrete Roof, Vegetation, bare Soil and Unclassified. The processing methodology for hyperspectral LWIR data comprises of dimensionality reduction, resampling of data by interpolation technique for registering the two images at same spatial resolution, extraction of the spatial features to improve classification accuracy. In the case of fine resolution RGB data, the vegetation index is computed for classifying the vegetation class and the morphological building index is calculated for buildings. In order to extract the textural features, occurrence and co-occurence statistics is considered and the features will be extracted from all the three bands of RGB data. After extracting the features, Support Vector Machine (SVMs) has been used for training and classification. To increase the classification accuracy, post processing steps like removal of any spurious noise such as salt and pepper noise is done which is followed by filtering process by majority voting within the objects for better object classification.

  9. Agro-Climate Based Pedogenetic Assessment of Soils in Kulumsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation, topsoil color, texture, etc. using a topographic map of 1:50,000 scale as ... traditional agro-climatic classification used by the Ethiopian farmers in the ..... the agro-climatic divisions to the soil temperature and soil moisture regimes was .... equivalent) such as Kastanozems that had high to very high base saturations.

  10. Selected Aspects of Soil Science History in the USA - Prehistory to the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Fenton, Thomas E.; Homburg, Jeffrey A.

    2017-04-01

    Interest in understanding America's soils originated in prehistory with Native Americans. Following European settlement, notable individuals such as Thomas Jefferson and Lewis and Clark made observations of soil resources. Moving into the 1800s, state geological surveys became involved in soil work and E.W. Hilgard started to formulate ideas similar to those that would eventually lead to V.V. Dokuchaev being recognized as the father of modern soil science. However, Hilgard's advanced ideas on soil genesis were not accepted by the wider American soil science community at the time. Moving into the 1900s, the National Cooperative Soil Survey, the first nationally organized detailed soil survey in the world, was founded under the direction of M. Whitney. Initial soil classification ideas were heavily based in geology, but over time Russian ideas of soil genesis and classification moved into the American soil science community, mainly due to the influence of C.F. Marbut. Early American efforts in scientific study of soil erosion and soil fertility were also initiated in the 1910s and university programs to educate soil scientists started. Soil erosion studies took on high priority in the 1930s as the USA was impacted by the Dust Bowl. Soil Taxonomy, one of the most widely utilized soil classification systems in the world, was developed from the 1950s through the 1970s under the guidance of G.D. Smith and with administrative support from C.E. Kellogg. American soil scientists, such as H. Jenny, R.W. Simonson, D.L. Johnson, and D. Watson-Stegner, developed influential models of soil genesis during the 20th Century, and the use of soil information expanded beyond agriculture to include issues such as land-use planning, soil geomorphology, and interactions between soils and human health.

  11. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  12. Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs. The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  13. Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

    2012-11-05

    Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  14. Classification of IRAS asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.; Veeder, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Albedos and spectral reflectances are essential for classifying asteroids. For example, classes E, M and P are indistinguishable without albedo data. Colorometric data are available for about 1000 asteroids but, prior to IRAS, albedo data was available for only about 200. IRAS broke this bottleneck by providing albedo data on nearly 2000 asteroids. Hence, excepting absolute magnitudes, the albedo and size are now the most common asteroid physical parameters known. In this chapter the authors present the results of analyses of IRAS-derived asteroid albedos, discuss their application to asteroid classification, and mention several studies which might be done to exploit further this data set

  15. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  16. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  17. Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Verruijt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the analysis of stresses, deformations, and stability. The most important methods of determining soil parameters, in the laboratory and in situ, are also described. Some basic principles of applied mecha...

  18. Caracterização e classificação de solos em uma topossequência sobre calcário na serra da Bodoquena, MS Characterization and classification of soils in a toposequence on limestone in the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2013-02-01

    -Pantanal biome. This study aims to characterize soils formed on limestone, based on the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties and organic matter. A toposequence on limestone was selected and profile pits were opened on the summit (P1, backslope (P2, footslope (P3 and toeslope (P4 and P5. The profiles were morphologically described and physical, chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out in all horizons. According to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS, the studied soils were classified as: (P1 Organossolo Fólico Sáprico lítico - OOs (Litic Ustifolist; (P2 Chernossolo Háplico Órtico típico - MXo (Typic Haplustoll; (P3 Chernossolo Argilúvico Órtico típico - MTo (Typic Haplustoll; (P4 Gleissolo Melânico Carbonático chernossólico - GMk1 (Typic Epiaquoll; and (P5 Gleissolo Melânico Carbonático organossólico - GMk2 (Terric Haplosaprist. The color of all studied profiles was dark in the surface horizons, and reddish or grayish in deeper layers, according to the drainage conditions. Base saturation was high in all layers, with calcium as dominant cation in the exchangeable complex. Humin was the dominant organic carbon fraction of the studied soils. A mineralogical analysis showed the presence of calcite in the sand fraction in the soil profiles GMK1 and GMk2 and kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in the clay fraction of all soils. The occurrence of Ustifolist in non-mountainous environments, different from the characterization by the SiBCS, suggests a greater range of possible environmental conditions for the occurrence of this suborder.

  19. Using ecological zones to increase the detail of Landsat classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L., III; Mayer, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in classification detail of forest species descriptions were made for Landsat data on 2.2 million acres in northwestern California. Because basic forest canopy structures may exhibit very similar E-M energy reflectance patterns in different environmental regions, classification labels based on Landsat spectral signatures alone become very generalized when mapping large heterogeneous ecological regions. By adding a seven ecological zone stratification, a 167% improvement in classification detail was made over the results achieved without it. The seven zone stratification is a less costly alternative to the inclusion of complex collateral information, such as terrain data and soil type, into the Landsat data base when making inventories of areas greater than 500,000 acres.

  20. Application of fuzzy logic to Boolean models for digital soil assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruijter, de J.J.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Bragato, G.

    2011-01-01

    Boolean models based on expert knowledge are often used to classify soils into a limited number of classes of a difficult-to-measure soil attribute. Although the primary data used for these classifications contain information on whether the soil is a typical class member or a boundary case between

  1. Virtual Soil Monoliths: Blending Traditional and Web-Based Educational Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Strivelli, Rachel A.; Holmes, Emma; Grand, Stephanie; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Lavkulich, Les M.; Crowley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Since soil plays a crucial role in all aspects of global environmental change, it is essential that post-secondary institutions provide students with a strong foundation in soil science concepts including soil classification. The onset of information technology (IT) and web-based multimedia have opened new avenues to better incorporate…

  2. Ecological evaluation of polluted soils from Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents various strategies developed to evaluate the quality of soils and sites correspond to three possible objectives: to establish references or criteria of soil quality, on chemical and/or ecotoxicological bases (to define thresholds), to develop methods of ranking to classify polluted sites for the purpose of their decontamination (to establish a classification), and to develop methods of risk evaluation. The paper presents result of ecological evaluation of polluted soils fro...

  3. Soil Erosion Research Based on USLE in Great Khinggan

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Wenyi Fan; Xuegang Mao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the amended model of USLE universal soil loss equation and GIS technology, combined with the natural geographical features of Great Khinggan area, it has conducted quantitative analysis of the factor in Soil loss equation. Uses 2011 years TM/ETM images classification are land uses/cover type figure, combination Great Khinggan area Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil type distribution figure and research regional rainfall information, we gets all factors values of space distributio...

  4. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  5. Waste classification sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998

  6. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...

  7. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  8. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  9. Spatial Prediction of Soil Classes by Using Soil Weathering Parameters Derived from vis-NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, Leonardo; Alexandre Dematte, Jose

    2010-05-01

    There is consensus in the scientific community about the great need of spatial soil information. Conventional mapping methods are time consuming and involve high costs. Digital soil mapping has emerged as an area in which the soil mapping is optimized by the application of mathematical and statistical approaches, as well as the application of expert knowledge in pedology. In this sense, the objective of the study was to develop a methodology for the spatial prediction of soil classes by using soil spectroscopy methodologies related with fieldwork, spectral data from satellite image and terrain attributes in simultaneous. The studied area is located in São Paulo State, and comprised an area of 473 ha, which was covered by a regular grid (100 x 100 m). In each grid node was collected soil samples at two depths (layers A and B). There were extracted 206 samples from transect sections and submitted to soil analysis (clay, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 TiO2, and weathering index). The first analog soil class map (ASC-N) contains only soil information regarding from orders to subgroups of the USDA Soil Taxonomy System. The second (ASC-H) map contains some additional information related to some soil attributes like color, ferric levels and base sum. For the elaboration of the digital soil maps the data was divided into three groups: i) Predicted soil attributes of the layer B (related to the soil weathering) which were obtained by using a local soil spectral library; ii) Spectral bands data extracted from a Landsat image; and iii) Terrain parameters. This information was summarized by a principal component analysis (PCA) in each group. Digital soil maps were generated by supervised classification using a maximum likelihood method. The trainee information for this classification was extracted from five toposequences based on the analog soil class maps. The spectral models of weathering soil attributes shown a high predictive performance with low error (R2 0.71 to 0.90). The spatial

  10. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  11. Unsupervised Classification Using Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muallim, M. T.; El-Kouatly, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unsupervised classification algorithm based on clonal selection principle named Unsupervised Clonal Selection Classification (UCSC) is proposed in this paper. The new proposed algorithm is data driven and self-adaptive, it adjusts its parameters to the data to make the classification operation as fast as possible. The performance of UCSC is evaluated by comparing it with the well known K-means algorithm using several artificial and real-life data sets. The experiments show that the proposed U...

