WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials phase ii

  1. Advanced materials for future Phase II LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Dallocchio, A; Arnau Izquierdo, G; Artoos, K

    2009-01-01

    Phase I collimators, equipped with Carbon-Carbon jaws, effectively met specifications for the early phase of LHC operation. However, the choice of carbon-based materials is expected to limit the nominal beam intensity mainly because of the high RF impedance and limited efficiency of the collimators. Moreover, C/C may be degraded by high radiation doses. To overcome these limitations, new Phase II secondary collimators will complement the existing system. Their extremely challenging requirements impose a thorough material investigation effort aiming at identifying novel materials combining very diverse properties. Relevant figures of merit have been identified to classify materials: Metal-diamonds composites look a promising choice as they combine good thermal, structural and stability properties. Molybdenum is interesting for its good thermal stability. Ceramics with non-conventional RF performances are also being evaluated. The challenges posed by the development and industrialization of these materials are ...

  2. NNWSI Phase II materials interaction test procedure and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report describes a test method (Phase II) that has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated repository conditions, and provides information on materials interactions that may occur in the repository. The results of 13 weeks of testing using the method are presented, and an analog test is described that investigates the relationship between the test method and expected repository conditions. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables

  3. Sputter-Resistant Materials for Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop sputter-resistant materials for use in electric propulsion test facilities and for plume shields on spacecraft using electric...

  4. Low Cost, Light Weight Materials for Mirrors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the phase I program Northwestern and APS, Inc., have manufactured several different materials systems that are lighter than Beryllium and stiffer than...

  5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL, SELF-HEALING HYBRIDSIL MATERIALS FOR EVA SPACE SUIT PRESSURE GARMENT SYSTEMS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward Phase III...

  6. Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will advance innovative, cost effective and reliable nano-phase exothermic RCC joining processes (ExoBrazeTM) in order to be able to reinforce...

  7. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  8. Advanced Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Propellant Storage Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc responds to the NASA solicitation Topic X9 entitled "Propulsion and Propellant Storage" under subtopic X9-01, "Long Term Cryogenic...

  9. Crack propagation in touch ductile materials. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venter, R.D.; Sinclair, A.N.; McCammond, D.

    1989-06-01

    The thrust of this work was to investigate published J material resistance and stress-strain data applicable to the understanding of crack propagation in tough ductile steels, particularly SA 106 Grade B pipe steel. This data has been assembled from PIFRAC, AECB report INFO-0254-1 and Ontario Hydro sources and has been uniformly formatted and presented to facilitate comparison and assessment. While the data is in many aspects incomplete it has enabled an evaluation of the influence of temperature, specimen thickness and specimen orientation to be made in the context of the experimental J-R curves so determined. Comparisons of the stress-strain data within the Ramburg-Osgood formulation are also considered. A further component of this report addresses the development of the required software to utilize what is referred to as the engineering approach to elasto-plastic analysis to investigate the load carrying capacity of selected cracked pipe geometries which are representative of applied crack propagation studies associated with piping systems in the nuclear industry. Three specific geometries and loading situations, identified as Condition A, B and C have been evaluated; the results are presented and illustrate the variation in applied load as a function of an initial and final crack extension leading to instability

  10. Development of methods for measuring materials nuclear characteristics, Phases, I, II, II and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglic, R.

    1963-04-01

    This report contains the following phases of the project 'measurement of nuclear characteristics of reactor materials': nuclear performances of the neutron chopper; method for measuring total effective cross sections by transmission method on the chopper; review of methods for measuring activation cross sections; measurement of neutron spectra of the RA reactor and measurement of total effective cross section of gold by using the chopper

  11. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  12. Materials information for science and technology (MIST): Project overview: Phases I and II and general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the initial phases of the Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST) project jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of MIST is to demonstrate the power and utility of computer access to materials property data. The initial goals include: to exercise the concept of a computer network of materials databases and to build a demonstration of such a system suitable for use as the core of operational systems in the future. Phases I and II are described in detail herein. In addition, a discussion is given of the expected usage of the system. The primary MIST prototype project is running on an IBM 3084 under STS at the Stanford University's Information Technology Services (ITS). Users can access the Stanford system via ARPANET, TELENET, and TYMNET, as well as via commercial telephone lines. For fastest response time and use of the full screen PRISM interface, direct connection using a 2400 baud modem with the MNP error-correcting protocol over standard telephone lines gives the best results - though slower speed connections and a line-oriented interface are also available. This report gives detailed plans regarding the properties to be enterend and the materials to be entered into the system.

