WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials suggested activities

  1. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  2. Suggestions for inclulsion of radon exhalation control target in building materials radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui

    2010-01-01

    The specific-activity and radon exhalation rate from 26 building material samples from different areas were measured with high pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer and activated carbon cartridge. It is shown that the radium content is not completely relevant to radon exhalation rate from some building material. The existing national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials' (GB 6566-2001) only present internal exposure index as control target but not for radon exhalation rate; in fact, the radon exhalation rate from building materials is closely nearly related to indoor radon concentration. So we suggest that the radon exhalation control target should be included in the national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials'. (authors)

  3. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  4. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Susana

    2017-10-01

    Experiments looking for rare events like the direct detection of dark matter particles, neutrino interactions or the nuclear double beta decay are operated deep underground to suppress the effect of cosmic rays. But, the production of radioactive isotopes in materials due to previous exposure to cosmic rays is a hazard when ultra-low background conditions are required. In this context, the generation of long-lived products by cosmic nucleons has been studied for many detector media and for other materials commonly used. Here, the main results obtained on the quantification of activation yields on the Earth’s surface will be summarized, considering both measurements and calculations following different approaches. The isotope production cross-sections and the cosmic ray spectrum are the two main ingredients when calculating this cosmogenic activation; the different alternatives for implementing them will be discussed. Activation that can take place deep underground mainly due to cosmic muons will be briefly commented too. Presently, the experimental results for the cosmogenic production of radioisotopes are scarce and discrepancies between different calculations are important in many cases, but the increasing interest on this background source which is becoming more and more relevant can help to change this situation.

  5. Material properties in complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. Moein; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2011-01-01

    activation differently and through different sensing molecules and initiation pathways. The importance of material properties in triggering complement is considered and mechanistic aspects discussed. Mechanistic understanding of complement events could provide rational approaches for improved material design...

  6. Biomechanical findings in rats undergoing fascial reconstruction with graft materials suggested as an alternative to polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovic, M L; Ozog, Y; Spelzini, F; Pottier, C; De Ridder, D; Deprest, J

    2010-03-01

    Graft materials used for pelvic floor reinforcement should still be considered as investigational and, therefore, evaluated experimentally and within clinical trials. The present report describes our biomechanical findings in rats implanted with selected novel implant materials, which in recent years have been suggested as alternatives to plain polypropylene (PP) meshes. Full thickness abdominal wall defects were primarily repaired by the implant of interest. Experiments involved eight different implant materials: two partly degradable synthetic implants, that is, a hybrid of polyglactin 910 with PP (Vypro II) and collagen coated PP (Pelvitex); two non-cross linked (Surgisis, InteXēn LP) and two cross-linked materials (Pelvicol, Pelvisoft) and two porous modifications of InteXēn LP and Pelvicol implants. At different time points (7, 14, 30, and 90 days), the implants and surrounding host tissue (explant) were harvested and tensiometry was performed. Tensile strength and location of breakage were recorded. In general resorbable non-cross linked collagen matrices and porous materials were weaker after 90 days; similar behavior was seen for implant materials alone and their construction with the surrounding native tissue. Both non-porous and porous modification of InteXēn LP appeared at 90 days as a very thin layer of collagen that was two-thirds, respectively one-third of the initial thickness. In experimental conditions, sufficient strength was obtained only after 3 months, and PP containing constructs appeared as the strongest though reconstruction with Pelvicol showed comparable outcomes. Lower values for strength of non-cross linked and porous collagen materials are questioning their efficacy for pelvic floor reconstruction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation induces hepatic steatosis, suggesting an adverse effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPARα activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPARα activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Pparα-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Pparα-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPARα to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPARα activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an

  9. The problems and suggestions on supervision of the radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fangfang; Que Ji; Zhang Min; Pan Yuting

    2012-01-01

    The developing background and importance of the rules on supervision of the radioactive material transport are discussed in the paper. Based on the existing problems found in the process of implementing the rule 'Regulations for the safe transport of Radioactive Material', some countermeasures are proposed. (authors)

  10. Illegal handling of radioactive and nuclear materials. Threats and suggestions for measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Melin, Lena; Prawitz, Jan; Ringbom, Anders; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Wigg, Lars; Wirstam, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules

  11. Safety protection suggestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojian; Zhou Qifu; Wang Xiaotao; Xu Zhongyang; Song Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    It's not enough concern about the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of oil and gas industry in China. NORM with radium and radon mainly exist in the scale, sludge and production water, and they tend to deposit on the pipe wall, wellhead equipment and so on. These materials are a threat to the health of workers, so it is very important to have the safe disposal of them. This paper introduces the radioactive hazards and puts for-ward the safe disposal measures so as to provide the reference for the safe disposal of radioactive materials. Some management and technical advices are presented too. (authors)

  12. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  13. Low activation materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Bloom, E.E.; Doran, D.G.; Smith, D.L.; Reuther, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The viability of fusion as a future energy source may eventually be determined by safety and environmental factors. Control of the induced radioactivity characteristics of the materials used in the first wall and blanket could have a major favorable impact on these issues. In the United States, materials program efforts are focused on developing new structural alloys with radioactive decay characteristics which would greatly simplify long-term waste disposal of reactor components. A range of alloy systems is being explored in order to maintain the maximum number of design options. Significant progress has been made, and it now appears probable that reduced-activation engineering alloys with properties at least equivalent to conventional alloys can be successfully developed and commercialized. 10 refs., 1 fig

  14. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.

  16. Bryophytes as Teaching Materials on the Textbook of Botany (The Latter Term of Meiji to the Beginning of Showa) and Suggestions for Development of New Teaching Material

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takayuki; Muko, Heiwa; Ohshika, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bryophytes have some characteristics as teaching material, but it is very difficult to use them in secondary education. Nevertheless, from the latter term of Meiji to the beginning of Showa, there are many teaching materials for natural history.Therefore, we analyzed teaching materials on the textbook of botany that was published at the period, take suggestions for newly development of teaching material. We analyzed composition of textbooks and species of Bryophytes, and compared them to a ma...

  17. A suggested revision to the specific activity limit for tritiated water transported as LSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated water of specific activity not greater than 0.8 TBq L -1 is classified as LSA-II. This paper demonstrates by some simple calculations that the dose that may result from an accident involving tritiated water of this specific activity is very low and suggests that even if the specific activity limit of tritiated water which may be transported as LSA-II is raised above 0.8 TBq kg -1 , the resulting dose in accident conditions would not be unacceptable. (author)

  18. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them.By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity.We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of material entity that application oriented ontologies may use as templates. Our

  19. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  20. Promoting physical activity participation among adolescents: The barriers and the suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Peykari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a complex behavior. To designing the effective intervention, qualitative researches may be allowed for greater understanding of the reasons behind the adolescences′ physical activity-related behaviors′. Methods: Using the grounded theory approach, including semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews, we conducted a quantitative study to elicit the adolescents and key informants′ opinion regarding the satiation, needs, social and environmental barriers of adolescents′ physical activity. For FGDs, participants were selected from volunteered adolescent (aged 10-19 years of the populated western part of Tehran, which was selected as a research field. Key informants were invited from the health professionals and experts in the field of adolescents′ health. Results: According to findings, although the majority of participants agreed on the important role of physical activity, the lack of essential motivation and the pressure of educational assignments remove it from the daily program priorities. Lack of a safe environment for girls′ physical activity and high cost of professional sports were two first mentioned barriers. It was also suggested that future interventions should focus on improving more parents′ engagement and their direct participation in physical activities with their adolescents. Conclusions: We proposed the participatory strategies for adolescent′s physical activity promotion. Through which target groups participation during the designing, development, and implementation of health programs led to more effective interventions.

  1. Improvement suggestions on license extension management for civil nuclear safety equipment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingjian; Liu Hongji; Han Guoli; Jia Fengcai

    2013-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Clear Requirements, Comprehensive Review, Objective Assessment, Dynamic Management, this paper gives improvement suggestions on license extension management for civil nuclear safety equipment design, manufacture, installation and non-destructive examination activities, which include establishing a relatively unified license extension review standard, combining multi-views and close linking license review and supervision, full utilizing the daily supervision and inspection results, as well as further improving motivation and elimination mechanism. (authors)

  2. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  3. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  4. The Changing Surface of Saturn's Titan: Cassini Observations Suggest Active Cryovolcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    conclude that the VIMS instrument has found two instances in which selected regions on Titan's surface became unusually reflective and remained reflective on time scales of days to months. In both cases the area of reflectance variability is large (~100000 sq km), larger than either Loki or the Big Island of Hawaii. This is a strong evidence for currently active surface processes on Titan. Pre-Cassini, Titan was thought of as a pre-biotic earth that was frozen in time. Cassini VIMS and SAR observations combined suggest that Titan is the present day is not frozen solid, and is instead an episodically changing or evolving world. References: [1] Nelson R. M. et al, LPSC 2007 , Europlanets 2007, AGU 2007, EGU 2008, Accepted in Icarus 2008. [2] Lopes et al (this meeting), Stofan et al. Icarus 185, 443-456, 2007. Lopes et al. Icarus 186, 395- 412, 2007. Kirk et al., DPS 2007. Acknowledgement: This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  5. MobiGroup: Enabling Lifecycle Support to Social Activity Organization and Suggestion with Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Liming; Zhou, Xingshe; Ma, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This paper presents a group-aware mobile crowd sensing system called MobiGroup, which supports group activity organization in real-world settings. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of group activities, this paper introduces a formal concept model to characterize group activities and classifies them into four organizational stages. We t...

  6. Lower activation materials and magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Bloom, E.E.; Davis, J.W.; Gold, R.E.; Little, R.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, D.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactivity in fusion reactors can be effectively controlled by materials selection. The detailed relationship between the use of a material for construction of a magnetic fusion reactor and the material's characteristics important to waste disposal, safety, and system maintainability has been studied. The quantitative levels of radioactivation are presented for many materials and alloys, including the role of impurities, and for various design alternatives. A major outcome has been the development of quantitative definitions to characterize materials based on their radioactivation properties. Another key result is a four-level classification scheme to categorize fusion reactors based on quantitative criteria for waste management, system maintenance, and safety. A recommended minimum goal for fusion reactor development is a reference reactor that (a) meets the requirements for Class C shallow land burial of waste materials, (b) permits limited hands-on maintenance outside the magnet's shield within 2 days of a shutdown, and (c) meets all requirements for engineered safety. The achievement of a fusion reactor with at least the characteristics of the reference reactor is a realistic goal. Therefore, in making design choices or in developing particular materials or alloys for fusion reactor applications, consideration must be given to both the activation characteristics of a material and its engineering practicality for a given application

  7. Effect of cimetidine on catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a suggested mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Masoudeh; Ebrahimi, Farnoosh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an important enzyme for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. Bacteria have potent catalase to deal with H2O2 in their medium culture. Any chemicals that inhibit catalase activity can be harmful for cells. Histamine H2 antagonist drugs such as cimetidine and ranitidine are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The present results showed that cimetidine could inhibit the catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a competitive inhibition. The determination of IC50 value and Ki (6.5 μM) of cimetidine demonstrated that the enzyme binds to the drug with high affinity. Binding of the drug to the enzyme was pH-dependent and no binding was observed at basic pH (>9) and acidic pH (effect on the catalase activity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Photon activation analysis on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Heller, W.; Kupsch, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the planned construction of a new microtron, first investigations on raw materials for the aerated concrete production have been done to clear up the possibilities of photon activation analysis (PAA). Irradiations have been partly carried out on linear accelerators with a self-developed moveable activation equipment. PAA results of qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis are described. The detection of chlorine is important for studying the oversalting processes in buildings. (author)

  9. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  10. Suggest Solutions for Diffusion and Implementation of Activity-Based Costing In Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tandung Huynh; Guangming Gong; Huyhanh Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Activity-Based Costing (ABC) was developed by Robert S. Kaplan in the mid-1980s and up to now the academics, researchers as well as accounting practitioners have perceived it as the normative appropriate cost system. It has been considered as a method to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional costing. However, the application the new method as ABC is a challenge for Vietnamese companies because most of them have used traditional costing for calculating product cost. Changing from tradit...

  11. Active materials by four-dimension printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2013-09-01

    We advance a paradigm of printed active composite materials realized by directly printing glassy shape memory polymer fibers in an elastomeric matrix. We imbue the active composites with intelligence via a programmed lamina and laminate architecture and a subsequent thermomechanical training process. The initial configuration is created by three-dimension (3D) printing, and then the programmed action of the shape memory fibers creates time dependence of the configuration—the four-dimension (4D) aspect. We design and print laminates in thin plate form that can be thermomechanically programmed to assume complex three-dimensional configurations including bent, coiled, and twisted strips, folded shapes, and complex contoured shapes with nonuniform, spatially varying curvature. The original flat plate shape can be recovered by heating the material again. We also show how the printed active composites can be directly integrated with other printed functionalities to create devices; here we demonstrate this by creating a structure that can assemble itself.

  12. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  13. Characterisation of cell death inducing Phytophthora capsici CRN effectors suggests diverse activities in the host nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eStam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant-Microbe interactions are complex associations that feature recognition of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns by the plant immune system and dampening of subsequent responses by pathogen encoded secreted effectors. With large effector repertoires now identified in a range of sequenced microbial genomes, much attention centres on understanding their roles in immunity or disease. These studies not only allow identification of pathogen virulence factors and strategies, they also provide an important molecular toolset suited for studying immunity in plants. The Phytophthora intracellular effector repertoire encodes a large class of proteins that translocate into host cells and exclusively target the host nucleus. Recent functional studies have implicated the CRN protein family as an important class of diverse effectors that target distinct subnuclear compartments and modify host cell signalling. Here, we characterised three necrosis inducing CRNs and show that there are differences in the levels of cell death. We show that only expression of CRN20_624 has an additive effect on PAMP induced cell death but not AVR3a induced ETI. Given their distinctive phenotypes, we assessed localisation of each CRN with a set of nuclear markers and found clear differences in CRN subnuclear distribution patterns. These assays also revealed that expression of CRN83_152 leads to a distinct change in nuclear chromatin organisation, suggesting a distinct series of events that leads to cell death upon over-expression. Taken together, our results suggest diverse functions carried by CRN C-termini, which can be exploited to identify novel processes that take place in the host nucleus and are required for immunity or susceptibility.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greef, G.J.

    1977-05-01

    In neutron activation analysis the precision and accuracy of results are often misleading, since only the statistical errors which accompany the measuring of radioactivity are taken into consideration. Several other factors can, however, also influence precision and accuracy. It was found that a geological sample was contaminated with the construction material of the mill in which it had been pulverised. Several geometrical differences which could possibly play a role were also investigated. Impurities in the irradiation containers affect the determination of some elements in the samples; the contamination materials in quarts irradiation tubes were determined. The flux gradients which may effect the relative activities of the samples and standards were measured. Suitable standards are necessary to ensure accurate analyses of geological material. Available natural standards were critically evaluated and several methods were investigated by which synthetic standards may be prepared. In order to accurately determine gallium, lanthanum and samarium by means of neutron activation analysis, sodium first had to be removed. After irradiation the sample was dissolved in a mixture of acids and the soidium absorbed from the solution on a hydrated antimony pentoxide column. Gallium, lanthanum and samarium activities were measured by means of precision gamma-spectrometry

  16. Developing safety culture in nuclear activities. Practical suggestions to assist progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The term 'safety culture' was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident published by IAEA as safety Series No. 75-INSAG-1 in 1986, and expanded in Basic Safety principles for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3 in 1988. This publication supplements INSAG-4 published in 1991 which includes the definition and concept of safety culture describing practices valuable in establishing and maintaining a sound safety culture in a number of countries. It is intended for those who design, construct, manufacture, operate, maintain or decommission nuclear facilities. It should be practically useful for all those involved in operating nuclear facilities. It will also provide a reference for groups such as regulators who have an interest in developing, improving and evaluating safety culture training and individuals engaged in nuclear activities, and for bodies such as ethics review committees who should take into account safety culture issues for certifying professional excellence in the medical field

  17. Developing safety culture in nuclear activities. Practical suggestions to assist progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The term 'safety culture' was introduced by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident published by the IAEA as Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-1 in 1986, and expanded in Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3 in 1988. This publication supplements INSAG-4 published in 1991 which includes the definition and concept of safety culture describing practices valuable in establishing and maintaining a sound safety culture in a number of countries. It is intended for those who design, construct, manufacture, operate, maintain or decommission nuclear facilities. It should be practically useful for all those involved in operating nuclear facilities. It will also provide a reference for groups such as regulators who have an interest in developing, improving and evaluating safety culture training and individuals engaged in nuclear activities, and for bodies such as ethics review committees who should take into account safety culture issues for certifying professional excellence in the medical field

  18. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  19. Supercapacitive characteristics of electrochemically active porous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of the capacitive characteristics of sol–gel-processed titanium- and carbon-supported electrochemically active noble metal oxides, as representatives of porous electrode materials, are presented in the lecture. The capacitive properties of these materials were correlated to their composition, the preparation conditions of the oxides and coatings, the properties of the carbon support and to the composition of the electrolyte. The results of the electrochemical test methods, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, were employed to resolve the possible physical structures of the mentioned porous materials, which are governed by the controlled conditions of the preparation of the oxide by the sol–gel process.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Muntean, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, indoor air quality has become a growing environmental problem. A careful selection of building materials concerning the acceptance of chemical and radioactive emissions is one of the ways to ensure high indoor air quality. Nowadays, it is a tendency to obtain new building materials having good isolation properties and low density by using the cheap and practically inexhaustible solid waste products like furnace slag, fly coal ash and phosphogypsum, without combustion. The Romanian furnace slag containing generally, above 45 % CaO can be used alone or mixed with fly ash to obtain some binder materials with mechanical resistance comparable to the Portland cement. Different additives such as CaO+Na 2 SO 4 or CaCl 2 +Na 2 SO 4 are used as activating admixtures. Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method at WWR-S Reactor of IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Raw material used in the cement production (∼75 % limestone, ∼25 % clay), cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick compacted from furnace slag, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement have been analyzed. The fly coal ashes from five Romanian coal-fired power plants, resulting by the combustion of the xyloide brown coals, lignite and bituminous-subbituminous coals were previously analyzed. It was found that the content of the toxic microelements like As, Co, Cr, Th, U, Zn in the ceramic blocks is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main components. This content depends on the particular sources of mineral raw materials. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as used in the metallurgical process. (authors)

  1. From Atmospheric Awareness to Active Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    ‘Atmosphere’ has recently claimed more attention in architectural discourse and practice leading to the revaluation of embodiment as a basis for the interaction with an environment. In this context, architectural space is understood as a space of engagement that ‘appears’ to us as a result....... In this multifaceted relationship materials are: carriers of effects and phenomena, encoders of our reminiscences and memories, detonators of physical, physiological and emotional contingencies, activators of the aesthetic occurrence. This reading defines materiality as an active and operative force – as a means...... parameters as a data upon which projects develop. Thus, the aim is to illustrate this particular projective genealogy, one that builds upon ‘atmospheric awareness’ where seeking an effect and affect is implicit and foregrounding perceptual and emotional engagement is conscious – i.e. one that defines so...

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Catalytically Active Living Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Johnston, Trevor G; Shafranek, Ryan T; Goodman, Cassandra J; Zalatan, Jesse G; Storti, Duane W; Ganter, Mark A; Nelson, Alshakim

    2018-04-25

    Living materials, which are composites of living cells residing in a polymeric matrix, are designed to utilize the innate functionalities of the cells to address a broad range of applications such as fermentation and biosensing. Herein, we demonstrate the additive manufacturing of catalytically active living materials (AMCALM) for continuous fermentation. A multi-stimuli-responsive yeast-laden hydrogel ink, based on F127-dimethacrylate, was developed and printed using a direct-write 3D printer. The reversible stimuli-responsive behaviors of the polymer hydrogel inks to temperature and pressure are critical, as they enabled the facile incorporation of yeast cells and subsequent fabrication of 3D lattice constructs. Subsequent photo-cross-linking of the printed polymer hydrogel afforded a robust elastic material. These yeast-laden living materials were metabolically active in the fermentation of glucose into ethanol for 2 weeks in a continuous batch process without significant reduction in efficiency (∼90% yield of ethanol). This cell immobilization platform may potentially be applicable toward other genetically modified yeast strains to produce other high-value chemicals in a continuous biofermentation process.

  3. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, S.

    1983-01-01

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  4. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Active Surfaces and Interfaces of Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming

    A variety of intriguing surface patterns have been observed on developing natural systems, ranging from corrugated surface of white blood cells at nanometer scales to wrinkled dog skins at millimeter scales. To mimetically harness functionalities of natural morphologies, artificial transformative skin systems by using soft active materials have been rationally designed to generate versatile patterns for a variety of engineering applications. The study of the mechanics and design of these dynamic surface patterns on soft active materials are both physically interesting and technologically important. This dissertation starts with studying abundant surface patterns in Nature by constructing a unified phase diagram of surface instabilities on soft materials with minimum numbers of physical parameters. Guided by this integrated phase diagram, an electroactive system is designed to investigate a variety of electrically-induced surface instabilities of elastomers, including electro-creasing, electro-cratering, electro-wrinkling and electro-cavitation. Combing experimental, theoretical and computational methods, the initiation, evolution and transition of these instabilities are analyzed. To apply these dynamic surface instabilities to serving engineering and biology, new techniques of Dynamic Electrostatic Lithography and electroactive anti-biofouling are demonstrated.

  6. Tests on 'radio-active' material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The storage of radio-active waste from nuclear power stations is a well known problem and a subject for extensive investigation. In connection with the use of cement as storage material, tests were carried out on cement-filled 200-litre sheet-steel containers. In order to avoid contamination of the cement core by drilling sludge, any drilling operation must be carried out dry, i.e. without liquid cooling. Air-blast cooling was therefore used for the cooling of a diamond drill and also for the removal of swarf. (H.E.G.)

  7. Certification of biological reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanjewar, Mamata R.; Lanjewar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 21 minor and trace elements in two standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques ,Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's kale, cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of Reference Materials of Biological Matrices. (author)

  8. Information materials and communication activities of ARAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, M.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2002-01-01

    ARAO is a public agency responsible for implementing all aspects of radioactive waste management. Its most important mission is certainly the siting of a repository for all low and intermediate level waste in Slovenia. ARAO carries out different communication and information activities to improve the public acceptability of such a facility among the general public, local community, public opinion makers and decision makers. These activities include running of the Visitors' Centre, publishing various informative publications on radioactivity and radiation, nuclear technology and radioactive waste management. ARAO also supports study circles and local information media, has its own web site and communicates with journalists working for Slovenian magazines, newspapers, TV and radio stations. Communication and information activities are assigned about 10 % of the yearly budget of the agency. Most of the finance is spent on running the Visitors' Centre and on publishing information materials for school children, youngsters and teachers. Information on radioactivity and on the work of ARAO provided by the agency is intended to increase the public interest in nuclear issues and to prepare the foundation for an informed and responsible decision on the radioactive waste repository in Slovenia. ARAO has also implemented direct communication, such as workshops, study circles and representations for the local community leadership, and these activities will be intensified in the near future.(author)

  9. Bibliographic data base for low activation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenina, M.V.; Kolotov, V.P.; Ivanov, L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The analysis of the publications dealing with development of low-activation materials for fusion technology demonstrates that the period of information doubling is about 5-6 years. Such high rate usually is characteristic of the actively developing field of science. To develop an useful instrument for analysis and systematization of the available data a computer based bibliographic system has been developed some time ago. Recently the engine of the system has been significantly modernized. The bibliographic system is based on using of MS SQL server data base which includes main bibliographic information including abstracts. The most important feature of the system is that full-text abstracts searching capabilities are appended with indexing of information by experts to increase its definition. The experts indexes cover the following topics: - Main problems; - Software and methods for calculation; - Libraries of nuclear data; - Spectrum of neutrons for different construction parts of fusion reactor; - Low activation materials; - Technology of production; - Radiation effects; - Utilization of radiation waste; - Estimation of risks; - Designs of fusion reactor; - Nuclear transmutations; - Equipment used for investigations. The primary data base is filling/appending by periodical queries to different bibliographic data bases (INIS, COMPEMDEX and others) via suitable Internet providers including strict analysis of the income information to remove a possible 'information noise' and following data indexing by experts. The data base contains references since 1976 year (when first works in this area have been fulfilled) and until now. The bibliographic system is accessible by means of Internet using different forms developed for queries (http://www.geokhi.ru/~lam_db). (authors)

  10. Bibliographic data base for low activation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenina, M.V.; Kolotov, V.P. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, L.I. [A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Science of Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The analysis of the publications dealing with development of low-activation materials for fusion technology demonstrates that the period of information doubling is about 5-6 years. Such high rate usually is characteristic of the actively developing field of science. To develop an useful instrument for analysis and systematization of the available data a computer based bibliographic system has been developed some time ago. Recently the engine of the system has been significantly modernized. The bibliographic system is based on using of MS SQL server data base which includes main bibliographic information including abstracts. The most important feature of the system is that full-text abstracts searching capabilities are appended with indexing of information by experts to increase its definition. The experts indexes cover the following topics: - Main problems; - Software and methods for calculation; - Libraries of nuclear data; - Spectrum of neutrons for different construction parts of fusion reactor; - Low activation materials; - Technology of production; - Radiation effects; - Utilization of radiation waste; - Estimation of risks; - Designs of fusion reactor; - Nuclear transmutations; - Equipment used for investigations. The primary data base is filling/appending by periodical queries to different bibliographic data bases (INIS, COMPEMDEX and others) via suitable Internet providers including strict analysis of the income information to remove a possible 'information noise' and following data indexing by experts. The data base contains references since 1976 year (when first works in this area have been fulfilled) and until now. The bibliographic system is accessible by means of Internet using different forms developed for queries (http://www.geokhi.ru/{approx}lam{sub d}b). (authors)

  11. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Zucchetti, M.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2007-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated materials generated during plant operation and after decommissioning - a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., EU, and Japan. Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of active materials in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. Beginning in the mid 1990s and continuing to the present, fusion designs developed in Europe, U.S., and Japan have examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. These options became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by national and international nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for specific components for several reasons, including

  12. Rheology of Cementitious Materials: Alkali-Activated Materials or Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas F.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the rheology of the AAMs systems will ultimately determine whether they can be implemented in the market, and will open up greater competitive possibilities in a crisis-affected sector. A systematic study of the factors that affect the rheological properties of AAMs (pastes, mortars and concretes is therefore necessary in order to ultimately develop more resistant and durable materials.

  13. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  14. Disposal of activated fusion wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Dorn, D.W.; Maninger, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    We have used NRC's low-level waste disposal regulation (10CFR61) to classify activated fusion reactor structural materials. The limits set by the NRC in 10CFR61 will require extremely expensive steels with degraded properties, even when the limits are adjusted to give credit for use of an expensive hot waste disposal facility. Both the expense and the poorer properties could have a negative impact on reactor safety, thus subverting the overall goals of the NRC family of regulations. Following this initial study, we have examined the methodology used by the NRC to set waste concentration limits. For a long-lived gamma emitter like 94 Nb, direct gamma dose to an intruding home builder dominates the limit setting process. Of all the tests applied to the waste, the controlling test which sets the lowest limit ignores all the engineered intrusion barriers which are themselves required by the same regulation. If even a small fraction of the barriers remain intact (an extremely likely event), the 94 Nb limit could be increased from the 0.2 Ci/m 3 in 10CFR61 to 1100 Ci/m 3 without exceeding the limits set for personnel exposure. Similarly, cautious application of the 10CFR61 methodology to other radioisotopes of interest to fusion designers will result in limits which are more in line with the unique nature of fusion energy

  15. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2008-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated (and contaminated) materials that will be generated during plant operation and after decommissioning-a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. This will clearly demonstrate that designers developing fusion facilities will be dealing with the back end of this type of energy production from the beginning of the conceptual design of power plants. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. Beginning in the mid 1980s and continuing to the present, numerous fusion designs examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. In this paper, recent history is analyzed, a new fusion waste management scheme is covered, and possibilities for how its prospects can be improved are examined

  16. Impurity concentration limits and activation in fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines waste management problems related to impurity activation in first-wall, shield, and magnet materials for fusion reactors. Definitions of low activity based on hands-on recycling, remote recycling, and shallow land burial waste management criteria are discussed. Estimates of the impurity concentration in low-activation materials (elementally substituted stainless steels and vanadium alloys) are reported. Impurity activation in first-wall materials turns out to be critical after a comparison of impurity concentration limits and estimated levels. Activation of magnet materials is then considered: Long-term activity is not a concern, while short-term activity is. In both cases, impurity activation is negligible. Magnet materials, and all other less flux-exposed materials, have no practical limitation on impurities in terms of induced radioactivity

  17. Characterisation and properties of alkali activated pozzolanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeian, Georgeta Simona

    activated materials to produce high strength construction materials. Limitation in the shrinkage of the materials can be overcome by the use of fibre reinforcement. At the end of the thesis limitations and suggestions for further work are made.

  18. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Barton, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.

  19. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah T Reynolds

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans, is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus, which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.

  20. Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D.; Safa, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions

  1. Thermochemically active iron titanium oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Miller, James E.

    2018-01-16

    A thermal oxidation-reduction cycle is disclosed that uses iron titanium oxide as the reactive material. The cycle may be used for the thermal splitting of water and/or carbon dioxide to form hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide. The formed compounds may be used as syngas precursors to form fuels.

  2. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial nanofiber materials activated by light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jesenská, S.; Plištil, L.; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Brožová, Libuše; Popelka, Štěpán; Szatmáry, Lórant; Mosinger, Jiří

    99A, č. 4 (2011), s. 676-683 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : antibacterial nanofiber materials * photoactive * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.625, year: 2011

  4. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  5. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  6. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  7. Characteristics of alkali activated material (geopolymer) in sulfuric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simatupang, Partogi H.

    2017-09-01

    Alkali Activated Material (AAM) or Geopolymer is a solid material which made by mixing rich silica alumina material with alkaline activator. AAM is a well known candidate to replace cement based material. Many researches have claimed that AAM has better durability compared to cement based material in agressive environment. However, there was rare paper presented the direct comparison of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM in such aggresive environment. Because of that, this paper present material characteristics of Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM if the materials were immersed in 10% sulfuric acid solution for 65 days. Material characteristics evaluated were (1) weight loss, (2) mineral of the material which evaluated by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), (3) morphology and oxide compounds of material which evaluated by SEM/EDXA (Scanning Electron Microscopic/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer) and (4) compound bond which evaluated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) Spectroscopy Testing. Alkali Activated Material used were Class F fly ash based AAM Mortar and Class C fly ash based AAM Mortar. The result is a quite difference of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM.

  8. Propagation of Gaussian Beams through Active GRIN Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Varela, A I; Flores-Arias, M T; Bao-Varela, C; Gomez-Reino, C; De la Fuente, X

    2011-01-01

    We discussed light propagation through an active GRIN material that exhibits loss or gain. Effects of gain or loss in GRIN materials can be phenomenologically taken into account by using a complex refractive index in the wave equation. This work examines the implication of using a complex refractive index on light propagation in an active GRIN material illuminated by a non-uniform monochromatic wave described by a Gaussian beam. We analyze how a Gaussian beam is propagated through the active material in order to characterize it by the beam parameters and the transverse irradiance distribution.

  9. Hydrogen storage material, electrochemically active material, electrochemical cell and electronic equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage material comprising an alloy of magnesium. The invention further relates to an electrochemically active material and an electrochemical cell provided with at least one electrode comprising such a hydrogen storage material. Also, the invention relates to

  10. Diverse mitotic functions of the cytoskeletal cross-linking protein Shortstop suggest a role in Dynein/Dynactin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Johnston, Christopher A

    2017-09-15

    Proper assembly and orientation of the bipolar mitotic spindle is critical to the fidelity of cell division. Mitotic precision fundamentally contributes to cell fate specification, tissue development and homeostasis, and chromosome distribution within daughter cells. Defects in these events are thought to contribute to several human diseases. The underlying mechanisms that function in spindle morphogenesis and positioning remain incompletely defined, however. Here we describe diverse roles for the actin-microtubule cross-linker Shortstop (Shot) in mitotic spindle function in Drosophila Shot localizes to mitotic spindle poles, and its knockdown results in an unfocused spindle pole morphology and a disruption of proper spindle orientation. Loss of Shot also leads to chromosome congression defects, cell cycle progression delay, and defective chromosome segregation during anaphase. These mitotic errors trigger apoptosis in Drosophila epithelial tissue, and blocking this apoptotic response results in a marked induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker MMP-1. The actin-binding domain of Shot directly interacts with Actin-related protein-1 (Arp-1), a key component of the Dynein/Dynactin complex. Knockdown of Arp-1 phenocopies Shot loss universally, whereas chemical disruption of F-actin does so selectively. Our work highlights novel roles for Shot in mitosis and suggests a mechanism involving Dynein/Dynactin activation. © 2017 Dewey and Johnston. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  12. Microbial activity on ligno cellulosic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, N.; Wan, H.Y.; Jalaludin, S.

    1991-01-01

    Study of rumen bacteria and fungi colonizing rice straw was conducted in situ while the ability of rumen fungi to produce polysaccharides was investigated in vitro. In the microbial colonization study by electron microscopy, it was observed that rice straw fragments were heavily colonized by bacteria and fungi after 6 h of incubation in the rumen of cattle and buffaloes. Extensive degradation of cell walls was observed, particularly with rice fragments after 24 h of incubation. The fungal isolate from the rumen of cattle when in straw showed high activity of cellobiose, CMCase and FPase and to a lesser extent, xylanase and cellulase. (author)

  13. Materials challenges for ITER - Current status and future activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, V. [ITER International Team, Boltsmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: valdimir.barabash@iter.org; Peacock, A. [EFDA Close Support Unit, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fabritsiev, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kalinin, G. [ENES, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S. [Metals and Ceramics Division, ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Rowcliffe, A. [Metals and Ceramics Division, ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Rensman, J.-W. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Tavassoli, A.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Marmy, P. [CRPP, EPFL, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, 5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Karditsas, P.J. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gillemot, F. [AEKI Atomic Research Institute, 1121 Budapest, (Hungary); Akiba, M. [JAEA, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    ITER will be the first experimental fusion facility, which brings together the key physical, material and technological issues related to development of fusion reactors. The design of ITER is complete and the construction will start soon. This paper discusses the main directions of the project oriented materials activity and main challenges related to selection of materials for the ITER components. For each application in ITER the main materials issues were identified and these issues were addressed in the dedicated ITER R and D program. The justification of materials performance was fully documented, which allows traceability and reliability of design data. Several examples are given to illustrate the main achievements and recommendations from the recently updated ITER Materials Properties Handbook. The main ongoing and future materials activities are described.