  12. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  13. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  14. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  15. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  16. Volume reduction system by soil classifying. Soil-washing system and problems to be solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshino, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of ground surfaces, buildings and forests in a broad area was caused by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The national government and municipalities have still been carrying out the decontamination works for livelihood areas after five years from the accident. The government estimated that the amounts of soils and wastes removed by the decontamination works would be about 28,000,000 cubic meters maximum including 20,000,000 cubic meters maximum of soils. The removed soils will be stored in “Interim Storage Facility” then will be finally disposed outside of Fukushima prefecture within 30 years. On the other hand, shortage of the soils as materials needed for the revitalization in Fukushima prefecture is expected. Technical Advisory Council on Remediation and Waste Management, which consists of about 90 companies, started a working group to investigate solutions to these problems. The working group focused on the investigation of the possibility to recycle the soils by washing and classification to use them as the materials for civil engineering works, and to reduce the volume of the interim storage. In the first part of this report, we have evaluated the applicability of various technologies for purification and volume reduction of the removed soils, and have researched usages, required quantities and specifications of the recycled soils. In the second part, we have made trial calculations of the volume reduction effects and costs using the washing and classification system. The calculated results showed the possibilities of reducing the storage capacity of the interim storage facility, as well as the construction and the operation costs by recycling the removed soils with the washing and classification system inside the interim storage facility. At the end of this report, we proposed problems to be solved in order to adopt the washing and classification system. (author)

  17. Environmental behavior of soils and mixtures of soil-whitewash mud

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Carlos Cardoso; Pires,José Maurício Machado; Fontes,Maurício Paulo F.; Pereira,Reginaldo Sérgio; Portugal,Carla Ribeiro Machado e

    2004-01-01

    The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial solid residue. Solubilization and leaching tests were performed and X-ray diffraction and electron mic...

  18. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  19. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  20. Evaluation of hydrophobicity in PAH-contaminated soils during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofield, Naressa; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of recalcitrant organic compounds on soil hydrophobicity was evaluated in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site following 12 months of phytoremediation. Significant reduction in soil wetting and water retention was observed in contaminated soil compared to an uncontaminated control. Phytoremediation was effective at reducing total PAHs by 69% with corresponding changes in soil classification from extremely hydrophobic (initial sample) to moderately-strongly hydrophobic (planted) and hydrophilic-very hydrophilic (unplanted) after 12 months. The greatest reduction in soil hydrophobicity was observed in the unplanted, unfertilized treatments that had the lowest removal rate of PAHs. The presence of plants may contribute to hydrophobicity in contaminated soil. - The presence of recalcitrant hydrophobic organic pollutants may enhance soil hydrophobicity

  1. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  2. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J P; Sucksdorff, Y [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  3. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  4. What is Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil? 2 The Skin of the Earth 3 Soil Ingredients 4 Soil Recipes 5 CLORPT for Short >> What Is Soil? Soils Make Life Plants grow in and from

  5. Using greenhouse gas fluxes to define soil functional types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, Sandra; Barba, Josep; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2017-12-04

    Soils provide key ecosystem services and directly control ecosystem functions; thus, there is a need to define the reference state of soil functionality. Most common functional classifications of ecosystems are vegetation-centered and neglect soil characteristics and processes. We propose Soil Functional Types (SFTs) as a conceptual approach to represent and describe the functionality of soils based on characteristics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) flux dynamics. We used automated measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forested area to define SFTs following a simple statistical framework. This study supports the hypothesis that SFTs provide additional insights on the spatial variability of soil functionality beyond information represented by commonly measured soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature, litter biomass). We discuss the implications of this framework at the plot-scale and the potential of this approach at larger scales. This approach is a first step to provide a framework to define SFTs, but a community effort is necessary to harmonize any global classification for soil functionality. A global application of the proposed SFT framework will only be possible if there is a community-wide effort to share data and create a global database of GHG emissions from soils.

  6. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  7. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  8. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  9. Automatic diabetic retinopathy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, María. A.; Arbeláez, Pablo A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a disease in which the retina is damaged due to augmentation in the blood pressure of small vessels. DR is the major cause of blindness for diabetics. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This work proposes a computer based approach for the detection of DR in back-of-the-eye images based on the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our CNN uses deep architectures to classify Back-of-the-eye Retinal Photographs (BRP) in 5 stages of DR. Our method combines several preprocessing images of BRP to obtain an ACA score of 50.5%. Furthermore, we explore subproblems by training a larger CNN of our main classification task.

  10. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  11. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  12. Efficient AUC optimization for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Kok, J.N.; Koronacki, J.; Lopez de Mantaras, R.; Matwin, S.; Mladenic, D.; Skowron, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show an efficient method for inducing classifiers that directly optimize the area under the ROC curve. Recently, AUC gained importance in the classification community as a mean to compare the performance of classifiers. Because most classification methods do not optimize this

  13. Dewey Decimal Classification: A Quagmire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaluddin, Ahmad Fouad

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 660 Pennsylvania school librarians indicates that, though there is limited professional interest in the Library of Congress Classification system, Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) appears to be firmly entrenched. This article also discusses the relative merits of DDC, the need for a uniform system, librarianship preparation, and…

  14. Latent class models for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, J.K.; Magidson, J.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is provided of recent developments in the use of latent class (LC) and other types of finite mixture models for classification purposes. Several extensions of existing models are presented. Two basic types of LC models for classification are defined: supervised and unsupervised

  15. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative...

  16. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative classification... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides. (a) Preparation of classification guides. Originators of classification...

  18. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong

    2015-12-28

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  19. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  20. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING TARGETS CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m and slant range (0.4 m. In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  1. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  2. Assessment of Soil Environmental Quality in Huangguoshu Waterfalls Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongbin; Feng, Kaiyu; Gu, Bo; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper concentrates on five major heavy metal pollutants as soil environmental quality evaluation factors, respectively Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), based on the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB15618 - 1995), we used single factor index evaluation model of soil environmental quality and comprehensive index evaluation model to analyze surface soil environmental quality in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area. Based on surface soil analysis, our results showed that the individual contamination index, Pb, Hg, As and Cr in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area met class I according to requirements of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards, which indicated that Pb, Hg, As and Cr were not main heavy metal pollutants in this area, but the individual contamination index of Cd in soil was seriously exceeded National Soil Environmental Quality Standards’ requirement. Soil environmental quality in Shitouzhai, Luoshitan, Langgong Hongyan Power Plant have exceeded the requirement of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards “0.7soils had been slightly polluted; the classification of soil environmental quality assessment in Longgong downstream area was above “Alert Level”, it indicated that soil in this area was not polluted. Above all, relevant measures for soil remediation are put forward.

  3. Classification of soils derived from amphibolite parent material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 1 (1988) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Characteristics, classification and potentials of soils in Werkaryia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertisols occur on the gently to strongly sloping alluvial toeslope and footslope. They are marked by high clay content, cracks, slickensides and gilgai topographic features. Cambic B and argic B of the Haplic Phaeozems and Luvic Phaeozems underlain the Mollic A of Phaeozems, respectively. Mollic Gleysols developed on ...

  5. 14C tebuconazole degradation in Colombian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, C S; Martínez, M J; Guerrero, J A

    2010-01-01

    Tebuconazole is a fungicide used on onion crops (Allium Fistulosum L) in Colombia. Persistence of pesticides in soils is characterized by the half-life (DT50), which is influenced by their chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the previous soil history. Based on its structural and chemical properties, tebuconazole should be expected to be relatively persistent in soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to evaluate persistence and bond residues of 14C tebuconazole in three soils, two inceptisol (I) and one histosol (H). Textural classifications were: loam (101), loamy sand (102) and loam (H03), respectively. Data obtained followed a first-order degradation kinetics (R2 > or = 0.899) with DT50 values between 158 and 198 days. The production of 14CO2 from the 14C-ring-labelled test chemicals was very low and increased slightly during 63 days in all cases. The methanol extractable 14C-residues were higher than aqueous ones and both decreased over incubation time for the three soils. The formation of bound 14C-residues increased with time and final values were 11.3; 5.55 and 7.87% for 101, 102 and H03 respectively. Soil 101 showed the lowest mineralization rate and the highest bound residues formation, which might be explained by the clay fraction content. In contrast, an inverse behavior was found for soils 102 and H03, these results might be explained by the higher soil organic carbon content.