  13. Thermal characteristics of manganese (II) nitrate hexahydrate as a phase change material for cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, K.; Mochida, T.; Takeda, S.; Domanski, R.; Rebow, M.

    2003-01-01

    The imbalance of electrical demand in summer due to cooling system demand is a big problem in many countries. One promising solution is shifting peak demand from early afternoon to night by utilizing natural cold energy resources such as cool outside air during night or running a refrigerator driven by midnight power. In these cases, using the thermal energy storage (TES) of phase change material (PCM) which has a melting point from 15 to 25 deg. C is one of the most effective ideas. However, few suitable PCMs for this temperature range are at present commercially available. This study aims to evaluate the potential of Mn(NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O (manganese (II) nitrate hexahydrate) as a new PCM for the TES of cooling systems. First, experiments on the modulation of the melting point of Mn(NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O and reduction of supercooling were made by dissolving small amounts of salts in the material. Consequently, MnCl 2 · 4H 2 O was found to have good performance with regard to both modulation of the melting temperature and the heat of fusion. Next, a thermal response test was carried out by using a small cylindrical vessel. Results showed that the required temperature levels for charging and discharging the heat of this mixture were clarified. In addition, the price and safety of this material as a PCM are discussed

  14. Development of methods for measuring materials nuclear characteristics, Phases, I, II, II and IV; Razvijanje metoda merenja nuklearnih karakteristika materijala, I, II, II i VI faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglic, R [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1963-04-15

    This report contains the following phases of the project 'measurement of nuclear characteristics of reactor materials': nuclear performances of the neutron chopper; method for measuring total effective cross sections by transmission method on the chopper; review of methods for measuring activation cross sections; measurement of neutron spectra of the RA reactor and measurement of total effective cross section of gold by using the chopper.

  15. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete aggregate : (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster aquaculture in the : Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  16. Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3-D Printing of Non-Standard Plastics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue efforts from the 2015 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H14.03 ?Reversible Copolymer Materials for FDM 3D Printing...

  17. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  18. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete : aggregate (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster : aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  19. Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuknecht, Nate [Project Manager; White, David [Principle Investigator; Hoste, Graeme [Research Engineer

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  20. Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall technical objective of this multi-phase project is to develop and validate a so-called 'AAW-Process' that consists of (i) the Active Aeroelastic Wing...

  1. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  2. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  3. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  4. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  5. Vapor Chamber with Phase Change Material-Based Wick Structure for Thermal Control of Manned Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During a NASA Phase I SBIR program, ACT addressed the need for light-weight, non-venting PCM heat storage devices by successfully demonstrating proof-of-concept of a...

  6. Aerospace Systems Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  7. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  8. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part II specializations; Radijaciono ostecenje konstrukcionih materijala, - I-II, I faza, II deo - specijalizacije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-03-15

    This document contains three reports about the visits and training of the experts involved in VISA-2 project to Saclay. All the documents include technical description about methods for fabrication and testing the materials under different irradiation conditions.

  9. Precursors for use in vapour and solution phase thermolysis routes to II-VI thin films and nanodispersed oxide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunggaze, M.

    1999-12-01

    Monothiocarbamates M(OSCNEt 2 ) 2 M = Cd (1) Zn (2) analogous to the dithiocarbamates (Et 2 NCS 2 ) 2 M which have been extensively studied for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), have been prepared as alternative single-source precursors for depositing II-VI semiconducting materials. Structural analysis of (1) revealed a new, O-binucleating, bonding mode for the monothiocarbamato ligand resulting in polymeric chains which are co-aligned to give a distorted close-packed hexagonal array. The mixed alkyl zinc derivative [Et 4 Zn 4 (OSCNEt 2 ) 2 (NEt 2 ) 2 ] is formed as the only isolable product from the reaction of EtZnNEt 2 with carbonyl sulfide and also exhibits a second new bonding mode for the monothiocarbamato ligand in which both the oxygen and sulfur atoms are binucleating. Uniform adherent films of CdS films with various morphologies were grown on GaAs(100) and glass at substrate temperatures between 350-450 deg C. No oxygen incorporation within the films was observed. Mechanistic studies into the decompositional behaviour of the monothiocarbamate precursors in comparison to the dithiocarbamate precursors were investigated by using pyrolysis GC-MS and EI-MS; with GC-MS conditions comparable to those usually used in MOCVD reactors. GC-MS analysis showed that the major decomposition product during the deposition of CdS is Et 2 NC(O)SC(O)NEt 2 . Similar mechanistic studies into the deposition of MSe by MOCVD from the diselenocarbamates M(Se 2 CNEt 2 ) 2 M = Zn (3), Cd (4); M(Se 2 CNMe n Hex) 2 M = Zn (5), Cd (6); and EtZnSe 2 CNEt 2 (7) were carried out in an effort to determine why the symmetric selenocarbamates (3) and (4) deposit films heavily contaminated with selenium in comparison to the asymmetric analogues (5) and (6). The EI-MS of all five selenium compounds revealed similar decomposition pathways, which start with the loss of an alkyl group. However, studies of compounds (1)-(5) by pyrolysis GC-MS show that selenium clusters Se n n = 1