  14. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Faris M. A.; Abdullah Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Ismail Khairul Nizar; Muniandy Ratnasamy; Mahmad Nor Aiman; Putra Jaya Ramadhansyah; Waried Wazien A. Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). All hardened alkali activated materia...

  15. The Active Model: a calibration of material intent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    created it. This definition suggests structural characteristics that are perhaps not immediately obvious when implemented within architectural models. It opens the idea that materiality might persist into the digital environment, as well as the digital lingering within the material. It implies questions...

  16. Reduction of impurities and activation of lithium orthosilicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, Regina; Fischer, Ulrich; Herber, Stefan; Adelhelm, Christel

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of lithium orthosilicate pebbles by melt-spraying enables a facile reprocessing of irradiated material by direct remelting. However, the necessary waiting period for the reprocessing is determined by the long-term activation of the material under irradiation that is dominated by the impurities. The activation characteristics for the current composition of lithium orthosilicate pebbles were assessed on the basis of three-dimensional activation calculations for a fusion power reactor. The calculations were used to identify critical amounts of impurities and were compared to the results of a hypothetical, pure material without impurities, as well as to a calculated Li-6 enriched OSi composition.

  17. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Activity of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases suggests a role during host invasion by the parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stian; Krause, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic vines of the genus Cuscuta form haustoria that grow into other plants and connect with their vascular system, thus allowing the parasite to feed on its host. A major obstacle that meets the infection organ as it penetrates the host tissue is the rigid plant cell wall. In the present study, we examined the activity of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) during the host-invasive growth of the haustorium. The level of xyloglucan endotransglucosylation (XET) activity was found to peak at the penetrating stage of Cuscuta reflexa on its host Pelargonium zonale. In vivo colocalization of XET activity and donor substrate demonstrated XET activity at the border between host and parasite. A test for secretion of XET-active enzymes from haustoria of C. reflexa corroborated this and further indicated that the xyloglucan-modifying enzymes originated from the parasite. A known inhibitor of XET, Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250, was shown to reduce the level of XET in penetrating haustoria of C. reflexa. Moreover, the coating of P. zonale petioles with the inhibitor compound lowered the number of successful haustorial invasions of this otherwise compatible host plant. The presented data indicate that the activity of Cuscuta XTHs at the host-parasite interface is essential to penetration of host plant tissue.

  19. PILLARS OF THE AUDIT ACTIVITY: MATERIALITY AND AUDIT RISK

    OpenAIRE

    ANA MARIA JOLDOŞ; IONELA CORNELIA STANCIU; GABRIELA GREJDAN

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the issues of materiality and audit risk within the activity of financial audit. The concepts of materiality and audit risk are described from a theoretical perspective, providing approaches found within the national and international literature and within the specific legislation. A case study on the calculation of materiality and audit risk for an entity is presented in the last part of the article. Through the theoretical approach and the case stud...

  20. Neutron activation of building materials used in the reactor shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.T.; Perez, G.; D'Alessandro, K.

    1993-01-01

    Cuban concretes and their main components (mineral aggregates and cement) were investigated through long-lived activation products induced by neutrons from a reactor. The multielemental content in the materials studied was obtained by neutron activation analysis in an IBR-2 reactor and gamma activation analysis in an MT-25 microtron from Join Institute of Nuclear Research of Dubna. After irradiation of building materials for 30 years by a neutron flow of unitary density, induced radioactivity was calculated according to experimental data. The comparative evaluation of different concretes aggregates and two types of cement related to the activation properties is discussed

  1. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components ...

  2. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  3. Low Specific Activity materials concepts are being reevaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Many types of radioactive low-level waste are classified, packaged, and transported as Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material. The transportation regulations allow LSA materials to be shipped in economical packagings and, under certain conditions, waives compliance with other detailed requirements such as labeling. The fundamental concepts which support the LSA category are being thoroughly reevaluated to determine the defensibility of the provisions. A series of national and international events are leading to the development of new dose models which are likely to fundamentally change the ways these materials are defined. Similar basis changes are likely for the packaging requirements applicable to these materials

  4. Irradiation can for the activation of materials in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Findeisen, A.; Katzmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is concerning with an irradiation can for the activation of materials in nuclear reactors in particular for materials with a high heat generation due to irradiation. A good heat transfer between the irradiated material and the irradiation can environment has been guaranteed by a special can design. The outside of the can consists of a tube or a tube bandle which has been formed as a water guide tube. One or more tubes containing the irradiated materials have been positioned at the inner areas of the irradiated can

  5. Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Hannah T.; Barton, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species i...

  6. Clearance potential of ITER vacuum vessel activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.G.; Cambi, G.; Frisoni, M.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate fusion's environmental attractiveness over the entire life cycle, a waste analysis is mandatory. The clearance is recommended by IAEA for releasing activated solid materials from regulatory control and for waste management policy. The paper focuses on the approach used to support waste analyses for ITER Generic Site Safety Report. The Material Unconditional Clearance Index of all the materials/zones on the equatorial mid-plane of ITER machine have been evaluated, based on IAEA-TECDOC-855. The Bonami-Nitawl-XSDNRPM sequence of the Scale-4.4a code system (using Vitenea-J library) has been firstly used for radiation transport analyses. Then the Anita-2000 code package is used for the activation calculation. The paper presents also, as an example, an application of the clearance indexes estimation for the ITER vacuum vessel materials. The results of the Anita-2000 have been compared with those obtained using the Fispact-99 activation code. (author)

  7. Comparing Enchytraeus albidus populations from contrasting climatic environments suggest a link between cold tolerance and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Anamarija; Holmstrup, Martin; Simčič, Tatjana; Debeljak, Barabara; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-06-06

    Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons. First, avoidance of the additive effect of ROS production from metabolism and freezing, and second, as an energy-saving mechanism under extended periods of freezing where the animal is metabolically active, but unable to feed. We used the terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus albidus, which is widely distributed from Spain to the high Arctic and compared eight populations originating across a broad geographical and climatic gradient after they had been cold acclimated at 5 °C in a common garden experiment. Cold tolerance (lower lethal temperature: LT50) and the potential metabolic activity (PMA, an estimator of the maximal enzymatic potential of the mitochondrial respiration chain) of eight populations were positively correlated amongst each other and correlated negatively with latitude and positively with average yearly temperature and the average temperature of the coldest month. These results indicate that low PMA in cold tolerant populations is important for survival in extremely cold environments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Materials Science Division activity report 1991-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarendra, G.; Tiwari, A.M.; Subramanian, N.; Venugopal Rao, G.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report gives an account of the various research and developmental activities carried out at the Materials Science Division of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam during 1991-93. It also gives a summary of the results of the research activities, describes the experimental facilities and also list the publications

  9. Structural remodeling and oligomerization of human cathelicidin on membranes suggest fibril-like structures as active species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho-Vaello, Enea; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides as part of the mammalian innate immune system target and remove major bacterial pathogens, often through irreversible damage of their cellular membranes. To explore the mechanism by which the important cathelicidin peptide LL-37 of the human innate immune system interacts w...... that these supramolecular structures represent the LL-37-membrane active state. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the fascinating plasticity of LL-37 demonstrated at atomic resolution and opens the venue for LL-37-based molecules as novel antibiotics....

  10. Security of material: Preventing criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)

  11. Transmutation and activation of fusion reactor wall and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report details the extent of the nuclear data needed for inclusion in a data library to be used for general assessments of fusion reactor structure activation and transmutation, describes the sources of data available, reviews the literature and explores the reliability of current calculations by providing an independent assessment of the activity inventory to be expected from five structural materials in a simple blanket design for comparison with the results of other workers. An indication of the nuclear reactions which make important contributions to the activity, transmutation and gas production rates for these structural materials is also presented. (author)

  12. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Low activation structural material candidates for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Cook, I.

    1997-06-01

    Under the SEAL Programme of the European Long-Term Fusion Safety Programme, an assessment was performed of a number of possible blanket structural materials. These included the steels then under consideration in the European Blanket Programme, as well as materials being considered for investigation in the Advanced Materials Programme. Calculations were performed, using SEAFP methods, of the activation properties of the materials, and these were related, based on the SEAFP experience, to assessments of S and E performance. The materials investigated were the SEAFP low-activation martensitic steel (LA12TaLC); a Japanese low-activation martensitic steel (F-82H), a range of compositional variants about this steel; the vanadium-titanium-chromium alloy which was the original proposal of the ITER JCT for the ITER in-vessel components; a titanium-aluminium intermetallic (Ti-Al) which is under investigation in Japan; and silicon carbide composite (SiC). Assessed impurities were included in the compositions of these materials, and they have very important impacts on the activation properties. Lack of sufficiently detailed data on the composition of chromium alloys precluded their inclusion in the study. (UK)

  14. Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoprotein 42 Suggests a Mechanism for Triggering Receptor-Activated Virus Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, Austin N.; Sorem, Jessica; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; (NWU); (Stanford-MED)

    2009-05-26

    Epstein-Barr virus requires glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42 to fuse its lipid envelope with B cells. Gp42 is a type II membrane protein consisting of a flexible N-terminal region, which binds gH/gL, and a C-terminal lectin-like domain that binds to the B-cell entry receptor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II. Gp42 triggers membrane fusion after HLA binding, a process that requires simultaneous binding to gH/gL and a functional hydrophobic pocket in the lectin domain adjacent to the HLA binding site. Here we present the structure of gp42 in its unbound form. Comparisons to the previously determined structure of a gp42:HLA complex reveals additional N-terminal residues forming part of the gH/gL binding site and structural changes in the receptor binding domain. Although the core of the lectin domain remains similar, significant shifts in two loops and an {alpha} helix bordering the essential hydrophobic pocket suggest a structural mechanism for triggering fusion.

  15. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  16. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  17. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components increases, the challenges for functionality revert to basic questions of fabrication, materials, and design - whereas such aspects are far more developed for traditional rigid-bodied systems. This thesis will highlight preliminary materials and designs that address the need for soft actuators and sensors, as well as emerging fabrication techniques for manufacturing stretchable circuits and devices based on liquid-embedded elastomers.

  18. System to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroev, M.; Korolev, Yu.; Lopatin, Yu.; Filonov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the development of the system to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method measuring delayed neutrons. As the neutron source the neutron generator was used. The neutron generator was controlled by the system. The detectors were developed on the base of the helium-3 counters. Each detector consist of 6 counters. Using a number of such detectors it is possible to verify materials stored in different geometry. There is an spectrometric scintillator detector in the system which gives an additional functional ability to the system. The system could be used to estimate the nuclear materials in waste, to detect the unauthorized transfer of the nuclear materials, to estimate the material in tubes [ru

  19. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of 94 Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed

  20. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  1. Determination of ancient ceramics reference material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Jingxin; Wang Yuqi; Lu Liangcai

    1986-01-01

    Contents of trace elements in the reference material of ancient ceramics (KPS-1) were determined by means of activation analysis, using thermal neutron irradiation produced in nuclear reactor. KPS-1 favoured the analysis of ancient ceramics because it had not only many kinds of element but also appropriate contents of composition. The values presented here are reliable within the experimental precision, and have shown that the reference material had a good homogeneity. So KPS-1 can be used as a suitable reference material for the ancient ceramics analysis

  2. PILLARS OF THE AUDIT ACTIVITY: MATERIALITY AND AUDIT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA JOLDOŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the issues of materiality andaudit risk within the activity of financial audit. The concepts of materiality and audit risk aredescribed from a theoretical perspective, providing approaches found within the national andinternational literature and within the specific legislation. A case study on the calculation ofmateriality and audit risk for an entity is presented in the last part of the article. Through thetheoretical approach and the case study, it was concluded that materiality has an importantrole in determining the type of report to be issued, that is why it can be considered helpful forthose involved in the audit process.

  3. Clearance, recycling and disposal of fusion activated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Forty, C.; Gulden, W.; Rocco, P.; Rosanvallon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The SEAFP-99 waste management studies include further explorations in the direction of activated materials management, adopting a more realistic approach in order to consolidate and refine the previous encouraging findings of SEAFP waste management studies performed till 1998. The main results were obtained in the following topics, impact of materials/components optimisation on waste management issues; integrated approach to recycling and clearance; analysis of the potential for fusion specific repositories and hazard-relevant nuclides/processes; materials detritiation. The overall conclusion is that the adoption of a more realistic approach for the analysis has been beneficial. The results further confirmed the potential for waste minimisation and hazard reduction

  4. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of mineral materials. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Kuncir, J.; Vobecky, M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of sampling, calibration standards, the method of activation and measurement, activation product identification, the respective nuclear reactions, interfering admixtures, and pre-activation operations. The analysis is described of sulphides, halogenides, oxides, sulphates, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, aluminosilicates, composite minerals containing lanthanides, rocks, tektites, meteors, and plant materials. The method allows determining mainly F, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Rh, and I which cannot be determined by long-term activation (LTA). It is more sensitive than LTA in determining Ca, Cu, In, and Dy. The analysis takes less time, irradiation and measurement are less costly. The main mineral components are quickly found. (M.K.)

  5. Risk assessment of manual material handling activities (case study: PT BRS Standard Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviani; Triyanti, V.

    2017-12-01

    The process of moving material manually has the potential for injury to workers. The risk of injury will increase if we do not pay attention to the working conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess and analyze the injury risk level in manual handling material activity, as well as to improve the condition. The observed manual material handling activities is pole lifting and goods loading. These activities were analyzed using Job Strain Index method, Rapid Entire Body Assessment, and Chaffin’s 2D Planar Static Model. The results show that most workers who perform almost all activities have a high level of risk level with the score of JSI and REBA exceeds 9 points. For some activities, the estimated compression forces in the lumbar area also exceed the standard limits of 3400 N. Concerning this condition, several suggestions for improvement were made, improving the composition of packing, improving body posture, and making guideline posters.

  6. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  7. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  8. Active and Passive Diagnostic Signatures of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-26

    An overview will be given discussing signatures associated with special nuclear materials acquired using both active and passive diagnostic techniques. Examples of how technology advancements have helped improve diagnostic capabilities to meet the challenges of today’s applications will be discussed.

  9. Smart Materials and Active Noise and Vibration Control in Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; van Overbeek, M.; Gissinger, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the results for the reduction of sound radiated from a structure using different control methodologies, and discusses two approaches for active structural acoustic control: the acoustic approach or the vibro-acoustic approach. Integrated actuators in structure material are

  10. Numerical Modeling of Multi-Material Active Magnetic Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2009-01-01

    and the specific heat as a function of temperature at constant magnetic field. A 2.5-dimensional numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator device is presented. The experimental AMR located at Risø DTU has been equipped with a parallel-plate based regenerator made of the two materials...

  11. Active neutron technique for detecting attempted special nuclear material diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.

    1979-01-01

    The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds

  12. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  13. Activation analysis of high pure quartz used as packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknitskij, V.A.; Morozov, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A γ-spectrometric technique of neutron activation determination of microelements in quartz tubes used as a packing material for irradiation in reactors is reported. The analysis of 29 micro-admixtures in quartz tubes of USSR brands ''spectrtosil'' and ''KV'' was carried out. The γ-spectra of ''KV'' quartz irradiated by thermal and epithermal neutrons are presented. The activation by epithermal neutrons provides an activity gain for the nuclei whose resonance integral is high enough as compared to the activation cross-section with regard to thermal neutrons. The activation by epithermal neutrons permits additional determination of W, Cd, V, Th, Mn and Ni and provides for a substantial decrease in the activity of 24 Na, 42 K, 140 La, 46 Sc, 141 Ce, 51 Cr, and 59 Fe, which hinder the determination of the above-mentioned elements. The microelement composition of Soviet-made quartz varieties is compared to that of foreign-made quartz brands

  14. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  15. Activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Swelling behavior is an important criterion in achieving the low-permeability sealing function of buffer material. A potential buffer material may be used for radioactive waste repository in Taiwan is a locally available clayey material known as Zhisin clay, which has been identified as a Ca-bentonite. Due to its Ca-based origin, Zhisin was found to exhibit swelling capacity much lower than that of Na-bentonite. To enhance the swelling potential of Zhisin clay, a cation exchange process by addition of Na2CO3 powder was introduced in this paper. The addition of Na2CO3 reagent to Zhisin clay, in a liquid phase, caused the precipitation of CaCO3 and thereby induced a replacement of Ca2+ ions by Na+ ions on the surface of bentonite. Characterization test conducted on Zhisin clay includes chemical analysis, cation exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry (TG). Free-swelling test apparatus was developed according to International Society of Rock Mechanics recommendations. A series of free-swelling tests were conducted on untreated and activated specimens to characterize the effect of activation on the swelling capacity of Zhisin clay. Efforts were made to determine an optimum dosage for the activation, and to evaluate the aging effect. Also, the activated material was evaluated for its stability in various hydrothermal conditions for potential applications as buffer material in a repository. Experimental results show that Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is superior in swelling potential to untreated Zhisin clay. Also, there exists an optimum amount of activator in terms of improvements in the swelling capacity. A distinct time-swell relationship was discovered for activated Zhisin clay. The corresponding mechanism refers to exchange of cations and breakdown of quasi-crystal, which results in ion exchange hysteresis of Ca-bentonite. Due to the ion exchange hysteresis, activated bentonite shows a post-rise time-swell relationship different than the sigmoid

  16. Present status of low activation materials R and D for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, Akira

    1999-01-01

    Low activation materials development is one of the key technologies for fusion engineering. Starting with a brief introduction about design concepts of low activation materials for fusion, current activities on the major three low activation material categories, such as low activation ferritic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composite materials, are provided. Material database improvement in low-activation ferritic steel R and D and material property improvements in SiC/SiC are emphasized. (author)

  17. Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.; Hutjes, J.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a count...

  18. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrík, P., E-mail: p.katrik@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Mustafin, E. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, D-64289 (Germany); Pavlovič, M. [FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Strašík, I. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u {sup 238}U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  19. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  20. Biological and environmental reference materials in neutron activation analysis work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The great usefulness of reference materials, especially ones of certified elemental composition, is discussed with particular attention devoted to their use in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work. Their use, including both certified and uncertified values, in calculations made by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is discussed. The main features of the APCP are described, and mention is made of the large number of reference materials run on the APCP (including the new personal computer version of the program), with NBS Oyster Tissue SRM-1566 used as the principal examle. (orig.)

  1. Cerium-activated lanthanum beryllate as a gamma detector material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.; Berrondo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have tested a single crystal of Ce-activated lanthanum beryllate BEL(Ce) as a potential gamma detector material. The density (6.1 g.cm -3 ) and decay time (50 ns) are competitive with other recently developed materials. The scintillation efficiency is 57 to 95% that of BGO. For an excitation wavelength of 340 nm, the emission spectra is a broad peak centered at 450 mn. The H 2 annealed sample is transparent for wavelengths greater than 400 mn. They are continuing a program to improve the scintillation efficiency by varying the crystal growth conditions

  2. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na + and Fe 3+ solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material

  3. Development of materials of low activation for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    Unlike nuclear fission, in nuclear fusion, it is a feature that activated products are not formed, but this merit is to be lost if the structural materials of the equipment are activated by generated neutrons. Accordingly, the elements which are activated by neutrons must be excluded from the structural materials in nuclear fusion reactors and fusion experiment apparatuses. As the result of evaluating the materials for low induced activation, aluminum alloys are the most promising. Aluminum alloys have also excellent properties in gas release, the thermal stress of first walls due to the temperature distribution, vaporizing quantity at the time of disruption and so on. However, in the existing aluminum alloys, the lowering of strength above 150 deg C is remarkable, and when the aluminum walls of vacuum vessels are too thick, the rate of tritium breeding may lower. The Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, carried out the total design of a tokamak made of an aluminum alloy for the first time in the world. In this paper, the properties of the aluminum alloy and the feasibility of its industrial manufacture are described, and the course of improving this alloy is pointed out. Improved 5083 alloy and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li alloy were investigated. The industrial manufacture of large plates with this Al-Mg-Li alloy is possible now. (Kako, I.)

  4. Porous Materials from Thermally Activated Kaolinite: Preparation, Characterization and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, porous alumina/silica materials were prepared by selective leaching of silicon/aluminum constituents from thermal-activated kaolinite in inorganic acid or alkali liquor. The correlations between the characteristics of the prepared porous materials and the dissolution properties of activated kaolinite were also investigated. The results show that the specific surface area (SSA of porous alumina/silica increases with silica/alumina dissolution, but without marked change of the BJH pore size. Furthermore, change in pore volume is more dependent on activation temperature. The porous alumina and silica obtained from alkali leaching of kaolinite activated at 1150 °C for 15 min and acid leaching of kaolinite activated at 850 °C for 15 min are mesoporous, with SSAs, BJH pore sizes and pore volumes of 55.8 m2/g and 280.3 m2/g, 6.06 nm and 3.06 nm, 0.1455 mL/g and 0.1945 mL/g, respectively. According to the adsorption tests, porous alumina has superior adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ compared with porous silica and activated carbon. The maximum capacities of porous alumina for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 134 mg/g, 183 mg/g and 195 mg/g, respectively, at 30 °C.

  5. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inozemtsev, V.; Basak, U.; Killeen, J.; Dyck, G.; Zeman, A.; )

    2011-01-01

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  6. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  7. 1996 Activities report on energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity survey of the French General Directory for Energy and Raw Materials, which main objectives are to preserve the competitiveness of French economy, enhance environmental protection, secure the long term supply safety and maintain the public service basis for energy supply, is presented. The main themes of the survey are: the nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the electric power inland market, the evolution of the oil market in 1996, the situation of refining in France, restructuring the BRGM (Mining and Geological Research Bureau), followed by brief facts concerning the sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power, electricity and gas common issues, gas, coal, petroleum products, raw materials and underground materials. A series of global diagrams concludes the survey

  8. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  9. Low activation material design methodology for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Kakinuma, N.; Kinno, M.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the concrete shielding walls and pipes around a reactor pressure vessel of a light water reactor become low level radioactive waste at decommission phase because they contain radioactive nuclides by thermal-neutron irradiation during its operation. The radioactivity of some low level radioactive wastes is close to the clearance level. It is very desirable in terms of life cycle cost reduction that the radioactivity of those low level radioactive wastes is decreased below clearance level. In case of light water reactors, however, methodology of low activation design of a nuclear plant has not been established yet because the reactor is a large-scale facility and has various structural materials. The Objectives of this work are to develop low activation material design methodology and material fabrication for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant such as reinforced concrete. To realize fabrication of reduced radioactive concrete, it is necessary to develop (1) the database of the chemical composition of raw materials to select low activation materials, (2) the tool for calculation of the neutron flux and the spectrum distribution of nuclear plants to evaluate radioactivity of reactor components, (3) optimization of material process conditions to produce the low activation cement and the low activation steels. Results of the data base development, calculation tools and trial production of low activation cements will be presented. (authors)

  10. Neutron activation analysis for certification of standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials. Characteristics of neutron activation analysis which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy multielemental capability to asses homogeneity, high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper report the concentrations of 30 elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban samples. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12- 10 13 n.cm 2. s -1. The gamma ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analyzed using ACTAN program development in Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development

  11. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  12. Versatile equipment for mechanical testing of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Johannes; Heimgartner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) 3 different project groups presently perform aging research on active materials. The research fields are fusion, high neutron flux targets and LWR relevant components. Up to now mechanical testing has been performed with small, low dose rate samples behind local shielding, not appropriate for highly activated material. To overcome this situation, a cell concept for active mechanical testing was elaborated and has been erected in PSI's Hotlab. It consists of 4 shielded cells. 3 connected cells are versatile and independently operable for highly beta/gamma active samples. One cell is an alpha/beta/gamma-box which will be realized in a second phase. This paper presents the versatility especially of the beta/gamma-cells: The different user groups perform experiments in these cells, whereas different machines can be placed into the cells. As consequence of the need of heavily shielded cell doors, a special strengthening and levelling of the floor has been required. In all cells the relevant media are installed. Besides the performance of the cells, the project progress as the difficulties and their solutions are described. (Author)

  13. Non-linear modeling of active biohybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Paetsch, C.

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in engineered muscle tissue attached to a synthetic substrate motivate the development of appropriate constitutive and numerical models. Applications of active materials can be expanded by using robust, non-mammalian muscle cells, such as those of Manduca sexta. In this study, we propose a model to assist in the analysis of biohybrid constructs by generalizing a recently proposed constitutive law for Manduca muscle tissue. The continuum model accounts (i) for the stimulation of muscle fibers by introducing multiple stress-free reference configurations for the active and passive states and (ii) for the hysteretic response by specifying a pseudo-elastic energy function. A simple example representing uniaxial loading-unloading is used to validate and verify the characteristics of the model. Then, based on experimental data of muscular thin films, a more complex case shows the qualitative potential of Manduca muscle tissue in active biohybrid constructs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutron activation behavior of NET/ITER divertor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, I.; Weimann, G.; Kny, E.; Kneringer, G.; Reheis, N.

    1995-01-01

    The post-activation behavior of the materials carbon, TZM (99.3 % Mo) and Mo.41Re, as well as of high temperature brazes suitable for their joining after irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons has been evaluated. The activity, dose rate and energy generation after exposure to an ignited fusion plasma is presented for various time steps after shutdown. The impact of the activity and the afterheat production on the handling and storage conditions of retired divertor components is simulated, the required protection for maintenance is discussed. Further the temperature of stored divertor elements after a full time operation in NET was calculated. No major afterheat production will occur and thus no special cooling is to be provided after approximately one month. Taking into account convection and radiation the equilibrium temperature of vertically stored environment/aircooled divertor elements is predicted to be approximately 100 degree C. (author)

  15. Fusion material development program in the broader approach activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research: Naka, Ibaraki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Takatsu, H. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Momie Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tsuchiya, K. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research, JAEA, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); MoIslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [EPFL-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, UHD - CRPP, PPB, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pizzuto, A. [ENEA CR Frascat, Frascati (Italy); Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Lasser, R.; Gasparotto, M. [EFDA CSU Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are initiated by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan. The BA activities include the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF-EVEDA), the International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC), and the Satellite Tokamak. IFERC consists of three sub project; a DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center, a Computational Simulation Center, and an ITER Remote Experimentation Center. Technical R and Ds mainly on fusion materials will be implemented as a part of the DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center. Based on the common interest of each party toward DEMO, R and Ds on a) reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a DEMO blanket structural material, SiCf/SiC composites, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier for DEMO blankets, and Tritium Technology were selected and assessed by European and Japanese experts. In the R and D on the RAFM steels, the fabrication technology, techniques to incorporate the fracture/rupture properties of the irradiated materials, and methods to predict the deformation and fracture behaviors of structures under irradiation will be investigated. For SiCf/SiC composites, standard methods to evaluate high-temperature and life-time properties will be developed. Not only for SiCf/SiC but also related ceramics, physical and chemical properties such as He and H permeability and absorption will be investigated under irradiation. As the advanced tritium breeder R and D, Japan and EU plan to establish the production technique for advanced breeder pebbles of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, respectively. Also physical, chemical, and mechanical properties will be investigated for produced breeder pebbles. For the

  16. Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heincke, Diana; Martínez, Inmaculada; Partal, Pedro; Guerrero, Antonio; Gallegos, Críspulo

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of natural biocide agents into protein-based bioplastics, a source of biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by a thermo-mechanical method is a way to contribute to a sustainable food packaging industry. This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of 10 different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten-based bioplastics. The effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is also studied. Bioplastics containing six of the 10 examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37 °C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within a Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo-mechanical behaviours. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  18. Thermally activated creep and fluidization in flowing disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabia, Samy; Detcheverry, François

    2016-11-01

    When submitted to a constant mechanical load, many materials display power law creep followed by fluidization. A fundamental understanding of these processes is still far from being achieved. Here, we characterize creep and fluidization on the basis of a mesoscopic viscoplastic model that includes thermally activated yielding events and a broad distribution of energy barriers, which may be lowered under the effect of a local deformation. We relate the creep exponent observed before fluidization to the width of barrier distribution and to the specific form of stress redistribution following yielding events. We show that Andrade creep is accompanied by local strain hardening driven by stress redistribution and find that the fluidization time depends exponentially on the applied stress. The simulation results are interpreted in the light of a mean-field analysis, and should help in rationalizing the creep phenomenology in disordered materials.

  19. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Suk Suh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly, based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  20. MACRO DEFECT FREE MATERIALS; THE CHALLENGE OF MECHANOCHEMICAL ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN DRÁBIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macro-defect-free (MDF materials belong, according to Odler’s categorisation, to the type of materials where polymers may be successfully combined with cements and water to produce also the parameters of technological novelty and interests. A challenge, which has not been followed or indicated by now, is the option to intensify mixing of dry cement and polymer. The mechanochemical pre-reactions of dry MDF raw mixes consisting of Portland cement and polyphosphate, together with the model of atomic-level interpretations of the formed functional interfaces are proposed, experimentally tested and discussed in the present paper. The results ultimately show the activation of studied system due to the mechanochemical treatment, which consists in the initiation and measurable formation of Al(Fe–O–P cross-links already in the treated raw mixes. The mechanochemical activation of raw mixes in the high energy planetary mill for the duration of 5 minutes is proposed as the specific mixing and activation / pre-reaction step within the entire MDF synthesis procedure.

  1. Certification of standard reference materials employing neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Molina Insfran, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Santana Encinosa, C.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (Naa) is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials (Srm). Characteristics of Naa which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy; multielemental capability; ability to assess homogeneity; high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper reports the concentrations of thirty elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban Srm's. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 -10 13 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . The gamma-ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analysed using ACTAN program, developed in CEADEN. (author) [es

  2. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  4. Neutron activation determination of phosphorus in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, G.V.; Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Gol'dshtejn, M.M.; Yudelevich, I.G.; Yurchenko, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    The solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid (MPA) with benzene and dichloroethane solutions of dioctylsulphoxide has been studied. A neutron-activation method has been worked out of determining phosphorus in semiconductor silicon, high purity gallium, and homoepitaxial films of gallium arsenide. The method is based on separation of radiochemically pure phosphorus in the form of MPA by extraction with 0.2 M solution of dioctylsulphoxide in benzene and measurement of 32 P activity on a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The method makes it possible to determine phosphorus in the materials enumerated with a limit of detection of 1.9x10 -10 g and a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.05

  5. Study of adsorption properties on lithium doped activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los, S.; Daclaux, L.; Letellier, M.; Azais, P.

    2005-01-01

    A volumetric method was applied to study an adsorption coefficient of hydrogen molecules in a gas phase on super activated carbon surface. The investigations were focused on getting the best possible materials for the energy storage. Several treatments on raw samples were used to improve adsorption properties. The biggest capacities were obtain after high temperature treatment at reduced atmosphere. The adsorption coefficient at 77 K and 2 MPa amounts to 3.158 wt.%. The charge transfer between lithium and carbon surface groups via the doping reaction enhanced the energy of adsorption. It was also found that is a gradual decrease in the adsorbed amount of H 2 molecules due to occupation active sites by lithium ions. (author)

  6. A trap activation model for hydrogen retention and isotope exchange in some refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Our recently-developed Local Mixing Model (LMM) has been successful in describing and predicting the properties of hydrogen retention and isotope exchange for a variety of refractory materials. For some materials, however, the detailed predictions of the LMM are not observed. A Trap Activation Model (TAM) is proposed here to account for the observed departures from the LMM. Comparison of experimental room temperature saturation depth profiles for H + →Si with the predictions of TAM suggests that the hydrogen traps are multiple-vacancy complexes in this system. The observed profiles result from a beam-induced competition between trap creation/annihilation and H-trapping/detrapping. (orig.)

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the certification of biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambulkar, M.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 22 minor and trace constituents in two proposed Standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's Kale, Cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of reference materials of biological matrices. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  8. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H.C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M.F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc,; Spaetig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  9. Potential active materials for photo-supercapacitor: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. H.; Lim, H. N.; Hayase, S.; Harrison, I.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The need for an endless renewable energy supply, typically through the utilization of solar energy in most applications and systems, has driven the expansion, versatility, and diversification of marketed energy storage devices. Energy storage devices such as hybridized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-capacitors and DSSC-supercapacitors have been invented for energy reservation. The evolution and vast improvement of these devices in terms of their efficiencies and flexibilities have further sparked the invention of the photo-supercapacitor. The idea of coupling a DSSC and supercapacitor as a complete energy conversion and storage device arose because the solar energy absorbed by dye molecules can be efficiently transferred and converted to electrical energy by adopting a supercapacitor as the energy delivery system. The conversion efficiency of a photo-supercapacitor is mainly dependent on the use of active materials during its fabrication. The performances of the dye, photoactive metal oxide, counter electrode, redox electrolyte, and conducting polymer are the primary factors contributing to high-energy-efficient conversion, which enhances the performance and shelf-life of a photo-supercapacitor. Moreover, the introduction of compact layer as a primary adherent film has been earmarked as an effort in enhancing power conversion efficiency of solar cell. Additionally, the development of electrolyte-free solar cell such as the invention of hole-conductor or perovskite solar cell is currently being explored extensively. This paper reviews and analyzes the potential active materials for a photo-supercapacitor to enhance the conversion and storage efficiencies.