  6. Bamboo as Soil Reinforcement: A Laboratory Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Mohammed MUSTAPHA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A lateritic soil classified as A-6 under AASHTO soil classification system was reinforced with 0, 1, 2 and 3 bamboo specimens at laboratory trial level to evaluate its unconfined compressive strength (UCS and modulus of rigidity. The soil specimens were molded in cylindrical form of 38mm diameter and 76mm height while the bamboo specimens were trimmed in to circular plates of 34mm diameter and 3mm thickness. The trial soil specimens are: soil specimen without bamboo specimen (0 bamboo, soil specimen with one bamboo specimen in the center (1 bamboo, soil specimen with one bamboo specimen on top and one at the bottom (2 bamboos and soil specimen with one bamboo specimen on top, center and bottom (3 bamboos. Though, the dry density of the molded soil specimen decreased from 1.638Mg/m3 at 0 bamboo to 1.470Mg/m2 at 3 bamboos, the UCS increased from 226KN/m2 at 0 bamboo to 621KN/m2 at 3 bamboos. Also, for each of the 3 percentage strains (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% considered, the modulus of rigidity increased with bamboo specimens.

  7. CLAY SOIL STABILISATION USING POWDERED GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. OLUFOWOBI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the stabilizing effect of powdered glass on clay soil. Broken waste glass was collected and ground into powder form suitable for addition to the clay soil in varying proportions namely 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% along with 15% cement (base by weight of the soil sample throughout. Consequently, the moisture content, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests were carried out to classify the soil using the ASSHTO classification system. Based on the results, the soil sample obtained corresponded to Group A-6 soils identified as ‘fair to poor’ soil type in terms of use as drainage and subgrade material. This justified stabilisation of the soil. Thereafter, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR and direct shear tests were carried out on the soil with and without the addition of the powdered glass. The results showed improvement in the maximum dry density values on addition of the powdered glass and with corresponding gradual increase up to 5% glass powder content after which it started to decrease at 10% and 15% powdered glass content. The highest CBR values of 14.90% and 112.91% were obtained at 5% glass powder content and 5mm penetration for both the unsoaked and soaked treated samples respectively. The maximum cohesion and angle of internal friction values of 17.0 and 15.0 respectively were obtained at 10% glass powder content.

  8. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  9. Use of the crumb test as a preliminary indicator of dispersive soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to overcome them. Keywords: Dispersive soils, dispersion, failure, identification, crumb test, shortcomings Introduction Dispersive soils are those soils, which when immersed in relatively pure and still water will deflocculate causing the clay particles... developed by Emerson for the classification of soils. Immerse dry aggregates in water Slaking No slaking Complete Dispersion (Class 1) Some Dispersion (Class 2) No Dispersion Swelling (Class 7) No Swelling (Class 8) Remould at water...

  10. A classification model of Hyperion image base on SAM combined decision tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghai; Hu, Guangdao; Zhou, YongZhang; Liu, Xin

    2009-10-01

    Monitoring the Earth using imaging spectrometers has necessitated more accurate analyses and new applications to remote sensing. A very high dimensional input space requires an exponentially large amount of data to adequately and reliably represent the classes in that space. On the other hand, with increase in the input dimensionality the hypothesis space grows exponentially, which makes the classification performance highly unreliable. Traditional classification algorithms Classification of hyperspectral images is challenging. New algorithms have to be developed for hyperspectral data classification. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) is a physically-based spectral classification that uses an ndimensional angle to match pixels to reference spectra. The algorithm determines the spectral similarity between two spectra by calculating the angle between the spectra, treating them as vectors in a space with dimensionality equal to the number of bands. The key and difficulty is that we should artificial defining the threshold of SAM. The classification precision depends on the rationality of the threshold of SAM. In order to resolve this problem, this paper proposes a new automatic classification model of remote sensing image using SAM combined with decision tree. It can automatic choose the appropriate threshold of SAM and improve the classify precision of SAM base on the analyze of field spectrum. The test area located in Heqing Yunnan was imaged by EO_1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer using 224 bands in visual and near infrared. The area included limestone areas, rock fields, soil and forests. The area was classified into four different vegetation and soil types. The results show that this method choose the appropriate threshold of SAM and eliminates the disturbance and influence of unwanted objects effectively, so as to improve the classification precision. Compared with the likelihood classification by field survey data, the classification precision of this model

  11. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  12. Classification of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, G.

    1976-01-01

    A classification of the new particles is proposed. Hadrons are constructed from quarks corresponding to several different representations of an SU 3 color group, with confined color. The new family of resonances, related to psi/J, is assigned to color-antisextet quarks Q. These new quarks Q do not form mixed mesons q-barQ with old antiquarks but can form mixed baryons Qqq. We speculate on the relation between color and mass. High-mass recurrences of the psi/J family are expected to have associated large changes in the cross section for electron-positron annihilation (ΔR > 4). A conjectured mass formula, which relates the masses of psi/J and ω, predicts the masses of possible recurrences of the psi/J particle. Other experimental implications at presently available energies are discussed, especially the necessity for an isovector partner for psi/J, and for pseudoscalar mesons at 1.8--2.2 GeV, some of which can decay into two photons

  13. Predicting of soil erosion with regarding to rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Razak, Mohd Amirun Anis Ab; Ahmad, Nordila

    2018-02-01

    The soil along the hill and slope are wearing away due to erosion and it can take place due to occurrence of weak and heavy rainfall. The aim of this study is to predict the soil erosion degree in Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) area focused on two major factor which is soil erodibility and rainfall erosivity. Soil erodibility is the possibilities of soil to detach and carried away during rainfall and runoff. The "ROM" scale was used in this study to determine the degree of soil erodibility, namely low, moderate, high, and very high. As for rainfall erosivity, the erosive power caused by rainfall that cause soil loss. A daily rainfall data collected from January to April was analyzed by using ROSE index classification to identify the potential risk of soil erosion. The result shows that the soil erodibilty are moderate at MTD`s hill, high at behind of block Lestari and Landslide MTD hill, and critical at behind the mess cadet. While, the highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in March and April. Overall, this study would benefit the organization greatly in saving cost in landslide protection as relevant authorities can take early measures repairing the most affected area of soil erosion.

  14. Do We Need a New Definition of Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard W.; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication is really desirable to better relate with politicians, an interested lay public, and others not involved in soil science. Soil survey programs are intended to help people understand how soils function in their landscapes to make ecosystems operate better without damaging the environment and to indicate different kinds of suitability for various purposes. The properties of soils as recognized, described, and mapped at detailed scales form the basis for developing diagnostics for a systematic taxonomy that enables scientists to interact with other. In the USA mapping done at scales of 1:15,840± made it possible to define and use so-called "soil series", initially as soil map units, but later as central concepts of a set of soils which could be segregated using phases to indicate important features, primarily for farming. Detailed soil surveys published using a standard format helps maintain uniformity across the country. Soil series are recognized as the basic units of soils within the evolving hierarchical soil taxonomy and diagnostic properties are defined, measured and used to update and modify the scientific classification. Concepts like soil quality and soil function are considered to be "attributes" and not basic properties of soils. They are the collective interpretation of the combination of properties thought to be relevant for communicating important aspects of using, managing, restoring, and protecting the lands of any locality, region, or country. A famous example in the US was the land capability system with classes and subclasses of suitability for agricultural land uses. An updated soil survey in California contains over 500 pages providing details about classes of 30 different functional soil classifications for 155 map units. Over the years soil extension agents were the interpreters of the science to the lay folks and could help them form mental pictures of soils and soil landscapes locally They were the early leaders of

  15. Music classification with MPEG-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  16. Systema Naturae. Classification of living things.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Shipunov

    2007-01-01

    Original classification of living organisms containing four kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Vegetabilia and Animalia), 60 phyla and 254 classes, is presented. The classification is based on latest available information.

  17. Principles of soil mapping of a megalopolis with St. Petersburg as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a soil map of St. Petersburg has been developed on a scale of 1 : 50000 using MicroStation V8i software. The legend to this map contains more than 60 mapping units. The classification of urban soils and information on the soil cover patterns are principally new elements of this legend. New concepts of the urbanized soil space and urbopedocombinations have been suggested for soil mapping of urban territories. The typification of urbopedocombinations in St. Petersburg has been performed on the basis of data on the geometry and composition of the polygons of soils and nonsoil formations. The ratio between the areas of soils and nonsoil formations and their spatial distribution patterns have been used to distinguish between six types of the urbanized soil space. The principles of classification of the soils of urban territories have been specified, and a separate order of pedo-allochthonous soils has been suggested for inclusion into the Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). Six types of pedo-allochthonous soils have been distinguished on the basis of data on their humus and organic horizons and the character of the underlying mineral substrate.