  10. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  11. Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, K M

    2004-01-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field of materials science interested in comparing predictions of properties with experimental results may well find the mathematical level quite daunting initially, as it is apparent that the author assumes a level of mathematics consistent with that taught in final year undergraduate and graduate theoretical physics courses. However, for such readers it is well worth persevering because of the in-depth coverage to which the various models are subjected, and also because of the extensive reference lists at the back of both volumes which direct readers to the various source references in the scientific literature. Thus, for the wider materials science scientific community the two volumes will be a valuable library resource. While I would have liked to see more comparison with experimental data on both ideal and 'real' heterogeneous materials than is provided by the author and a discussion of how to model strong nonlinear current--voltage behaviour in systems such as zinc oxide varistors, my overall

  12. Test of GERDA Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Gusev, Konstantin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard; Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. The experiment uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. In GERDA Phase I five BEGe detectors were operated successfully. These detectors are distinguished for improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. In Phase II additional 25 BEGe detectors will be installed. New electronics and radio-pure low-mass holders were specially designed for Phase II. Prior to the installation in GERDA all BEGe detectors are tested in their final assembly in the LNGS underground laboratory. This talk presents the mechanics and performance of the GERDA Phase II detector assembly.

  13. Phase-change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes relationship between phase-change materials and more conventional thermal control techniques and discusses materials' space and terrestrial applications. Material properties of most promising phase-change materials and purposes and uses of metallic filler materials in phase-change material composites are provided.

  14. Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II project is to develop lightweight reinforced aerogel materials for use as the core structural insulation material in...

  15. Status of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index (BI) of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. No signal has been found and a lower limit on the half-life of 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.) is extracted. The aim of Phase II is to double the Ge mass and further reduce the BI by an order of magnitude to explore half-lives of about 10{sup 26} yr. Thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by an active veto to read out argon scintillation light. The Phase II commissioning showed that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, can be suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. This talk presents the current status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade.

  16. Phase change materials handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide theory and data needed by the thermal design engineer to bridge the gap between research achievements and actual flight systems, within the limits of the current state of the art of phase change materials (PCM) technology. The relationship between PCM and more conventional thermal control techniques is described and numerous space and terrestrial applications of PCM are discussed. Material properties of the most promising PCMs are provided; the purposes and use of metallic filler materials in PCM composites are presented; and material compatibility considerations relevant to PCM design are included. The engineering considerations of PCM design are described, especially those pertaining to the thermodynamic and heat transfer phenomena peculiar to PCM design. Methods of obtaining data not currently available are presented. The special problems encountered in the space environment are described. Computational tools useful to the designer are discussed. In summary, each aspect of the PCM problem important to the design engineer is covered to the extent allowed by the scope of this effort and the state of the art.

  17. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 3; Material Model Development and Simulation of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.

  18. 129I Interlaboratory comparison: phase I and phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Roberts, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for 129 I was organized and conducted. Nine laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In Phase I of the comparison, 11 samples were measured. The suite of samples contained both synthetic ''standard type'' materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic 129 I/ 127 I ratios of the samples varied from 10 -8 to 10 -14 . In this phase, each laboratory was responsible for its own chemical preparation of the samples. In Phase I, the 129 I AMS measurements for prepared AgI were in good agreement. However, large discrepancies were seen in 129 I AMS measurements of environmental samples. Because of the large discrepancies seen in the Phase I 129 I intercomparison, a subsequent study was conducted. In Phase II of the 129 I intercomparison, three separate laboratories prepared AgI from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maples leaves). Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method with each of the methods being distinctly different. The resulting six samples (two sets of three) were then re-distributed to the participating 129 I AMS facilities and 129 I/ 127 I ratios measured. Results and discussion of both the Phase I and Phase II interlaboratory comparison are presented

  19. Phase transformations, stability, and materials interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Cost, J.R.; Shewmon, P.