  10. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Azizov, E.; Filatov, O.; Chernov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li 2 TiO 3 (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the techniques for

  11. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  12. Binding of influenza A virus NS1 protein to the inter-SH2 domain of p85 suggests a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Benjamin G; Batty, Ian H; Downes, C Peter; Randall, Richard E

    2008-01-18

    Influenza A virus NS1 protein stimulates host-cell phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by binding to the p85beta regulatory subunit of PI3K. Here, in an attempt to establish a mechanism for this activation, we report further on the functional interaction between NS1 and p85beta. Complex formation was found to be independent of NS1 RNA binding activity and is mediated by the C-terminal effector domain of NS1. Intriguingly, the primary direct binding site for NS1 on p85beta is the inter-SH2 domain, a coiled-coil structure that acts as a scaffold for the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K. In vitro kinase activity assays, together with protein binding competition studies, reveal that NS1 does not displace p110 from the inter-SH2 domain, and indicate that NS1 can form an active heterotrimeric complex with PI3K. In addition, it was established that residues at the C terminus of the inter-SH2 domain are essential for mediating the interaction between p85beta and NS1. Equivalent residues in p85alpha have previously been implicated in the basal inhibition of p110. However, such p85alpha residues were unable to substitute for those in p85beta with regards NS1 binding. Overall, these data suggest a model by which NS1 activates PI3K catalytic activity by masking a normal regulatory element specific to the p85beta inter-SH2 domain.

  13. Precision of neutron activation analysis for environmental biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwata, Shiro; Koyama, Mutsuo; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Numata, Yuichi.

    1977-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1974 a special committee ''Research on the application of neutron activation analysis to the environmental samples'' had been organized at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. Eleven research groups composed mainly of the committee members cooperated in the intercomparison programme of the reactor neutron activation analysis of NBS standard reference material, 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Five different type of reactors were used for the neutron irradiation; i.e. KUR reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, TRIGA MARK II reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University, and JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Analyses were performed mainly by instrumental method. Precision of the analysis of 23 elements in Orchard Leaves and 13 elements in Bovine Liver presented by the different research groups was shown in table 4 and 5, respectively. The coefficient of variation for these elements was from several to -- 30 percent. Averages given to these elements agreed well with the NBS certified or reference values. Thus, from the practical point of view for the routine multielement analysis of environmental samples, the validity of the instrumental neutron activation technique for this purpose has been proved. (auth.)

  14. Development of active and sensitive material systems based on composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes new concepts proposed by the author to realize active and sensitive structural material systems. Two examples of multifunctional composites were fabricated and evaluated in this study as follows: (1) An active laminate of aluminum plate (works as muscle), epoxy film (as insulator), unidirectional CFRP prepreg (as bone and blood vessel) and copper foil electrode (to apply voltage on CFRP) was made with an embedded optical fiber multiply fractured in the CFRP layer (works as nerve), of which curvature change could be effectively monitored with the fractured optical fiber. (2) A stainless steel fiber/aluminum active composite with embedded Ti oxide/Ti composite fiber was fabricated. The Ti oxide/Ti fiber could work as a sensor for temperature by removing a part of the oxide before embedment to make a metallic contact between the embedded titanium fiber and aluminum matrix to be able to generate thermal electromotive force, and also could work as a sensor for strain and as a heater for actuation. In the both cases, the outputs from their embedded sensors can be used to control their actuations.

  15. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L.

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Reactor neutron activation analysis on reference materials from intercomparison runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Salagean, M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique in our laboratory to determine major, minor and trace elements in mineral and biological samples from international intercomparison runs organised by IAEA Vienna, IAEA-MEL Monaco, 'pb-anal' Kosice, INCT Warszawa and IPNT Krakow is presented. Neutron irradiation was carried out at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (short and long irradiation) during 1982-1997 and at TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (long irradiation) during the later period. The following type of materials were analysed: soils, marine sediments, uranium phosphate ore, water sludge, copper flue dust, whey powder, yeast, cereal flour (rye and wheat), marine animal tissue (mussel, garfish and tuna fish), as well as vegetal tissue (seaweed, cabbage, spinach, alfalfa, algae, tea leaves and herbs). The following elements could be, in general, determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb and Zn of long-lived radionuclides, as well as Al, Ca, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ti of short-lived radionuclides. Data obtained in our laboratory for various matrix samples presented and compared with the intercomparison certified values. The intercomparison exercises offer to the participating laboratories the opportunity to test the accuracy of their analytical methods as well as to acquire valuable Reference Materials/ standards for future analytical applications. (authors)

  18. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srikumar, E-mail: sbanerjee@barc.gov.in

    2014-12-15

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V–4Cr–4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu–1 wt%Cr–0.1 wt%Zr – an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall – was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead–lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb–Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U

  19. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  20. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  2. The proteolytic profile of human cancer procoagulant suggests that it promotes cancer metastasis at the level of activation rather than degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Nalise Low Ah; Krause, Jason; Blatch, Gregory L; Muramoto, Koji; Sakka, Kazuo; Sakka, Makiko; Naudé, Ryno J; Wagner, Leona; Wolf, Raik; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Mielicki, Wojciech P; Frost, Carminita L

    2015-10-01

    Proteases are essential for tumour progression and many are over-expressed during this time. The main focus of research was the role of these proteases in degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby enabling metastasis to occur. Cancer procoagulant (CP), a protease present in malignant tumours, but not normal tissue, is a known activator of coagulation factor X (FX). The present study investigated the function of CP in cancer progression by focussing on its enzymatic specificity. FX cleavage was confirmed using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS and compared to the proteolytic action of CP on ECM proteins, including collagen type IV, laminin and fibronectin. Contrary to previous reports, CP cleaved FX at the conventional activation site (between Arg-52 and Ile-53). Additionally, degradation of FX by CP occurred at a much slower rate than degradation by conventional activators. Complete degradation of the heavy chain of FX was only visible after 24 h, while degradation by RVV was complete after 30 min, supporting postulations that the procoagulant function of CP may be of secondary importance to its role in cancer progression. Of the ECM proteins tested, only fibronectin was cleaved. The substrate specificity of CP was further investigated by screening synthetic peptide substrates using a novel direct CP assay. The results indicate that CP is not essential for either cancer-associated blood coagulation or the degradation of ECM proteins. Rather, they suggest that this protease may be required for the proteolytic activation of membrane receptors.

  3. ReflectoActive(trademark) Seals for Materials Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.D.; Younkin, J.R.; Bell, Z.W.

    2002-01-01

    The ReflectoActive(trademark) Seals system, a continuously monitored fiber optic, active seal technology, provides real-time tamper indication for large arrays of storage containers. The system includes a PC running the RFAS software, an Immediate Detection Unit (IDU), an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), links of fiber optic cable, and the methods and devices used to attach the fiber optic cable to the containers. When a breach on any of the attached fiber optic cable loops occurs, the IDU immediately signals the connected computer to control the operations of an OTDR to seek the breach location. The ReflectoActive(trademark) Seals System can be adapted for various types of container closure designs and implemented in almost any container configuration. This automatic protection of valued assets can significantly decrease the time and money required for surveillance. The RFAS software is the multi-threaded, client-server application that monitors and controls the components of the system. The software administers the security measures such as a two-person rule as well as continuous event logging. Additionally the software's architecture provides a secure method by which local or remote clients monitor the system and perform administrative tasks. These features provide the user with a robust system to meet today's material control and accountability needs. A brief overview of the hardware, and different hardware configurations will be given. The architecture of the system software, and its benefits will then be discussed. Finally, the features to be implemented in future versions of the system will be presented

  4. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  5. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Herrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U13C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U13C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal 13C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that “cross-feeding” occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of 13C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system.

  6. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  7. Age-related changes in the bimanual advantage and in brain oscillatory activity during tapping movements suggest a decline in processing sensory reafference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallard, Etienne; Spierer, Lucas; Ludwig, Catherine; Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Barral, Jérôme

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in the processing of sensory reafferences have been suggested as accounting for age-related decline in motor coordination. Whether sensory reafferences are accurately processed can be assessed based on the bimanual advantage in tapping: because of tapping with an additional hand increases kinesthetic reafferences, bimanual tapping is characterized by a reduced inter-tap interval variability than unimanual tapping. A suppression of the bimanual advantage would thus indicate a deficit in sensory reafference. We tested whether elderly indeed show a reduced bimanual advantage by measuring unimanual (UM) and bimanual (BM) self-paced tapping performance in groups of young (n = 29) and old (n = 27) healthy adults. Electroencephalogram was recorded to assess the underlying patterns of oscillatory activity, a neurophysiological mechanism advanced to support the integration of sensory reafferences. Behaviorally, there was a significant interaction between the factors tapping condition and age group at the level of the inter-tap interval variability, driven by a lower variability in BM than UM tapping in the young, but not in the elderly group. This result indicates that in self-paced tapping, the bimanual advantage is absent in elderly. Electrophysiological results revealed an interaction between tapping condition and age group on low beta band (14-20 Hz) activity. Beta activity varied depending on the tapping condition in the elderly but not in the young group. Source estimations localized this effect within left superior parietal and left occipital areas. We interpret our results in terms of engagement of different mechanisms in the elderly depending on the tapping mode: a 'kinesthetic' mechanism for UM and a 'visual imagery' mechanism for BM tapping movement.

  8. Glass-crystalline materials for active waste incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichenko, V.V.; Krylova, N.V.; Vlasov, V.I.; Polyakov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the possibility and conditions for using glass-crystalline materials for the incorporation of radionuclides. Materials of a cast pyroxene type that are obtained by smelting calcined wastes with acid blast furnace slags are described. A study was also made of materials of a basalt type prepared from wastes with and without alkali metal salt. Changes in the structure and properties of materials in the process of storage at different temperatures have been studied

  9. Creating Active Device Materials for Nanoelectronics Using Block Copolymer Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian Cummins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged and aggressive nature of scaling to augment the performance of silicon integrated circuits (ICs and the technical challenges and costs associated with this has led to the study of alternative materials that can use processing schemes analogous to semiconductor manufacturing. We examine the status of recent efforts to develop active device elements using nontraditional lithography in this article, with a specific focus on block copolymer (BCP feature patterning. An elegant route is demonstrated using directed self-assembly (DSA of BCPs for the fabrication of aligned tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanowires towards nanoelectronic device application. The strategy described avoids conventional lithography practices such as optical patterning as well as repeated etching and deposition protocols and opens up a new approach for device development. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL silsesquioxane (SSQ-based trenches were utilized in order to align a cylinder forming poly(styrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP BCP soft template. We outline WO3 nanowire fabrication using a spin-on process and the symmetric current-voltage characteristics of the resulting Ti/Au (5 nm/45 nm contacted WO3 nanowires. The results highlight the simplicity of a solution-based approach that allows creating active device elements and controlling the chemistry of specific self-assembling building blocks. The process enables one to dictate nanoscale chemistry with an unprecedented level of sophistication, forging the way for next-generation nanoelectronic devices. We lastly outline views and future research studies towards improving the current platform to achieve the desired device performance.

  10. Creating Active Device Materials for Nanoelectronics Using Block Copolymer Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Bell, Alan P; Morris, Michael A

    2017-09-30

    The prolonged and aggressive nature of scaling to augment the performance of silicon integrated circuits (ICs) and the technical challenges and costs associated with this has led to the study of alternative materials that can use processing schemes analogous to semiconductor manufacturing. We examine the status of recent efforts to develop active device elements using nontraditional lithography in this article, with a specific focus on block copolymer (BCP) feature patterning. An elegant route is demonstrated using directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs for the fabrication of aligned tungsten trioxide (WO₃) nanowires towards nanoelectronic device application. The strategy described avoids conventional lithography practices such as optical patterning as well as repeated etching and deposition protocols and opens up a new approach for device development. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) silsesquioxane (SSQ)-based trenches were utilized in order to align a cylinder forming poly(styrene)- block -poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS- b -P4VP) BCP soft template. We outline WO₃ nanowire fabrication using a spin-on process and the symmetric current-voltage characteristics of the resulting Ti/Au (5 nm/45 nm) contacted WO₃ nanowires. The results highlight the simplicity of a solution-based approach that allows creating active device elements and controlling the chemistry of specific self-assembling building blocks. The process enables one to dictate nanoscale chemistry with an unprecedented level of sophistication, forging the way for next-generation nanoelectronic devices. We lastly outline views and future research studies towards improving the current platform to achieve the desired device performance.

  11. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  13. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  14. Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Mittal, Alok; Jain, Rajeev; Mathur, Megha; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2006-11-01

    Textile effluents are major industrial polluters because of high color content, about 15% unfixed dyes and salts. The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste materials activated carbon and activated rice husk-as adsorbents. The method was employed for the removal of Safranin-T and the influence of various factors such as adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, particle size, temperature, contact time, and pH was studied. The adsorption of the dye over both the adsorbents was found to follow Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Based on these models, different useful thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for both the adsorption processes. The adsorption of Safranin-T over activated carbon and activated rice husks follows first-order kinetics and the rate constants for the adsorption processes decrease with increase in temperature.

  15. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material; Remocion de azul indigo y cadmio presentes en soluciones acuosas empleando un material zeolitico modificado y un material carbonoso activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-07-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous

  16. Examining porous bio-active glass as a potential osteo-odonto-keratoprosthetic skirt material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, Reeta; Sandeman, Susan; Rose, Susanna; Fok, Elsie; Howell, Carol; Fröberg, Linda; Moritz, Niko; Hupa, Leena; Lloyd, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Bio-active glass has been developed for use as a bone substitute with strong osteo-inductive capacity and the ability to form strong bonds with soft and hard tissue. The ability of this material to enhance tissue in-growth suggests its potential use as a substitute for the dental laminate of an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A preliminary in vitro investigation of porous bio-active glass as an OOKP skirt material was carried out. Porous glass structures were manufactured from bio-active glasses 1-98 and 28-04 containing varying oxide formulation (1-98, 28-04) and particle size range (250-315 μm for 1-98 and 28-04a, 315-500 μm for 28-04b). Dissolution of the porous glass structure and its effect on pH was measured. Structural 2D and 3D analysis of porous structures were performed. Cell culture experiments were carried out to study keratocyte adhesion and the inflammatory response induced by the porous glass materials. The dissolution results suggested that the porous structure made out of 1-98 dissolves faster than the structures made from glass 28-04. pH experiments showed that the dissolution of the porous glass increased the pH of the surrounding solution. The cell culture results showed that keratocytes adhered onto the surface of each of the porous glass structures, but cell adhesion and spreading was greatest for the 98a bio-glass. Cytokine production by all porous glass samples was similar to that of the negative control indicating that the glasses do not induce a cytokine driven inflammatory response. Cell culture results support the potential use of synthetic porous bio-glass as an OOKP skirt material in terms of limited inflammatory potential and capacity to induce and support tissue ingrowth.

  17. Electrospun curcumin-loaded cellulose acetate/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibrous materials with complex architecture and antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekova, Petya B.; Spasova, Mariya G.; Manolova, Nevena E.; Markova, Nadya D.; Rashkov, Iliya B.

    2017-01-01

    Novel fibrous materials from cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing curcumin (Curc) with original design were prepared by one-pot electrospinning or dual spinneret electrospinning. The electrospun materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water contact angle measurements, and microbiological tests. It was found that the incorporation of Curc into the CA and PVP solutions resulted in an increase of the solution viscosity and obtaining fibers with larger diameters (ca. 1.5 μm) compared to the neat CA (ca. 800 nm) and PVP fibers (ca. 500 nm). The incorporation of PVP resulted in increased hydrophilicity of the fibers and in faster Curc release. Curc was found in the amorphous state in the Curc-containing fibers and these mats exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results suggest that, due to their complex architecture, the obtained new antibacterial materials are suitable for wound dressing applications, which necessitate diverse release behaviors of the bioactive compound. - Highlights: • Novel curcumin-loaded materials based on cellulose acetate and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by electrospinning. • Using one-pot or dual spinneret electrospinning enabled modulating drug release. • The incorporation of polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in faster curcumin release. • The curcumin-containing mats exhibited antibacterial activity thus rendering them suitable for wound dressing applications.

  18. Electrospun curcumin-loaded cellulose acetate/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibrous materials with complex architecture and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekova, Petya B.; Spasova, Mariya G.; Manolova, Nevena E. [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Markova, Nadya D. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 26, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rashkov, Iliya B., E-mail: rashkov@polymer.bas.bg [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-04-01

    Novel fibrous materials from cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing curcumin (Curc) with original design were prepared by one-pot electrospinning or dual spinneret electrospinning. The electrospun materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water contact angle measurements, and microbiological tests. It was found that the incorporation of Curc into the CA and PVP solutions resulted in an increase of the solution viscosity and obtaining fibers with larger diameters (ca. 1.5 μm) compared to the neat CA (ca. 800 nm) and PVP fibers (ca. 500 nm). The incorporation of PVP resulted in increased hydrophilicity of the fibers and in faster Curc release. Curc was found in the amorphous state in the Curc-containing fibers and these mats exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results suggest that, due to their complex architecture, the obtained new antibacterial materials are suitable for wound dressing applications, which necessitate diverse release behaviors of the bioactive compound. - Highlights: • Novel curcumin-loaded materials based on cellulose acetate and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by electrospinning. • Using one-pot or dual spinneret electrospinning enabled modulating drug release. • The incorporation of polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in faster curcumin release. • The curcumin-containing mats exhibited antibacterial activity thus rendering them suitable for wound dressing applications.

  19. Do stress responses promote leukemia progression? An animal study suggesting a role for epinephrine and prostaglandin-E2 through reduced NK activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Inbar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In leukemia patients, stress and anxiety were suggested to predict poorer prognosis. Oncological patients experience ample physiological and psychological stress, potentially leading to increased secretion of stress factors, including epinephrine, corticosteroids, and prostaglandins. Here we tested whether environmental stress and these stress factors impact survival of leukemia-challenged rats, and studied mediating mechanisms. F344 rats were administered with a miniscule dose of 60 CRNK-16 leukemia cells, and were subjected to intermittent forced swim stress or to administration of physiologically relevant doses of epinephrine, prostaglandin-E(2 or corticosterone. Stress and each stress factor, and/or their combinations, doubled mortality rates when acutely applied simultaneously with, or two or six days after tumor challenge. Acute administration of the β-adrenergic blocker nadolol diminished the effects of environmental stress, without affecting baseline survival rates. Prolonged β-adrenergic blockade or COX inhibition (using etodolac also increased baseline survival rates, possibly by blocking tumor-related or normal levels of catecholamines and prostaglandins. Searching for mediating mechanisms, we found that each of the stress factors transiently suppressed NK activity against CRNK-16 and YAC-1 lines on a per NK basis. In contrast, the direct effects of stress factors on CRNK-16 proliferation, vitality, and VEGF secretion could not explain or even contradicted the in vivo survival findings. Overall, it seems that environmental stress, epinephrine, and prostaglandins promote leukemia progression in rats, potentially through suppressing cell mediated immunity. Thus, patients with hematological malignancies, which often exhibit diminished NK activity, may benefit from extended β-blockade and COX inhibition.

  20. Partial and weak oestrogenicity of the red wine constituent resveratrol: consideration of its superagonist activity in MCF-7 cells and its suggested cardiovascular protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H; Pennie, W; Brooks, A N; Lefevre, P A; Beresford, N; Sumpter, J P

    1999-01-01

    It was recently reported that the red wine phytoestrogen resveratrol (RES) acts as a superagonist to oestrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells. This activity of RES was speculated to be relevant to the 'French paradox' in which moderate red wine consumption is reported to yield cardiovascular health benefits to humans. We report here that RES binds to oestrogen receptors (ER) isolated from rat uterus with an affinity approximately 5 orders of magnitude lower than does either the reference synthetic oestrogen diethylstilboestrol (DES) or oestradiol (E2). In comparison with E2 or DES, RES is only a weak and partial agonist in a yeast hER-alpha transcription assay and in cos-1 cell assays employing transient transfections of ER-alpha or ER-beta associated with two different ER-response elements. Resveratrol was also concluded to be inactive in immature rat uterotrophic assays conducted using three daily administrations of 0.03-120 mgkg(-1)/day(-1) RES (administered by either oral gavage or subcutaneous injection). These data weaken the suggestion that the oestrogenicity of RES may account for the reported cardiovascular protective effects of red wine consumption, and they raise questions regarding the extent to which oestrogenicity data derived for a chemical using MCF-7 cells (or any other single in vitro assay) can be used to predict the hormonal effects likely to occur in animals or humans.

  1. Analysis of proton wires in the enzyme active site suggests a mechanism of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by the EAL domain phosphodiesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Bella L; Knyazeva, Marina A; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2016-11-01

    We report for the first time a hydrolysis mechanism of the cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) by the EAL domain phosphodiesterases as revealed by molecular simulations. A model system for the enzyme-substrate complex was prepared on the base of the crystal structure of the EAL domain from the BlrP1 protein complexed with c-di-GMP. The nucleophilic hydroxide generated from the bridging water molecule appeared in a favorable position for attack on the phosphorus atom of c-di-GMP. The most difficult task was to find a pathway for a proton transfer to the O3' atom of c-di-GMP to promote the O3'P bond cleavage. We show that the hydrogen bond network extended over the chain of water molecules in the enzyme active site and the Glu359 and Asp303 side chains provides the relevant proton wires. The suggested mechanism is consistent with the structural, mutagenesis, and kinetic experimental studies on the EAL domain phosphodiesterases. Proteins 2016; 84:1670-1680. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. In vivo evidence suggesting reciprocal renal hypoxia-inducible factor-1 upregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in response to hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechemia-Arbely, Yael; Khamaisi, Mogher; Rosenberger, Christian; Koesters, Robert; Shina, Ahuva; Geva, Carmit; Shriki, Anat; Klaus, Stephen; Rosen, Seymour; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Heyman, Samuel N

    2013-04-01

    In vitro studies suggest that combined activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the hypoxia response. However, their interrelationship in vivo remains poorly defined. The present study investigated the possible relationship between HIF-1 upregulation and STAT3 activation in the rodent kidney in vivo. Activation of HIF-1 and STAT3 was analysed by immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis in: (i) models of hypoxia-associated kidney injury induced by radiocontrast media or rhabdomyolysis; (ii) following activation of STAT3 by the interleukin (IL)-6-soluble IL-6 receptor complex; or (iii) following HIF-1α stabilization using hypoxic and non-hypoxic stimuli (mimosine, FG-4497, CO, CoCl(2)) and in targeted von Hippel-Lindau-knockout mice. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed marked induction of both transcription factors under all conditions tested, suggesting that in vivo STAT3 can trigger HIF and vice versa. Colocalization of HIF-1α and phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in some, but not all, renal cell types, suggesting that in some cells a paracrine mechanism may be responsible for the reciprocal activation of the two transcription factors. Nevertheless, in several cell types spatial concordance was observed under the majority of conditions tested, suggesting that HIF-1 and STAT3 may act as cotranscription factors. These in vivo studies suggest that, in response to renal hypoxic-stress, upregulation of HIF-1 and activation of STAT3 may be both reciprocal and cell type dependent. © 2013 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Influence of quantum confinement on the carrier contribution to the elastic constants in quantum confined heavily doped non-linear optical and optoelectronic materials: simplified theory and the suggestion for experimental determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, D; Choudhury, S; Singh, K M; Ghatak, K P

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the carrier contribution to elastic constants in quantum confined heavily doped non-linear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law taking into account the anisotropies of the effective electron masses and spin orbit splitting constants together with the proper inclusion of the crystal field splitting in the Hamiltonian within the framework of k.p formalism. All the results of heavily doped three, and two models of Kane for heavily doped III-V materials form special cases of our generalized analysis. It has been found, taking different heavily doped quantum confined materials that, the carrier contribution to the elastic constants increases with increase in electron statistics and decrease in film thickness in ladder like manners for all types of quantum confinements with different numerical values which are totally dependent on the energy band constants. The said contribution is greatest in quantum dots and least in quantum wells together with the fact the heavy doping enhances the said contributions for all types of quantum confined materials. We have suggested an experimental method of determining the carrier contribution to the elastic constants in nanostructured materials having arbitrary band structures

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein β subunit suggests divergent mechanisms of effector activation between plant and animal G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, David; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are integral components of signal transduction in humans and other mammals and have been therefore extensively studied. However, while they are known to mediate many processes, much less is currently known about the effector pathways and molecular mechanisms used by these proteins to regulate effectors in plants. We designed a complementation strategy to study G protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly the mechanism of action of AGB1, the sole identified β subunit. We used biochemical and effector regulation data from human G protein studies to identify four potentially important residues for site-directed mutagenesis (T65, M111, D250 and W361 of AGB1). Each residue was individually mutated and the resulting mutated protein introduced in the agb1-2 mutant background under the control of the native AGB1 promoter. Interestingly, even though these mutations have been shown to have profound effects on effector signaling in humans, all the mutated subunits were able to restore thirteen of the fifteen Gβ-deficient phenotypes characterized in this study. Only one mutated protein, T65A was unable to complement the hypersensitivity to mannitol during germination observed in agb1 mutants; while only D250A failed to restore lateral root numbers in the agb1 mutant to wild-type levels. Our results suggest that the mechanisms used in mammalian G protein signaling are not well conserved in plant G protein signaling, and that either the effectors used by plant G proteins, or the mechanisms used to activate them, are at least partially divergent from the well-studied mammalian G proteins.

  5. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Holm, G.; Uttrup, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on growth and metabolism of eight microfungi on 21 different types of building material was investigated. The fungi were applied as a dry mixture to the materials, which were incubated at 5degreesC, 10degreesC, 20degreesC and 25degrees...... growth at RH > 90%, although 95% RH was needed to yield chemically detectable quantities of biomass. Almost exclusively only Penicillium, Aspergillus and Eurotium (contaminant) species grew on the materials. Production of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins decreased with humidity and the quantities...

  6. Computational micromechanics of wind blade materials: recent activities at the Materials Research Division, Risoe DTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishnaevsky Jr., L.; Broendsted, P.; Qing, H.; Wang, H.; Soerensen, Bent F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Riso National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Materials Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); OEstergaard, R.C. (LM Wind Power Blades, Composite Mechanics, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-10-22

    Recent research works in the area of 3D computational microstructural modelling, virtual testing and numerical optimization of wind blade materials, carried out at the Materials Research Division, Rise DTU (Programme Composites and Materials Mechanics) are summarized. The works presented here have been carried out in the framework of several research projects: EU FP6 Upwind, Danida project 'Development of wind energy technologies in Nepal' and SinoDanish project '3D Virtual Testing of composites for wind energy applications' as well as the Framework Program 'Interface design of composite materials' and recently established Danish Centre for Composite Structures and Materials for Wind Turbines. Different groups of materials, which are used or have a potential for use for the wind turbine blades, are modelled with the use of the methods of the computational micromechanics, in particular: (1) glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites used in the large wind turbine blades, (2) different sorts of timber, used in small wind turbines (first of all, in developing countries) and (3) nanoparticle reinforced polymer matrix composites (which have a potential to be used as components for future high strength wind blades). On the basis of the developed 3D microstructural finite element models of these materials, we analyzed the effect of their microstructures on damage resistance, strength and stiffness. The methods of the 3D model design and results of the simulations are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  7. Biomimetic Polyaminoacids as Precursors for Optical-Active Intelligent Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Popova, G

    2003-01-01

    ...; function on nanoscale; stimula-responsive study; intelligent materials formation. Modified polyglutamic acid with dyes regular set possesses specific ability to self-assembly with cooperative rearrangement under outer temperature...

  8. Method for monitoring drilling materials for gamma ray activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Arnold, D.M.; Schultz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    In the preferred and illustrated embodiment taught herein, method steps for monitoring of raw materials to be used in drilling mud are disclosed. The materials are monitored for radioactivity. Procedures for taking such measurements are disclosed, and the extent of gamma radioactivity in the raw materials used in drilling mud is, determined. This is correlated to the increased radiation attributable to mud made from these materials and the effect the mud would have on gamma ray measuring logs. An alternate procedure for testing drilling mud, typically at the well site, is also disclosed. The method detects mud radioactivity from any additives including barite, potassium chloride, well cuttings or others. Excessive background levels due to mud gamma radioactivity in a well may very well mask the data obtained by various logging procedures dependent on gamma radiation. Procedures are also described for either rejecting mud which is too radioactive or correcting the log measurements for mud effects

  9. Active material, optical mode and cavity impact on nanoscale electro-optic modulation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Suer, Can; Ma, Zhizhen; Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function in optical data communication and possible future optical compute engines. The performance of modulators intricately depends on the interaction between the actively modulated material and the propagating waveguide mode. While a variety of high-performance modulators have been demonstrated, no comprehensive picture of what factors are most responsible for high performance has emerged so far. Here we report the first systematic and comprehensive analytical and computational investigation for high-performance compact on-chip electro-optic modulators by considering emerging active materials, model considerations and cavity feedback at the nanoscale. We discover that the delicate interplay between the material characteristics and the optical mode properties plays a key role in defining the modulator performance. Based on physical tradeoffs between index modulation, loss, optical confinement factors and slow-light effects, we find that there exist combinations of bias, material and optical mode that yield efficient phase or amplitude modulation with acceptable insertion loss. Furthermore, we show how material properties in the epsilon near zero regime enable reduction of length by as much as by 15 times. Lastly, we introduce and apply a cavity-based electro-optic modulator figure of merit, Δλ/Δα, relating obtainable resonance tuning via phase shifting relative to the incurred losses due to the fundamental Kramers-Kronig relations suggesting optimized device operating regions with optimized modulation-to-loss tradeoffs. This work paves the way for a holistic design rule of electro-optic modulators for high-density on-chip integration.

  10. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Daly Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  11. Activities of the years 1985/86 Materials Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission gives a description of the research done during the period 1985/1986 in the following fields; corrosion and transport of matter, transport phenomena, phase solidification and transformation, mechanical properties, theory of the materials behaviour, and special techniques development. Furthermore it is outlined the rendering of services and the advice given to the nuclear power plants and other institutions. Finally a list of publications, courses, seminars, lectures and presentation to congresses are included. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Thermosetting materials from the radiation-modified polymer compositions, 2. Development of adhesion-active and thermostable thermosetting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkis, V.; Maksimovs, R.D.; Zicans, J.; Bocoka, T.; Revjakins, O.

    1999-01-01

    Methods that improve the adhesion and thermal stability of the thermosetting materials are considered. Experimental studies of the blends composed of polyethylene, ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer (with characteristic specific for rubbers) and mesomorphic copolyesters, using rheological, spectrometric, and thermomechanical methods, have shown that radiation modification improves the adhesion and deformation properties as well as thermal stability of these blends. Therefore, materials of such system can be successfully used, e.g., as elastic and adhesion-active thermosetting materials at temperature above 473 K. (author)

  13. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  14. Production and characterization of activated carbon using indigenous waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Ibrahim, F.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from shisham wood and coconut shell through chemical activation, using phosphoric acid and low temperature carbonization. Proximate analysis and characterization of the product were carried out and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, total ash content, moisture content, pH value and iodine number were determined. The product characteristics were well comparable with those of the commercially available activated carbon. (author)

  15. Regulation of EphA4 kinase activity is required for a subset of axon guidance decisions suggesting a key role for receptor clustering in Eph function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egea, Joaquim; Nissen, Ulla Vig; Dufour, Audrey

    2005-01-01

    Signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is mediated by their intrinsic kinase activity. Typically, kinase-activating mutations result in ligand-independent signaling and gain-of-function phenotypes. Like other RTKs, Ephs require kinase activity to signal, but signaling by Ephs in vitro also...... requires clustering by their membrane bound ephrin ligands. The relative importance of Eph kinase activity and clustering for in vivo functions is unknown. We find that knockin mice expressing a mutant form of EphA4 (EphA4 EE), whose kinase is constitutively activated in the absence of ephrinB ligands......, are deficient in the development of thalamocortical projections and some aspects of central pattern generator rhythmicity. Surprisingly, other functions of EphA4 were regulated normally by EphA4EE, including midline axon guidance, hindlimb locomotion, in vitro growth cone collapse, and phosphorylation...

  16. Computer design of porous active materials at different dimensional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasedkin, Andrey

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a mathematical and computer modeling of effective properties of porous piezoelectric materials of three types: with ordinary porosity, with metallized pore surfaces, and with nanoscale porosity structure. The described integrated approach includes the effective moduli method of composite mechanics, simulation of representative volumes, and finite element method.

  17. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses " ;The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as

  18. Fluorine determinations in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Guinn, V.P.; Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Exploratory studies were carried out at the University of California, Irvine on several freeze-dried human diet materials and on two freeze-dried vegetation materials - all prospective reference materials. The University of California, Irvine equipment includes a 250-kW TRIGA Mark 1 reactor, 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 ·s thermal flux, 3-s sample transfer time, and a typical 18% Ge(Li)/4,096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer with a detector resolution of 3.3 keV at 1,332 keV. In these exploratory studies, it was found that it was not feasible to measure fluorine with adequate precision or accuracy at fluorine concentrations much less than ∼100 ppm. These initial studies, however, defined the magnitudes of the various difficulties. One good outcome of these studies was the demonstration that the otherwise excellent Teflon-mill brittle-fracture method for homogenizing freeze-dried biological samples was not suitable if fluorine was to be determined. Abrasion of the Teflon increased the fluorine content of a human diet sample about sevenfold (compared with similar treatment of the same material in an all-titanium mill)

  19. Structure of the Ni(II) complex of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase and suggestions on deformylase activities depending on different metal(II) centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ngo Thi Hai; Bogdanović, Xenia; Palm, Gottfried J; Kühl, Olaf; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2010-02-01

    Crystal structures of polypeptide deformylase (PDF) of Escherichia coli with nickel(II) replacing the native iron(II) have been solved with chloride and formate as metal ligands. The chloro complex is a model for the correct protonation state of the hydrolytic hydroxo ligand and the protonated status of the Glu133 side chain as part of the hydrolytic mechanism. The ambiguity that recently some PDFs have been identified with Zn(2+) ion as the active-site centre whereas others are only active with Fe(2+) (or Co(2+), Ni(2+) is discussed with respect to Lewis acid criteria of the metal ion and substrate activation by the CD loop.