  18. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: The soil in the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 3; Anais do 25 congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the third volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to physics and chemical characteristics of building soils in coal mines areas

  19. Progression in nuclear classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    1999-01-01

    In this book, summarize the author's achievements of nuclear classification by new method in latest 30 years, new foundational law of nuclear layer in matter world is found. It is explained with a hypothesis of a nucleus which it is made up of two nucleon's clusters with deuteron and triton. Its concrete content is: to advance a new method which analyze data of nuclei with natural abundance using relationship between the numbers of proton and neutron. The relationship of each nucleus increases to 4 sets: S+H=Z H+Z=N Z+N=A and S-H=K. To expand the similarity between proton and neutron to the similarity among p,n, deuteron, triton, and He-5 clusters. According to the distribution law of same kind of nuclei, it obtains that the upper limits of stable region both should be '44s'. New foundational law of nuclear system is 1,2,4,8,16,8,4,2,1. In order to explain new law, a hypothesis which nucleus is made up of deuteron and triton is developing and nuclear field of whole number is built up. And it relates that unity of matter motion, which is the most foundational form atomic nuclear systematic is similar to the most first-class form chromosome numbers of mankind. These achievements will shake the foundations of traditional nuclear science. These achievements will supply new tasks in developing nuclear theory. And shake the ground of which magic number is the basic of nuclear science. It opens up a new field on foundational research. The book will supply new knowledge for researcher, teachers and students in universities and polytechnic schools. Scientific workers read in works of research and technical exploit. It can be stored up for library and laboratory of society and universities. In nowadays of prosperity our nation by science and education, the book is readable for workers of scientific technology and amateurs of natural science

  20. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  1. The classification of easement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Easement means, a right enjoyed by the owner of land over the lands of another: such as rights of way, right of light, rights of support, rights to a flow of air or water etc. The dominant tenement is the land owned by the possessor of the easement, and the servient tenement is the land over which the right is enjoyed. An easement must exist for the accommodation and better enjoyment to which it is annexed, otherwise it may amount to mere licence. An easement benefits and binds the land itself and therefore countinious despite any change of ownership of either dominant or servient tenement, although it will be extinguished if the two tenemants come into common ownership. An easement can only be enjoyed in respect of land. This means two parcels of land. First there must be a 'dominant tenement' and a 'servient tenement'. Dominant tenement to which the benefit of the easement attaches, and another (servient tenement which bears the burden of the easement. A positive easement consist of a right to do something on the land of another; a negative easement restrict the use of owner of the serviant tenement may make of his land. An easement may be on land or on the house made on land. The next classification is on easement on the ground, and the other one under the ground. An easement shall be done in accordance with the principle of restrictions. This means that the less burden the servient tenement. When there is doubt about the extent of the actual easement shall take what easier the servient tenement. The new needs of the dominant estate does not result in the expansion of servitude. In the article is made comparison between The Draft Code of property and other real estate, and The Draft of Civil Code of Serbia.

  2. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful......Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... is to disaggregate existing conventional soil maps. At present, the DSMART algorithm represents the most sophisticated approach for disaggregating conventional soil maps (Odgers et al., 2014). The algorithm relies on classification trees trained from resampled points, which are assigned classes according...

  3. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-08-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  4. The last classification of vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic vasculitides are a group of diverse conditions characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. To obtain homogeneity in clinical characteristics, prognosis, and response to treatment, patients with vasculitis should be classified into defined disease categories. Many classification

  5. Deep Learning for ECG Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakillya, B.; Kazachenko, N.; Mikhailovsky, N.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of ECG classification is very high now due to many current medical applications where this problem can be stated. Currently, there are many machine learning (ML) solutions which can be used for analyzing and classifying ECG data. However, the main disadvantages of these ML results is use of heuristic hand-crafted or engineered features with shallow feature learning architectures. The problem relies in the possibility not to find most appropriate features which will give high classification accuracy in this ECG problem. One of the proposing solution is to use deep learning architectures where first layers of convolutional neurons behave as feature extractors and in the end some fully-connected (FCN) layers are used for making final decision about ECG classes. In this work the deep learning architecture with 1D convolutional layers and FCN layers for ECG classification is presented and some classification results are showed.

  6. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  7. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...

  8. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification...... systems has changed and that new opportunities should be explored. Some proposals for new applications are presented and carefully aligned with IT opportunities. Especially, the use of building modelling will give new benefits and many of the traditional uses of classification systems will instead...... be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...

  9. VT Biodiversity Project - Bedrock Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is a five category, nine sub-category classification of the bedrock units appearing on the Centennial Geologic Map of Vermont. The...

  10. Classification of Cortical Brain Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, radiological, and genetic classifications of 113 cases of malformations of cortical development (MCD were evaluated at the Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  11. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  12. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  13. Classification of pyodestructive pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromskij, Yu.A.; Semivolkov, V.I.; Shlenova, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Classification of pyodestructive lungs diseases, thier complications and outcomes is proposed which makes it possible for physioians engaged in studying respiratory organs pathology to orient themselves in problems of diagnosis and treatment tactics. The above classification is developed on the basis of studying the disease anamnesis and its clinical process, as well as on the basis of roentgenological and morphological study results by more than 10000 patients

  14. Quantum computing for pattern classification

    OpenAIRE

    Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measuring the Hamming di...

  15. The soils of the Parque Natural da Arrábida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Schrittenlocher

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The soils of the Parque Natural da Arrábida are surveyed along four "catenae" right across the Parque. Dominant soil formating processes and their regional importance are shown. The soils are described as units according to FAO (1988. On the basis of the FAO units an attempt is made to combine soil units with ecological classes. A comparison with the soil map 38-B and the portuguese classification (Cardoso 1964 is given. Unfortunately it is not possible to transform the units of that map into soil units according to FAO (1988.

  16. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information classifi......Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicate group differences in user classification and related taskperformance differences. The main implications of the study are that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  17. Ototoxicity (cochleotoxicity) classifications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundwell, Gemma; Gomersall, Phil; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Drug-mediated ototoxicity, specifically cochleotoxicity, is a concern for patients receiving medications for the treatment of serious illness. A number of classification schemes exist, most of which are based on pure-tone audiometry, in order to assist non-audiological/non-otological specialists in the identification and monitoring of iatrogenic hearing loss. This review identifies the primary classification systems used in cochleototoxicity monitoring. By bringing together classifications published in discipline-specific literature, the paper aims to increase awareness of their relative strengths and limitations in the assessment and monitoring of ototoxic hearing loss and to indicate how future classification systems may improve upon the status-quo. Literature review. PubMed identified 4878 articles containing the search term ototox*. A systematic search identified 13 key classification systems. Cochleotoxicity classification systems can be divided into those which focus on hearing change from a baseline audiogram and those that focus on the functional impact of the hearing loss. Common weaknesses of these grading scales included a lack of sensitivity to small adverse changes in hearing thresholds, a lack of high-frequency audiometry (>8 kHz), and lack of indication of which changes are likely to be clinically significant for communication and quality of life.

  18. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information classifi......Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicate group differences in user classification and related task-performance differences. The main implications of the study are that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  20. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  1. Slopeland utilizable limitation classification using landslide inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu Fen; Lin, Chao Yuan

    2016-04-01

    In 1976, "Slopeland Conservation and Utilization Act" was promulgated as well as the criteria for slopeland utilization limitation classification (SULC) i.e., average slope, effective soil depth, degree of soil erosion, and parent rock became standardized. Due to the development areas on slope land steadily increased and the extreme rainfall events occurred frequently, the areas affected by landslides also increased year by year. According to the act, the land which damaged by disaster must be categorized to the conservation land and required rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the large-scale disaster on slope land and the limitation of SWCB officers are the constraint of field investigation. Therefore, how to establish the ongoing inspective procedure of post-disaster SULC using remote sensing was essential. A-Li-Shan, Ai-Liao, and Tai-Ma-Li Watershed were selected to be case studies in this project. The spatial data from big data i.e., Digital Elevation Model (DEM), soil map, and satellite images integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were applied to post-disaster SULC. The collapse and deposition area which delineated by vegetation recovery rate was established landslide inventory of cadastral unit combined with watershed unit. The results were verified with field survey and the accuracy was 97%. The landslide inventory could be an effective reference for sediment disaster investigation and a practical evidence for judgement to expropriation. Finally, the results showed that the ongoing inspective procedure of post-disaster SULC was practicable. From the four criteria, the average slope was the major factor. It was found that the non-uniform slopes, especially derived from cadastral units, often produce significant slope difference and lead to errors of average slope evaluation. Therefore, the Grid-based DEM slope derivation has been recommended as the standard method to calculate the average slope. Others criteria were previously required to classify

  2. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  3. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section...