    1977-07-01

    The proceedings of the Materials Sciences Workshop on Phase Transformations, Stability, and Materials Interactions are divided into sections according to the following topics: (I) workshop scope and priorities; (II) study group reports--ERDA mission needs; (III) study group reports--technical area research priorities

  20. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is reviewed under the headings: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase; crystallography; physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase; electronic structure of omega phase; electronic basis for omega phase stability; omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase; conclusion. The following elements of nuclear interest (or their alloys) are included: Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Mo. (U.K.)

  1. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified

  2. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase (omega phase in Ti, Zr and Hf under high pressures; omega phase in Group IV transition metal alloys; omega in other systems; omega embryos at high temperatures); crystallography (omega structure; relationship of ω-structure to bcc (β) and hcp (α) structures); physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase (kinetics of α-ω transformation under high pressures; kinetics of β-ω transformation; synthesis and metastability studies); electronic structure of omega phase (electronic structure models; band structure calculations; theoretical results and experimental studies); electronic basis for omega phase stability (unified phase diagram; stability of omega phase); omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys (Ti-V alloys under pressure - a prototype case study; P-X phase diagrams for alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase (is omega structure a charge density distortion of the bcc phase; nature of incommensurate ω-structure and models for diffuse scattering); conclusion. (U.K.)

  3. The Gerda Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Schoenert, Stefan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of the Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) experiment will continue the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Prerequisites for Phase II are an increased target mass and a reduced background index of < 10 {sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr). Major hardware upgrades to achieve these requirements are scheduled for 2013. They include the deployment of a new radio pure low mass detector assembly. The structural properties of available radio-pure materials and reduction of mass necessitate a change of the electrical contacting used to bias and read-out the detectors. The detector assembly design and the favored contacting solution are presented.

  4. Lightweight Metal RubberTM Sensors and Interconnects, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA Phase II program is to develop and increase the Technology Readiness Level of multifunctional Metal RubberTM (MRTM) materials that can be...

  5. Nanoscale phase change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marissa A; Jeyasingh, Rakesh Gnana David; Wong, H-S Philip; Milliron, Delia J

    2012-08-07

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

  6. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  7. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K. M.

    2004-02-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field\

  9. Phase II clinical development of new drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Naitee; Ho, Shuyen; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on how to appropriately plan and develop a Phase II program, and how to design Phase II clinical trials and analyze their data. It provides a comprehensive overview of the entire drug development process and highlights key questions that need to be addressed for the successful execution of Phase II, so as to increase its success in Phase III and for drug approval. Lastly it warns project team members of the common potential pitfalls and offers tips on how to avoid them.

  10. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  11. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

  12. Military Family Coping Project - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety, Life Satisfaction , Addiction, Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus...need for and guided the work of the Military Family Coping Project Phase II funded by TATRC. The Military Family Coping Project Phase II was...solidarity. For the purposes of family functioning analyses, married and unmarried soldiers were analyzed separately because marital status affects

  13. Performance of GERDA phase II BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. GERDA uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. The experiment proceeds in two phases. In Phase I a background index of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached and a new lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 95% C.L.). In Phase II the background index will be lowered by an order of magnitude and a sensitivity of 10{sup 26} yr will be reached. In order to achieve this goal 30 new custom-made broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors and a liquid argon scintillation light veto will be deployed. Five BEGe detectors have been operated successfully in Phase I and demonstrated their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. Special designed electronics will further improve energy resolution and PSD performance. The first results from commissioning of the new BEGe detectors are presented in this talk.

  14. Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise - Phase II (KOSAVE II)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauman, Walter

    1998-01-01

    ... (KOSAVE) Study (KOSAVE II) documents, in this report a statistical record of the Kursk battle, as represented in the KDB, for use as both a standalone descriptive record for historians, and as a baseline for a subsequent Phase...

  15. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the phase II effort, Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for...