  20. Mutational Analysis of the Escherichia coli melR Gene Suggests a Two-State Concerted Model To Explain Transcriptional Activation and Repression in the Melibiose Operon

    OpenAIRE

    Kahramanoglou, Christina; Webster, Christine L.; el-Robh, Mohamed Samir; Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Busby, Stephen J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription of the Escherichia coli melAB operon is regulated by the MelR protein, an AraC family member whose activity is modulated by the binding of melibiose. In the absence of melibiose, MelR is unable to activate the melAB promoter but autoregulates its own expression by repressing the melR promoter. Melibiose triggers MelR-dependent activation of the melAB promoter and relieves MelR-dependent repression of the melR promoter. Twenty-nine single amino acid substitutions in MelR that res...

  1. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  2. Turkish EFL Academicians' Problems Concerning Translation Activities and Practices, Attitudes towards the Use of Online and Printed Translation Tools, and Suggestions for Quality Translation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Bugra; Kacar, Isil Gunseli

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method research study aimed to highlight the problems of EFL academicians concerning their current translation practices, their attitudes towards the use of various translation tools, and offer suggestions for more quality translation practices. Seventy-three EFL academicians from three Turkish universities participated in the study.…

  3. Progress in the US program to develop low-activation structural materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.; Bloom, E.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Smith, D.L.; Odette, G.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that attainment of the safety and environmental potential of fusion energy requires the successful development of low-activation materials for the first wall, blanket and other high heat flux structural components. Only a limited number of materials potentially possess the physical, mechanical and low-activation characteristics required for this application. The current US structural materials research effort is focused on three candidate materials: advanced ferritic steels, vanadium alloys, and silicon carbide composites. Recent progress has been made in understanding the response of these materials to neutron irradiation. (author)

  4. Progress in the U.S. program to develop low-activation structural materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.; Bloom, E.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Smith, D.L.; Odette, G.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    It has long been recognized that attainment of the safety and environmental potential of fusion energy requires the successful development of low-activation materials for the first wall, blanket and other high heat flux structural components. Only a limited number of materials potentially possess the physical, mechanical and low-activation characteristics required for this application. The current U.S. structural materials research effort is focused on three candidate materials: advanced ferritic steels, vanadium alloys, and silicon carbide composites. Recent progress has been made in understanding the response of these materials to neutron irradiation. (author)

  5. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  6. Bayesian Regression of Thermodynamic Models of Redox Active Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Finding a suitable functional redox material is a critical challenge to achieving scalable, economically viable technologies for storing concentrated solar energy in the form of a defected oxide. Demonstrating e ectiveness for thermal storage or solar fuel is largely accomplished by using a thermodynamic model derived from experimental data. The purpose of this project is to test the accuracy of our regression model on representative data sets. Determining the accuracy of the model includes parameter tting the model to the data, comparing the model using di erent numbers of param- eters, and analyzing the entropy and enthalpy calculated from the model. Three data sets were considered in this project: two demonstrating materials for solar fuels by wa- ter splitting and the other of a material for thermal storage. Using Bayesian Inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), parameter estimation was preformed on the three data sets. Good results were achieved, except some there was some deviations on the edges of the data input ranges. The evidence values were then calculated in a variety of ways and used to compare models with di erent number of parameters. It was believed that at least one of the parameters was unnecessary and comparing evidence values demonstrated that the parameter was need on one data set and not signi cantly helpful on another. The entropy was calculated by taking the derivative in one variable and integrating over another. and its uncertainty was also calculated by evaluating the entropy over multiple MCMC samples. Afterwards, all the parts were written up as a tutorial for the Uncertainty Quanti cation Toolkit (UQTk).

  7. ACFA - a versatile activation code for coolant and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.

    1983-09-01

    The ACFA code calculates the neutron-induced activation, afterheat, transmutation, gas production, biological hazard potential, and activation gamma ray spectra in the components of a nuclear system. The quantities of interest may be computed by spatial interval and zone or only by zone of the system considered. To calculate the transmutation coefficients for the neutron-induced reactions the code uses multigroup activation cross sections and space-dependent multigroup neutron fluxes in one- or two-dimensional geometry. The neutron reaction types incorporated in the code are: (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,n'p), (n,n'α)sub(,) (n,t), (n,3n), (n,He-3), (n,d), and (n,n'd) considering both reactions to the ground state and to isomeric states. The code uses a variable dimensioning technique to adapt the core data storage requirements to the particular problem considered and uses the FIDO input system to read the input data. The numerical methods for establishing and solving the decay chain equations are taken from the ORIGEN code. To test the ACFA code and the nuclear data libraries used, the activation, composition change, and gas production in the first wall of the UWMAK-I fusion reactor are calculated. The results of the activation calculation are compared with earlier results of the University of Wisconsin Fusion Study Group. (orig.)

  8. Bioreactor activated graft material for early implant fixation in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek Henriksen, Susan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    from the iliac crest. For both groups, mononuclear cells were isolated, and injected into a perfusion bioreactor (Millenium Biologix AG, Switzerland). Scaffold granules (Ø~900-1500 µm, ~88% porosity) in group 1, consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA, 70%) with β-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP, 30%) (Danish....... The superficial part was used for mechanical testing and micro-CT scanning, and the profound part for histomorphometry. Push-out tests were performed on an 858 Bionix MTS hydraulic materials testing machine (MTS Systems Corporation, USA). Shear mechanical properties between implant and newly generated bone were...

  9. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    these structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...... element as well as the structure. We describe an evolving approach to material specification and simulation, and highlight the digital and material considerations that frame the process.......The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within...

  10. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  11. Use of neutron activation in dietary reference material analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woittiez, J R.W.; Iyengar, G V

    1988-12-01

    Results for a number of trace elements in a total human diet material (USDIET-1), obtained by the application of both INAA and RNAA are presented. Several dietary reference materials such as NBS SRM 1577A, and BCR CRM Single Cell Protein were also analyzed, and these results are also given. Combining measurements on short and long lived radionuclides, the INAA approach is useful for the determination of about 20 elements. In order to expand the elemental coverage or improve detection limits, RNAA was also explored in two modes: separation of radionuclides using organic ion exchange resins and the use of hydrated manganese dioxide. This combination is applicable to 15 trace elements. For example, using RNAA, the following results were obtained for USDIET-1: Cd=31.8, Mo=280, Cr=71, Ag=4, As=117 and Sb=9.4 ..mu..g/kg. In the INAA mode, special attention was given to Al, F and Se. The F content of USDIET-1 was found to be 840 mg/kg, a rather high value, resulting from handling USDIET-1 by Teflon tools. By applying INAA and RNAA under two different laboratory conditions, it has been demonstrated that, even for the so-called difficult to determine elements like Cr, As or Mo, consistent results can be obtained. Thus, NAA promises to be a strong tool for human nutritional studies.

  12. Rationalization of activation energies for creep of dispersion strengthened aluminium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    The high apparent activation energies for creep of various aluminum dispersion strengthened materials have been analyzed. A direct relationship between the activation energies and stress exponents for every material has been observed. The values of the Q a p/n a p ratios group around some constant values, Q m , which depend solely on the deformation mechanism. Therefore, Q m establishes an easy, fast and reliable criterion to determine the underlying creep deformation mechanism of any reinforced materials. (Author) 18 refs

  13. Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Hudak, Nicholas; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2017-01-17

    Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

  14. Survival of bacteria in nuclear waste buffer materials. The influence of nutrients, temperature and water activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Motamedi, M. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The concept of deep geological disposal of spent fuel is common to many national nuclear waste programs. Long-lived radioactive waste will be encapsulated in canisters made of corrosion resistant materials e.g. copper and buried several hundred meters below ground in a geological formation. Different types of compacted bentonite clay, or mixtures with sand, will be placed as a buffer around the waste canisters. A major concern for the performance of the canisters is that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be present in the clay and induce corrosion by production of hydrogen sulphide. This report presents data on viable counts of SRB in the bedrock of Aespoe hard rock laboratory. A theoretical background on the concept water activity is given, together with basic information about SRB. Some results on microbial populations from a full scale buffer test in Canada is presented. These results suggested water activity to be a strong limiting factor for survival of bacteria in compacted bentonite. As a consequence, experiments were set up to investigate the effect from water activity on survival of SRB in bentonite. Here we show that survival of SRB in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to a density of 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a water activity (a{sub w}) of 0.96, prevented SRB from surviving in the clay. 24 refs.

  15. Survival of bacteria in nuclear waste buffer materials. The influence of nutrients, temperature and water activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Motamedi, M.

    1995-12-01

    The concept of deep geological disposal of spent fuel is common to many national nuclear waste programs. Long-lived radioactive waste will be encapsulated in canisters made of corrosion resistant materials e.g. copper and buried several hundred meters below ground in a geological formation. Different types of compacted bentonite clay, or mixtures with sand, will be placed as a buffer around the waste canisters. A major concern for the performance of the canisters is that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be present in the clay and induce corrosion by production of hydrogen sulphide. This report presents data on viable counts of SRB in the bedrock of Aespoe hard rock laboratory. A theoretical background on the concept water activity is given, together with basic information about SRB. Some results on microbial populations from a full scale buffer test in Canada is presented. These results suggested water activity to be a strong limiting factor for survival of bacteria in compacted bentonite. As a consequence, experiments were set up to investigate the effect from water activity on survival of SRB in bentonite. Here we show that survival of SRB in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to a density of 2.0 g/cm 3 , corresponding to a water activity (a w ) of 0.96, prevented SRB from surviving in the clay. 24 refs

  16. Trends in Catalytic Activity for SOFC Anode materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bessler, W. G.

    2008-01-01

    that oxygen spillover, where adsorbed oxygen is a key intermediate, is the dominant reaction pathway under the conditions used in the experiments. In this way the activity is linked directly to the microscopic binding affinities of reaction intermediates, providing a new understanding of the anode reaction...

  17. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-11-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  18. Reactivation of the chloroplast CF1-ATPase beta subunit by trace amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit suggests a chaperonin-like activity for CF1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, A; Avital, S; Gromet-Elhanan, Z

    1991-04-25

    Incubation of tobacco and lettuce thylakoids with 2 M LiCl in the presence of MgATP removes the beta subunit from their CF1-ATPase (CF1 beta) together with varying amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit (CF1 alpha). These 2 M LiCl extracts, as with the one obtained from spinach thylakoids (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072), could form active hybrid ATPases when reconstituted into inactive beta-less Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. Pure CF1 beta fractions that have been isolated from these extracts could not form such active hybrids by themselves, but could do so when supplemented with trace amounts (less than 5%) of CF1 alpha. A mitochondrial F1-ATPase alpha subunit was recently reported to be a heat-shock protein, having two amino acid sequences that show a highly conserved identity with sequences found in molecular chaperones (Luis, A. M., Alconada, A., and Cuezva, J. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7713-7716). These sequences are also conserved in CF1 alpha isolated from various plants, but not in F1 beta subunits. The above described reactivation of CF1 beta by trace amounts of CF1 alpha could thus be due to a chaperonin-like function of CF1 alpha, which involves the correct, active folding of isolated pure CF1 beta.

  19. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  20. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  1. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  2. CD21+ (B2 antigen+) cell decrement and CD4+CD29+ (helper-inducer) cell increment suggest an activation of cell immune reactivity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, D; Porrini, A M; Giampietro, A; Macor, S

    1991-08-01

    Two-color flow cytometric analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 35 untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 17 other medical disease (OMD) patients and 14 healthy control (HC) subjects was performed to evaluate the levels of different T and B cell subpopulations. In MS patients we observed an increase in CD4+CD29+ helper-inducer cells but this increase was not related to the different phases of the disease. We hypothesize that this change is related to the reduction of CD21+ cells expressing B2 antigen, a 140 kDa molecule disappearing after B cell activation. An increased level of CD4+CD45RA- (helper-inducer-like cells) and a reduction of CD4+CD29- (suppressor-inducer-like cells) were also present in our patients. These findings demonstrate an immune 'disequilibrium' in MS, which is linked with an increased level of CD25+ cells expressing the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor. IL-2, besides being a T cell growth factor, is also a B cell growth factor. These data let us hypothesize that an activation of the immune response is present in MS.

  3. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  4. SANS-polymer and functional materials with neutron in Indonesia. Progress report on the collaboration activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, A.; Gunawan; Sukirman, E.; Ridwan; Jahja, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Activities on SANS-polymer collaboration program are reported. This paper presents SANS-data from Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate that have been obtained using BATAN's SANS machine in Serpong. Reports are also presented about activities in the groups for functional materials structural determination which includes magnetic, HTc superconducting and superionic conducting materials. Discussions are also given towards the way the collaboration activities were carried out in the last three years as well as impact of neutron scattering facility conditions in Indonesia. (author)

  5. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  6. Active and Intelligent Materials for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Buškuvienė, Nijolė; Jankauskaitė, Virginija

    2017-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) reveals the growing problem of food-borne illness around the world. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are getting sick from contaminated food, because 1/3 - 1/2 of food products are not consumed (EC Directives 80/590/EEC and 89/109/EEC). Therefore, the preservation of food freshness and shelf life extension is important task for researchers around the world. In the last decade, much attention is paid to active and intelligent packaging investigation, dev...

  7. Method for monitoring drilling materials for gamma ray activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Arnold, D.M.; Schultz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of verifying the radioactivity levels in raw barite prior to its use in drilling mud. Certain gamma ray measurements are taken of the raw barite and extrapolated to a well bore environment using the projected drilling mud weight made from this barite and the dimensions of the well bore. The natural radioactivity occurring in the formations in the vicinity of the well bore is then compared with the projected levels to enable a determination of whether or not the barite has sufficient radioactive trace elements to forbid its use in a well. Alternatively, the method indicates the ratios by which such additives containing radioactive trace elements must be diluted with non-radioactive additives before use in the drilling mud. A second use of the method involves mud testing at the well site for radioactivity from mud additives, including barite, potassium chloride, and well cuttings. Additional uses include testing other weight materials prior to or subsequent to addition to the mud, and methods for correcting observed gamma ray measurements for the mud-induced background

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  9. Fe-K LINE PROBING OF MATERIAL AROUND THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CENTRAL ENGINE WITH SUZAKU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hiragi, Kazuyoshi; Mizuno, Motohiro; Nishino, Sho; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Shirai, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Ohno, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We systematically analyzed the high-quality Suzaku data of 88 Seyfert galaxies, about 31% of which are Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We obtained a clear relation between the absorption column density and the equivalent width (EW) of the 6.4 keV line above 10 23 cm -2 , suggesting a wide-ranging column density of 10 23 -10 24.5 cm -2 with a similar solid and an Fe abundance of 0.7-1.3 solar for Seyfert 2 galaxies. The EWs of the 6.4 keV line for Seyfert 1 galaxies are typically 40-120 eV, suggesting the existence of Compton-thick matter like the torus with a column density of >10 23 cm -2 and a solid angle of (0.15-0.4) x 4π, and no difference of neutral matter is visible between Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies. An absorber with a lower column density of 10 21 -10 23 cm -2 for Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies is suggested to be not a torus but an interstellar medium. These constraints can be understood by the fact that the 6.4 keV line intensity ratio against the 10-50 keV flux is almost identical within a range of 2-3 in many Seyfert galaxies. Interestingly, objects exist with a low EW, 10-30 eV, of the 6.4 keV line, suggesting that those torus subtends only a small solid angle of H >10 23 cm -2 indicates that the column density of the ionized material also increases together with that of the cold material. It is found that these features seem to change for brighter objects with more than several 10 44 erg s -1 such that the Fe-K line features become weak. This extends the previously known X-ray Baldwin effect on the neutral Fe-Kα line to ionized emission or absorption lines. The luminosity dependence of these properties, regardless of the scatter of black hole mass by two orders of magnitudes, indicates that the ionized material is associated with the structure of the parent galaxy rather than the outflow from the nucleus.

  10. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Rechberger, F; Seidel, C; Stietka, M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of material characteristics of shoe soles on muscle activation and energy aspects during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Stefanyshyn, D; Cole, G; Stergiou, P; Miller, J

    2003-04-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine group and individual differences in oxygen consumption during heel-toe running and (b) to quantify the differences in EMG activity for selected muscle groups of the lower extremities when running in shoes with different mechanical heel characteristics. Twenty male runners performed heel-toe running using two shoe conditions, one with a mainly elastic and a visco-elastic heel. Oxygen consumption was quantified during steady state runs of 6 min duration, running slightly above the aerobic threshold providing four pairs of oxygen consumption results for comparison. Muscle activity was quantified using bipolar surface EMG measurements from the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, vastus medialis and the hamstrings muscle groups. EMG data were sampled for 5 s every minute for the 6 min providing 30 trials. EMG data were compared for the different conditions using an ANOVA (alpha=0.05). The findings of this study showed that changes in the heel material characteristics of running shoes were associated with (a) subject specific changes in oxygen consumption and (b) subject and muscle specific changes in the intensities of muscle activation before heel strike in the lower extremities. It is suggested that further study of these phenomena will help understand many aspects of human locomotion, including work, performance, fatigue and possible injuries.

  12. Body temperatures of hibernating little brown bats reveal pronounced behavioural activity during deep torpor and suggest a fever response during white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Heather W; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

    2018-03-01

    Hibernating animals use torpor [reduced body temperature (T b ) and metabolic rate] to reduce energy expenditure during winter. Periodic arousals to normal T b are energetically expensive, so hibernators trade off arousal benefits against energetic costs. This is especially important for bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing increased arousal frequency. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS show upregulation of endogenous pyrogens and sickness behaviour. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNS should cause a fever response characterized by elevated T b . Hibernators could also accrue some benefits of arousals with minimal T b increase, thus avoiding full arousal costs. We compared skin temperature (T sk ) of captive Myotis lucifugus inoculated with the WNS-causing fungus to T sk of sham-inoculated controls. Infected bats re-warmed to higher T sk during arousals which is consistent with a fever response. Torpid T sk did not differ. During what we term "cold arousals", bats exhibited movement following T sk increases of only 2.2 ± 0.3 °C, compared to >20 °C increases during normal arousals. Cold arousals occurred in both infected and control bats, suggesting they are not a pathophysiological consequence of WNS. Fever responses are energetically costly and could exacerbate energy limitation and premature fat depletion for bats with WNS. Cold arousals could represent an energy-saving mechanism for both healthy and WNS-affected bats when complete arousals are unnecessary or too costly. A few cold arousals were observed mid-hibernation, typically in response to disturbances. Cold arousals may, therefore, represent a voluntary restriction of arousal temperature instead of loss of thermoregulatory control.

  13. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Influence of various Activated Carbon based Electrode Materials in the Performance of Super Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, K. M.; Dinesh, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Various activated carbon based electrode materials with different surface areas was prepared on stainless steel based refillable super capacitor model using spin coating. Bio Synthesized Activated Carbon (BSAC), Activated Carbon (AC) and Graphite powder are chosen as electrode materials in this paper. Electrode materials prepared using binder solution which is 6% by wt. polyvinylidene difluoride, 94% by wt. dimethyl fluoride. 3M concentrated KOH solution is used as aqueous electrolyte with PVDF thin film as separator. It is tested for electrochemical characterizations and material characterizations. It is observed that the Specific capacitance of Graphite, Biosynthesized active carbon and Commercially available activated carbon are 16.1F g-1, 53.4F g-1 and 107.6F g-1 respectively at 5mV s-1 scan rate.

  15. Direct 4D printing via active composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Yuan, Chao; Peng, Xirui; Wang, Tiejun; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an approach to print composite polymers in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can be rapidly transformed to a new permanent configuration directly by heating. The permanent shape of a component results from the programmed time evolution of the printed shape upon heating via the design of the architecture and process parameters of a composite consisting of a glassy shape memory polymer and an elastomer that is programmed with a built-in compressive strain during photopolymerization. Upon heating, the shape memory polymer softens, releases the constraint on the strained elastomer, and allows the object to transform into a new permanent shape, which can then be reprogrammed into multiple subsequent shapes. Our key advance, the markedly simplified creation of high-resolution complex 3D reprogrammable structures, promises to enable myriad applications across domains, including medical technology, aerospace, and consumer products, and even suggests a new paradigm in product design, where components are simultaneously designed to inhabit multiple configurations during service. PMID:28439560

  16. Direct 4D printing via active composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Yuan, Chao; Peng, Xirui; Wang, Tiejun; Qi, H Jerry; Dunn, Martin L

    2017-04-01

    We describe an approach to print composite polymers in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can be rapidly transformed to a new permanent configuration directly by heating. The permanent shape of a component results from the programmed time evolution of the printed shape upon heating via the design of the architecture and process parameters of a composite consisting of a glassy shape memory polymer and an elastomer that is programmed with a built-in compressive strain during photopolymerization. Upon heating, the shape memory polymer softens, releases the constraint on the strained elastomer, and allows the object to transform into a new permanent shape, which can then be reprogrammed into multiple subsequent shapes. Our key advance, the markedly simplified creation of high-resolution complex 3D reprogrammable structures, promises to enable myriad applications across domains, including medical technology, aerospace, and consumer products, and even suggests a new paradigm in product design, where components are simultaneously designed to inhabit multiple configurations during service.

  17. 'Low-activation' fusion materials development and related nuclear data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.

    1990-01-01

    So-called ''low-activation'' materials are presently considered as an important means of improving the safety characteristics of future DT fusion reactors. Essential benefits are expected in various problem areas ranging from operation considerations to aspects of decommissioning and waste disposal. Present programs on ''low-activation'' materials development depend strongly on reliable activity calculations for a wide range of technologically important materials. The related nuclear data requirements and important needs for more and improved nuclear data are discussed. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Electron transport system activity of microfouling material: Relationships with biomass parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Tulaskar, A.; Wagh, A.B.

    (ETS). The ETS activity ranged from 720 to 1374 ~kg 0@d2@@ dm@u2@@ d@u-1@@. Microfouling biomass and ETS activity of microfouling material increased with the immersion period. ETS activity was significantly correlated with dry weight, organic carbon...

  19. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sangeeta Lamba, Bryan Wilson, Brenda Natal, Roxanne Nagurka, Michael Anana, Harsh Sule Department of Emergency Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Objective: Our project’s goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1 mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2 conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. Methods: In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1 identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1 and 2 determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three

  20. Calculation of Airborne Radioactivity Hazard from Machining Volume-Activated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.T. Marshall; S.O. Schwahn

    1997-01-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  1. Calculation of airborne radioactivity hazard from machining volume-activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-10-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  2. On the possibility of multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale for neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, V.M.; Lazarova, M.S.; Mihajlov, M.I.; Apostolov, D.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigations related to the multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale in developing neutron-activation methods for determining microelements in biological materials carried out in recent years are presented. Bowen's Kale might be used as: (1) experimental material in the development of a method and its verification, i.e. as a test for biological materials; (2) a material where experimental conditions might be optimized; (3) a material for investigating the accuracy, reproducibility and the limit of proof at experimental conditions already defined; (4) a monitor; (5) a multielement volume reference standard for a number of microelements during their simultaneous determination and (6) a standard for verifying the authenticity of the results obtained. In this manner, a reliable criterion for comparison of the potentialities, the accuracy, reproducibility, the limits of proof and the authenticity of the neutron-activation methods of determining microelements in biological materials is introduced. (author)

  3. To the question of peculiarities of thermal activation of natural siliceous raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of activity enhancement of natural siliceous raw material are given in the article. Fossil meal of Khotynetsky deposit, diatomite of Sharlovsky deposit, silica clay of Balasheika deposit were used as natural active mineral admixtures. The influence of heat-treating temperature and dispersion on activity of different types of siliceous raw material is studied. The increase of activity of fixation of Ca(OH2 in several times is traced after heat-treating at a certain temperature in the range from 100 to 800°C. The type of activity change is discovered. Explanation is given connected with the change of silica structure in the surface layer. Parameters of the highest activity are defined for every type of siliceous raw material.

  4. Mechanical properties of alkali-activated materials based on blast furnace slag and calcium sulphate dihdyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Gijbels, Katrijn; Pontikes, Yiannis; Ion Iacobescu, Remus; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are currently under research for providing opportunities for re-use of industrial residue streams in the construction sector. The valorisation of industrial residues into sustainable building materials has become an important feature for reducing the need of disposal and avoid the scarcity of primary resources. The use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as primary construction material has also been questioned extensively due to its environmental impact, i.e. ...

  5. Next Generation , Lightweight, Durable Boot Materials to Provide Active & Passive Thermal Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA Phase I SBIR program is to leverage lightweight, durable materials developed by NanoSonic for use within extra vehicular activity (EVA)...

  6. Activated graphene as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Meryl D; Murali, Shanthi; Quarles, Neil; Zhu, Yanwu; Potts, Jeffrey R; Zhu, Xianjun; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-03-14

    Chemically activated graphene ('activated microwave expanded graphite oxide', a-MEGO) was used as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors. The performance of a-MEGO was first verified with Li-ion electrolyte in a symmetrical supercapacitor cell. Hybrid supercapacitors were then constructed with a-MEGO as the cathode and with either graphite or Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) for the anode materials. The results show that the activated graphene material works well in a symmetrical cell with the Li-ion electrolyte with specific capacitances as high as 182 F g(-1). In a full a-MEGO/graphite hybrid cell, specific capacitances as high as 266 F g(-1) for the active materials at operating potentials of 4 V yielded gravimetric energy densities for a packaged cell of 53.2 W h kg(-1).

  7. Catalytic activity of bed materials from industrial CFB boilers for the decomposition of N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, V.; Klingstedt, F.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Naydenov, A.; Stefanov, P.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between the catalytic activity towards N 2 O decomposition and fuel type was studied for the bed materials sampled from the bottom bed of two industrial CFB boilers, a 12MW th and a 550MW th , burning biomass fuels and wastes, alone or as a mixture. It was found that the elemental composition of the surface of the bed material particles changed according to the composition of the ash from the parent fuel. The measured catalytic activity of the bed material samples increased with the amount of the catalytically active oxides (CaO, MgO, Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 ). In the case of limestone addition, the activity of the bed material was influenced by both the elemental composition of the fuel, and the ratio between lime and sulfated lime

  8. 77 FR 38395 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks) Under OMB Review AGENCY... correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR A COPY OF THE SUBMISSION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks, 38 CFR...

  9. Research activities on structure materials of spallation neutron source at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    With the growing interests on powerful spallation neutron sources, especially with liquid metal targets, and accelerator driven energy systems, spallation materials science and technology have been received wide attention. At SINQ, material research activities are focused on: a) liquid metal corrosion; b) radiation damage; and c) interaction of corrosion and radiation damage. (author) 1 fig., refs.

  10. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  12. Characterisation, in vitro release study, and antibacterial activity of montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacz-Kmita, A.; Bućko, M.M.; Stodolak-Zych, E.; Mikołajczyk, M.; Dudek, P.; nd Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland))" data-affiliation=" (Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 2nd Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland))" >Trybus, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper concerns the potential use of montmorillonite as a drug carrier and focusses on the intercalation of the studied clay with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic) at various temperatures (20, 50 and 80 °C). The experiments were performed to identify the temperature required for the optimum intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer of montmorillonite. The structural and microstructural properties of gentamicin and the potential for introducing it between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, and SEM with EDS analysis. Additionally, the in vitro drug release behaviour of the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was investigated. Based on these studies, the impact of temperature on the intercalation of the drug between layers of smectite was evaluated. It was found that an intercalation temperature of 50 °C resulted in the highest shift in the position of principle peak d (001) as measured by XRD, suggesting, that the greatest amount of gentamicin had been introduced into the interlayer space of montmorillonite at this temperature. Subsequently, the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli bacteria during an in vitro test. - Highlights: • A novel montmorillonite-gentamicin hybrid materials was prepared as potential drug carrier. • Optimal conditions for the intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of montmorillonite were tested. • The MMT-G complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli during the inhibitory zone test. • Modulating drug delivery was monitored and confirmed in in vitro drug release study.

  13. Characterisation, in vitro release study, and antibacterial activity of montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapacz-Kmita, A., E-mail: kmita@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bućko, M.M.; Stodolak-Zych, E. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mikołajczyk, M. [The University Hospital in Krakow, Division of Microbiology, Kopernika 19, 31-501 Krakow (Poland); Dudek, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Trybus, M. [Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 2" n" d Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    The present paper concerns the potential use of montmorillonite as a drug carrier and focusses on the intercalation of the studied clay with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic) at various temperatures (20, 50 and 80 °C). The experiments were performed to identify the temperature required for the optimum intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer of montmorillonite. The structural and microstructural properties of gentamicin and the potential for introducing it between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, and SEM with EDS analysis. Additionally, the in vitro drug release behaviour of the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was investigated. Based on these studies, the impact of temperature on the intercalation of the drug between layers of smectite was evaluated. It was found that an intercalation temperature of 50 °C resulted in the highest shift in the position of principle peak d{sub (001)} as measured by XRD, suggesting, that the greatest amount of gentamicin had been introduced into the interlayer space of montmorillonite at this temperature. Subsequently, the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli bacteria during an in vitro test. - Highlights: • A novel montmorillonite-gentamicin hybrid materials was prepared as potential drug carrier. • Optimal conditions for the intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of montmorillonite were tested. • The MMT-G complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli during the inhibitory zone test. • Modulating drug delivery was monitored and confirmed in in vitro drug release study.

  14. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrante

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  15. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei. Determination of trace element concentrations in selected plant material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renan, M.J.; Drennan, B.D.; Keddy, R.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analysis by instrumental neutron activation for the concentration of trace elements in plant materials from certain areas in the Transkei region of southern Africa are presented. These areas are selected for their characteristic high or low incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus. To broaden the suite of elements for which analysed and to overcome some of the limitations of neutron activation analysis, certain other nuclear analyses and methods are suggested which, if utilized, would increase the number of elements determined, and so improve the information available. (author)

  16. Rattling nucleons: New developments in active interrogation of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Chichester, David L.; Thompson, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  17. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  18. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  19. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  20. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  1. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  2. Factors affecting microbial activity in compacted clay-based sealing materials proposed for use in a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C.J.; Dixon, D.A.; Kjartanson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial activity in clay-based barriers immediately adjacent to metal used-fuel containers in a repository could affect the longevity of such containers. The current emphasis is, therefore, on reducing or minimizing microbial activity in such clay-based barriers through material composition design. Factors affecting microbial activity in clay-based materials were studied in large-scale and smaller-scale experiments. Results suggested that keeping water activity (a w ) values below ∼0.95 may minimize microbial activity in clay-based barrier materials. A considerably higher effective montmorillonite dry density (EMDD), which partially controls a w , is achievable for 100% bentonite than for previously proposed reference buffer materials, which contain only 50% bentonite. (author)

  3. Percolated microstructures for multi-modal transport enhancement in porous active materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Ian Salmon; Yang, Sungwoo; Wang, Evelyn N.; Kim, Hyunho

    2018-03-13

    A method of forming a composite material for use in multi-modal transport includes providing three-dimensional graphene having hollow channels, enabling a polymer to wick into the hollow channels of the three-dimensional graphene, curing the polymer to form a cured three-dimensional graphene, adding an active material to the cured three-dimensional graphene to form a composite material, and removing the polymer from within the hollow channels. A composite material formed according to the method is also provided.

  4. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  5. Determination of contaminants in rare earth materials by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions - such as the rare earth ions themselves - in bulk material matrices. (author)

  6. Light-induced antibacterial activity of electrospun chitosan-based material containing photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severyukhina, A.N., E-mail: severyuhina_alexandra@mail.ru [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Petrova, N.V.; Yashchenok, A.M. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Bratashov, D.N. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Department of Nano- and Biomedical Technologies, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Smuda, K. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Mamonova, I.A. [Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, 410002 Saratov (Russian Federation); Yurasov, N.A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Puchinyan, D.M. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, 410002 Saratov (Russian Federation); Georgieva, R. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, Biophysics and Radiology, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria); Bäumler, H. [Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Lapanje, A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Josef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gorin, D.A. [Institute of Nanostructures and Biosystems, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Department of Nano- and Biomedical Technologies, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance requires the development of novel materials and approaches for treatment of various infections. Utilization of photodynamic therapy represents an advanced alternative to antibiotics and metal-based agents. Here, we report the fabrication of electrospun material that possesses benefits of both topical antimicrobial and photodynamic therapies. This material combines chitosan, as a biocompatible polymer, and a second generation photosensitizer. The incorporation of photosensitizer doesn't affect the material morphology and its nearly uniform distribution in fibers structure was observed by confocal Raman microscopy. Owing to photosensitizer the prepared material exhibits the light-induced and spatially limited antimicrobial activity that was demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus, an important etiological infectious agent. Such material can be potentially used in antibacterial therapy of chronic wounds, infections of diabetic ulcers, and burns, as well as rapidly spreading and intractable soft-tissue infections caused by resistant bacteria. - Highlights: • Chitosan with a phthalocyanine photosensitizer was electrospun into fibers. • Photosensitizer was uniformly distributed in the electrospun material. • The incorporation of photosensitizer does not affect the fiber morphology. • Chitosan/photosensitizer composites possess light-induced antibacterial activity. • The antibacterial activity of the material is limited to the area of irradiation.

  7. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  8. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops' as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  10. Outstanding visible photocatalytic activity of a new mixed bismuth titanatate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento Cristalografía, Mineralogía y Química Agrícola, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor García González s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sayagués, M.J.; Navío, J.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain); Hidalgo, M.C., E-mail: carmen.hidalgo@csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalyst based on bismuth titanates with high visible activity. • Its visible activity as high as UV activity of TiO{sub 2} P25 for phenol degradation. • Photocatalyst is majority of phase Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} with Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} and amorphous TiO{sub 2}. • High visible activity due to low BG, interconnected phases and high surface area. - Abstract: In this work, a new photocatalyst based on bismuth titanates with outstanding visible photocatalytic activity was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The synthesised material showed visible activity as high as UV activity of commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 under the same experimental conditions for phenol degradation. A wide characterisation of the photocatalyst was performed. The material was composed of three phases; majority of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} closely interconnected to Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} and amorphous TiO{sub 2}. The high visible activity showed by this material could be ascribed to a combination of several features; i.e. low band gap energy value (2.1 eV), a structure allowing a good separation path for visible photogenerated electron-holes pairs and a relatively high surface area. This photocatalyst appeared as a promising material for solar and visible applications of photocatalysis.