  4. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.15 Classification guides. (a) OSTP shall issue and maintain classification guides to facilitate the proper and uniform derivative classification of information. These guides shall...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may be...

  6. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  7. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves. Lot...

  9. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of the...

  10. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one review...

  11. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... classification, it shall be sent to the appropriate agency with original classification authority over the...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... authority. The name and position, or personal identifier, of the original classification authority shall...

  13. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  14. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  15. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  16. Soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Boersma; D. Kirkham; D. Norum; R. Ziemer; J. C. Guitjens; J. Davidson; J. N. Luthin

    1971-01-01

    Infiltration continues to occupy the attention of soil physicists and engineers. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of surface sealing on infiltration by Edwards and Larson [1969] showed that raindrops reduced the infiltration rate by as much as 50% for a two-hour period of infiltration. The effect of raindrops on the surface infiltration rate of...

  17. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  18. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  19. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  20. Soil physical conditions in Nigerian savannas and biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salako, F.K.

    2004-01-01

    Nigeria is located in the tropical zone, with a vast area having savanna vegetation. This is a region that is itself diverse, necessitating a classification into derived savanna, southern Guinea savanna and northern Guinea savanna. These classifications reflect environmental characteristics such as length of growing period, which for instance is 151-180 days for the northern Guinea savanna, 181-210 days for the southern Guinea savanna and 211-270 days for the derived savanna/coastal savanna. The major soils found in the various agro-ecological zones have coarse-textured surface soil, and are low in organic matter and chemical fertility. Although, yields can be improved by addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer, this can only be sustained and assured with high soil physical qualities. Soil physical qualities can be sustained at a high level with conservation tillage and soil conservation measures. Tillage is physical manipulation of the soil. Thus, the most profound effect of tillage is in relation to soil physical properties. For socio-economic and cultural reasons, manual tillage is still widely practiced in Africa as farming is largely at subsistence level. However, there are now a number of commercial farms especially for cash crop production in many parts of Africa. Many of these are located in locations which were hitherto reserved as forest and a need for sustainable production in pertinent to maintain ecological balance. Soils with coarse texture are not often sensitive to some physical parameters while some physical parameters are more relevant in a given study than others. Sustainable crop production researches in the tropics have focused on the role of planted fallows and their spatial arrangement (e.g., as in alley cropping) for many decades. Application of soil physics in the area of food production and environmental management still lags behind other sub-disciplines of soil science, particularly soil fertility in the tropics. A great challenge is

  1. Seeing the soil through the net: an eye-opener on the soil map of the Flemish region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Vanierschot, Laura; Langohr, Roger; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef; Oorts, Katrien

    2017-04-01

    A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. The legend of these detailed soil maps (scale 1:20,000) has been converted to the 3rd edition of the international soil classification system 'World Reference Base for Soil Resources' (WRB). Over the last years, the government of the Flemish region made great efforts to make these maps, along with other environmental data, available to the general audience through the internet. The soil maps are widely used and consulted by researchers, teachers, land-use planners, environmental consultancy agencies and archaeologists. The maps can be downloaded and consulted in the viewer 'Visual Soil Explorer' ('Bodemverkenner'). To increase the legibility of the maps, we assembled a collection of photographs from soil profiles representing 923 soil types and 413 photos of related landscape settings. By clicking on a specific location in the 'Visual Soil Explorer', pictures of the corresponding soil type and landscape appear in a pop-up window, with a brief explanation about the soil properties. The collection of photographs of soil profiles cover almost 80% of the total area of the Flemish region, and include the 100 most common soil types. Our own teaching experience shows that these information layers are particular valuable for teaching soil geography and earth sciences in general. Overall, such visual information layers should contribute to a better interpretation of the soil maps and legacy soil data by serving as an eye-opener on the soil map to the wider community.

  2. Featureless classification of light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, S. D.; Gianniotis, N.; Polsterer, K. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the era of rapidly increasing amounts of time series data, classification of variable objects has become the main objective of time-domain astronomy. Classification of irregularly sampled time series is particularly difficult because the data cannot be represented naturally as a vector which can be directly fed into a classifier. In the literature, various statistical features serve as vector representations. In this work, we represent time series by a density model. The density model captures all the information available, including measurement errors. Hence, we view this model as a generalization to the static features which directly can be derived, e.g. as moments from the density. Similarity between each pair of time series is quantified by the distance between their respective models. Classification is performed on the obtained distance matrix. In the numerical experiments, we use data from the OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) and ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) surveys and demonstrate that the proposed representation performs up to par with the best currently used feature-based approaches. The density representation preserves all static information present in the observational data, in contrast to a less-complete description by features. The density representation is an upper boundary in terms of information made available to the classifier. Consequently, the predictive power of the proposed classification depends on the choice of similarity measure and classifier, only. Due to its principled nature, we advocate that this new approach of representing time series has potential in tasks beyond classification, e.g. unsupervised learning.

  3. A Semisupervised Cascade Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Karlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification is one of the most important tasks of data mining techniques, which have been adopted by several modern applications. The shortage of enough labeled data in the majority of these applications has shifted the interest towards using semisupervised methods. Under such schemes, the use of collected unlabeled data combined with a clearly smaller set of labeled examples leads to similar or even better classification accuracy against supervised algorithms, which use labeled examples exclusively during the training phase. A novel approach for increasing semisupervised classification using Cascade Classifier technique is presented in this paper. The main characteristic of Cascade Classifier strategy is the use of a base classifier for increasing the feature space by adding either the predicted class or the probability class distribution of the initial data. The classifier of the second level is supplied with the new dataset and extracts the decision for each instance. In this work, a self-trained NB∇C4.5 classifier algorithm is presented, which combines the characteristics of Naive Bayes as a base classifier and the speed of C4.5 for final classification. We performed an in-depth comparison with other well-known semisupervised classification methods on standard benchmark datasets and we finally reached to the point that the presented technique has better accuracy in most cases.

  4. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using a concentration-area fractal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modelling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modelling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi and Igarashi (1970, 1971) classification results in the Meybod city. The resulting categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  5. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using concentration-area fractal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, Central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modeling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modeling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi's classification results in the Meybod city. The resulted categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  6. [Classification of enuresis/encopresis according to DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Elimination disorders are common in childhood and adolescence. Enuresis is traditionally defined as wetting from the age of 5 years and encopresis as soiling from 4 years onwards - after all organic causes have been excluded. In the past decades, many subtypes of elimination disorders have been identified with different symptoms, etiologies, and specific treatment options. Unfortunately, the DSM-5 criteria did not integrate these new approaches. In contrast, classification systems of the International Children's Incontinence Society (ICCS) for enuresis and urinary incontinence as well as the ROME-III criteria for fecal incontinence offer new and relevant suggestions for both clinical and research purposes.

  7. Particle size distribution of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ke; Wu Wangsuo; Jin Yuren; Shen Maoquan; Han Zhaoyang; Hu Zhiqian; Ma Teqi

    2012-01-01

    Wet classification and γ ray spectroscopy had been applied to study the particle size distribution of Pu in the desert soil of somewhere in Northern China. It was found that nearly 90% of Pu exits in 0.1-10 mm particles. only 10% less in particles under 0.05 mm that still poses notable hazards to biosphere if any resuspension. Providing a decontamination target of 239 Pu <4000 Bq/kg, accident condition. (authors)

  8. Soil organic matter degradation and enzymatic profiles of intertidal and subaqueous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Chiara; Marinari, Sara; Bello, Diana; Vianello, Gilmo; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Vittori Antisari, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The interest on intertidal and subaqueous soils has recently arisen because of the climate changes forecasts. The preservation of these habitats represents an important challenge for the future of humanity, because these systems represent an important global C sink since soil organic matter (SOM) on intertidal and subaqueous soils undergoes very slow degradation rates due to oxygen limitation. Publications on SOM cycle in saltmarshes are very scarce because of the difficulties involved on those studies i.e. the interaction of many abiotic and biotic factors (e.g., redox changes, water and bio-turbation processes, etc) and stressors (e.g., salinity and anoxia). However, saltmarshes constitute an unique natural system to observe the influence of anoxic conditions on SOM degradation, because the tide fluctuations on the soil surface allow the formation of provisionally or permanently submerged soils. With the aim to investigate the quality of SOM in subaqueous soils, triplicates of subaqueous soils (SASs), intertidal soils (ITSs) and terrestrial soils (TESs) were collected in the saltmarshes of the Baiona Lagoon (Northern Italy) and classified according to their pedogenetic horizons. The SOM quality on each soil horizon was investigated by quantifying SOM, total and water-soluble organic carbon (TOC, WSC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Given the contribution of soil enzymes to the degradation of SOM, some enzymatic assays were also performed. Thereafter, soil classification and humus morpho-functional classification were used to join together similar soil profiles to facilitate the description and discussion of results. Soils were ranked as Aquent or Wassent Entisols, with an A/AC/C pedosequence. SOM, TOC and MBC were statistically higher in A than in AC and C horizons. Among the A horizons, ITSs were those showing the highest values for these parameters (11% TOC, 1.6 mg kg-1 MBC, 0.9 mg kg-1 WSC). These results, combined with the morpho-functional classification