  16. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort involves the development of a novel rodent spaceflight habitat, focusing on care and monitoring of mice for gravitational physiology...

  17. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  18. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  19. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  20. Oxygen-Methane Thruster, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  1. Innovation in the Sky, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal presents a scope of work to develop reliable Sense and Avoid for BVLOS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [UAV] operations. We first analyze a) the...

  2. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring crew member state of awareness in operational environments. All...

  3. Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase II program is to...

  4. Licensee Performance Evaluation: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.; Speaker, D.M.; Thompson, S.R.; Cohen, S.C.

    1979-08-01

    This report details work performed during the second phase of a two-phase contract to develop methodology for Licensee Performance Evaluation. The Phase I report, NUREG/CR-0110 details initial efforts on the contract. The model developed in Phase I was used to evaluate nine additional facilities for this report. Performance indicators from noncompliance data were also evaluated. Methodology was developed employing the noncompliance indicators and used for 12 case studies. It was found that licensee event report indicators could be more easily identified and utilized than noncompliance indicators based on presently available data systems. However, noncompliance data, appropriately related to cause, could provide real insight into why performance was what it was

  5. Small Business Innovation Research GRC Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) for NASA Glenn Research Center. The report also highlights the number of Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II contracts awarded by mission directorate. The 2015 Phase I contract awards to companies in Ohio and their corresponding technologies are also discussed.

  6. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20 ν GERDA Collaboration.

  7. Phase transformations im smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnham, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the qualities that distinguishes living systems from inanimate matter is the ability to adapt to changes in the environment. Smart materials have the ability to perform both sensing and actuating functions and are, therefore, capable of imitating this rudimentary aspect of life. Four of the most widely used smart materials are piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 , electrostrictive Pb(Mg, Nb)O 3 , magnetostrictive (Tb, Dy)Fe 2 and the shape-memory alloy NiTi. All four are ferroic with active domain walls and two phase transformations, which help to tune the properties of these actuator materials. Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 is a ferroelectric ceramic which is cubic at high temperature and becomes ferroelectric on cooling through the Curie temperature. At room temperature, it is poised on a rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary which enhances the piezoelectric coefficients. Terfenol, (Tb, Dy)Fe 2 , is also cubic at high temperature and then becomes magnetic on cooling through its Curie temperature. At room temperature, it too is poised on a rhombohedral-tetragonal transition which enhances its magnetostriction coefficients. Pb(Mg, Nb)O 3 and nitinol (NiTi) are also cubic at high temperatures and on annealing transform to a partially ordered state. On further cooling, Pb(Mg, Nb)O 3 passes through a diffuse phase transformation at room temperature where it exhibits very large dielectric and electrostrictive coefficients. Just below room temperature, it transforms to a ferroelectric rhombohedral phase. The partially ordered shape-memory alloy NiTi undergoes an austenitic (cubic) to martensitic (mono-clinic) phase change just above room temperature. It is easily deformed in the martensitic state but recovers its original shape when reheated to austenite

  8. Polymers in phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.C.; Brites, M.J.; Alexandre, J.H. [National Lab. for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which are the core of latent heat thermal energy storage systems are currently an area of investigation of increasing interest. Several substances differing in physical and chemical characteristics as well as in thermal behavior have been studied as PCMS{sup 1-3}. In order to meet the requisites of particular systems, auxiliary materials are often used with specific functions. This bibliographic survey shows that polymeric materials have been proposed either as the PCM itself in solid-liquid or solid-solid transitions or to perform auxiliary functions of shape stabilisation and microencapsulation for solid-liquid PCMs. The PCMs have an operating temperature ranging from around 0 C (for the system water/polyacrilamid) to around 127 C (for crosslinked HDPE). (orig.)

  9. Status of the Gerda phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. The first phase of the experiment collected 21.6 kg. yr of exposure with a background index (BI) of 0.01 cts/(keV . kg . yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit for the 0νββ half-life was set to T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} < 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L). The apparatus has now been upgraded to the Phase II configuration. In Phase II 38 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr. The goal of Gerda Phase II is to lower the BI to 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . y), in order to reach the sensitivity for T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} = O(10{sup 26}) yr. The additional target mass is constituted of 30 custom made BEGe detectors with higher energy resolution and better pulse shape discrimination performance. The detectors are operated in new radio-pure low-mass holders. The liquid argon surrounding the detectors has been instrumented to veto the background events which produce scintillation light. In this talk the current status and the performance of the Gerda Phase II are presented.