  11. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses of selected geochemical reference materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * photon activation analysis * geochemical reference materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  12. Instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses of selected geochemical reference materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * photon activation analysis * geochemical reference materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  13. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  14. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium/thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, F.S.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-09-01

    (ALTC = active lithium/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  15. Radiation Processing of Active Biodegradable Green Nano Composite Materials for Packaging Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Rehim, Hassan A.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Raafat, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Clean and green reduction process of silver ions and graphene (GO) into nanosilver metal and graphene (GR) nanosheets respectively was achieved via gamma irradiation. The efficiency of gamma radiation to reduce silver ions and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Effects of gaseous atmosphere type, dispersion pH value, capping agent type and irradiation dose on GR nano-sheets formation were investigated. The presence of capping agent such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose acetate is proven to be crucial. The obtained GR nanosheets and nanosilver metals are characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Effectiveness, simplicity, reproducibility, and low energy consumption are the merits of using the Gamma radiation technique. Furthermore, the capping agent is eco-friendly and the dispersion is stable for months at room temperature. This approach can open up large-scale production of GR nanosheets and nanosilver metals. The prepared Nano-silver can be mixed with different natural polymer like CA to form Nano-composite films. The excellent physical properties of CA did not affect by addling Ag. The ionizing radiation has un-significant effect on the properties of CA-Ag nano composites films The CA-Ag nano composites posses biological activity towards different microorganisms. On other hand graphene or graphene oxide dispersions might be of interesting for producing biological active packaging films. Go as nanofillers has used for fabrication of a biocomposite with chitosan. The significantly improved in Chitosan /Go nano composites physical properties, including mechanical property, electrical conductivity, and structural stability, was demonstrated. Properties of the CA-Ag and Chitosan /Go nano composites suggest

  16. Radiation Processing of Active Biodegradable Green Nano Composite Materials for Packaging Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdEl-Rehim, Hassan A.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Raafat, Ahmed [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology NCRRT, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt P. O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Clean and green reduction process of silver ions and graphene (GO) into nanosilver metal and graphene (GR) nanosheets respectively was achieved via gamma irradiation. The efficiency of gamma radiation to reduce silver ions and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Effects of gaseous atmosphere type, dispersion pH value, capping agent type and irradiation dose on GR nano-sheets formation were investigated. The presence of capping agent such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose acetate is proven to be crucial. The obtained GR nanosheets and nanosilver metals are characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Effectiveness, simplicity, reproducibility, and low energy consumption are the merits of using the Gamma radiation technique. Furthermore, the capping agent is eco-friendly and the dispersion is stable for months at room temperature. This approach can open up large-scale production of GR nanosheets and nanosilver metals. The prepared Nano-silver can be mixed with different natural polymer like CA to form Nano-composite films. The excellent physical properties of CA did not affect by addling Ag. The ionizing radiation has un-significant effect on the properties of CA-Ag nano composites films The CA-Ag nano composites posses biological activity towards different microorganisms. On other hand graphene or graphene oxide dispersions might be of interesting for producing biological active packaging films. Go as nanofillers has used for fabrication of a biocomposite with chitosan. The significantly improved in Chitosan /Go nano composites physical properties, including mechanical property, electrical conductivity, and structural stability, was demonstrated. Properties of the CA-Ag and Chitosan /Go nano composites suggest

  17. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  18. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity

  19. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, Cordt; Gutbrod, Kai; Wechsler, Peter; Guggenbichler, Josef Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H 2 MoO 4 ), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO 3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO 3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  20. Alkali-activated binders: a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  1. Analyses of the activation of near term fusion reactor compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengar, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the important questions that still have to be solved for the next generation fusion reactors is the choice of the material to be used for the first wall. An important criteria is low activation due to neutron bombardment from the plasma. One of the promising materials is the SiC/SiC composite. Its main elemental constituents, namely the C and Si, have very good activation characteristics. The main contribution to activity arises, however, from trace elements, which are needed in the sintering process and remain in the material afterwards. Before the preparation process of the material, the activation characteristics of individual constituents are needed. The activation properties of the whole sample could than be estimated by summing the weighted properties of individual constituents. The activity of a particular trace element is, however, not necessarily dependent only on the percentage of the element in the sample, but also on the presence of other elements in the compound due to the charge particle production and/or (n, 2n) reactions. The extension of this effect is investigated and to what extent individual calculations, performed for a single element, mimic the real situation. Further the activation characteristic for several possible sintering aid elements is theoretically investigated with the use of the FISPACT inventory code. (author)

  2. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  3. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Garcia, N.; Cabellos, O. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, lnstituto de Fusion Nuclear (Spain); Sauvan, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  4. Four-electron transfer tandem tetracyanoquinodimethane for cathode-active material in lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Naoya; Omoda, Ryo; Mizumo, Tomonobu; Ito, Seitaro; Aihara, Yuichi; Itoh, Takahito

    2018-02-01

    Quinoid compounds are important candidates of organic active materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, its high solubility to organic electrolyte solutions and low redox potential are known as their major drawbacks. To circumvent these issues, we have designed and synthesized a tandem-tetracyanoquinonedimethane type cathode-active material, 11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14-octacyano-1,4,5,8-anthradiquinotetramethane (OCNAQ), that has four redox sites per molecule, high redox potential and suppressed solubility to electrolyte solution. Synthesized OCNAQ has been found to have two-step redox reactions by cyclic voltammetry, and each step consists of two-electron reactions. During charge-discharge tests using selected organic cathode-active materials with a lithium metal anode, the cell voltages obtained from OCNAQ are higher than those for 11,11-dicyanoanthraquinone methide (AQM) as expected, due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the cyano groups. Unfortunately, even with the use of the organic active material, the issue of dissolution to the electrolyte solution cannot be suppressed completely; however, appropriate choice of the electrolyte solutions, glyme-based electrolyte solutions in this study, give considerable improvement of the cycle retention (98% and 56% at 10 and 100 cycles at 0.5C, respectively). The specific capacity and energy density obtained in this study are 206 mAh g-1 and 554 mWh g-1 with respect to the cathode active material.

  5. Waste reduction by re-use of low activated material - 16035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlicher, Ulrich; Pauli, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary institute, equipped with research reactors and accelerator-driven research installations produces and, in the case of PSI, collects radioactive waste on one hand and requires material, especially for shielding purpose, on the other hand. The legislative framework for radiation protection, financial reasons and limited storage capacity strongly force Paul Scherrer Institute and comparable facilities to minimize radioactive waste. Besides free release of inactive components, recycling and re-use of low-level radioactive material in controlled areas are the best means for waste minimization. The re-use of slightly activated steel plates as a shielding material and the recycling of irradiated reactor graphite as a filling material embedded in mortar may give examples and encouragement for similar activities. Besides the advantages for radiation protection, the financial benefit can be measured in millions of dollars. (authors)

  6. Sorption of ionizable and ionic organic compounds to biochar, activated carbon and other carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Xiao, Feng; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-11-01

    The sorption of ionic and ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides) on carbonaceous materials plays an important role in governing the fate, transport and bioavailability of IOCs. The paradigms previously established for the sorption of neutral organic compounds do not always apply to IOCs and the importance of accounting for the particular sorption behavior of IOCs is being increasingly recognized. This review presents the current state of knowledge and summarizes the recent advances on the sorption of IOCs to carbonaceous sorbents. A broad range of sorbents were considered to evaluate the possibility to read across between fields of research that are often considered in isolation (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, biochar, and activated carbon). Mechanisms relevant to IOCs sorption on carbonaceous sorbents are discussed and critically evaluated, with special attention being given to emerging sorption mechanisms including low-barrier, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds and cation-π assisted π-π interactions. The key role played by some environmental factors is also discussed, with a particular focus on pH and ionic strength. Overall the review reveals significant advances in our understanding of the interactions between IOCs and carbonaceous sorbents. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified and priorities for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  8. Chemical signal activation of an organocatalyst enables control over soft material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trausel, Fanny; Maity, Chandan; Poolman, Jos M; Kouwenberg, D S J; Versluis, Frank; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk

    2017-10-12

    Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation. Upon activation of the catalyst, the rate of hydrazone formation increases 10-fold almost instantly. The responsive organocatalyst enables temporal control over the formation of gels featuring hydrazone bonds. The generic design should enable the use of a large range of triggers and organocatalysts, and appears a promising method for the introduction of signal response in materials, constituting a first step towards achieving communication between artificial chemical systems.Enzymes regulated by chemical signals are common in biology, but few such artificial catalysts exist. Here, the authors design an aniline catalyst that, when activated by a chemical trigger, catalyses formation of hydrazone-based gels, demonstrating signal response in a soft material.

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of marine sediment in-house reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Siong, W.B.; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Azian Hashim; Shakirah Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials play an important role in demonstrating the quality and reliability of analytical data. The advantage of using in-house reference materials is that they provide a relatively cheap option as compared to using commercially available certified reference material (CRM) and can closely resemble the laboratory routine test sample. A marine sediment sample was designed as an in-house reference material, in the framework of quality assurance and control (QA/QC) program of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at Nuclear Malaysia. The NAA technique was solely used for the homogeneity test of the marine sediment sample. The CRM of IAEA- Soil 7 and IAEA- SL1 (Lake Sediment) were applied in the analysis as compatible matrix based reference materials for QA purposes. (Author)

  10. The determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.E.D.

    1963-07-01

    Methods have been developed for the determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials. The chemical stages involved give practically complete separation of all extraneous material from the plutonium, which is electrodeposited on to a 0.5 inch stainless steel disc to produce a thin high resolution source. The limit of detection is 0.025 μμc/sample (sixteen-hour count) when the sources are counted in a small scintillator counter, but is lowest when counted in a counter which counts particles of energy 5.05-5.25 MeV only, and which therefore discriminates against small quantities of α-active materials introduced with the reagents in the final electrodeposition stage of the process. (Any such alpha activity may readily be identified by alpha pulse height analysis). (author)

  11. Estimated neutron-activation data for TFTR. Part II. Biological dose rate from sample-materials activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1982-06-01

    The neutron induced material activation dose rate data are summarized for the TFTR operation. This report marks the completion of the second phase of the systematic study of the activation problem on the TFTR. The estimations of the neutron induced activation dose rates were made for spherical and slab objects, based on a point kernel method, for a wide range of materials. The dose rates as a function of cooling time for standard samples are presented for a number of typical neutron spectrum expected during TFTR DD and DT operations. The factors which account for the variations of the pulsing history, the characteristic size of the object and the distance of observation relative to the standard samples are also presented

  12. The effect of a self-constructed material on children’s physical activity during recess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Méndez-Giménez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. METHODS The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13. An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth and flying rings (fifth and sixth, a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. RESULTS Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p < 0.01, light (F = 76.56; p < 0.01, moderate (F = 27.44; p < 0.01, vigorous (F = 61.55; p < 0.01, and moderate and vigorous (F = 68.76; p < 0.01. Significant gender differences were shown (time × group × gender for moderate (F = 6.58; p < 0.05 and vigorous (F = 5.51; p < 0.05 activity. CONCLUSIONS The self-constructed material is effective to increase the physical activity levels of children during recess; it decreases sedentary activity and light physical activity and increases the time devoted to moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity, both in boys and in girls. The boys had an increase in vigorous physical activity and the girls in moderate physical activity. Due to its low cost, this strategy is recommended for administrators and teachers to increase the physical activity of children during recess.

  13. Accessibility evaluation of the IFMIF liquid lithium loop considering activated erosion/corrosion materials deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Takemura, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Fischer, U.; Ida, M.; Mori, S.; Nishitani, T.; Simakov, S.; Sugimoto, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of accessibility of the Li loop piping considering activated corrosion product. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a deuteron-lithium (Li) stripping reaction neutron source for fusion materials testing. Target assembly and back wall are designed as fully remote maintenance component. Accessibility around the Li loop piping will depend on activation level of the deposition materials due to the back wall erosion/corrosion process under liquid Li flow. Activation level of the corrosion products coming from the AISI 316LN back wall is calculated by the ACT-4 of the THIDA-2 code system. The total activities after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year cooling are 3.1 x 10 14 , 2.8 x 10 14 , 2.3 x 10 14 and 7.5 x 10 13 Bq/kg, respectively. Radiation dose rate around the Li loop pipe is calculated by QAD-CGGP2R code. Activated area of the back wall is 100 cm 2 . Corrosion rate is assumed 1 μm/year. When 10% of the corrosion material is supposed to be deposited on the inner surface of the pipe, the dose rate is calculated to be less than a permissible level of 10 μSv/h for hands-on maintenance, therefore, the maintenance work is assessed to be possible

  14. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  15. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  16. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  17. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  18. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  19. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  20. Material activation assessment for waste analysis of the EU design of RC/RTO ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambi, G.; Cepraga, D.G.; Frisoni, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Sn radiation transport and activation calculations related to the ITER RC/RTO EU-I design, performed in support of safety and waste management analyses. The activation characteristics (included the clearance levels) have been estimated for the different materials/zones of the equatorial plane up to 10 5 years after plasma operations. The Bonami-XSDNRPM sequence of the Scale 4.4 code system (using Vitamin-ENEA library, based on ENDF/B-VI data) has been used for radiation transport analyses. The ANITA-4M activation code (with FENDL/A-2 and FENDL/D-2 activation and decay data libraries) is used for the activation calculation. The unconditional clearance level data library is based on IAEA-TECDOC-855. First, a sensitivity analysis to optimise the radial spatial meshing for the neutron flux distribution evaluation and, accordingly, for the activation calculation, has been performed. Then, the clearance indexes of vessel and ex-vessel zones/materials have been calculated. The results are presented and discussed. A design option that considers copper instead of superconductor material for TFC winding pack has also been considered and assessed

  1. Aluminium-gold reference material for the k0-standardisation of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Peetermans, F.; Corte, F. de; Wispelaere, A. de; Vandecasteele, C.; Courtijn, E.; Hondt, P. d'

    1991-01-01

    Gold is an excellent comparator material for the k 0 -standardisation of neutron activation analysis because of its convenient and well defined nuclear properties. The most suitable form for a reference material is a dilute aluminium-gold alloy, for which the self-shielding effect for neutrons is small. Castings of composition Al-0.1 wt.% Au were prepared by crucible-less levitation melting, which gives close control of ingot composition with minimal contamination of the melt. The alloy composition was checked using induction-coupled plasma source emission spectrometry. The homogeneity of the alloy was measured by neutron activation analysis and a relative standard deviation of the gold content of 0.30% was found (10 mg samples). Metallography revealed a homogeneous distribution of AuAl 2 particles. The alloy was certified as Reference Materials CBNM-530, with certified gold mass fraction 0.100±0.002 wt.%. (orig.)

  2. Low-activation structural ceramic composites for fusion power reactors: materials development and main design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.S.; Le Bars, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced Low-Activation Materials (LAMs) with favourable short-term activation characteristics is discussed, for the use as structural materials in a fusion power reactor (in order to reduce the risk associated with a major accident, in particular those related with radio-isotopes release in the environment), and to try to approach the concept of an inherently safe reactor. LA Ceramics Composites (LACCs) are the most promising LAMs because of their relatively good thermo-mechanical properties. At present, SiC/SiC composite is the only LACC considered by the fusion community, and therefore is the one having the most complete data base. The preliminary design of a breeding blanket using SiC/SiC as structural material indicated that significant improvement of its thermal conductivity is required. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Activation of TZM and stainless steel divertor materials in the NET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.G.; Menapace, E.; Cambi, G.; Ciattaglia, S.; Petrizzi, L.; Cavallone, G.; Costa, M.; Broccoli, U.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the activation and decay heat calculations for the divertor plate materials of the Next European Torus (NET). The basic option assessed enables molybdenum alloy TZM and AISI 316L as material for divertor cooling channels. Burn time, effective irradiation time history, and fluence dependence on activation, decay heat, and contact dose is assessed. Impact of the material impurity level on the radioactive inventory is also investigated. The ANITA code is used, with updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EFF-2 and EAF-3 evaluation files. The flux-weighted spectrum provided by XSDRNPM or ANISN 1-D codes has been used. The real NET geometry was modelled with the 3-D MCNP Monte Carlo neutron transport code. ((orig.))

  4. Activation of TZM and stainless steel divertor materials in the NET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepraga, D G [ENEA, INN-FIS, 8 Viale Ercolani, 40138, Bologna (Italy); Menapace, E [ENEA, INN-FIS, 8 Viale Ercolani, 40138, Bologna (Italy); Cambi, G [Bologna University, Physics Department, 33 Via Irnerio, 40126, Bologna (Italy); Ciattaglia, S [ENEA, NUC-FUS, 27 Via E. Fermi, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Petrizzi, L [ENEA, NUC-FUS, 27 Via E. Fermi, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Cavallone, G [NIER S.r.l., 16 Via S. Stefano, 40125, Bologna (Italy); Costa, M [NIER S.r.l., 16 Via S. Stefano, 40125, Bologna (Italy); Broccoli, U [ENEA, NUC-RIN, 4 Via Martiri del Sole, 40100, Bologna (Italy)

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the activation and decay heat calculations for the divertor plate materials of the Next European Torus (NET). The basic option assessed enables molybdenum alloy TZM and AISI 316L as material for divertor cooling channels. Burn time, effective irradiation time history, and fluence dependence on activation, decay heat, and contact dose is assessed. Impact of the material impurity level on the radioactive inventory is also investigated. The ANITA code is used, with updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EFF-2 and EAF-3 evaluation files. The flux-weighted spectrum provided by XSDRNPM or ANISN 1-D codes has been used. The real NET geometry was modelled with the 3-D MCNP Monte Carlo neutron transport code. ((orig.))

  5. Redox‐Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox‐Active Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on redox‐flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of “green”, safe, and cost‐efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal‐based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow‐battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox‐active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. PMID:28070964

  6. Reduced-activation materials for fusion reactors: An overview of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Packan, N.H.; Gelles, D.S.; Okada, M.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the most serious safety and environmental concerns for future fusion reactors involve induced radioactivity in the first wall and blanket structures. One problem caused by the induced radioactivity in a reactor constructed from the conventional austenitic and ferritic steels presently being considered as structural materials would be the disposal of the highly radioactive structures after their service lifetimes. To simplify the waste-disposal process, ''low-activation'' or ''reduced-activation'' alloys are being developed. The objective for such materials is that they qualify for shallow land burial, as opposed to the much more expensive deep geologic disposal. This paper reviews these classes of materials for this purpose: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic steels, and vanadium alloys

  7. Active Learning and Just-in-Time Teaching in a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…

  8. Potential interferences inherent in neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornells, R.; Hoste, J.; Versieck, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of how neutron-activation analysis for trace elements in biological matrices can be jeopardized by radiation damage, by the impurities present in the packing material or by nuclear interferences of major elements. Systematic errors during the counting process and the quantitative interpretation of the γ-ray spectra should not be disregarded. (author)

  9. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1966-09-15

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  10. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-09-01

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min

  11. Tritium release from lithium titanate, a low-activation tritium breeding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Miller, J.M.; Johnson, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The goals for fusion power are to produce energy in as safe, economical, and environmentally benign a manner as possible. To ensure environmentally sound operation low-activation materials should be used where feasible. The ARIES Tokamak Reactor Study has based reactor designs on the concept of using low-activation materials throughout the fusion reactor. For the tritium breeding blanket, the choices for low activation tritium breeding materials are limited. Lithium titanate is an alternative low-activation ceramic material for use in the tritium breeding blanket. To date, very little work has been done on characterizing the tritium release for lithium titanate. We have thus performed laboratory studies of tritium release from irradiated lithium titanate. The results indicate that tritium is easily removed from lithium titanate at temperatures as low as 600 K. The method of titanate preparation was found to affect the tritium release, and the addition of 0.1% H 2 to the helium purge gas did not improve tritium recovery. ((orig.))

  12. A conceptual framework for outsourcing of materials handling activities in automotive : differentiation and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingenberg, W.; Boksma, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of materials handling activities and investigates different options for its implementation. The article uses descriptive case studies found in literature from the Western European automotive industry to map out differences in current practice and to evaluate

  13. Critical outlook and trends for environmental reference materials at the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, P; Bennink, D; Bøwadt, S

    2001-05-01

    It is now well recognised that the quality control (QC) of all types of analyses, including environmental analyses depends on the appropriate use of reference materials. One of the ways to check the accuracy of methods is based on the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), whereas other types of (not certified) Reference Materials (RMs) are used for routine quality control (establishment of control charts) and interlaboratory testing (e.g. proficiency testing). The perception of these materials, in particular with respect to their production and use, differs widely according to various perspectives (e.g. RM producers, routine laboratories, researchers). This review discusses some critical aspects of RM use and production for the QC of environmental analyses and describes the new approach followed by the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission) to tackle new research and production needs.

  14. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  15. Porous alkali activated materials with slow alkali release dynamic. Role of composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2018-01-01

    Alkali activated materials (AAM) based on calcined metakaolin or illite clay together with waste by-products, such as waste glass or aluminium scrap recycling waste, were tested as value-added materials for pH stabilization in biogas technology where decrease of pH should be avoided. Porous materials with ability to slowly leach alkalis in the water media thus providing continuous control of the pH level were obtained. XRD, FTIR, SEM and titration methods were used to characterize AAM and their leaching properties. It is clear that composition of the material has an important effect on the diffusion of alkali from structure. Namely, higher Si/Al and Na/Al molar ratios may increase pore solution transfer to the leachate. The leaching rate of alkalis from the structure of AAM is high for the first few days, decreasing over time. It was possible to calculate the buffer capacity from the mixture design of AAM. [es

  16. Source Correlated Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis for Material Identification and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Bonnie; McConchie, Seth; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy spectrum of photon signatures from an associated particle imaging deuterium tritium (API-DT) neutron generator interrogating shielded uranium. The goal is to investigate if signatures within the energy spectrum could be used to indirectly characterize shielded uranium when the neutron signature is attenuated. By utilizing the correlated neutron cone associated with each pixel of the API-DT neutron generator, certain materials can be identified and located via source correlated spectrometry of prompt neutron activation gamma rays. An investigation is done to determine if fission neutrons induce a significant enough signature within the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray energy spectrum in shielding material to be useful for indirect nuclear material characterization. The signature deriving from the induced fission neutrons interacting with the shielding material was slightly elevated in polyethylene-shielding depleted uranium (DU), but was more evident in some characteristic peaks from the aluminum shielding surrounding DU.

  17. Results of an international comparison for the determination of radionuclide activity in bilberry material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Emteborg, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity found in wild food products has assumed greater importance when assessing the total exposure of the population. For this reason, IRMM has been developing a reference material for the activity concentration of three radionuclides in bilberry samples. In order to characterise this new material, a CCRI(II) supplementary comparison was organised. The difficulties encountered in this comparison are discussed, in particular the efficiency calibration for volume sources of gamma-ray emitters, and comparison reference values for 137 Cs and 40 K are calculated. - Highlights: ► CCRI(II) supplementary comparison for Cs-137 and K-40 in bilberry matrix completed. ► Fundamentally different methods used to establish link to SI traceable standards and SIR. ► Variation of results higher than in CCRI(II) key comparisons. ► Comparison reference values will be robust property values of IRMM reference material. ► Certified reference material for radioactivity in food developed.

  18. Revision of the inventory and recycling scenario of active material in near-term PPCS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampin, R.; Massaut, V.; Taylor, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound approach to the recycling of fusion irradiated material is being developed. Study of industry experience, and consideration of realistic processing routes and techniques, provide a more sensible estimation of recycling feasibility than earlier studies based on purely radiological criteria. Under this approach, the analysis of active material in two models of the power plant conceptual study (PPCS) has been revised in more detail and accounting for the latest design features, nuclear data and international guidelines. A careful inventory of the materials has been performed, and estimation made of the radiological characteristics of all PPCS tokamak components, for the first time studying individual constituents and materials. Evaluation has been made of time scales for the radioactivity to decay to predetermined levels, which represent the spectrum of technological difficulties posed by the nature of the irradiated material. Three main mechanisms for the optimization of the materials management strategy have been identified during the assessments: segregation of components into individual materials, in situ refurbishment and stringent impurity control

  19. Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, Part I: Specific activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, M; Khater, H; Mayer, S; Prinz, A; Roesler, S; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H

    2005-01-01

    Samples of materials which will be used in the LHC machine for shielding and construction components were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. After irradiation, the specific activities induced in the various samples were analysed with a high-precision gamma spectrometer at various cooling times, allowing identification of isotopes with a wide range of half-lives. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated in detail with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comparison of measured and calculated specific activities shows good agreement, supporting the use of FLUKA for estimating the level of induced activity in the LHC.

  20. Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, part I: Specific activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, M.; Khater, H.; Mayer, S.; Prinz, A.; Roesler, S.; Ulrici, L.; Vincke, H.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of materials which will be used in the LHC machine for shielding and construction components were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. After irradiation, the specific activities induced in the various samples were analysed with a high-precision gamma spectrometer at various cooling times, allowing identification of isotopes with a wide range of half-lives. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated in detail with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comparison of measured and calculated specific activities shows good agreement, supporting the use of FLUKA for estimating the level of induced activity in the LHC. (authors)

  1. Building up an electrocatalytic activity scale of cathode materials for organic halide reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomunno, C.; Bonanomi, D.; Falciola, L.; Longhi, M.; Mussini, P.R.; Doubova, L.M.; Di Silvestro, G.

    2005-01-01

    A wide investigation on the electrochemical activity of four model organic bromides has been carried out in acetonitrile on nine cathodes of widely different affinity for halide anions (Pt, Zn, Hg, Sn, Bi, Pb, Au, Cu, Ag), and the electrocatalytic activities of the latter have been evaluated with respect to three possible inert reference cathode materials, i.e. glassy carbon, boron-doped diamond, and fluorinated boron-doped diamond. A general electrocatalytic activity scale for the process is proposed, with a discussion on its modulation by the configuration of the reacting molecule, and its connection with thermodynamic parameters accounting for halide adsorption

  2. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of a self-constructed material on children's physical activity during recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2017-06-26

    To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13). An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth) and flying rings (fifth and sixth), a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p estrategia a gestores y profesores para incrementar la actividad física de los niños durante el recreo.

  4. Preparation and Properties of Paraffin/TiO2/Active-carbon Composite Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Yong-gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite phase change materials (PCMs of paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon was prepared by a microemulsion method, where paraffin acted as a PCM and titanium dioxide (TiO2 as matrix material, and a small amount of active carbon was added to improve the thermal conductivity. The compositions, morphology and thermal properties of the paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon composite PCMs were characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA and DSC respectively. The shape stability during phase change process of this composite was also tested. The results show that paraffin is well encapsulated by TiO2 matrix, and thus exhibiting excellent shape-stabilized phase change feature. Besides, this composite PCM also presents superhydrophobic property. Therefore, these multifunctional features will endow PCMs with important application potential in energy efficient buildings.

  5. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Smets

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  6. A computational framework for the optimal design of morphing processes in locally activated smart material structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuang; Brigham, John C

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-concept study is presented for a strategy to obtain maximally efficient and accurate morphing structures composed of active materials such as shape memory polymers (SMP) through synchronization of adaptable and localized activation and actuation. The work focuses on structures or structural components entirely composed of thermo-responsive SMP, and particularly utilizes the ability of such materials to display controllable variable stiffness. The study presents and employs a computational inverse mechanics approach that combines a computational representation of the SMP thermo-mechanical behavior with a nonlinear optimization algorithm to determine location, magnitude and sequencing of the activation and actuation to obtain a desired shape change subject to design objectives such as prevention of damage. Two numerical examples are presented in which the synchronization of the activation and actuation and the location of activation excitation were optimized with respect to the combined thermal and mechanical energy for design concepts in morphing skeletal structural components. In all cases the concept of localized activation along with the optimal design strategy were able to produce far more energy efficient morphing structures and more accurately reach the desired shape change in comparison to traditional methods that require complete structural activation prior to actuation. (paper)

  7. Reduced activation structural materials for fusion power plants - The European Union program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der; Le Marois, G.; Moeslang, A.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The competition of fusion power plants with the renewable energy sources in the second half of the 21st century requires structural materials operating at high temperatures, and sufficient radiation resistance to ensure high plant efficiency and availability. The reduced activation materials development in the EU counts several steps regarding the radiation damage resistance: 75 dpa for DEMO and 150 dpa and beyond for power plants. The maximum operating temperature development line ranges from the present day from the present day feasible 600 K up to 1300- K in advanced power plants. The reduced activation steel, RAS, forms the reference for the development efforts. EUROFER has been manufactured in the EU on industrial scale with specified purity and mechanical properties up to 825 K. The oxide dispersion strengthened , ODS, variety of RAS should reach the 925 K operation limit. The EU has selected silicon carbide ceramic composite as the primary high temperature, 1300 K, goal. On a small scale the potential of tungsten alloys for higher temperatures is investigated. The present test environments for radiation resistance are insufficient to provide data for DEMO. Hence the support of the EU for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation facility. The computational modelling is expected to guide the materials development and the design of near plasma components. The EU co-operates closely with Japan, the RF and US in IEA and IAEA co-ordinated agreements, which are highly beneficial for the fusion structural materials development. (author)

  8. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  9. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  10. Certification of biological reference materials: participation of the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Analytical laboratories have as one of their important goals to demonstrate their competence allowing international acceptance and comparison of analytical data. The IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has implemented its Quality Assurance Program which comprises, among other activities, the participation in intercomparison runs. As a part of this Quality Assurance Program, LAN-IPEN has participated in interlaboratorial trials to analyze two biological candidate reference materials: INCT-CF-3 Corn Flour and INCT-SBF-4 Soya Bean Flour from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry And Technology (Warszawa, Poland). The elements Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn were analyzed in the candidate reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The performance of the laboratory was statistically evaluated in relation to the consensus values for these materials using the Z-Score test. This laboratory evaluation method has been accepted as a standard by ISO/IUPAC. In the present study, adequate Z-Score values (|Z|<2) were observed for all of the analyzed elements, confirming the accuracy of the nuclear methodology employed. The contribution of LAN-IPEN in the certification of the reference materials analyzed was very important, since the results provided were used in the statistical evaluation of the certified value. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Kishore; Alla, Rama Krishna; Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Gupta, Lokendra; Upadhya Perampalli, Nagaraja

    2016-06-01

    Conventional spray and the immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials may lead to dimensional changes. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity and properties of 2 commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials were evaluated after incorporating varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the disk diffusion method. The gel strength, permanent deformation, flow, and gelation time were measured according to American Dental Association specification #18. Analysis of variance was used to identify the significant differences within and across the groups (α=.05). Adding silver nanoparticles to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials resulted in superior antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting their properties. Adding silver nanoparticles to Zelgan significantly increased the gel strength compared with the control group, except at 5 wt%. However, the gel strength of Tropicalgin was unaffected except at 5 wt%. An increase in the permanent deformation was found with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in both Zelgan and Tropicalgin. The flow of Zelgan increased with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles, whereas a decrease in the flow of Tropicalgin was observed at 1 wt% and 2 wt%. An increase in the gelation time of both Zelgan and Tropicalgin was observed with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Based on this in vitro study, silver nanoparticles can be incorporated into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials as antimicrobial agents without adversely affecting their properties. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation time and material stiffness of sequential removable orthodontic appliances. Part 2: Dental improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Karen Michelle; Bollen, Anne-Marie; Huang, Greg; King, Greg; Hujoel, Philippe; Ma, Tsun

    2003-11-01

    Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study to explore the treatment effects of material stiffness and frequency of appliance change when using clear, sequential, removable appliances (aligners). Patients were stratified based on pretreatment peer assessment rating (PAR) scores and need for extractions. They were randomized into 4 treatment protocols: 1-week activation with soft material, 1-week activation with hard material, 2-week activation with soft material, and 2-week activation with hard material. Patients continued with their protocols until either the series of aligners was completed, or until it was determined that the aligner was not fitting well (study end point). Weighted PAR score and average incisor irregularity (AII) indexes were used to measure pretreatment and end-point study models, and average improvement was compared among the 4 groups. In addition to the evaluation of the 4 treatment groups, comparisons were made of the individual components of the PAR score to determine which occlusal components experienced the most correction with the aligners. The percentages and absolute extraction space closures were evaluated, and papillary bleeding scores before and during treatment were compared. Although no statistical difference was observed between the 4 treatment groups, a trend was noted with the 2-week frequency having a larger percentage of reduction in weighted PAR and AII scores, and greater extraction space closure. Anterior alignment was the most improved component, and buccal occlusion was the least improved. When analyzed by type of extraction, incisor extraction sites had a significantly greater percentage of closure than either maxillary or mandibular premolar extraction sites. A statistically significant decrease in mean average papillary bleeding score was found during treatment when compared with pretreatment scores, although this difference was not clinically significant.

  13. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  14. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  15. Research about the pozzolanic activity of waste materials from calcined clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To recycle and reutilise waste materials and find definite applications for their use, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of them. The aim of this study is to study the possibility of using waste materials from calcined clay, actually ceramic tile, once crushed and grounded, as pozzolanic material. For this purpose, different tests are carried out in order to establish the pozzolanic activity of this material. At the same time, these results are compared to those of other industrial by-products, fly ash and silica fume, which are pozzolanic materials usually employed to elaborate mortars and concretes.

    Para llevar a cabo labores encaminadas al reciclado y revalorización de residuos es necesario un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la posibilidad de utilizar materiales de desecho procedentes de arcilla cocida, concretamente teja cerámica, una vez triturada y molida, como puzolana. Para ello, se efectúan diferentes ensayos dirigidos a establecer la actividad puzolanica del material. A su vez, estos resultados son comparados con otros residuos industriales, ceniza volante y humo de sílice, habituales en la elaboración de morteros y hormigones.