  9. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  11. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  12. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  13. Geotechnical characteristics of some Iraqi gypseous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanz Tom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq, especially in the last three decades, extensive developments have been evidenced in the regions of gypseous soils due to the need of construction of many numbers of strategic projects. Failure of different structures constructed on gypseous soil in various regions in Iraq have been noticed. For this purpose, three areas in northern Iraq were selected (Samarra, Tikrit and Baiji to study their geotechnical characteristics due to their high gypsum contents as well as many engineering problems are faced due to dissolution of gypsum. The experimental work involves testing of many properties such as: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, XRD, chemical, physical, compressibility, collapsibility, shear strength and suction. At low stress level, the test results revealed that, higher collapse potential (CP is recorded for Tikrit soil. While at low stress level, higher CP is obtained for Baiji soil indicating the increase in CP with decreasing gypsum content. Furthermore, the CP significantly increases with increasing stress level and soaking period at a particular stress level. According to severity classification of the collapse potential, Baiji soil is considered as moderate trouble to slight, while Tikrit soil is considered as trouble to moderate. After soaking, both soils become trouble. As well as, the results showed a reduction in Tikrit soil shear parameters ( φ and c after soaking period of 6 and 24 hrs as 12.2 to 9.2% in the internal friction angle and 91.5 to 94.2% in cohesion, respectively with respect to dry condition. Maximum total suction is measured for low consistency soils (liquid limit < 30% represented by Tikrit soil.

  14. SHIP CLASSIFICATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Robert-Inacio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.

  15. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  16. Deep learning for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  17. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  18. FACET CLASSIFICATIONS OF E-LEARNING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the classification of e-learning tools based on the facet method, which suggests the separation of the parallel set of objects into independent classification groups; at the same time it is not assumed rigid classification structure and pre-built finite groups classification groups are formed by a combination of values taken from the relevant facets. An attempt to systematize the existing classification of e-learning tools from the standpoint of classification theory is made for the first time. Modern Ukrainian and foreign facet classifications of e-learning tools are described; their positive and negative features compared to classifications based on a hierarchical method are analyzed. The original author's facet classification of e-learning tools is proposed.

  19. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F.C.; LaRoe, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    This classification, to be used in a new inventory of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, is intended to describe ecological taxa, arrange them in a system useful to resource managers, furnish units for mapping, and provide uniformity of concepts and terms. Wetlands are defined by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils), and frequency of flooding. Ecologically related areas of deep water, traditionally not considered wetlands, are included in the classification as deepwater habitats.Systems form the highest level of the classification hierarchy; five are defined-Marine, Estuarine, Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine. Marine and Estuarine Systems each have two Subsystems, Subtidal and Intertidal; the Riverine System has four Subsystems, Tidal, Lower Perennial, Upper Perennial, and Intermittent; the Lacustrine has two, Littoral and Limnetic; and the Palustrine has no Subsystems.Within the Subsystems, Classes are based on substrate material and flooding regime, or on vegetative life form. The same Classes may appear under one or more of the Systems or Subsystems. Six Classes are based on substrate and flooding regime: (1) Rock Bottom with a substrate of bedrock, boulders, or stones; (2) Unconsolidated Bottom with a substrate of cobbles, gravel, sand, mud, or organic material; (3) Rocky Shore with the same substrates as Rock Bottom; (4) Unconsolidated Shore with the same substrates as Unconsolidated Bottom; (5) Streambed with any of the substrates; and (6) Reef with a substrate composed of the living and dead remains of invertebrates (corals, mollusks, or worms). The bottom Classes, (1) and (2) above, are flooded all or most of the time and the shore Classes, (3) and (4), are exposed most of the time. The Class Streambed is restricted to channels of intermittent streams and tidal channels that are dewatered at low tide. The life form of the dominant vegetation defines the five Classes based on vegetative form: (1) Aquatic Bed, dominated by plants

  20. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  1. A soil map of a large watershed in China: applying digital soil mapping in a data sparse region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F.; Blank, B.; Wiesmeier, M.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    Prediction of soil classes in data sparse regions is a major research challenge. With the advent of machine learning the possibilities to spatially predict soil classes have increased tremendously and given birth to new possibilities in soil mapping. Digital soil mapping is a research field that has been established during the last decades and has been accepted widely. We now need to develop tools to reduce the uncertainty in soil predictions. This is especially challenging in data sparse regions. One approach to do this is to implement soil taxonomic distance as a classification error criterion in classification and regression trees (CART) as suggested by Minasny et al. (Geoderma 142 (2007) 285-293). This approach assumes that the classification error should be larger between soils that are more dissimilar, i.e. differ in a larger number of soil properties, and smaller between more similar soils. Our study area is the Xilin River Basin, which is located in central Inner Mongolia in China. It is characterized by semi arid climate conditions and is representative for the natural occurring steppe ecosystem. The study area comprises 3600 km2. We applied a random, stratified sampling design after McKenzie and Ryan (Geoderma 89 (1999) 67-94) with landuse and topography as stratifying variables. We defined 10 sampling classes, from each class 14 replicates were randomly drawn and sampled. The dataset was split into 100 soil profiles for training and 40 soil profiles for validation. We then applied classification and regression trees (CART) to quantify the relationships between soil classes and environmental covariates. The classification tree explained 75.5% of the variance with land use and geology as most important predictor variables. Among the 8 soil classes that we predicted, the Kastanozems cover most of the area. They are predominantly found in steppe areas. However, even some of the soils at sand dune sites, which were thought to show only little soil formation

  2. Characterization, Classification and Land Capability Evalution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil management measures to control erosion, poor drainage and flooding were recommended. Crop yield in these soils were expected to be high with adequate application of organic fertilizers and lime The soils were classified using the USDA soil taxanomy with approximate correlations with the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map ...

  3. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  4. Soil tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli

    2013-01-01

    The web platform offers a compilation of various formats and materials dealing with reduced tillage and its challenges regarding weeds. A selection of short movies about mechanical weeding, green manure and tailor-made machinery is listed. Leaflets and publications on reduced tillage can be downloaded. In there, different treatments and machinery are tested and compared to advice farmers on how to conserve soil while keeping weed under control. For Swiss farmers information on the leg...

  5. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  6. Definition and classification of epilepsy. Classification of epileptic seizures 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in childhood and adolescence. The incidence varies from 15 to 113 cases per 100 000 population with the maximum among children under 1 year old. The prevalence of epilepsy is high, ranging from 5 to 8 cases (in some regions – 10 cases per 1000 children under 15 years old. Classification of the disease has great importance for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The article presents a novel strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, developed in 2016. It contains a number of brand new concepts, including a very important one, saying that some seizures, previously considered as generalized or focal only, can be, in fact, both focal and generalized. They include tonic, atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms. The term “secondarily generalized seizure” is replace by the term “bilateral tonic-clonic seizure” (as soon as it is not a separate type of epileptic seizures, and the term reflects the spread of discharge from any area of cerebral cortex and evolution of any types of focal seizures. International League Against Epilepsy recommends to abandon the term “pseudo-epileptic seizures” and replace it by the term “psychogenic non-epileptic seizures”. If a doctor is not sure that seizures have epileptic nature, the term “paroxysmal event” should be used without specifying the disease. The conception of childhood epileptic encephalopathies, developed within this novel classification project, is one of the most significant achievements, since in this case not only the seizures, but even epileptiform activity can induce severe disorders of higher mental functions. In addition to detailed description of the new strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, the article contains a comprehensive review of the existing principles of epilepsy and epileptic seizures classification.

  7. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  8. Selective separation of very small particles by flotation : in relation to soil and sediment remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.

    2001-01-01

    Next to numerous contaminated sites, also large quantities of polluted dredged sediments have to be cleaned in the near future in the Netherlands. Soil washing (classification) is one of the most common remediation techniques to remediate contaminated dredged sediment and excavated soil. It uses

  9. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  10. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO 3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  11. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  12. Agriculture classification using POLSAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dall, Jørgen; Ferro-Famil, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    of their components) show strongly preferred orientations, such as the stalks or ears of cereals. The importance of SAR polarimetry in crop classification arises principally because polarisation is sen-sitive to orientation. Hence it provides a means to distinguish crops with different canopy archi-tectures. Detailed...