  10. Phase transformations in engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Lawson, A.C.; Dunand, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Phase transformations in engineering materials are inevitably related to mechanical behavior and are often precursors to residual stress and distortion. Neutron scattering in general is a valuable tool for studying their effects, and pulsed neutrons are of special value, because of the inherently comprehensive crystallographic coverage they provide in each measurement. At the Manuel Lujan neutron scattering center several different research programs have addressed the relationships between phase transformation/mechanical behavior and residual strains. Three disparate examples are presented; (1) stress induced transformation in a NiTi shape memory alloy, (2) cryogenically induced transformation in a quenched 5180 steel, and (3) time resolved evolution of strain induced martensite in 304 stainless steel. In each case a brief description of the principle result will be discussed in the context of using neutrons for the measurement

  11. Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach - Phase II

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach - Phase II. Over the past decade, the peace, conflict and development community has begun to question the value of medicalized approaches such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in dealing with aftermath of political violence ...

  12. LHC Experiments Phase II - TDRs Approval Process

    CERN Document Server

    Forti, F

    2017-01-01

    The overall review process and steps of Phase II were described in CERN-LHCC-2015-077. As experiments submit detailed technical design reports (TDRs), the LHCC and UCG work in close connection to ensure a timely review of the scientific and technical feasibility as well as of the budget and schedule of the upgrade programme.

  13. Mechanical Engineering and Design of the LHC Phase II Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Gentini, L; Mariani, N; Perret, R; Timmins, M A

    2010-01-01

    Phase II collimators will complement the existing system to improve the expected high RF impedance and limited efficiency of Phase I jaws. An international collaborative effort has been launched to identify novel advanced materials responding to the very challenging requirements of the new collimators. Complex numerical calculations simulating extreme conditions and experimental tests are in progress. In parallel, an innovative modular design concept of the jaw assembly is being developed to allow fitting in alternative materials, minimizing the thermally induced deformations, withstanding accidents and accepting high radiation doses. Phase II jaw assembly is made up of a molybdenum back-stiffener ensuring high geometrical stability and a modular jaw split in threes sectors. Each sector is equipped with a high-efficiency independent cooling circuit. Beam position monitors (BPM) are embedded in the jaws to fasten setup time and improve beam monitoring. An adjustment system will permit to fine-tune the jaw flat...

  14. First results from GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    Gerda is designed for a background-free search of 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay, using bare Ge detectors in liquid Ar. The experiment was upgraded after the successful completion of Phase I to double the target mass and further reduce the background. Newly-designed Ge detectors were installed along with LAr scintillation sensors. Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 with approximately 36 kg of Ge detectors and is currently ongoing. The first results based on 10.8 kg· yr of exposure are presented. The background goal of 10-3 cts/(keV· kg· yr) is achieved and a search for neutrinoless double-β decay is performed by combining Phase I and II data. No signal is found and a new limit is set at T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L.).

  15. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced. (topical review)

  16. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced.

  17. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  18. 78 FR 76789 - Additional Connect America Fund Phase II Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... inspection and copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445... Phase I to Phase II. 2. Timing of Phase II Support Disbursements. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order... language in paragraph 180 of the USF/ICC Transformation Order. We now seek to more fully develop the record...

  19. The Cryogenic Impact Resistant Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use in Composite Pressure Vessels with an Additional Cryogenic Bonding Scope, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of the proposed effort is to investigate the detailed composite material performance characteristics after being subjected to cryogenic temperatures and...

  20. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Insitut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10{sup −2} cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1·10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10{sup 26} yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10{sup −3} cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  1. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  2. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of "7"6Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10"−"2 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of "7"6Ge was set to 2.1·10"2"5 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10"2"6 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from "2"1"4Bi and "2"0"8Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10"−"3 cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  3. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gasparini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery and phase II (orthognathic surgery procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP and those who accepted phase II (IIP. To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation.

  4. LAr instrumentation for Gerda phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegmann, Anne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013. Currently the commissioning of Gerda Phase II is ongoing. To reach the aspired background index of ≤10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) active background-suppression techniques will be applied, including an active liquid argon veto (LAr veto). It has been demonstrated by the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon multipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during the commissioning runs are reported.