  16. Purely Organic Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Y; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2017-06-01

    The design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials both as emitters and as hosts is an exploding area of research. The replacement of phosphorescent metal complexes with inexpensive organic compounds in electroluminescent (EL) devices that demonstrate comparable performance metrics is paradigm shifting, as these new materials offer the possibility of developing low-cost lighting and displays. Here, a comprehensive review of TADF materials is presented, with a focus on linking their optoelectronic behavior with the performance of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and related EL devices. TADF emitters are cross-compared within specific color ranges, with a focus on blue, green-yellow, orange-red, and white OLEDs. Organic small-molecule, dendrimer, polymer, and exciplex emitters are all discussed within this review, as is their use as host materials. Correlations are provided between the structure of the TADF materials and their optoelectronic properties. The success of TADF materials has ushered in the next generation of OLEDs. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  18. Use of polyamfolit complexes of ethyl-amino-crotonate/acrylic acid with surface-active materials for radionuclide extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Artem'ev, O.I.; Protskij, A.V.; Bimendina, L.A.; Yashkarova, M.G.; Orazzhanova, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    Pentifylline of betaine structure was synthesised on the basis of 3-aminocrotonate and acrylic acid. Polyamfolit composition and its complexes with anionic surface-active material (lauryl sulfate of sodium) were determined. It is revealed that complex formation occurs with [polyamfolit]:[surface active material]=1:1 ratio and is accompanied by significant reduce of system characteristics viscosity. The paper presents results of [polyamfolit]:[surface active material] complex apply experimental investigation for radionuclide directed migration in soil. (author)

  19. Recent Developments in C-H Activation for Materials Science in the Center for Selective C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Kang, Lauren J; Parker, Timothy C; Blakey, Simon B; Luscombe, Christine K; Marder, Seth R

    2018-04-16

    Abstract : Organic electronics is a rapidly growing field driven in large part by the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers. Traditional aryl cross-coupling reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki have been used extensively in the synthesis of ∏-conjugated molecules and polymers, but the synthesis of intermediates necessary for traditional cross-couplings can include multiple steps with toxic and hazardous reagents. Direct arylation through C-H bond activation has the potential to reduce the number of steps and hazards while being more atom-economical. Within the Center for Selective C-H Functionalization (CCHF), we have been developing C-H activation methodology for the synthesis of ∏-conjugated materials of interest, including direct arylation of difficult-to-functionalize electron acceptor intermediates and living polymerization of ∏-conjugated polymers through C-H activation.

  20. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  1. Observations of the distribution and the nature of alpha-active particulate material in a HEPA filter used for plutonium-containing dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; McDowell, W.J.

    1977-02-01

    Autoradiography has been used to determine the distribution and the nature of plutonium particulate material on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter used to filter 239 Pu-containing dust. Higher concentrations of alpha-active material on upstream and downstream folds of the filter indicate uneven airflow through the filter. Observations of aggregate recoil particles on the downstream face of the filter suggest that aggregate recoil transfer, a mechanism which may reduce long-term HEPA filter efficiency, may be occurring. Amounts of alpha activity found on downstream filters confirm this supposition

  2. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. ► Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. ► Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  3. Novel Flexible Wearable Sensor Materials and Signal Processing for Vital Sign and Human Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servati, Amir; Zou, Liang; Wang, Z Jane; Ko, Frank; Servati, Peyman

    2017-07-13

    Advances in flexible electronic materials and smart textile, along with broad availability of smart phones, cloud and wireless systems have empowered the wearable technologies for significant impact on future of digital and personalized healthcare as well as consumer electronics. However, challenges related to lack of accuracy, reliability, high power consumption, rigid or bulky form factor and difficulty in interpretation of data have limited their wide-scale application in these potential areas. As an important solution to these challenges, we present latest advances in novel flexible electronic materials and sensors that enable comfortable and conformable body interaction and potential for invisible integration within daily apparel. Advances in novel flexible materials and sensors are described for wearable monitoring of human vital signs including, body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate, muscle movements and activity. We then present advances in signal processing focusing on motion and noise artifact removal, data mining and aspects of sensor fusion relevant to future clinical applications of wearable technology.

  4. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuwata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C. New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69–0.72 and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38–0.48. Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the difference in the behavior of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to that of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e., insoluble regime whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e., highly soluble regime for typical atmospheric cloud life cycles.

  5. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially

  6. The monostandard method in thermal neutron activation analysis of geological, biological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Djingova, R.G.; Kroener, B.; Sansoni, B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method is described for instrumental multielement thermal neutron activation analysis using a monostandard. For geological and air dust samples, iron is used as a comparator, while sodium has advantages for biological materials. To test the capabilities of this method, the values of the effective cross sections of the 23 elements determined were evaluated in a reactor site with an almost pure thermal neutron flux of about 9x10 12 nxcm -2 xs -1 and an epithermal neutron contribution of less than 0.03%. The values obtained were found to agree mostly well with the best literature values of thermal neutron cross sections. The results of an analysis by activation in the same site agree well with the relative method using multielement standards and for several standard reference materials with certified element contents. A comparison of the element contents obtained by the monostandard and relative methods together with corresponding precisions and accuracies is given. (orig.) [de

  7. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P.; Coodk, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic-flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects, (DOT/NRC, 1997). These logic-flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the U.S. regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic-flow diagrams adapted in the IAEA regulations, and demonstrated how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements. (authors)

  8. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  9. Estimated long lived isotope activities in ET-RR-1 reactor structural materials for decommissioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoub, N.; Saleh, H.

    1995-01-01

    The first Egyptian research reactor, ET-RR-1 is tank type with light water as a moderator, coolant and reflector. Its nominal power is 2MWt and the average thermal neutron flux is 10 13 n/cm 2 sec -1 . Its criticality was on the fall of 1961. The reactor went through several modifications and updating and is still utilized for experimental research. A plan for decommissioning of ET-RR-1 reactor should include estimation of radioactivity in structural materials. The inventory will help in assessing the radiological consequences of decommissioning. This paper presents a conservative calculation to estimate the activity of the long lived isotopes which can be produced by neutron activation. The materials which are presented in significant quantities in the reactor structural materials are aluminum, cast iron, graphite, ordinary and iron shot concrete. The radioactivity of each component is dependent not only upon the major elements, but also on the concentration of the trace elements. The main radioactive inventory are expected to be from 60 Co and 55 Fe which are presented in aluminium as trace elements and in large quantities in other construction materials. (author)

  10. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2008-02-15

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 {+-} 2.5 to 590.6 {+-} 16.8 Bq kg{sup -1}. The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  11. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 ± 2.5 to 590.6 ± 16.8 Bq kg -1 . The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health

  12. Ultratrace determination of platinum in biological materials via neutron activation and radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis scheme based upon a radiochemical separation of the activation products has been developed. The method utilizes the inherent sensitivity of the activation reaction 198 Pt(n,ν) 199 Pt and counting of the daughter nuclide 199 Au. This nuclide is radiochemically separated from interfering activities by homogeneous precipitation as elemental gold. The remaining interference of the secondary reaction 197 Au(n,ν) 198 Au(n,ν) 199 Au from gold in the samples is quantitatively assessed and corrected. During this process accurate gold concentrations in the samples are obtained at ultratrace levels. The analysis scheme is applied to gold and platinum determinations in biological Standard Reference Materials and human liver specimens. Gold and platinum are determined at concentrations of 5x10 - 11 g/g, and at higher levels. (author)

  13. Determination of cadmium in environmental materials by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esprit, M.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hoste, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium is determined by activation analysis with fast neutrons, obtained by irradiation of a thick beryllium target with 14.5-MeV deuterons. Cadmium-111m is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform and measured with a Ge(Li) γ-spectrometer. For low concentrations, cadmium is precipitated as cadmium ammonium phosphate after the extraction. NBS and BCR reference materials were analyzed: for concentrations between 3 and 500 μg g -1 , the relative standard deviation ranges from 5 to 3%. The results obtained for sewage sludge are compared with those obtained by reactor neutron activation analysis. (Auth.)

  14. The problem of large samples. An activation analysis study of electronic waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, C.; Goerner, W.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Large-volume instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) was used for the investigation of shredded electronic waste material. Sample masses from 1 to 150 grams were analyzed to obtain an estimate of the minimum sample size to be taken to achieve a representativeness of the results which is satisfactory for a defined investigation task. Furthermore, the influence of irradiation and measurement parameters upon the quality of the analytical results were studied. Finally, the analytical data obtained from IPAA and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), both carried out in a large-volume mode, were compared. Only parts of the values were found in satisfactory agreement. (author)

  15. Neutron activation determination of oxygen in ceramic materials on the basis of yttrium, barium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldshtein, M.M.; Yudelevich, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure of determining oxygen in superconducting materials on the basis of yttrium, barium and copper oxides with the application of 14 MeV-neutron activation was developed. The method is based on determining the relation between oxygen and yttrium in the compounds investigated. In order to minimize systematic errors, expressions accounting for spectrometer dead time under conditions of varying component activity are proposed. The procedure ensures determination of the relation between oxygen and yttrium with a relative error of 0.4% with NAA using a neutron generator. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig

  16. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A O; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-03-05

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials.

  17. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de; Lepretre, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  18. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria). Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur. Dept. du Tronc Commun; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lepretre, Jean-Claude [UMR-5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France). Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et Interfaces; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1 (France). Dept. de Chimie Moleculaire], e-mail: Jean-Claude.Moutet@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2009-07-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  19. Neutron induced activation in the EVEDA accelerator materials: Implications for the accelerator maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Garcia, M.; Sauvan, P.; Lopez, D.; Moreno, C.; Ibarra, A.; Sedano, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility project should result in an accelerator prototype for which the analysis of the dose rates evolution during the beam-off phase is a necessary task for radioprotection and maintenance feasibility purposes. Important aspects of the computational methodology to address this problem are discussed, and dose rates for workers inside the accelerator vault are assessed and found to be not negligible.

  20. Initial testing of a neutron activation analysis system by analysing standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Hamzah; Roslan Idris; Abdul Khalik Haji Wood; Che Seman Mahmood; Abdul Rahim Mohamad Noor.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and processing system in our laboratories (ND6600), the methods of activation analysis and the results obtained from our analysis of IAEA standard reference material (SL-l lake sediments and NBS coal ash 1632a). These standards were analysed in order to check the capability of the system, which was designed in such a way as to enable the user to independently collect and process data from multiple radiation detectors. (author)

  1. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  3. Determination of noble metals in geological materials by radiochemical neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ahmad, S.; Morris, D.F.C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of platinum, palladium, gold and iridium in geological materials following activation with thermal neutrons is described. Radionuclides formed from the elements are separated by a scheme based largely on liquid-liquid extractions. The procedure has been applied to the analysis of US Geological Survey standard rocks and to studies of the distribution of the noble metals in lateritic nickel ores. (author)

  4. Neutron induced activation in the EVEDA accelerator materials: Implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jsanz@ind.uned.es; Garcia, M.; Sauvan, P.; Lopez, D. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Ibarra, A.; Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility project should result in an accelerator prototype for which the analysis of the dose rates evolution during the beam-off phase is a necessary task for radioprotection and maintenance feasibility purposes. Important aspects of the computational methodology to address this problem are discussed, and dose rates for workers inside the accelerator vault are assessed and found to be not negligible.

  5. Purely organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Michael Y.; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2017-01-01

    We thank the University of St Andrews for support. EZ-C thanks the Leverhulme Trust for financial support (RPG-2016-047). and the EPSRC (EP/P010482/1) for financial support. The design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials both as emitters and as hosts is an exploding area of research. The replacement of phosphorescent metal complexes with inexpensive organic compounds in electroluminescent (EL) devices that demonstrate comparable performance metrics is paradigm shif...

  6. Programmatic material on perfection of competition activity of highly skilled basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushko Ruslana Aleksandrovna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The special facilities are considered for creation of the programs of correction of training process and perfection of competitiveness activity. Basic estimations and structure of correction of technical tactical actions are resulted. It is set that programmatic material must take into account playing specialization of basketball-player, model indexes. It is also necessary to take into account optimization and modification of existent technologies of estimation of technical tactical actions.

  7. Capability Study For Using the Impulse Graphite Reactor For Activation Analysis of Geological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.A.; Silaev, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    The IGR reactor facility available in the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK is mainly used for testing the going and newly developed fuel compositions and reactor materials. In connection with a decrease of the demand in investigations like that there was considered the capability to use the reactor for solving another research and, particularly, applied problems. A mineral exploration is one of the urgent objectives in the Republic of Kazakstan, and in Semipalatinsk region in particular. To perform the exploration like that it's required, in addition to rough field investigations, the methods of analysis for element composition of geological materials, the difference of which is in their effectiveness, quality and low first cost. Activation methods of analysis allow to provide with a high analysis quality and effectiveness. Therefore, there was proposed to study the capability to use the IGR reactor for the activation analysis of geological materials. To solve this goal the following activity in three basic trends is required: 1. To create the needed theoretical and, on its basis, the methodical base for performing the analytical activity; 2. To create the experimental and technical and organizational infrastructure for the investigations, providing with a high productivity and low prime cost of work; 3. To conduct works on marketing and to use the going methodical and technical base on the market of services. Major objectives for the creation of the theoretical and methodical base for analysis are: a) the study of neutron and physical IGR reactor characteristics under various operation modes; b) the study of the radiation effect on the results of activation analysis; c) the simulation of the temperature mode for irradiation of samples in the reactor and experimental model survey; d) the study of the capability to use non-traditional elements and materials as neutron reactor flux monitors; e) the development of the technique for the experimental and computational

  8. Gamma activity as a guide for the building raw materials selection and controlling the environmental hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrometric measurements can provide an alarm for the radiation activity and radioelement concentra-tions. The activity increase over the ambient background can be achieved by well calibrated gamma-spectrometers. In comparison between Wadi El-Dahl and Abu Zawal quarries for building raw materials (feld-spar, the activity concentration of El-Dahl stream sediments are 54.5 and 44.5 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. While the activity concentration of Abu Zawal rock quarry are 167.03 and 79.77 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. These activities yielding effective dose rates of 0.63 mSv/y for Wadi El-Dahl stream sediments and 1.48 mSv/y for Abu Zawal rock quarry. In summary, the spectrometric measurements are excellent selective tool to monitoring the environment against the radiation risk. In this aspect, Wadi El-Dahl stream sedi-ment quarry considered as the more suitable for producing feldspar as a raw materials to building industry. In comparison, Abu Zawal rock quarry has a higher effective dose rate exceeds the international permissible limits which is 1 mSv/y. A total of 19 feldspar samples were completely described regarding their general chemical fea-tures by using x-ray fluorescence. From the study all the samples contain high concentration of barium and ru-bidium which can separate using different methods in order to use in different important industry.

  9. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Hydrophobic Composite Materials Containing a Visible-Light-Sensitive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional superhydrophobic surface offered by PTFE provides no sterilization performance and is not sufficiently repellent against organic liquids. These limit PTFE's application in the field of disinfection and result a lack of durability. N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst added PTFE composite material was developed to remedy these shortcomings. This paper reports the surface characteristics, and the bactericidal and self-cleaning performance of the newly-developed composite material. The material exhibited a contact angle exceeding 150 degrees consistent with its hydrophobicity despite the inclusion of the hydrophilic N-doped TiO2. The surface free energy obtained for this composite was 5.8 mN/m. Even when exposed to a weak fluorescent light intensity (100 lx for 24 hours, the viable cells of gram-negative E. coli on the 12% N-doped TiO2-PTFE film were reduced 5 logs. The higher bactericidal activity was also confirmed on the gram-positive MRSA. Compared with the N-doped TiO2 coating only, the inactivation rate of the composite material was significantly enhanced. Utilizing the N-doped TiO2 with the PTFE composite coating could successfully remove, by UV illumination, oleic acid adsorbed on its surface. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of the novel N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst hydrophobic composite material for both indoor antibacterial action and outdoor contamination prevention.

  11. Reuse of low specific activity material as part of LLWR design optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Amy; Cummings, Richard; Shevelan, John; Sumerling, Trevor; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    A final cap will be emplaced over the disposed waste as part of the closure engineering for the UK's Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR). Additional profiling material will be required above the waste to obtain the required land-form. Consideration has been given to the potential opportunity to reuse Low Specific Activity Material (LSAM, defined as up to 200 Bq g -1 ) imported from other sites as a component of the necessary profiling material for the final repository cap. Justification of such a strategy would ultimately require a demonstration that the solution is optimal with respect to other options for the long-term management of such materials. The proposal is currently at the initial evaluation stage and seeks to establish how LSAM reuse within the cap could be achieved within the framework of an optimised safety case for the LLWR, should such a management approach be pursued. The key considerations include the following: The LSAM must provide the same engineering function as the remainder of the profiling material. The cap design must ensure efficient leachate collection, drainage and control for Low Level Waste (LLW) (and, by extension, LSAM) during the Period of Authorisation. In the longer term the engineering design must passively direct any accumulating waters preferentially away from surface water systems. An initial design has been developed that would allow the placement of around 220,000 m 3 of LSAM. The potential impact of the proposal has been assessed against the current Environmental Safety Case. (authors)

  12. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  13. Critical Dimensions of Water-tamped Slabs and Spheres of Active Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuling, E.; Argo, H.: Chew, G.; Frankel, M. E.; Konopinski, E.J.; Marvin, C.; Teller, E.

    1946-08-06

    The magnitude and distribution of the fission rate per unit area produced by three energy groups of moderated neutrons reflected from a water tamper into one side of an infinite slab of active material is calculated approximately in section II. This rate is directly proportional to the current density of fast neutrons from the active material incident on the water tamper. The critical slab thickness is obtained in section III by solving an inhomogeneous transport integral equation for the fast-neutron current density into the tamper. Extensive use is made of the formulae derived in "The Mathematical Development of the End-Point Method" by Frankel and Goldberg. In section IV slight alterations in the theory outlined in sections II and III were made so that one could approximately compute the critical radius of a water-tamper sphere of active material. The derived formulae were applied to calculate the critical dimensions of water-tamped slabs and spheres of solid UF{sub 6} leaving various (25) isotope enrichment fractions. Decl. Dec. 16, 1955.

  14. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  15. Kinetic studies of potassium permanganate adsorption by activated carbon and its ability as ethylene oxidation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilliani, F.; Warsiki, E.; Iskandar, A.

    2018-03-01

    Generally, ethylene production in many horticultural products has been seen to be detrimental to the quality during storage and distribution process. For this reason, removing ethylene from storage or distribution atmosphere is needed to maintain the quality. One of the technologies that can be applied is the use of potassium permanganate (KMnO4). KMnO4 is an active compound that can be used as an oxidizing agent on ethylene removal process. KMnO4 is not recommended for direct used application. As the result, additional material is required to impregnate the potassium permanganate. The inert materials used are commercial activated carbon. Activated carbon is chosen because it has high surface area. The purpose of this research is to determine kinetics adsorption and oxidation model of ethylene removal material. The kinetics adsorption was determined using the pseudo-first and second-order kinetic models. The data on adsorption process show that the second-order equation is more suitable to express the adsorption process on this research. The analyzing of the ethylene oxidation capacity increased with time until it reaches an optimal value. The ethylene oxidation rate is able to be estimated by the formula r = 0.1967 [C2H4]0.99 [KMnO4]0.01; MSE = 0.44 %. The actual and estimation data of ethylene oxidation show that the model is fitted to describe the actual ethylene oxidation under same experimental conditions.

  16. Sol-Gel Derived Active Material for Yb Thin-Disk Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rui M; Ribeiro, Tiago; Santos, Luís F

    2017-09-02

    A ytterbium doped active material for thin-disk laser was developed based on aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate glass matrices containing up to 30 mol% YbO 1.5 . Thick films and bulk samples were prepared by sol-gel processing. The structural nature of the base material was assessed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and the film morphology was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of different compositions, including emission spectra and lifetimes, were also studied. Er 3+ was used as an internal reference to compare the intensities of the Yb 3+ PL peaks at ~ 1020 nm. The Yb 3+ PL lifetimes were found to vary between 1.0 and 0.5 ms when the Yb concentration increased from 3 to 30 mol%. Based on a figure of merit, the best active material selected was the aluminosilicate glass composition 71 SiO₂-14 AlO 1.5 -15 YbO 1.5 (in mol%). An active disk, ~ 36 μm thick, consisting of a Bragg mirror, an aluminosilicate layer doped with 15 mol% Yb and an anti-reflective coating, was fabricated.

  17. Novel measurement method of activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-Dae; Lim, Byung-Ju; Song, Chi-Sung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel technique and its applicability for measuring activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPPs (nuclear power plants). The E a is a principal property for life assessment and accelerating thermal aging of equipment during environmental qualification. The E a is conventionally obtained by tensile test using UTM (Universal Testing Machine). However, this conventional method has many difficulties such as lots of big standardized specimens required and long measuring time of at least 3 months. Moreover, this is not only an inapplicable method during inservice inspection but destructive method, which are main obstacles for using UTM. Fortunately, newly developed technique for the E a such as TGA (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis) can eliminate almost all the problems of UTM. The common TGA is to measure weight change with time under constant heating rate. TGA was devised to perform the compositional analysis of materials such as rubber, carbon black, filler, volatile, etc., and to determine the thermal stability/decomposition, stoichiometry of reactions, and kinetics of reaction, by weight changes of materials when heated. TGA method has various advantages such as small amount of the sample (e.g. 20 mg), shortened measuring time of approximately 2 days, and virtually non-destructive method. In this study, we have tried to find the justification of TGA utilization for E a measurement by comparing the measured TGA data to UTM data for three cable materials. Considering reasonable consistency of our TGA data with UTM data, we conclude that TGA method gives convenient way to measure the activation energy for EPR, CR, and CSP materials with many merits, such as measuring time, specimen size and quantity required, and test expenses. (author)

  18. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  19. Development of high performance and low radio activation concrete material for concrete cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Sonobe, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    For the realization of the long-term storage of the nuclear spent fuel with the concrete cask technology, a low radio activation high performance concrete was developed, which contains extremely small quantity of Eu and Co and assures enough heat-resistance and durability for degradation. Firstly, the activation analysis was performed to estimate the allowable content limit of their quantities according to the rules issued by Japanese government for determining the classification of the radioactive waste. Secondly, various candidate materials were sampled and irradiated to find out the activation level. As a result, as the optimum concrete mix, the combination of limestone and white fused alumina aggregates with fry-ash was chosen. Moreover, the basic characteristics of the candidate concrete (workability, strength under high temperature, heat conductivity and so on) were evaluated, and the thermal cracking test was executed with hollow cylinders. Finally, the developed concrete material seems to be suitable for the long-term use of concrete cask considering the low activation, high heat resistance and durability during storage. (author)

  20. Trace elements with large activation cross section in concrete materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Iida, Takao; Moriizumi, Jun; Sakuma, Yoichi; Takada, Jitsuya; Yamasaki, Keizo; Yoshimoto, Takaaki

    2001-01-01

    Amounts of trace elements with large activation cross section in concrete materials were measured to offer the basic data for developing of low activation concrete. From the measurements, the quantities of the activated radioactivities in biological shielding concrete were measured and evaluated for the clearance level. The average concentrations of 60 Co, 152 Eu and 134 Cs formed in concrete were 21.9, 1.08 and 3.21 ppm, respectively. The combination of the concrete materials for the most lowering concentrations of 60 Co, 152 Eu and 134 Cs was the limestone as aggregate and the white Portland cement produced in specific places. The most lowering concentrations of this limestone concrete were 0.16, 0.049 and 0.060 ppm, respectively. The limestone concrete was excellent as biological shielding concrete, because the neutron shielding effect was excellent a little compared with ordinary concrete. If this concrete used for biological shielding concrete, concrete waste will be able to handle as follows. Usage of this limestone low-activated concrete makes almost all concretes satisfy the clearance level for 60 Co after 20 yr cooling from decommissioning. In respect of 152 Eu, radioactivation quantity in the biological shielding concrete is reduced up to a half of the average value or less. With regard to 134 Cs, all concrete satisfies the clearance level. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm 2 area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  3. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete materials - influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-08-01

    Combining the use of photocatalysts with cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic air pollution mitigation. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness of pollutant degradation by concrete surface layers that incorporate a photocatalytic material - Titanium Dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of the concrete samples was determined by photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. Recycled glass cullets, derived from crushed waste beverage bottles, were used to replace sand in preparing the concrete surface layers. Factors, which may affect the pollutant removal performance of the concrete layers including glass color, aggregate size and curing age, were investigated. The results show a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity due to the use of glass cullets as aggregates in the concrete layers. The samples fabricated with clear glass cullets exhibited threefold NO removal efficiency compared to the samples fabricated with river sand. The light transmittance property of glass was postulated to account for the efficiency improvement, which was confirmed by a separate simulation study. But the influence of the size of glass cullets was not evident. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of concrete surface layers decreased with curing age, showing a loss of 20% photocatalytic activity after 56-day curing.

  4. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  5. Empirical Validation of Heat Transfer Performance Simulation of Graphite/PCM Concrete Materials for Thermally Activated Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the heat capacity in lightweight construction materials, a phase change material (PCM can be introduced to building elements. A thermally activated building system (TABS with graphite/PCM concrete hollow core slab is suggested as an energy-efficient technology to shift and reduce the peak thermal load in buildings. An evaluation of heat storage and dissipation characteristics of TABS in graphite/PCM concrete has been conducted using dynamic simulations, but empirical validation is necessary to acceptably predict the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete. This study aimed to validate the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete through a three-dimensional transient heat transfer simulation. The simulation results were compared to experimental results from previous studies of concrete and graphite/PCM concrete. The overall thermal behavior for both materials was found to be similar to experiment results. Limitations in the simulation modeling, which included determination of the indoor heat transfer coefficient, assumption of constant thermal conductivity with temperature, and assumption of specimen homogeneity, led to slight differences between the measured and simulated results.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  7. Research and development activities at INE concerning corrosion of final repository container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The present work provides a historical overview of the research and development activities carried out at the (Nuclear) Research Center Karlsruhe (today KIT) since the beginning of the 1980s on the corrosion of materials which might be suitable for construction of containers for highly radioactive wastes. The report relates almost exclusively to the work performed by Dr. Emmanuel Smailos, who elaborated the corrosion of various materials at the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE). The requirements for the containers and materials, which were subject to changes in time, are presented. The changes were strongly influenced by the changed perception of the use of nuclear energy. The selection of the materials under investigations, the boundary conditions for the corrosion experiments and the analytical methods are described. Results of the corrosion of the materials such as finegrained steel, Hastelloy C4, nodular cast iron, titanium-palladium and copper or copper-nickel alloys in typical salt solutions are summarized. The findings of special investigations, e.g. corrosion under irradiation or the influence of sulfide on the corrosion rates are shown. For construction of disposal canisters, experiments were conducted to determine the contact corrosion, the influence of the hydrogen embrittlement of Ti-Pd and fine-grained steels on the corrosion behavior as well as the corrosion behavior of welding and the influence of different welding processes with the resulting heat-affected zones on the corrosion behavior. The work was contributed to several European research programs and was well recognized in the USA. Investigations on the corrosion of steels in non-saline solutions and corrosion under interim storage conditions as well as under the expected conditions of the Konrad repository for low-level radioactive wastes are also described. In addition, the experiments on ceramic materials are presented and the results of the corrosion of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 ceramics

  8. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  9. Waste minimization activities in the Materials Fabrication Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The mission of the Materials Fabrication Division (MFD) is to provide fabrication services and technology in support of all programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MFD involvement is called for when fabrication activity requires levels of expertise, technology, equipment, process development, hazardous processes, security, or scheduling that is typically not commercially available. Customers are encouraged to utilize private industry for fabrication activity requiring routine processing or for production applications. Our waste minimization (WM) program has been directed at source reduction and recycling in concert with the working definition of waste minimization used by EPA. The principal focus of WM activities has been on hazardous wastes as defined by RCRA, however, all pollutant emissions into air, water and land are being considered as part of the program. The incentives include: (1) economics, (2) regulatory conformance, (3) public image and (4) environmental concern. This report discusses the waste minimization program at LLNL

  10. Charitable activities in Tsaritsyn during the World War I (on materials of periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Karagodina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the charitable activities carried out in the city of Tsaritsyn during the World War I. As a method of research used analysis of materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals published in the city in time of war. The main source of analysis is the issues of the newspaper «Tsaritsyno Bulletin» for the period from July 1914 to February 1917. The analysis allowed to identify the most priority directions of charitable aid, carried out in Tsaritsyn in the war. Also, the article discusses the activities of public organizations and associations, involved in the provision of charitable assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, their wives and children, refugees. In particular, the reports of the Ladies' Committee of Tsaritsyn and the Tsaritsyn branch of the Russian Red Cross Society are analyzed and the features of the activity of these organizations are revealed.

  11. Development of Zr-containing advanced reduced-activation alloy (ARAA) as structural material for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Y.B., E-mail: borobang@gmail.com [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S.H. [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D.W. [Nuclear Fusion Engineering Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Y.H. [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Żywczak, A. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre of Materials and Nanotechnology, Kraków (Poland); Rhee, C.K. [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Creep and impact resistances of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel are enhanced by the addition of Zr. • A 5 ton scale heat of Zr containing RAFM steel, ARAA, has been produced for material property evaluation. • The physical, thermal, magnetic and mechanical properties of ARAA are quite similar to those of Eurofer 97. - Abstract: Korea has developed an advanced reduced-activation alloy (ARAA) as a structural material for helium-cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module (HCCR-TBM) applications. The present paper describes the history of alloy development and the properties of ARAA, which has been produced at a 5 t scale using vacuum induction melting and electro-slag re-melting methods. ARAA is a 9Cr–1.2W based ferritic–martensitic steel with 0.01 wt.% Zr. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and physical and magnetic properties of ARAA show similar temperature dependencies to those observed for Eurofer 97. However, ARAA exhibits a much longer creep–rupture time than conventional RAFM steel, which suggests a positive effect on Zr addition. The enhanced creep strength of ARAA by the addition of Zr is attributed to the reduced temperature-dependence of the yield strength.

  12. Multielement comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques using reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, R.T.; Vernetson, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    Several instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques (parametric, comparative, and k o -standardization) are evaluated using three reference materials. Each technique is applied to National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials, SRM 1577a (Bovine Liver) and SRM 2704 (Buffalo River Sediment), and the United States Geological Survey standard BHVO-1 (Hawaiian Basalt Rock). Identical (but not optimum) irradiation, decay, and counting schemes are employed with each technique to provide a basis for comparison and to determine sensitivities in a routine irradiation scheme. Fifty-one elements are used in this comparison; however, several elements are not detected in the reference materials due to rigid analytical conditions (e.g. insufficient length of irradiation or activity for radioisotope of interest decaying below the lower limit of detection before counting interval). Most elements are normally distributed around certified or consensus values with a standard deviation of 10%. For some elements, discrepancies are observed and discussed. The accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of each technique are discussed by comparing the analytical results to consensus values for the Hawaiian Basalt Rock to demonstrate the diversity of multielement applications. (author) 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  13. Activation of Ca(OH){sub 2} using different siliceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatepe, N.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    Siliceous materials such as silica fume, bentonite and diatomite were mixed with Ca(OH){sub 2} and hydrated at different conditions to produce reactive SO{sub 2} sorbents. Two different hydration methods were used, namely atmospheric and pressure hydration. The effects of the hydration temperature, time and siliceous material/Ca(OH){sub 2} weight ratio on the physical properties of the activated sorbents wereinvestigated. A statistical design technique was applied by use of a two-level factorial design matrix to interpret experimental results. In atmospheric hydration, it was found that increasing the temperature and hydration time caused an increase in the total surface area of the sorbents. But, increasing the siliceous material/Ca(OH){sub 2} weight ratio caused a decrease in the total surface area of the sorbents. In pressure hydration, mathematical analysis showed that the surface area of the activated sorbents was positively affected by the hydration variables. Thermogravimetric measurements showed that increasing the amount of reacted Ca(OH){sub 2} during hydration caused an increase in the surface area of the sorbent. X-ray diffraction studies also indicated that calcium silicate hydrates were the principal Ca-containing species formed during hydration.

  14. Redox-Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox-Active Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-01-16

    Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox-active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Towards a reduced activation structural materials database for fusion DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Diegele, E.; Laesser, R.; Klimiankou, M.; Lindau, R.; Materna-Morris, E.; Rieth, M.; Lucon, E.; Petersen, C.; Schneider, H.-C.; Pippan, R.; Rensman, J.W.; Schaaf, B. van der; Tavassoli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The development of First Wall, Blanket and Divertor materials which are capable of withstanding many years the high neutron and heat fluxes, is a critical path to fusion power. Therefore, the timely availability of a sound materials database has become an indispensable element in international fusion road maps. In order to provide materials design data for short term needs of ITER Test Blanket Modules and for a DEMOnstration fusion reactor, a wealth of R and D results on the European reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER, and on oxide dispersion strengthened variants are being characterized, mainly in the temperature window 250-650 deg. C. The characterisation includes irradiations up to 15 dpa in the mixed spectrum reactor HFR and up to 75 dpa in the fast breeder reactor BOR60. Industrial EUROFER-batches of 3.5 and 7.5 tons have been produced with a variety of semi-finished, quality-assured product forms. To increase thermal efficiency of blankets, high temperature resistant SiC f /SiC channel inserts for liquid metal coolant tubes are also developed. Regarding radiation damage resistance, a broad based reactor irradiation programs counts several steps from ≤5dpa (ITER TBMs) up to 75 dpa (DEMO). For the European divertor designers, a materials data base is presently being set up for pure W and W alloys, and related reactor irradiations are foreseen with temperatures from 650-1000 deg. C. (author)

  16. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  17. Nitrogen-enriched bituminous coal-based active carbons as materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Pietrzak; K. Jurewicz; P. Nowicki; K. Babel; H. Wachowska [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology

    2010-11-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on obtaining N-enriched active carbons from bituminous coal and on testing its use as an electrode material in supercapacitors. The coal was carbonised, activated with KOH and ammoxidised by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 at 300{sup o}C or 350{sup o}C, at different stages of the production, that is, at those of precursor, carbonisate, and active carbon. The products were microporous N-enriched active carbon samples of well-developed surface area reaching from 1577 to 2510 m{sup 2}/g and containing 1.0 to 8.5 wt% of nitrogen. The XPS measurements have shown that in the active carbons enriched in nitrogen at the stage of precursor and at the stage of carbonisate, the dominant nitrogen species are the N-5 groups, while in the samples ammoxidised at the last stage of the treatment the dominant nitrogen species are the surface groups of imines and/or nitriles, probably accompanied by amines and amides. The paper reports the results of a comprehensive study of the effect of the structure and chemical composition of a series of active carbon samples of different properties on their capacity performance in water solutions of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or KOH, with the behaviour of positive and negative electrodes analysed separately. 33 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite as buffer materials for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Liu, Tsung-Ying; Wu, Ding-Chiang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Jiann-Ruey; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite (PAmmt) was evaluated by cesium ions adsorption experiments. The PAmmt samples were obtained by activating with 1, 3 and 5 mol L -1 of phosphoric acid, respectively under reflux for 3, 12, and 24 h. Experimental results demonstrated that the treatment of raw K-10 montmorillonite with phosphoric acid increased the materials' affinity for Cs uptake and no significant amount of suspension solids were produced. A relatively insignificant variation in the CEC value was observed. Furthermore, PAmmt also showed high adsorption selectivity toward Cs ions. The improved sorptive properties were mainly related to the increased surface area and the relatively higher surface charge density. Increased specific surface area was the resulted from partial decomposition of lamellar structure of mmt; while the higher surface charge density was caused by the protonation of octahedral Al-OH sites during the acid activation. Generally speaking, stronger acid concentration and longer activation times would produce relatively more decomposed PAmmt particles. However, as the activation exceeds 3 h, the precipitation of Si 4+ would passivate PAmmt against further acid attacks. Based upon our results, acid activation by phosphoric acid could produce PAmmt samples with high sorption capacity and selectivity, and good structural integrity, which are beneficial to be used at radioactive waste repository.