  13. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  14. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  15. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  16. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreewsky, Alexandre; Fluhr, Christian.

    1975-06-01

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined [fr

  17. Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, H.; Jantzen, Jan; Berks, G.

    2000-01-01

    A web-based software model (http://fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests...

  18. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...

  19. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  20. Is classification necessary after Google?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    believe that the activity of “classification” is not worth the effort, as search engines can be improved without the heavy cost of providing metadata. Design/methodology/approach – The basic issue in classification is seen as providing criteria for deciding whether A should be classified as X...

  1. Data Augmentation for Plant Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Data augmentation plays a crucial role in increasing the number of training images, which often aids to improve classification performances of deep learning techniques for computer vision problems. In this paper, we employ the deep learning framework and determine the effects of several

  2. Climatic classification of the Karst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio; Bahamon Ayala, Sandra Marcela; Lopez Romero Maria Ines

    2000-01-01

    Climate is one the main factors in forming or modifying Karsts, or its resulting forms. The determining climatic elements of Karst characteristics are humidity, air circulation and temperature. Many Karstic processes show characteristics corresponding to a given climate sequence. In the present article we discuss the relation between climate and Karst as well as a climate classification based on the structure of the Karsts

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.

  4. Crop Classification by Polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Nielsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR-data of agricultural fields have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric L- and C-band SAR (EMISAR) during a number of missions at the Danish agricultural test site Foulum during 1995. The data are used to study the classification potential of polarimetric SAR data using...

  5. Emotions Classification for Arabic Tweets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... learning methods for referring to all areas of detecting, analyzing, and classifying ... In this paper, an adaptive model is proposed for emotions classification of ... WEKA data mining tool is used to implement this model and evaluate the ... defined using vector representation, storing a numerical. "importance" ...

  6. Correlation Dimension Estimation for Classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2006), s. 547-557 ISSN 1895-8648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : correlation dimension * probability density estimation * classification * UCI MLR Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Whewell on classification and consilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Aleta

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I sketch William Whewell's attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell's day (1794-1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals' chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal understanding of the properties of minerals. Whewell's comparison to successful biological classification is particularly striking given that classificatory biologists did not share an understanding of the causal structure underlying the natural classification of life (the common descent with modification of all organisms). Whewell's key proposed methodological reform is consideration of multiple, distinct principles of classification. The most powerful evidence in support of a natural classificatory claim is the consilience of claims arrived at through distinct lines of reasoning, rooted in distinct conceptual approaches to the target objects. Mineralogists must consider not only elemental composition and chemical affinities, but also symmetry and polarity. Geometrical properties are central to what makes an individual mineral the type of mineral that it is. In Whewell's view, function and organization jointly define life, and so are the keys to understanding what makes an organism the type of organism that it is. I explain the relationship between Whewell's teleological account of life and his natural theology. I conclude with brief comments about the importance of Whewell's classificatory theory for the further development of his philosophy of science and in particular his account of consilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  9. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  10. Universal Spatial Correlation Functions for Describing and Reconstructing Soil Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, Elena B.; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Structural features of porous materials such as soil define the majority of its physical properties, including water infiltration and redistribution, multi-phase flow (e.g. simultaneous water/air flow, or gas exchange between biologically active soil root zone and atmosphere) and solute transport. To characterize soil microstructure, conventional soil science uses such metrics as pore size and pore-size distributions and thin section-derived morphological indicators. However, these descriptors provide only limited amount of information about the complex arrangement of soil structure and have limited capability to reconstruct structural features or predict physical properties. We introduce three different spatial correlation functions as a comprehensive tool to characterize soil microstructure: 1) two-point probability functions, 2) linear functions, and 3) two-point cluster functions. This novel approach was tested on thin-sections (2.21×2.21 cm2) representing eight soils with different pore space configurations. The two-point probability and linear correlation functions were subsequently used as a part of simulated annealing optimization procedures to reconstruct soil structure. Comparison of original and reconstructed images was based on morphological characteristics, cluster correlation functions, total number of pores and pore-size distribution. Results showed excellent agreement for soils with isolated pores, but relatively poor correspondence for soils exhibiting dual-porosity features (i.e. superposition of pores and micro-cracks). Insufficient information content in the correlation function sets used for reconstruction may have contributed to the observed discrepancies. Improved reconstructions may be obtained by adding cluster and other correlation functions into reconstruction sets. Correlation functions and the associated stochastic reconstruction algorithms introduced here are universally applicable in soil science, such as for soil classification

  11. Towards quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, B.; Sirven, J.-B.; Canioni, L.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of chromium in soil samples is presented. Different emission lines related to chromium are studied in order to select the best one for quantitative features. Important matrix effects are demonstrated from one soil to the other, preventing any prediction of concentration in different soils on the basis of a univariate calibration curve. Finally, a classification of the LIBS data based on a series of Principal Component Analyses (PCA) is applied to a reduced dataset of selected spectral lines related to the major chemical elements in the soils. LIBS data of heterogeneous soils appear to be widely dispersed, which leads to a reconsideration of the sampling step in the analysis process

  12. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  13. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  14. Soil and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  15. Soil Loss Prediction on Mobile Platform Using Universal Soil-Loss Equation (USLE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Rahim Supli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect method for soil loss predictions are plentiful, one of which is Universal soil-loss equation (USLE model. Available technology in mobile applications prompted the authors to develop a tool for calculating soil loss for many land types by transforming the USLE model into smart mobile application. The application is designed by using simple language for calculating each and every factor and lastly summing up the results. Factors that are involved in the calculation of soil loss are namely erosivity, erodibility, slope steepness, length of slope, land cover and conservation measures. The program will also be able to give its judgment for each of the prediction of soil loss rates for each and every possible land uses ranging from very light to very heavy. The application is believed to be useful for land users, students, farmers, planners, companies and government officers. It is shown by conducting usability testing using usability model, which is designed for mobile application. The results showed from 120 respondents that the usability of the system in this study was in “very good” classification, for three characteristics (ease of use, user satisfaction, and learnability. Only attractiveness characteristic that falls into “good” classification.

  16. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  17. 5 CFR 1312.3 - Classification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.3 Classification requirements. United States citizens must...; (5) Scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to the national security; (6) United...

  18. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the classification designations (i.e., Top Secret, Secret or Confidential) apply to the identified... writing by an official with original Top Secret classification authority; the identity of the official...

  19. Classification guide: Paralympic Games London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  20. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  1. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, ...

  2. Soil radiological characterisation and remediation at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Cristina; Garcia Tapias, Esther; Leganes, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Located in Madrid, CIEMAT is the Spanish Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research. It used to have more than 60 facilities in operation that allowed a wide range of activities in the nuclear field and in the application of ionising radiations. At present, the centre includes several facilities; some of them are now obsolete, shut down and in dismantling phases. In 2000 CIEMAT started the 'Integrated plan for the improvement of CIEMAT facilities (PIMIC)', which includes activities for the decontamination, dismantling, rehabilitation of obsolete installations and soil remediation activities. A small contaminated area named with the Spanish word 'Lenteja' (Lentil), has had to be remediate and restored. In the 70's, an incidental leakage of radioactive liquid occurred during a transference operation from the Reprocessing Plant to the Liquid Treatment Installation, and contaminated about 1000 m 3 of soil. Remediation activities in this area started with an exhaustive radiological characterisation of the soil, including surface samples and up to 16 meters boreholes, and the development of a comprehensive radiological characterization methodology for pre-classification of materials. Once the framework was defined the following tasks were being carried out: preparation of the area, soil extraction activities and final radiological characterisation for release purposes. Next step will be the refilling of the resulting hole from the removal soil activities. This paper will describe the soil radiological characterization and remediation activities at the Lentil Zone in Ciemat Research Centre. (authors)

  3. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for near surface disposal—(1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves two...

  4. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined...

  5. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or...

  6. 46 CFR 76.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 76.50-5 Section 76.50-5 Shipping COAST... Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be... extinguishing systems are set forth in table 76.50-5(c). Table 76.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda acid and...

  7. 12 CFR 560.160 - Asset classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Asset classification. 560.160 Section 560.160... Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.160 Asset classification... consistent with, or reconcilable to, the asset classification system used by OTS in its Thrift Activities...

  8. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,” which...

  9. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of information... classified are encouraged and expected to challenge the classification status of that information pursuant to...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.701 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1203.701 Section 1203.701... Government Information § 1203.701 Classification. (a) Foreign government information that is classified by a foreign entity shall either retain its original classification designation or be marked with a United...

  11. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect to...

  12. 32 CFR 644.426 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Classification. 644.426 Section 644.426 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.426 Classification... required by the special acts, classification will be coordinated with the interested Federal agency. The...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 18 - Group classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group classification. Sec. 18 Section 18 Shipping... Sec. 18 Group classification. In the preparation of specifications, Job Orders, Supplemental Job... inserted thereon: Number Classification 41 Maintenance Repairs (deck, engine and stewards department...

  14. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification guides...

  15. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2...

  16. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  18. 75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. MC2010-19; Order No. 415] Mail Classification Change...-filed Postal Service request to make a minor modification to the Mail Classification Schedule. The.... concerning a change in classification which reflects a change in terminology from Bulk Mailing Center (BMC...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any lot...

  20. 33 CFR 154.1216 - Facility classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility classification. 154.1216... Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1216 Facility classification. (a) The Coast Guard classifies facilities that... classification of a facility that handles, stores, or transports animal fats or vegetable oils. The COTP may...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in the...

  2. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2011-27; Order No. 785] Mail Classification Change...-filed Postal Service request for a change in classification to the ``Reply Rides Free'' program. The... Service filed a notice of classification change pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning the...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim for...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  5. Pattern Classification with Memristive Crossbar Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Pattern Classification with Memristive Crossbar Circuits Dmitri B. Strukov Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department UC Santa...pattern classification ; deep learning; convolutional neural network networks. Introduction Deep-learning convolutional neural networks (DLCNN), which...the best classification performances on a variety of benchmark tasks [1]. The major challenge in building fast and energy- efficient networks of this

  6. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons) Carbon...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification designation...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1402 Section 51.1402... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of the...

  9. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  10. Angle′s Molar Classification Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshi Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Results: Of the 500 pretreatment study casts assessed 52.4% were definitive Class I, 23.6% were Class II, 2.6% were Class III and the ambiguous cases were 21%. These could be easily classified with our method of classification. Conclusion: This improvised classification technique will help orthodontists in making classification of malocclusion accurate and simple.

  11. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  13. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  14. The Classification of Romanian High-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…

  15. 28 CFR 524.73 - Classification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification procedures. 524.73 Section 524.73 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.73...

  16. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information...

  17. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original classification. 2500.3 Section... SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information. ...

  18. Spectral Classification of Similar Materials using the Tetracorder Algorithm: The Calcite-Epidote-Chlorite Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. Brad; Bove, Dana; Mladinich, Carol; Clark, Roger; Rockwell, Barnaby; Swayze, Gregg; King, Trude; Church, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    Recent work on automated spectral classification algorithms has sought to distinguish ever-more similar materials. From modest beginnings separating shade, soil, rock and vegetation to ambitious attempts to discriminate mineral types and specific plant species, the trend seems to be toward using increasingly subtle spectral differences to perform the classification. Rule-based expert systems exploiting the underlying physics of spectroscopy such as the US Geological Society Tetracorder system are now taking advantage of the high spectral resolution and dimensionality of current imaging spectrometer designs to discriminate spectrally similar materials. The current paper details recent efforts to discriminate three minerals having absorptions centered at the same wavelength, with encouraging results.

  19. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  20. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  1. Assessment of Sampling Approaches for Remote Sensing Image Classification in the Iranian Playa Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem Alavipanah, Seyed

    There are some problems in soil salinity studies based upon remotely sensed data: 1-spectral world is full of ambiguity and therefore soil reflectance can not be attributed to a single soil property such as salinity, 2) soil surface conditions as a function of time and space is a complex phenomena, 3) vegetation with a dynamic biological nature may create some problems in the study of soil salinity. Due to these problems the first question which may arise is how to overcome or minimise these problems. In this study we hypothesised that different sources of data, well established sampling plan and optimum approach could be useful. In order to choose representative training sites in the Iranian playa margins, to define the spectral and informational classes and to overcome some problems encountered in the variation within the field, the following attempts were made: 1) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order: a) to determine the most important variables, b) to understand the Landsat satellite images and the most informative components, 2) the photomorphic unit (PMU) consideration and interpretation; 3) study of salt accumulation and salt distribution in the soil profile, 4) use of several forms of field data, such as geologic, geomorphologic and soil information; 6) confirmation of field data and land cover types with farmers and the members of the team. The results led us to find at suitable approaches with a high and acceptable image classification accuracy and image interpretation. KEY WORDS; Photo Morphic Unit, Pprincipal Ccomponent Analysis, Soil Salinity, Field Work, Remote Sensing

  2. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  3. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  4. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  5. The Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Unsaturated Tropical Residual Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, M. F.; Setapa, A. S.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Madun, A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Marto, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the SWCC of unsaturated tropical residual soil in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Undisturbed soil samples at five locations of high-risk slopes area were taken at a depth of 0.5 m using block sampler. In the determination of the SWCC, the pressure plate extractor with the capacity of 1500 kN/m2 has been used. The index properties of the soil such as natural moisture content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity, and soil classification are performed according to BS 1377: Part 2: 1990. The results of index properties show that the natural moisture content of the soil is between 36% to 46%, the plasticity index is between 10% - 26%, the specific gravity is between 2.51 - 2.61 and the soils is classified as silty organic clay of low plasticity. The SWCC data from the pressure plate extractor have been fitted with the Fredlund and Xing equation. The results show that the air entry value and residual matric suction for residual soils are in the range of 17 kN/m2 to 24 kN/m2 and 145 kN/m2 to 225 kN/m2 respectively. From the fitting curve, it is found that the average value of the Fredlund and Xing parameters such as a, n and m are in the range of 0.24-0.299, 1.7-4.8 and 0.142-0.440 respectively.

  6. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    ?ZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. I...

  7. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  8. Collective Classification in Network Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Prithviraj; Namata, Galileo; Bilgic, Mustafa; Getoor, Lise; University of Maryland; Galligher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Many real-world applications produce networked data such as the world-wide web (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks), social networks (for example, people connected by friendship links), communication networks (computers connected via communication links) and biological networks (for example, protein interaction networks). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification techniques to classify nodes in such networks. In this a...

  9. Texture classification using autoregressive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.

    1984-01-01

    A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.

  10. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography...

  11. A Classification Table for Achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  12. Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals - methodology of calculation for pollution assessment (minireview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmannová, Helena Doležalová; Pavlovský, Jiří

    2017-11-07

    This article provides the assessment of heavy metal soil pollution with using the calculation of various pollution indices and contains also summarization of the sources of heavy metal soil pollution. Twenty described indices of the assessment of soil pollution consist of two groups: single indices and total complex indices of pollution or contamination with relevant classes of pollution. This minireview provides also the classification of pollution indices in terms of the complex assessment of soil quality. In addition, based on the comparison of metal concentrations in soil-selected sites of the world and used indices of pollution or contamination in soils, the concentration of heavy metal in contaminated soils varied widely, and pollution indices confirmed the significant contribution of soil pollution from anthropogenic activities mainly in urban and industrial areas.

  13. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  14. Effects of corn cob ash on lime stabilized lateritic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnochiri, Emeka Segun

    2018-03-01

    This study assesses the effects of Corn Cob Ash (CCA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for purpose of identification and classification. Lime being the main stabilizing material was thoroughly mixed with the soil sample to determine the optimum lime requirement of the sample as a basis for evaluating the effects of the CCA. The optimum lime requirement was 10%. The CCA was thereafter added to the lime stabilized soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. Unsoaked CBR increased from 83% at 0% CCA to highest value of 94% at 4% CCA. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values increased from 1123kN/m2 at 0% CCA to highest value of 1180kN/m2 at 4% CCA. It was therefore concluded that CCA can serve as a good complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

  15. A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example It is well known that smectite-rich soils significantly reduce the stability of slopes. The question is how much smectite in the soil causes slope failures. A study of over 100 sites in north and south Louisiana, USA, compared slopes that failed during a major El Nino winter (heavy rainfall) in 1982-1983 to similar slopes that did not fail. Soils in the slopes were tested for per cent clay, liquid limits, plasticity indices and semi-quantitative clay mineralogy. Slopes with the High Risk for failure (85-90% chance of failure in 8-15 years after construction) contained soils with a liquid limit > 54%, a plasticity index over 29%, and clay contents > 47%. Slopes with an Intermediate Risk (55-50% chance of failure in 8-15 years) contained soils with a liquid limit between 36-54%, plasticity index between 16-19%, and clay content between 32-47%. Slopes with a Low Risk chance of failure (soils with a liquid limit plasticity index soil characteristics before construction. If the soils fall into the Low Risk classification, construct the embankment normally. If the soils fall into the High Risk classification, one will need to use lime stabilization or heat treatments to prevent failures. Soils in the Intermediate Risk class will have to be evaluated on a case by case basis.

  16. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 4; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soils science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soils physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soils and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality. In the fourth volume of the abstracts were presented papers related to use of fertilizers and herbicides

  17. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  18. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  19. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  20. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.