  19. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author) [pt

  20. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  1. Certified reference materials for analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdul Salim

    2007-01-01

    Analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis (NAA) requires the use of certified reference materials (CRM) in order to produce reliable analytical results. It is essential to evaluate the performance of NAA method when analyzing various sample matrices. Therefore, the CRM selected for an analysis should be suitable for the type of samples. There are many aspects such as concentration range, matrix match, sample size and uncertainty, which need to be considered when selecting a suitable CRM. Eventually, results of analysis of CRM were plotted into control charts in order to evaluate the qualify of the data. This is to ensure that the results are within the 95 % confidence interval as stipulated in the certificate of CRM. Thus, this article aims to discuss the uses of certified reference materials for quality control purposes in NAA involving various sample matrices. (author)

  2. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-09-18

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  3. New porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity in acetylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-10-14

    New hybrid complexes based on covalent interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatozinc(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatotin(IV) chloride, and a Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate, Mo(6)O(19)(2-), were prepared. These new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided several spectral data for synthesis of these compounds. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the polyoxometalate on the redox process of the porphyrin ring. The catalytic activity of tin(IV)porphyrin-hexamolybdate hybrid material was investigated in the acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride. The reusability of this catalyst was also investigated.

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of proposed marine sediment reference material (IAEA-158)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Waheed, S.

    2009-01-01

    IAEA-158, sediment prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency -Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), Monaco was received under the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) Intercomparison Programme. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine AI, As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, V, Vb and Zn in this proposed reference material (RM). Four different irradiation protocols were adopted using a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) by varying the irradiation, cooling and counting times. IAEA-405 (Estuarine Sediment) and IAEA-SLI (Lake Sediment) were used as compatible matrix reference materials for quality assurance (QA) purposes. Good agreement between our data and lAEA certified values was obtained providing confidence in the reported data. (author)

  5. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  6. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurselis, S.; Stadalnikas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO 2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  7. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe.

  8. Current Status of Doping in Japan Based on Japan Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panels of the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA): A Suggestion on Anti-Doping Activities by Pharmacists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Takashi; Kawabata, Takayoshi; Takayama, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014. Many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1 (anabolic agents), S5 (diuretics and masking agents), and S6 (stimulants). Within class S1, supplements were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S5, medicines prescribed by medical doctors were the main cause of positive doping. Within class S6, non-prescription medicines (e.g., OTC) were the main cause of positive doping. When we looked at the global statistics on doping, many of the positive doping cases were detected for class S1. On comparing the Japanese statistics with the global statistics, the rate of positive doping caused by class S1 was significantly lower, but that caused by classes S5 and S6 was significantly higher in Japan than in the world. In conclusion, pharmacists in Japan should pay attention to class S1, S5, and S6 prohibited substances and to the sport events of bodybuilding. Based on this study, sports pharmacists as well as common pharmacists should suggest new anti-doping activities to prevent doping in the future.

  9. Use of composite materials for the determination of Cu, As, Mo, Cd and Sb in biological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanikova, M.; John, J.; Kucera, J.; Sebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    New composite materials were developed and tested for determination of Cu, As, Mo, Cd, and Sb in biological materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). The materials were prepared by incorporation of solid zinc diethyldithiocarbamate or liquid bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (CYANEX 301) into a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binding matrix. The accuracy of the RNAA procedures was proved by analysis of NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1577b Bovine Liver, and NIST SRM-1549 Non Fat Milk Powder. (author)

  10. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  11. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  13. Determination of radioisotopic contents of high-active materials in non-standard conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Vins, M.

    2014-01-01

    The light-water research reactor LVR-15, operated by Research |Centre Rez, serves as a source of neutrons for applied and basic research. One of the main areas of applied research is the influence of neutron radiation field on the physical and mechanical properties of construction materials used in reactor technology. The presented contribution deals with the determination of a radioisotopic composition and the estimate of its activity.The determination is based on gamma spectrometry measurements. The purpose of the measurements was the determination of the main sources of radiation and the result was used to prepare a procedure for the handling, transport and testing of samples in the rigs. (authors)

  14. Improvements of neutron activation techniques for the determination of fissile material concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    Certain experimental improvements, as variable sample size and irradiation position, automation and flexibility in radiation detection, broaden the measurable concentration range, increase the possible rate and accuracy of analysis and enlarge the application range of home-made nuclear analyzer for fissile material analysis by delayed fission neutron counting and for short-lived multielement analysis by neutron activation gamma-ray spectrometry. Intercomparisons of results by various methods and laboratories show the need for regular checks of techniques to ensure reliable measurements. (author)

  15. Impact of the Excitation Source and Plasmonic Material on Cylindrical Active Coated Nano-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Ziolkowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles comprised of a silica nano-cylinder core layered with a plasmonic concentric nano-shell are investigated for potential nano-sensor applications. Particular attention is devoted to the near-field properties of these particles, as well as to their far-field radiation characteristics, in the presence of an electric or a magnetic line source. A constant frequency canonical gain model is used to account for the gain introduced in the dielectric part of the nano-particle, whereas three different plasmonic materials (silver, gold, and copper are employed and compared for the nano-shell layers.

  16. A complex method for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-05-01

    The destructive and nondestructive approach of neutron activation analysis used by the author is reviewed to determine some trace elements in biological materials: Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, V and Zn. Bowen's kale was used to determine the accuracy and reliability. The parameters obtained were confirmed by participating in round robins organized by the IAEA: in which potato powder and animal bone have been analyzed for Zn, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn, Rb, Na, K and Cu. Tabulated results are given and compared with recommended values and literature data. Gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  17. A history of semi-active laser dome and window materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roger M.

    2014-05-01

    Semi-Active Laser (SAL) guidance systems were developed starting in the mid-1960's and today form an important class of precision guided weapons. The laser wavelengths generally fall in the short wave infrared region of the spectrum. Relative to passive, image based, infrared seekers the optical demands placed on the domes or windows of SAL seekers is very modest, allowing the use of low cost, easily manufactured materials, such as polycarbonate. This paper will examine the transition of SAL window and dome science and technology from the laboratory to battlefield, with special emphasis on the story of polycarbonate domes.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  19. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA F.S. ROMBALDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  20. Berstein's anti-reductionistic materialism: On the road towards a biology of activity (1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaardt, R; Pickenhain, L; Meijer, O G

    2000-10-01

    Bernstein's paper, "On the Road Towards a Biology of Activity," appeared the year before his death.2 With this paper, Bernstein closed several lines of argument that he had been developing from the onset of his career in the early 1920s. The paper converges on the notion of activity. In accordance with his own shifting focus heuristic (cf. Bongaardt, 1996), Bernstein challenged future researchers of movement to integrate models of the movement functions that constitute activity. He suggested that these functions are: the coordination of movement, the planning of movement, and the exploration of better, optimal ways to move. In the 1920s, Bernstein had collaborated with his friend and colleague L.S. Vygotsky at the Moscow Institute of Experimental Psychology. Vygotsky (cf. 1926/1994) was the first to place activity at the core of Soviet psychology. According to Vygotsky, reflexology and behaviorism, then dominant approaches in psychology, were fundamentally wrong; they focus on building-blocks of behavior without addressing phenomena that stand out as typically human, most importantly, consciousness. Rather than starting with building blocks, psychology should start with the daily activity of human beings in their environment and show how this activity relates to consciousness. Forty years later, in his 1965 paper, Bernstein stressed a point that mirrors Vygotsky's: Reflexes are not building blocks of movement. The general characteristics of any movement precede the specificity of such units, whether reflexes or synergies, and this primacy pertains to the actual organization of movements as well as to the study of movement. The development and relevance of the activity concept in Bernstein's work in the period from 1925 to 1965 deserves a study of its own; here, a brief historical sketch of Bernstein's activity concept is offered, along with a few theoretical considerations concerning activity's constituent functions.

  1. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis and other analytical methods such as neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation, emission spectrochemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ion-selective electrode analysis, and American Society for Testing of Materials procedures (ASTM), as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. Efforts have been made to attain the maximal accuracy and precision possible for a wide variety of elements in the inhomogeneous coal matrix. (T.G.)

  2. An activated barrier for protection of special nuclear materials in vital areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, R.E.; Miranda, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory have recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System (ADS) for the upgrade of safeguards of special nuclear materials. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The installation was the first for the Department of Energy. Subsequently, two additional installations have been completed. The Access Denial System, combined with physical restraints, provide the system delay. The principal advantages of the activated barrier are: (1) it provides an order of magnitude improvement in delay over that of a fixed barrier, (2) it can be added to existing vital areas with a minimum of renovations, (3) existing operations are minimally impacted, and (4) health and safety risks are virtually nonexistent. Hardening of the vital areas using the ADS was accomplished in a costeffective manner

  3. ARCHER Project: Progress on Material and component activities for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    The ARCHER (Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D) integrated project is a four year project which was started in 2011 as part of the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (FP7) to perform High Temperature Reactor technology R&D in support of reactor demonstration. The project consortium encompasses conventional and Nuclear Industry, Utilities, Technical Support Organizations, Research & Development Organizations and Academia. The activities involved contribute to the Generation IV (GIF) International Forum and collaborate with related projects in the US, China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea in cooperation with IAEA and ISTC. This paper addresses the progress of the work on ARCHER materials and component activities since the start of the project and underlines some of the main conclusions reached. (author)

  4. Activated barrier for protection of special nuclear materials in vital areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, R.E.; Miranda, J.E.; Reigle, D.L.; Valente, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory have recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System (ADS) for the upgrade of safeguards of special nuclear materials. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The installation was the first for the Department of Energy. Subsequently, two additional installations have been completed. The Access Denial System, combined with physical restraints, provide the system delay. The principal advantages of the activated barrier are: (1) it provides an order of magnitude improvement in delay over that of a fixed barrier, (2) it can be added to existing vital areas with a minimum of renovations, (3) existing operations are minimally impacted, and (4) health and safety risks are virtually nonexistent. Hardening of the vital areas using the ADS was accomplished in a cost-effective manner. 3 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  5. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemljic, Lidija Fras, E-mail: lidija.fras@uni-mb.si [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Tkavc, Tina [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sauperl, Olivera [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  6. Neutron-activation study of figurines, pottery, and workshop materials from the Athenian Agora, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillieres, D.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic specimens from the excavations of the Agora of ancient Athens, Greece, including material from factories, i.e., trial firing pieces, pottery and figurine wasters, datable to the Protogeometric, Subgeometric, and Classical Periods, and stylistically related figurines and pottery were analyzed by neutron activation. The factory material from the three distinct chronological periods separated respectively into three significantly different compositional groups, indicating either that separate sources of clay were used during each of these periods or that some other significant changes in the traditions of fabrication had occurred. Many of the figurines and sherds analyzed coincided in composition with one of these three groups and therefore were shown to be consistent with the output of Athenian workshops. Some specimens of Corinthian style formed a separate compositional group as did some other specimens that agreed in composition with a clay from Aegina. Comparison of these results with previous analyses on file in the Brookhaven Data Bank revealed a number of specimens that corresponded both in style and composition to the Agora material. Most significant was a sizable amount of Classical Greek pottery excavated in southern France, in Israel, and in Cyprus that conformed in composition to the Attic Classical Group. 6 figures, 2 tables

  7. A thermodynamic framework for thermo-chemo-elastic interactions in chemically active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoLong; Zhong, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a general thermodynamic framework is developed to describe the thermo-chemo-mechanical interactions in elastic solids undergoing mechanical deformation, imbibition of diffusive chemical species, chemical reactions and heat exchanges. Fully coupled constitutive relations and evolving laws for irreversible fluxes are provided based on entropy imbalance and stoichiometry that governs reactions. The framework manifests itself with a special feature that the change of Helmholtz free energy is attributed to separate contributions of the diffusion-swelling process and chemical reaction-dilation process. Both the extent of reaction and the concentrations of diffusive species are taken as independent state variables, which describe the reaction-activated responses with underlying variation of microstructures and properties of a material in an explicit way. A specialized isothermal formulation for isotropic materials is proposed that can properly account for volumetric constraints from material incompressibility under chemo-mechanical loadings, in which inhomogeneous deformation is associated with reaction and diffusion under various kinetic time scales. This framework can be easily applied to model the transient volumetric swelling of a solid caused by imbibition of external chemical species and simultaneous chemical dilation arising from reactions between the diffusing species and the solid.

  8. Highly Surface-Active Ca(OH)2 Monolayer as a CO2 Capture Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçelik, V Ongun; Gong, Kai; White, Claire E

    2018-03-14

    Greenhouse gas emissions originating from fossil fuel combustion contribute significantly to global warming, and therefore the design of novel materials that efficiently capture CO 2 can play a crucial role in solving this challenge. Here, we show that reducing the dimensionality of bulk crystalline portlandite results in a stable monolayer material, named portlandene, that is highly effective at capturing CO 2 . On the basis of theoretical analysis comprised of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and force-field molecular dynamics simulations, we show that this single-layer phase is robust and maintains its stability even at high temperatures. The chemical activity of portlandene is seen to further increase upon defect engineering of its surface using vacancy sites. Defect-containing portlandene is capable of separating CO and CO 2 from a syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 ) stream, yet is inert to water vapor. This selective behavior and the associated mechanisms have been elucidated by examining the electronic structure, local charge distribution, and bonding orbitals of portlandene. Additionally, unlike conventional CO 2 capturing technologies, the regeneration process of portlandene does not require high temperature heat treatment because it can release the captured CO 2 by application of a mild external electric field, making portlandene an ideal CO 2 capturing material for both pre- and postcombustion processes.

  9. Trial operation of material protection, control, and accountability systems at two active nuclear material handling sites within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripka, G.; Vatulin, V.; Yuferev, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses Russian Federal Nuclear Center (RFNC)-VNIIEF activities in the area of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) procedures enhancement. The goal of such activities is the development of an automated systems for MPC and A at two of the active VNIIEF research sites: a research (reactor) site and a nuclear material production facility. The activities for MPC and A system enhancement at both sites are performed in the framework of a VNIIEF-Los Alamos National Laboratory contract with participation from Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and PANTEX Plant in accordance with Russian programs supported by MinAtom. The American specialists took part in searching for possible improvement of technical solutions, ordering equipment, and delivering and testing the equipment that was provided by the Americans

  10. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Kerr, Matthew D.; Amos, Richard A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Marom, Edith M.; Truong, Mylene T.; Palacio, Diana M.; Betancourt, Sonia L.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; DeGroot, Patricia M.; Carter, Brett W.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Sabloff, Bradley S.; Benveniste, Marcelo F.; Godoy, Myrna C.; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials (18O, Cu, and 68Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm-3) and beef (~1.0 g cm-3) were embedded with Cu or 68Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm3). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils’ PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  11. Synthesis and comparison of the activities of a catalyst supported on two silicate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Eduardo G., E-mail: eduardogv5007@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva, Rafael O.; Carmo, Devaney R. do [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Junior, Enes F. [Departamento de Fitotecnia, Tecnologia de Alimentos e Sócio Economia, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Filho, Newton L., E-mail: nldias@unesc.net [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Av. Universitaria, 1105, CP 3167, CEP 88806-000, Criciúma, SC (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The focus of this work is inspecting the synthesis and comparison of the activities of a catalyst supported on two silicate materials in the epoxidation of 1-octene. The two new catalyst materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, solid-state {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and analysis of nitrogen. Lastly, the two new catalysts, Silsesq-TCA-[(W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}){sub 3}] and Silica-TCA-[W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}] were tested as catalysts in reactions of epoxidation of 1-octene and compared with their analogue not supported [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(thiocarbamide)]. After an extensive literature search, we verified that our work is the first that has reported the immobilization process of [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}] on silsesquioxane and silica gel functionalized with propyl-thiocarbamide groups and their applications as catalysts of reactions of catalytic epoxidation of 1-octene. - Highlights: • Immobilization of [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}] complex onto mesoporous supports. • Synthesis and characterization of new mesoporous catalysts. • The new catalysts exhibit great catalytic activity in the epoxidation of 1-octene. • Recyclable catalysts with excellent reusability and stability.

  12. Determination of copper in biological materials by neutron activation analysis using short-lived 66Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kaczorowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determination of copper traces in biological materials based on neutron activation employing 65 Cu(n, γ) 66 Cu reaction and preconcentration by extraction chromatography has been devised. The 200-500 mg samples after wet digestion and evaporation were dissolved in glycine solution and after pH adjusting to ca. 4.4 were passed through the column with Lix 64N on Bio Beads SM-1 for isolation of copper traces from the matrix elements. Other cations were selectively eluted with 0.1 mol x 1 -1 (glycine-HNO 3 ) buffer, 1 mol x 1 -1 in NH 4 NO 3 (pH = 3.6). The resin bed with quantitatively retained copper was sealed in the PE bag and irradiated together with Cu standards in EWA reactor using pneumatic tube facility. The activity of the short-lived 66 Cu was measured in samples and standard by gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detector. Good accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the following certified reference materials: NBS 1571 Orchad leaves, IAEA H-4 Animal muscle, IAEA V-8 Rye flour, IAEA A-11 milk powder. The detection limit amounted to 0.34 mg/kg, for the sample weight of 500 mg. (author)

  13. Ablation, surface activation, and electroless metallization of insulating materials by pulsed excimer laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Godbole, M.J.; Pedraza, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed-laser irradiation of wide bandgap ceramic substrates, using photons with sub-bandgap energies, activates the ceramic surface for subsequent electroless copper deposition. The copper deposit is confined within the irradiated region when the substrate is subsequently immersed in an electroless copper bath. However, a high laser fluence (typically several j/cm 2 ) and repeated laser shots are needed to obtain uniform copper coverage by this direct-irradiation process. In contrast, by first applying an evaporated SiO x thin film (with x ∼1), laser ablation at quite low energy density (∼0.5 J/cm 2 ) results in re-deposition on the ceramic substrate of material that is catalytic for subsequent electroless copper deposition. Experiments indicate that the re-deposited material is on silicon, on which copper nucleates. Using an SiO x film on a laser-transparent substrate, quite fine (∼12 μm) copper lines can be formed at the boundary of the region that is laser-etched in SiO x . Using SiO x with an absorbing (polycrystalline) ceramic substrate, more-or-less uniform activation and subsequent copper deposition are obtained. In the later case, interactions with the ceramic substrate also may be important for uniform deposition

  14. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Iyengar, V.; Gills, T.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  15. KOH activation of pitch-derived carbonaceous materials - Effect of carbonization degree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, Magdalena [Institute of Open Cast Mining POLTEGOR-Institute, Parkowa, Wroclaw (Poland); Gryglewicz, Grazyna; Machnikowski, Jacek [Division of Polymer and Carbonaceous Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Gdanska (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Two series of mesophase pitches and semi-cokes of different carbonization degree were produced by heat treatment of anthracene oil derived pitches P1 and P4 in the temperature range of 460-700 C. These carbonaceous materials were activated with potassium hydroxide at 700 C using 1:3 reagents ratio to assess the effects of the precursor optical texture and carbonization degree on the activation behavior. The results show that the increase in the pitch pretreatment temperature suppresses propensity to the pore generation while enhancing particle breaking. The effect can be illustrated by decreases in the BET surface area S{sub BET} from {proportional_to} 2700 to {proportional_to} 1500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the micropore volume V{sub DR} from {proportional_to} 0.85 to {proportional_to} 0.45 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. These parameters are inversely related with the H/C atomic ratio of precursor. In contrast, the anisotropic development of pitch coke, varying from flow type to mosaics, has a slight effect on the activation behaviour. The mechanism of porosity generation, that is proposed, stresses the role of hydrogen occurring at the edges of graphene layers and potassium metal insertion/deinsertion on the porosity development and particle disintegration during KOH activation of pitch-derived carbons. (author)

  16. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Industry, medical, research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. In many cases, these exemption levels differ orders of magnitude, higher or lower, compared to those from the old standards. For the natural radionuclides, the exempted specific activity is much lower (10 or even 1 Bq/g, depending on the radionuclide, compared to 500 Bq/g in the old BSS). As a consequence, industrial activities with certain minerals or raw materials containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides, which were exempted from the radiation protection control system under the old BSS, may have to be declared as radiologically relevant activities and may now come under regulatory control. Examples of these activities are the phosphate ore processing, the refining of a number of metals, the use of slag, and the oil and natural gas production. This might give rise, in some cases, to large volumes of waste which should be treated, conditioned and disposed of in a controlled way. For artificial radionuclides with higher exemption levels, the use of such radionuclides for industrial, medical or research purposes, such as tracers, sealed sources and beta lights, may increase considerably without being controlled any longer by the regulatory system. (author)

  17. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Rensman, J.-W.; Schirra, M.; Shiba, K

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents materials data for design of ITER test blanket modules with the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel type F82H as structural material. From the physical properties databases, variations of modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. Also reported are Poisson's ratio and magnetic properties. From the tension test results, nominal and minimum stress values of S{sub y} and S{sub u} are derived and used for calculation of allowable primary membrane stress intensity S{sub m}. Likewise, uniform and total elongations, as well as reduction of area data, are used for calculation of minimum and true ductility at rupture values. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness test data, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of material in different fracture modes are evaluated. The effect of specimen size and geometry are discussed but preference is given to standard size specimens. From the fatigue data, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves, using a reduction factor of 2 on strain and a reduction factor of 20 on number of cycles to failure. Cyclic hardening curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. From the creep data, time dependent allowable stresses S{sub r} and S{sub t} are calculated. Combination of tension and creep results are used to deduce S{sub mt} and isochronus curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to insure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  18. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  19. Dehydrogenase activity and quality of leachates in Technosols with gossan and sulfide materials from the São Domingos mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarílis

    2014-05-01

    Wastes produced by mining activity in São Domingos (Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt) were disposed over a large area. To speed up the ecological rehabilitation in this mine, an integrative strategy using different amendments+mine wastes was used to produce Technosols with enhanced soil functions. To evaluate the efficiency of these Technosols the dehydrogenase activity and chemical quality of leachates were monitored. Technosols were composed of different mine wastes (gossan and sulfide materials), collected at the São Domingos mine, and mixtures of amendments applied at 30 and 75 Mg/ha (rockwool+agriculture wastes+wastes from liquors distillation of strawberry tree fruits (Arbutus unedo L.) and/or carobs (Ceratonia siliqua L. fruits)). Three assays, under controlled conditions, were carried out: (1 and 2) Sulfide or gossan materials with/without amendments; (3) Sulfide wastes, with/without amendments, incubated during four months and then with application of an overlayer of gossan (~3 cm thick) with/without the same amendments. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and chemical characteristics of leachates (multielemental concentration, pH, and electric conductivity) were determined after four/seven/thirteen months of incubation. Sulfide wastes had more hazardous characteristics (pH~2 and total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (58.1), As (1.1), Cu (2.1), Fe (107.3), Pb (11.7), S (65.3) and Zn (1.1) than the gossan materials (pH=4.3; g/kg, Al: 24.8, As: 3.0, Cu: 0.2, Fe: 129, Pb: 9.2, S: 13.7, Zn: 0.04). Amendments application to gossan (assay 2) enhanced DHA in both sampling periods (µg TPF g dry weight 16 h-1, Control: 0,72-1,78; Amended treatments: 2.49-16.36 depending on mixture/application rate/sampling period). Greater application rates stimulated DHA (more than 1.5-fold with 75 Mg/ha). No differences were observed in DHA in the gossan layer with/without amendments (assay 3) suggesting a negative impact on gossan microrganisms from sulfide materials located below. In

  20. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the within-bottle homogeneity study of reference materials of marine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniel Pereira da

    2017-01-01

    The use of reference materials has been increasing in chemical analysis laboratories as its use is important for measurement validation in analytical chemistry. Such materials are generally imported, which require high financial investments in order to acquire them, and therefore it impacts on the difficulty to many national laboratories to use reference materials in their chemical analysis routine. Certification of reference materials is a complex process that assumes that the user is given appropriate assigned values of the properties of interests in the material. In this process, the homogeneity of the material must be checked. In this study, the within-bottle homogeneity study for the elements K, Mg, Mn, Na and V was performed for two reference materials of marine origin: the mussel reference material produced at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) of IPEN - CNEN/SP and an oyster tissue reference material produced abroad. For this purpose, the elements were determined in subsamples with masses varying between 1 and 250 mg by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and minimum sample intakes were estimated, ranging from 0.015 g for Na in the mussel reference material to 0.100 g for V in the two reference materials. (author)

  1. Controlling lipid oxidation via a biomimetic iron chelating active packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-12-18

    Previously, a siderophore-mimetic metal chelating active packaging film was developed by grafting poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) from the surface of polypropylene (PP) films. The objective of the current work was to demonstrate the potential applicability of this PP-g-PHA film to control iron-promoted lipid oxidation in food emulsions. The iron chelating activity of this film was investigated, and the surface chemistry and color intensity of films were also analyzed after iron chelation. In comparison to the iron chelating activity in the free Fe(3+) solution, the PP-g-PHA film retained approximately 50 and 30% of its activity in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)/Fe(3+) and citric acid/Fe(3+) solutions, respectively (pH 5.0), indicating a strong chelating strength for iron. The ability of PP-g-PHA films to control lipid oxidation was demonstrated in a model emulsion system (pH 3.0). PP-g-PHA films performed even better than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in preventing the formation of volatile oxidation products. The particle size and ζ potential results of emulsions indicated that PP-g-PHA films had no adverse effects on the stability of the emulsion system. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis suggested a non-migratory nature of the PP-g-PHA film surface. These results suggest that such biomimetic, non-migratory metal chelating active packaging films have commercial potential in protecting foods against iron-promoted lipid oxidation.

  2. Development and qualification of functional materials for the EU Test Blanket Modules: Strategy and R and D activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, M., E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boccaccini, L., E-mail: lorenzo.boccaccini@inr.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Salavy, J.-F., E-mail: jfsalavy@cea.fr [CEA/Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Knitter, R., E-mail: regina.knitter@imf.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Materialforschung III, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moeslang, A., E-mail: anton.moeslang@imf.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Materialforschung I, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Magielsen, A.J., E-mail: magielsen@nrg.eu [NRG Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hegeman, J.B.J. [NRG Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Laesser, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference tritium breeder blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The paper reviews the current status of development and qualification of the EU TBMs functional materials; i.e. ceramic solid breeder materials, beryllium/beryllides multiplier materials and Lithium-Lead liquid metal breeder material Pb-15.7Li. For each functional material the main functional/performance requirements with key qualification issues, current status of the R and D activities and the EU development strategy are presented. In the development strategy major steps considered are listed pointing out importance of the 'Development/qualification/procurement plan', currently under elaboration, for definition of a roadmap of further activities aiming at delivery of qualified functional materials to be used in the European TBMs in ITER.

  3. The effects of impurity composition and concentration in reactor structure material on neutron activation inventory in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Gil Yong; Kim, Soon Young [RADCORE, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Min [TUV Rheinland Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The neutron activation inventories in reactor vessel and its internals, and bio-shield of a PWR nuclear power plant were calculated to evaluate the effect of impurity elements contained in the structural materials on the activation inventory. Carbon steel is, in this work, used as the reactor vessel material, stainless steel as the reactor vessel internals, and ordinary concrete as the bio-shield. For stainless steel and carbon steel, one kind of impurity concentration was employed, and for ordinary concrete five kinds were employed in this study using MCNP5 and FISPACT for the calculation of neutron flux and activation inventory, respectively. As the results, specific activities for the cases with impurity elements were calculated to be more than twice than those for the cases without impurity elements in stainless and carbon steel. Especially, the specific activity for the concrete material with impurity elements was calculated to be 30 times higher than that without impurity. Neutron induced reactions and activation inventories in each material were also investigated, and it is noted that major radioactive nuclide in steel material is Co-60 from cobalt impurity element, and, in concrete material, Co-60 and Eu-152 from cobalt and europium impurity elements, respectively. The results of this study can be used for nuclear decommissioning plan during activation inventory assessment and regulation, and it is expected to be used as a reference in the design phase of nuclear power plant, considering the decommissioning of nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities.

  4. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Fangfang [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lv, Fengzhu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon was investigated as adsorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent for the extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of different metals on the extraction were investigated and discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many loading factors of Cu{sup 2+} were found having great influences on the extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction performances and mechanism of TNT red water on Cu/LAC were investigated. - Abstract: Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC > Sn/LAC > Ag/LAC > Ba/LAC > Fe/LAC > Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu{sup 2+} showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu{sup 2+} on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu{sup 2+} from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent

  5. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  6. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  7. Recent IAEA activities to support utilisation of cementitious materials in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojowan, M.I.; Samanta, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes a safe and effective management of radioactive waste and has suitable programmes in place to serve the needs of Member States in this area. In support of these programmes the Waste Technology Section fosters technology transfer, promotes information exchange and cooperative research, as well as builds capacity in Member States to manage radioactive wastes, resulting both from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications. Technical assistance in pre disposal area covers all of these activities and is delivered through established Agency mechanisms including publication of technical documents. While the Agency does not conduct any in-house research activities, its Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) foster research in Member States. There are 2 CRPs concerning cementitious materials: a CRP on cements and an on-going CRP on irradiated graphite waste. The CRP on cements has resulted in the recent IAEA publication TECDOC-1701. An important activity concerned with characterisation of cementitious waste forms is the LABONET network of laboratory-based centres of expertise involved in the characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The Waste Technology Section is preparing a series of comprehensive state of the art technical handbooks

  8. Material and orientation dependent activity for heterogeneously catalyzed carbon-bromine bond homolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walch, Hermann; Gutzler, Rico; Sirtl, Thomas; Eder, Georg; Lackinger, Markus [LMU Munich, Section Crystallography (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Adsorption of the organic molecule 1,3,5-tris(4-bromophenyl)benzene on different metallic substrates, namely Cu(111), Ag(111) and Ag(110) has been studied by variable temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Depending on substrate temperature, material and orientation, we observe a surface-catalyzed dehalogenation reaction. Deposition onto the catalytically active substrates Cu(111) and Ag(110) held at room temperature leads to cleavage of the carbon-bromine bonds and subsequent formation of protopolymers, i.e radical metal coordination complexes. However upon deposition on Ag(111) no such reaction has been observed. Instead, various self-assembled ordered structures based on intact molecules could be identified. Also sublimation onto either substrate held at 80 K did not result in any dehalogenation, thereby exemplifying that the dehalogenation reaction is thermally activated. We explain the differences in catalytic activity by charge transfer into unoccupied molecular orbitals and subsequent destabilization of the C-Br bond, whereby enhanced molecule-substrate interaction leads to an increasing magnitude of charge transfer. The interaction strength follows the general reactivity order Cu>Ag>Au for (111) faces and is generally enhanced on higher corrugated surfaces as the (110) facet in case of fcc substrates.

  9. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  10. Evaluation of gamma activities of naturally occurring radioactive materials in uncontaminated surface soils of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice Miller; Mitko Voutchkov

    2014-01-01

    In this study a geological, lithological or pedogenesis analysis is used to explain the values and distribution of the primordial specific gamma activities in the Jamaican soil environment. A random systematic sampling method resulted in Jamaica being divided into 50 square grids with a maximum sampling density of 225 square meters per sample. The resulting sixty-eight (68) samples were measured on a Canberra HPGe detector for 24 h and the photopeaks for the primordial gammas of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K analyzed. Spearman's correlation was used to investigate the relationships between the primordial specific activities and the geological features of the soil samples collected and the geographic information system, ArcGIS v10.1 used to graphically depict the gamma profile of the primordials across the island. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that in general the variations of the primordial gamma specific activities over the underlying soil geologies were statistically significant. However, the pairwise Post-Hoc test results did not suggest a significant variation in mean specific for any of the primordial with all the underlying geology even when the unadjusted p value was used. This result along with the Spearman's coefficient correlation values suggested a moderate to weak relationship between the gamma profile of the top soil and its underlying geology. With the exception of a weak correlation with 232 Th (-0.295) no other primordial radionuclide correlated with the UNESCO/FAO soil categories for the island. The most significant correlations for soil characteristics and gamma activities were organic matters which were positive for 232 Th (0.518), 238 U (0.481) but negative for 40 K (-0.284). (author)

  11. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m"2 with ion fluxes up to 10"2"4/m"2 s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  12. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold, E-mail: lumsdainea@ornl.gov; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} with ion fluxes up to 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2} s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye on TiO2/activated carbon composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantsiferana, C; Mohamed, E F; Delmas, H

    2014-01-01

    A sequential adsorption/photocatalytic regeneration process to remove tartrazine, an azo-dye in aqueous solution, has been investigated. The aim ofthis work was to compare the effectiveness of an adsorbent/photocatalyst composite-TiO2 deposited onto activated carbon (AC) - and a simple mixture of powders of TiO2 and AC in same proportion. The composite was an innovative material as the photocatalyst, TiO2, was deposited on the porous surface ofa microporous-AC using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition in fluidized bed. The sequential process was composed of two-batch step cycles: every cycle alternated a step of adsorption and a step of photocatalytic oxidation under ultra-violet (365 nm), at 25 degreeC and atmospheric pressure. Both steps, adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation, have been investigated during four cycles. For both materials, the cumulated amounts adsorbed during four cycles corresponded to nearly twice the maximum adsorption capacities qmax proving the photocatalytic oxidation to regenerate the adsorbent. Concerning photocatalytic oxidation, the degree of mineralization was higher with the TiO2/AC composite: for each cycle, the value of the total organic carbon removal was 25% higher than that obtained with the mixture powder. These better photocatalytic performances involved better regeneration than higher adsorbed amounts for cycles 2, 3 and 4. Better performances with this promising material - TiO2 deposited onto AC - compared with TiO2 powder could be explained by the vicinity of photocatalytic and AC adsorption sites.

  14. Effect of different fibers on mechanical properties and ductility of alkali-activated slag cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Qin, C. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.; Wu, Y. Q.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different fibers on mechanical properties and ductility of alkali-activated slag cementitious material (AASCM) is studied. The research contents include: fiber type (plant fiber, polypropylene fiber), fiber content, mechanical property index, tensile stress-strain relationship curve, treating time. The test results showed that the compressive strength of two fibers reinforced AASCM was about 90 ~ 110MPa, and the tensile strength was about 3 ~ 5MPa. The reinforcement effect of polypropylene fiber is superior to that of plant fiber, and the mechanical properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced AASCM are superior to those of plant fiber, According to the comparison of SEM pictures, the plant fiber and polypropylene fiber are both closely bound with the matrix, and the transition zones are complete and close. Thus, it is proved that plant fiber and polypropylene fiber delay the crack extension and enhance the ductility of AASCM.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of rib bone samples and of bone reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Takata, M.K.; Kramarski, S.; Borelli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis method was used for the determination of trace elements in rib bone samples taken from autopsies of accident victims. The elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, Rb and Zn were determined in cortical tissues by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. The reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were also analyzed in order to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results. It was verified that lyophilization is the most convenient process for drying bone samples since it does not cause any element losses. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for rib samples and the literature values as well as between the results obtained for different ribs from a single individual and for bones from different individuals. (author)

  16. Optimal design of hollow core–shell structural active materials for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate mechanical and chemical degradation of active materials, hollow core–shell structures have been applied in lithium ion batteries. Without embedding of lithium ions, the rigid coating shell can constrain the inward volume deformation. In this paper, optimal conditions for the full use of inner hollow space are identified in terms of the critical ratio of shell thickness and inner size and the state of charge. It is shown that the critical ratios are 0.10 and 0.15 for Si particle and tube (0.12 and 0.18 for Sn particle and tube, and above which there is lack of space for further lithiation.

  17. Modelling of ion sorption on complex solid materials. Synthesis of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmier, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities which are part of efforts of qualification and quantification of retention capacities of synthetic and artificial materials used to confine nuclear wastes in an underground geological site by absorption of radio-elements possibly passed into solution. More specifically, these research works focused on models aimed at predicting the behaviour of a mixing with respect to adsorption, and thus at avoiding too cumbersome experimental characterizations. The author presents the designed modelling approach and models, describes the implemented scientific approach and the associated data acquisition methodology, and discusses the obtained results. He finally proposed an assessment of these research works, and discusses research perspectives on a short and medium term [fr

  18. Determination of uranium and thorium in semiconductor memory materials by high fluence neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Northcutt, K.J.; Scott, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were measured by absolute neutron activation analysis in high-purity materials used to manufacture semiconductor memories. The main thrust of the study concerned aluminum and aluminum alloys used as sources for thin film preparation, evaporated metal films, and samples from the Czochralski silicon crystal process. Average levels of U and Th were found for the source alloys to be approx. 65 and approx. 45 ppB, respectively. Levels of U and Th in silicon samples fell in the range of a few parts per trillion. Evaporated metal films contained about 1 ppB U and Th, but there is some question about these results due to the possibility of contamination

  19. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  20. Novel technologies for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities, materials and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whichello, Julian V.K.; Annese, Cynthia E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Division of Technical Support

    2008-07-01

    This paper will discuss the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Novel Technologies Project and its main goal of developing improved methods and technologies that will further enhance the detection of undeclared nuclear activities, materials and facilities. A major and fundamental task within the Project has been the development of methodologies and tools for identifying, documenting and utilizing nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) indicators and signatures (I and S) to facilitate a nuclear safeguards technology gap analysis. The outcome of this work will provide a basis for a novel range of methods and instruments, the development of which will contribute to the IAEA's overall objective of enhanced detection capabilities. (author)

  1. Determination of selenium in biological material by instrumental neutron activation analysis using 77m Se radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Tokura, Alexandra M.; Saiki, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diet due to its relation to the protection against carcinogenic substances, heart disease, hypertension, sexual performance enhancement, and others. In this work Se concentration in samples of the biological certificate reference materials Human Hair BCR-CRM 397, Spiked Human Hair IAEA-085, Unspiked Human Hair IAEA-086; Dogfish Liver DOLT-1 and Dogfish Muscle DORM-1 were determined in order to improve the instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, method using 77m Se radioisotope. The application of this method allows the analysis of a large number of samples of samples with reduced time of experimental and cost. the best results were obtained with the reactor operating at 5 MW and time of irradiation between 10 and 20 s. In these experimental conditions the relative standard deviation and error were generally lower than 10%. (author)

  2. Evaluation of radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods for determination of arsenic in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rick L

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) with retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) has played a key role in the certification of As in biological materials at NIST. Although this method provides very high and reproducible yields and detection limits at low microgram/kilogram levels, counting geometry uncertainties may arise from unequal distribution of As in the HMD, and arsenic detection limits may not be optimal due to significant retention of other elements. An alternate RNAA procedure with separation of arsenic by solvent extraction has been investigated. After digestion of samples in nitric and perchloric acids, As(III) is extracted from 2 M sulfuric acid solution into a solution of zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform. Counting of (76)As allows quantitation of arsenic. Addition of an (77)As tracer solution prior to dissolution allows correction for chemical yield and counting geometries, further improving reproducibility. The HMD and solvent extraction procedures for arsenic were compared through analysis of SRMs 1577c (bovine liver), 1547 (peach leaves), and 1575a (pine needles). Both methods gave As results in agreement with certified values with comparable reproducibility. However, the solvent extraction method yields a factor of 3 improvement in detection limits and is less time-consuming than the HMD method. The new method shows great promise for use in As certification in reference materials.

  3. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, Parrish; Prettyman, Tom; Lestone, John

    1999-01-01

    We have used a Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Imaging of heterogeneous matrices [T.H. Prettyman, R.J. Estep, G.A. Sheppard, Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 69 (1993) 183-184]. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. We are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source to sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term we have obtained images for a range of samples that are very well characterized; such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. We then compare the measurements to Monte Carlo N-particle calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes

  4. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Prettyman, T.; Lestone, J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have used a tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis imaging (PGNAA) of heterogeneous matrices. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. The authors are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis (NDA) technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source-to-sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term, the authors have obtained images for a range of sample that are very well characterized, such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. They then compare the measurements to MCNP calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement, it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes

  5. Application of reference materials for quality assessment in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Eckschlager, K.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally accepted that an analytical procedure can be regarded as an information production system yielding information on the composition of the analyzed sample. Thus, information theory can be useful and the quantities characterizing the information properties of an analytical method may be applied not only as evaluation criteria but also as objective functions in the optimization. The usability of information theory is demonstrated on the example of neutron activation analysis. Both precision and bias of NAA results are taken into account together with the possible use of reference materials for quality assessment. The influence of the above-mentioned parameters on information properties such as information gain and profitability of NAA results is discussed in detail. It has been proved that information theory is especially useful in choosing suitable reference materials for the quality assessment of routine analytical procedures not only with respect to matrix and analyte concentration in the sample but also to concentrations and uncertainties of certified values in the CRM used. In the extreme trace analysis, CRMs with relatively large uncertainties and very low certified concentrations can still yield rather high information gain of results. (author) 14 refs.; 9 figs

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  7. Variation of mineralogy and organic material during the early stages of aqueous activity recorded in Antarctic micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Yabuta, H.; Itoh, S.; Sakamoto, N.; Mitsunari, T.; Okubo, A.; Okazaki, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tachibana, S.; Terada, K.; Ebihara, M.; Imae, N.; Kimura, M.; Nagahara, H.

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorites (MMs) recovered from surface snow near the Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica are almost free from terrestrial weathering and contain very primitive materials, and are suitable for investigation of the evolution and interaction of inorganic and organic materials in the early solar system. We carried out a comprehensive study on seven porous and fluffy MMs [four Chondritic porous (CP) MMs and three fluffy fine-grained (Fluffy Fg) MMs] and one fine-grained type 1 (Fg C1) MM for comparison with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, and secondary ion mass spectrometer. They show a variety of early aqueous activities. Four out of the seven CP MMs contain glass with embedded metal and sulfide (GEMS) and enstatite whiskers/platelets and do not have hydrated minerals. Despite the same mineralogy, organic chemistry of the CP MMs shows diversity. Two of them contain considerable amounts of organic materials with high carboxyl functionality, and one of them contains nitrile (Ctbnd N) and/or nitrogen heterocyclic groups with D and 15N enrichments, suggesting formation in the molecular cloud or a very low temperature region of the outer solar system. Another two CP MMs are poorer in organic materials than the above-mentioned MMs. Organic material in one of them is richer in aromatic C than the CP MMs mentioned above, being indistinguishable from those of hydrated carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, bulk chemical compositions of GEMS in the latter organic poor CP MMs are more homogeneous and have higher Fe/(Si + Mg + Fe) ratios than those of GEMS in the former organic-rich CP MMs. Functional group of the organic materials and amorphous silicate in GEMS in the organic-poor CP MMs may have transformed in the earliest stage of aqueous alteration, which did not form hydrated minerals. Three Fluffy Fg MMs contain abundant phyllosilicates, showing a clear evidence of aqueous alteration

  8. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  9. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haori

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238 U and 239 Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two-fold approach was

  10. Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Kenji; Satou, Osamu; Ootsuka, Michio; Abe, Tetsuya; Hara, Shigemitsu; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Enoeda, Mikio.

    1997-01-01

    Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for the blanket of fusion device were investigated. A test chamber was constructed by welding F82H ferritic steel plates. The inner surface of the chamber was buffed and electropolished. The test chamber was degassed by the prebaking at temperature of 350degC for 20 h in vacuum. Then outgassing rates of the test chamber were measured by the throughput method as a function of pumping time for the cases that the test chamber was baked and not baked. The typical outgassing rate after baking at 250degC for 24 h was 3 x 10 -9 Pa·ms -1 and it seems that this value is sufficiently small to produce pressures at least as low as 10 -9 Pa in the vacuum chamber made of F82H ferritic steel. In the pump-down of the test chamber without baking after exposure to air, the outgassing rate decreases with pumping time and reached 1 x 10 -7 Pa·ms -1 at t = 10 5 s. The activation energy of hydrogen in bulk diffusion in the F82H ferritic steel was measured and found to be 7 kcal/mol. (author)

  11. Determination of 25 elements in biological standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, G.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.

    1974-12-01

    Standard and Certified Reference Materials programme of the JRC includes the determination of trace elements in complex biological samples delivered by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards: Bovine liver (NBS SRM 1577), Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM 1571) and Tomato Leaves. The study has been performed by the use of neutron activation analysis. Due to the very low concentration of some elements, radiochemical groups or elemental separation procedures were necessary. The paper describes the techniques used to analyse 25 elements. Computer assisted instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometry was considerably advantageous in the determination of Na, K, Cl, Mn, Fe, Rb and Co and in some cases of Ca, Zn, Cs, Sc, and Cr. For low contents of Ca, Mg, Ni and Si special chemical separation schemes, followed by Cerenkov counting have been developped. Two other separation procedures allowing the determination of As, Cd, Ga, Hg, Mo, Cu, Sr Se, Ba and P have been set up. The first, the simplified one involves the use of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors, the second, the more complete one involves a larger number of shorter measurements performed by simpler and more sensitive techniques, such as NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometry and Cerenkov counting. The results obtained are presented and discussed

  12. Electric field responsive origami structures using electrostriction-based active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Arrojado, Erika; Sigamani, Nirmal; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2015-04-01

    The objective of origami engineering is to combine origami principles with advanced materials to yield active origami shapes, which fold and unfold in response to external stimuli. We are investigating the use of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE), a relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer, to realize origami-inspired folding and unfolding of structures and to actuate so-called action origami structures. To accomplish these two objectives, we have explored different approaches to the P(VDF-TrFECTFE) polymer actuator construction, ranging from unimorph to multilayered stacks. Electromechanical characterization of the terpolymer-based actuators is conducted with a focus on free strain, force-displacement and blocked force. Moreover dynamic thickness strains of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer at different frequencies ranging from 0.1Hz to 10Hz is also measured. Quantifying the performance of terpolymer-based actuators is important to the design of action origami structures. Following these studies, action origami prototypes based on catapult, flapping butterfly wings and barking fox are actuated and characterization of these prototypes are conducted by studying impact of various parameters such as electric field magnitude and frequency, number of active layers, and actuator dimensions.

  13. Determination of Al, Si and P in certified reference materials by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyori, Amanda; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: anoyori@gmail.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Neutron analysis activation is not commonly used for aluminum, phosphorus and silicon determination, due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results. In this study, Al was determined by measuring {sup 28}Al and the contribution of P and Si due to {sup 28}Al formed in {sup 31}P(n,α){sup 28}Al and {sup 28}Si(n,p){sup 28}Al reactions were corrected using correction factors determined experimentally. Phosphorus was determined by measuring {sup 32}P (pure beta emitter) formed in reaction {sup 31}P(n,γ){sup 32}P. Silicon was determined by epithermal neutron analysis activation (ENAA) and measuring {sup 29}Al radionuclide formed in {sup 29}Si(n,p){sup 29}Al reaction. Aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and synthetic standards of the elements were irradiated together, using the pneumatic transfer station of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Results obtained for biological and geological CRMs showed good precision and accuracy with |Z-score| < 2 for Al, P and Si determinations. The detection limits for Al, P and Si determinations CRMs were also evaluated. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the viability of applying INAA procedures in the determination of Al, P and Si. (author)

  14. Neutron activation determination of rhenium in mineral raw materials of complex composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiryaeva, M.B.; Lyubimova, L.N.; Salmin, Yu.P.; Ryumina, K.N.; Tatarkin, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The method of neutron-activation rhenium determination in mineral raw material of complex composition is developed, according to which easily hydrolized elements: scandium, iron, lanthanum, ytterbium, protactinium, hafnium and partially ruthenium and osmium are isolated in the form of hydroxides after smelting of a sample, which has been previously irradiated in nuclear reactor (thermal neutron flux 1.2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs for 22 hr) with sodium peroxide and leaching of the melt by water. To separate Re from other interfering elements extraction of perrhenate-ion by methylethylketone from alkali solution is used. Interfering effect of gold is eliminated by its extraction with TBP 30% solution in toluence or benzene from 1 M HNO 3 . Activity of rhenium preparations, singled out from samples of comparison, is measured, using multichannel γ-spectrometer with Ge(Li)-coaxial detector of high resolution (approximately 2.0-2.2 keV over the line 122 keV 5+ Co). Relative standard deviation in Re content range 5x10 -7 -5x10 -2 % does not exceed 0.3

  15. Testing and evaluation of the properties of various potential materials for immobilizing high activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.; Beran, V.; Lutze, W.

    1980-01-01

    Second joint annual report of the work performed on the testing and evaluation of materials for immobilizing high activity waste under Community contracts. At Marcoule, active block samples containing HAW from the Marcoule reprocessing plant were cast to the specification of five of the six original reference samples and leach tested at ambient temperature. Phosphate glass -bead samples produced by the Gelsenberg/DWK PAMELA process- were included in the test programme at HMI-Berlin and UKAEA Harwell. Leaching tests of inactive samples with leachants of various pH-values, with ionized water and with natural water compositions representative of certain repository conditions (salt, clay and granite) were added to the Harwell programme. The studies of radiation and thermal effects and the investigation of devitrification phenomena, started in 1977, continued, as samples reached annealing times of 2400 h and doses 4 x 10 17 dpg. The results achieved have so far confirmed most of the favourable preliminary assessments of glass based solidification products. At this stage the programme aims primarily at the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena rather that at verification under realistic waste storage and disposal conditions

  16. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  17. Determination of Al, Si and P in certified reference materials by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyori, Amanda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Neutron analysis activation is not commonly used for aluminum, phosphorus and silicon determination, due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results. In this study, Al was determined by measuring "2"8Al and the contribution of P and Si due to "2"8Al formed in "3"1P(n,α)"2"8Al and "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al reactions were corrected using correction factors determined experimentally. Phosphorus was determined by measuring "3"2P (pure beta emitter) formed in reaction "3"1P(n,γ)"3"2P. Silicon was determined by epithermal neutron analysis activation (ENAA) and measuring "2"9Al radionuclide formed in "2"9Si(n,p)"2"9Al reaction. Aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and synthetic standards of the elements were irradiated together, using the pneumatic transfer station of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Results obtained for biological and geological CRMs showed good precision and accuracy with |Z-score| < 2 for Al, P and Si determinations. The detection limits for Al, P and Si determinations CRMs were also evaluated. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the viability of applying INAA procedures in the determination of Al, P and Si. (author)

  18. Multielement analysis of rice flour-unpolished reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    Trace elements in NIES certified reference material No. 10-a∼10-c Rice Flour-Unpolished, prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES), were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A set of three samples with different Cd concentration levels was subjected to analyses. Portions of each sample (ca. 200∼1000 mg) were irradiated, either with thermal neutrons without cadmium filter or with epithermal neutrons with cadmium filter, in the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). The activated samples were analyzed by the three methods; conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence counting spectrometry, and coincidence counting spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector and a well type NaI(Tl) detector. Concentrations of 26∼28 elements were determined by these methods. The values obtained for many elements, except for Mg and K, were in good agreement with those of the NIES certified and reference. Concentrations of 10 elements (S, Sc, V, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Th), whose certified or reference values are not available from NIES, were also determined in this work. (author)

  19. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stals, M.; Verhoeven, S.; Bruggeman, M.; Pellens, V.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from 226 Ra and its progeny; 232 Th progeny and 40 K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. -- Highlights: • Many building materials will have to be tested for NORM activity concentrations. • An on-site NORM analysis method has been developed and validated. • Over 120 building materials on the Belgian market have been analyzed with this method. • The Euratom BSS reference level of 1 mSv/year excess dose will

  20. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning Design of Problem Based Learning Model Based on Recommendations of Sintax Study and Contents Issues on Physics Impulse Materials with Experimental Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristia Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design learning Problem Based Learning Model based on syntax study recommendations and content issues on Physics Impulse materials through experiments. This research is a development research with Kemp model. The reference for making the learning design is the result of the syntax study and the content of existing PBL implementation problems from Agustina research. This instructional design is applied to the physics material about Impulse done through experimental activity. Limited trials were conducted on the SWCU Physics Education Study Program students group Salatiga, while the validity test was conducted by high school teachers and physics education lecturers. The results of the trial evaluation are limited and the validity test is used to improve the designs that have been made. The conclusion of this research is the design of learning by using PBL model on Impuls material by referring the result of syntax study and the problem content of existing PBL implementation can be produced by learning activity designed in laboratory experiment activity. The actual problem for Impuls material can be used car crash test video at factory. The results of validation tests and limited trials conducted by researchers assessed that the design of learning made by researchers can be used with small revisions. Suggestions from this research are in making learning design by using PBL model to get actual problem can by collecting news that come from newspaper, YouTube, internet, and television.

  2. Analysis of manual material handling activity to increase work productivity (Case study: manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro Muhammad Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual material handling is one of work activities that have an effect on the physical aspect of workers in manufacturing industry, it is necessary to do the analysis of the risks from such activities. Analysis was performed on worker when performing manual lifting activity and when using two tools (Automatic Handlift and Manual Handlift. In addition to analyse in ergonomics aspect, time study analysis and productivity measurement were carried out to determine the effects of the equipment. Nordic Body Map (NBM questionnaire on worker using Automatic Handlift showed declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 22%. REBA method obtained score of 10 and was declined to 4 after using these tool. The results of MPL method showed declining of Fc value from 4756.37 N to 1346.56 N. The results of RWL method showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.84 and 1.18 to 1.12 and 0.89 respectively. As for worker using Manual Handlift, NBM questionnaire result shows declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 57%. REBA method obtained scores of 8 and was reduced to 5. For MPL methode result, the Fc value is 4906.99 N and reduced to 2047.88 N. RWL method results showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.02 and 0.67 to 0.74 and 0.58. The results of time study analysis showed declining of Standard Time when use the two tools and make the increasing productivity of 9% by worker using Automatic Hadlift and 4% by worker using Manual Handlift.

  3. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses due to neutron activation of different materials in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, José

    2017-11-01

    All materials exposed to some neutron flux can be activated independently of the kind of the neutron source. In this study, a nuclear reactor has been considered as neutron source. In particular, the activation of control rods in a BWR is studied to obtain the doses produced around the storage pool for irradiated fuel of the plant when control rods are withdrawn from the reactor and installed into this pool. It is very important to calculate these doses because they can affect to plant workers in the area. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to simulate activation reactions produced in the control rods inserted into the reactor. Obtained activities are introduced as input into another MC model to estimate doses produced by them. The comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements allows the validation of developed models. The developed MC models have been also applied to simulate the activation of other materials, such as components of a stainless steel sample introduced into a training reactors. These models, once validated, can be applied to other situations and materials where a neutron flux can be found, not only nuclear reactors. For instance, activation analysis with an Am-Be source, neutrography techniques in both medical applications and non-destructive analysis of materials, civil engineering applications using a Troxler, analysis of materials in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, etc.

  4. Integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with d-Li neutrons up to 55 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moellendorff, Ulrich von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wada, Masayuki [Business Automation Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with a deuteron-lithium neutron source was performed. Since the maximum energy of neutrons produced was 55 MeV, the experiment with associated analysis was one of the first attempts for extending the energy range beyond 20 MeV. The following keywords represent the present study: d-Li neutrons, 55 MeV, dosimetry, SAND-II, spectrum adjustment, LA-150, MCNP, McDeLi, IFMIF, fusion reactor materials, integral activation experiment, low-activation, F82H, vanadium-alloy, IEAF, ALARA, and sequential charged particle reaction. (author)

  5. Fabrication of a PANI/CPs composite material: a feasible method to enhance the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Qi, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-03-21

    To improve the photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer in the visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) was loaded onto its surface through a facile in situ chemical oxidation polymerization process. The resulting PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials with excellent stability exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure coordination polymer photocatalyst on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. This enhancement can be ascribed to the introduction of PANI on the surface of the coordination polymer, which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as well as a significant expansion of the photoresponse region. Finally, we discussed the influence of acidity on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of the composite material. An optimal condition to obtain the PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material with excellent photocatalytic activity has been obtained.

  6. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  7. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Zier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  8. Analytic determination of the activation of essential and toxic trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron activation-analysis technique for the multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of this procedure comprise radiochemical and also instrumental analytic techniques. After radiochemical separation 34 elements can be determined, after only instrumental procedures 26 elements can be detected in biological material. The radiochemical analysis of 34 elements lasts 4 days. Tracer investigations on the radionuclide retention of the anorganic separators HAP, TiP and ZP in 9N aqueous HNO 3 solution indicated that apart from Na-24, K-42 and P-32 the radionuclides Cs-134, Rb-86 and Se-75 are almost quantitatively adsorbed at the separators. For the remaining investigated radionuclides different but well-reproducible retention values resulted. The pH-value only slightly influences the extent of the radionuclide retention. Kinetic investigations on the radiochemical precipitation of some radionuclides on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were carried out. The depositing of the radionuclides Ag-110m, Hg-203 and Se-75 at 0 0 C and room temperature on Cu(Hg)sub(x) and Cu foil is a first order reaction. The half-life periods and the velocity constants of the depositing on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were determined for the investigated radionuclides in dependency of the temperature. The technique was examined by means of international biological multielement standards of known element combinations. The realisation of ring tests for the multielement determination in potatoe and milk powder showed that this method provides precise results. The applicability of the radiochemical method was confirmed by the simultaneous determination of 25 elements in overall nutrition samples. The instrumental technique was applied for the multielement determination in human hair (of the head) and in river water. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Control of high natural activity building materials and land areas in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the ground can cause problems with high concentrations of indoor 222 Rn, elevated levels of gamma radiation and natural radioactive elements in drinking water. Of the Nordic countries it is essentially Finland, Norway and Sweden that have problems with enhanced natural radioactivity in the ground and in building materials. Finland and Sweden have among the highest mean 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings in the world, 123 Bq m -3 and 108 Bq m -3 with a corresponding mean annual effective dose of about 2 mSv. In Sweden about 500,000 and in Finland and Norway about 200,000 persons get their drinking water from wells drilled in bedrock. The water from a large number of these wells contain elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements, primarily 222 Rn. The action levels for 222 Rn in dwellings and above-ground workplaces are essentially the same in Finland, Norway and Sweden: 200 Bq m -3 for new buildings and 400 Bq m -3 for existing buildings. For mines and underground excavations, however, there are some differences. The treatment of gamma emitting natural radionuclides in building materials etc. is similar, although there are differences in the degree of control. The action levels for 222 Rn in drinking water differ from 100 Bq l -1 to 500 Bq l -1 . The action level in Finland has the form of an activity index that restricts also other radioactive nuclides. Denmark has not adopted a formal radon policy and has no recommended or legally binding action levels for 222 Rn or any other naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  10. Pure and Oxidized Copper Materials as Potential Antimicrobial Surfaces for Spaceflight Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C.; Hans, M.; Hein, C.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Mücklich, F.; Wirth, R.; Rettberg, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Moeller, R.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial biofilms can lead to persistent infections and degrade a variety of materials, and they are notorious for their persistence and resistance to eradication. During long-duration space missions, microbial biofilms present a danger to crew health and spacecraft integrity. The use of antimicrobial surfaces provides an alternative strategy for inhibiting microbial growth and biofilm formation to conventional cleaning procedures and the use of disinfectants. Antimicrobial surfaces contain organic or inorganic compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides or copper and silver, that inhibit microbial growth. The efficacy of wetted oxidized copper layers and pure copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents was tested by applying cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii to these metallic surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were used as non-inhibitory control surfaces. The production of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage increased rapidly within 1 h of exposure on pure copper surfaces, but the effect on cell survival was negligible even after 2 h of exposure. However, longer exposure times of up to 4 h led to a rapid decrease in cell survival, whereby the survival of cells was additionally dependent on the exposed cell density. Finally, the release of metal ions was determined to identify a possible correlation between copper ions in suspension and cell survival. These measurements indicated a steady increase of free copper ions, which were released indirectly by cells presumably through excreted complexing agents. These data indicate that the application of antimicrobial surfaces in spaceflight facilities could improve crew health and mitigate material damage caused by microbial contamination and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that cuprous oxide layers were superior to pure copper surfaces related to the antimicrobial effect and that cell density is a significant factor that influences the time dependence of

  11. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, J. C.; Mosher, D.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD) is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU) object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK) diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  12. Protecting the source. Securing nuclear material and strong radiation sources. New threats of terrorism are prompting the need for swift action to better secure nuclear material and strong radiation sources. Are measures already in place enough? The Stanford-Salzburg initiative suggests not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2003-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over threats of terrorism, the security of nuclear and radioactive material is an urgent and serious issue. Working with a range of partners, the IAEA has put into place a multi-faceted Action Plan to help countries upgrade their capabilities. But more needs to be done to counter new types of threats. One particular area that needs to be strengthened is the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 opened our eyes to i he urgent need to strengthen national physical protection (PP) practices for nuclear and other radioactive material. The principle that highly radioactive material will protect itself does not apply to the newest generation of terrorists. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists commanding the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to those who carried out the attacks in the US. Moreover, because there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, protection measures vary greatly from country to country. The IAEA recommended standards (Inference/225/Rev. 4) were not designed with the new terrorist threats in mind and national practices often fall short of even these recommendations. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism. Few argue the point that national physical protection practices for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened. This article summarizes a Stanford-Salzburg plan developed by experts from Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation, (USA) and revised at the EU-Physical Protection NUMAT Conference in September 2002 in Salzburg, Austria. It includes six recommended elements to consider in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a global list of physical protection priorities; Create a multilateral security cooperation

  13. Rapid probing of photocatalytic activity on titania-based self-cleaning materials using 7-hydroxycoumarin fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Huimin; Zhu Lihua; Zhou Hehui; Tang Heqing

    2008-01-01

    Self-cleaning materials are widely applied, but the available methods for determining their photocatalytic activity are time consuming. A simple analysis method was proposed to evaluate rapidly the photocatalytic activity of self-cleaning materials. This method is based on monitoring of a highly fluorescent product generated by the self-cleaning materials after illumination. Under UV irradiation, holes photo-induced on the surface of self-cleaning materials can oxidize water molecules (or hydroxide ions) adsorbed on the surface to produce hydroxyl radicals, which then quantitatively oxidize coumarin to highly fluorescent 7-hydroxycoumarin. It was observed that the fluorescence intensity of photo-generated 7-hydroxycoumarin at 456 nm (excited at 346 nm) linearly increased with irradiation time, and the fluorescence intensity at a given irradiation time was linearly proportional to the photocatalytic activity of self-cleaning materials. Consequently, the photocatalytic activity of self-cleaning materials was able to be probed simply by using this new method, which requires an analysis time of 40 min, being much less than 250 min required for a dye method

  14. Comparison of antibacterial activities of root-end filling materials by an agar diffusion assay and Alamar blue assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Hsien Huang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that both the agar diffusion test and Alamar blue assay gave comparable findings of assessing the antimicrobial activity present in root-end filling materials. No antimicrobial activity was detected for mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium silicate cement, or amalgam after coming into contact with S. mutans, S. sanguinis and E. coli. IRM showed high antimicrobial activity against both S. sanguinis and E. coli.

  15. Evaluation of biological activities and chemical constituent of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Pandey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and chemical constituents of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract (water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the different extract. The chemical constituents present in the crude extract were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with UV detector. Results: Evaluated medicinal plant materials were found to have diverse phytonutrients. Results revealed that methanol extract of Pakhanved and Jethimadhu have highest total flavonoids and polyphenol content. Among the selected medicinal plant materials Jethimadhu extract revealed the highest antioxidant activities. Furthermore, evaluated medicinal plants extract were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibition activity against both gram positive and gram negative species. The highest antibacterial activities were observed in the case of methanol extract, whereas, least activity was observed with the hexane extract. HPLC analysis of the acetone extract of Jethimadhu reveals the presence of diosmetin. Conclusions: Our result revealed that among the five evaluated medicinal plant materials, Jethimadhu extract revealed biological activities and exhibits a higher amount of polyphenol and flavonoid content. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 369-377

  16. Neutron activation analysis of Standard Materials of Comparison IAEA- the corn and soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadakhanov, J.A.; Sadykov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that maintenance of quality of results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), no less than in other analytical methods, is one of key problems. Thus first of all it is necessary to provide correctness of results. The most correct way of revealing and elimination of regular errors is carrying out of analyses of Standard Samples of Comparison (SSC) by the developed techniques and comparison of the received results with the certificated results. Therefore, the analysis and certification of various SSC is one of the most actual tasks of modern analytical chemistry. One of few organizations engaged in manufacture SSC for NAA, is IAEA which has organized the Project on certification of samples of comparison - a corn and soya flour. Among many laboratories worldwide, in this Project the Laboratory of the Activation Analysis of Pure Materials of Institute of Nuclear Physics Academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan also participated. We carry out series of analyses of samples of corn and soya flour, candidates for standard samples of comparison, by the method of instrumental NAA. The preparing of samples was carried out by the technique described in the technical project applied to these materials. Samples before the analysis dried up at temperature 80 degree C during 24 h. Cooled, weighed and irradiated in the vertical channel of a nuclear reactor of VVR-SM of Institute of Nuclear Physics Academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan during 0,5-1 h (depending on determined elements) with density of a stream of neutrons 1 x 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 sec. Time of cooling from 10 min up to 10 days. Time of measurement from 100 sec up to 3000 sec. Measurements were carried out on gamma spectrometer consisting of HPGe detector GC1518 and digital multichannel analyzer DSA-1000('Canberra', USA). Processing of the spectrometer information carried out with the help of software package Genie-2000. As a result of the carried out analyses we determine contents of 21 elements in

  17. Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P

    2013-10-01

    Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-α, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. © 2013.

  18. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Vicente; Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis; Romero, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H 2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  19. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Vicente, E-mail: vicente.jimenez@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Romero, Amaya [Escuela Tecnica Agricola, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N{sub 2}/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H{sub 2} and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  20. Research status on radiation damage in nuclear materials and recommendations for IAEA activities. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Alfredo; Caro, Magdalena

    2002-03-01

    This report addresses the synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials. Together, they contributed to significantly advance our comprehension of materials properties like mechanical behavior. It also highlights its impact on nuclear technology, as it provides physical insight into the complex processes responsible for the degradation of structural materials under neutron irradiation