  5. Study of bituminous surface treatments in Virginia : Phase II, Summer, 1964 : Distribution characteristics of materials, effectiveness of one size aggregate, setting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Distribution Characteristics of Materials: Ten bituminous distributors and ten chip spreading operations were investigated the former by cotton pad, cup, and trough tests; the latter by measuring the distance covered by a truckload and by placing pan...

  6. Reversible switching in phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Wełnic; Matthias Wuttig

    2008-01-01

    Phase-change materials are successfully employed in optical data storage and are becoming a promising candidate for future electronic storage applications. Despite the increasing technological interest, many fundamental properties of these materials remain poorly understood. However, in the last few years the understanding of the material properties of phase-change materials has increased significantly. At the same time, great advances have been achieved in technological applications in elect...

  7. PCM Concrete. [Phase Change Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Andersen, T. [Danish Technological Institute, Taastrup (Denmark); Poulsen, H.-H. [BASF A/S, Roedekro (Denmark); Passov, F. [Spaencom A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Heiselberg, P. [Aalborg Univ..Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-04-01

    PCM-Concrete was a research and development project launched in 2009 and finished in 2012. The project, which was funded by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, had a total budget of 1.7 million Euros and included 4 partners: Danish Technological Institute (project manager), Aalborg University, BASF A/S and Spaencom A/S. The overall vision of the project was to reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling in buildings by developing high-performance concrete structures microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (PCM). The PCM used in the project was Micronal produced by BASF A/S. Micronal is small capsules with an acrylic shell and inside a wax with a melting point at approx. 23 deg. C equal to a comfortable indoor temperature. During the melting process thermal energy is transferred to chemical reaction (melting/solidification) depending on PCM being heated up or cooled down. Adding Micronal to concrete would theoretically increase the thermal mass of the concrete and improve the diurnal heat capacity which is the amount of energy that can be stored and released during 24 hours. Nevertheless, it is a relatively new technology that has not received much attention, yet. In the PCM-Concrete project 5 main investigations were carried out: 1) Development of concrete mix design with PCM. 2) Investigation of thermal properties of the PCM concrete: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, density. 3) Up-scaling the research to industrial production of PCM-concrete structures. 4) Testing energy efficiency in full scale. 5) Confronting aesthetic and acoustic barriers to full exploitation of the potential of PCM-concrete structures. The results from the test program showed: 1) That the diurnal heat storage capacity is higher for all 4 hollow core decks with tiles attached compared to the reference hollow core deck. 2) The hollow core decks with concrete tiles without PCM performs slightly better than the tiles with PCM. 3) That is was impossible to

  8. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Sun

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M and O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M and O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M and O 2000a)

  9. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  10. Multifunctional Composite Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical...

  11. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  12. Large Format LW Type-II SLS FPAs for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained...

  13. Extreme Environment Damage Index and Accumulation Model for CMC Laminate Fatigue Life Prediction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Materials Research & Design (MR&D) is proposing in the SBIR Phase II an effort to develop a tool for predicting the fatigue life of C/SiC composite...

  14. Intelligent Radiative Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An opportunity to boost energy efficiency in homes and buildings exists through the design of functional radiative properties in glass and other building materials....

  15. Phase-II Associative Memory ASIC Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, Alberto; Warren, Matthew; Green, Barry; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Motuk, Halil Erdem; Frontini, Luca; Liberali, Valentino; Crescioli, Francesco; Fedi, Giacomo; Sotiropoulou, Calliope-louisa; De Canio, Francesco; Traversi, Gianluca; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Kubota, Takashi; Calderini, Giovanni; Palla, Fabrizio; Checcucci, Bruno; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Mcnamara, Peter Charles

    2018-01-01

    This documents defines the specifications for the Associative Memory ASIC for Phase-II. The work-flow toward the final ASIC is organized in the following three steps • AM08 prototype: small area MPW prototype to test all the full custom features, the VHDL logic and the I/O. This chip must be fully functional with smaller memory area than the final ASIC; • AM09pre pre-production: full area ASIC to be fabricated with a full-mask set pilot run. Production corner wafers will be created; • AM09 production: full area ASIC with refinements for the mass production. The AM09 will be developed built on the AM08 extending the memory area, therefore the specification of both versions must be compatible.

  16. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Final Phase II report: Summary of distillation and material degradation tests for FY 1987 and FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation project is to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implementing these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic (that is, to meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal). Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations or other metal-finishing operations conducted at US Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) facilities. Waste process acids such as (1) HF-HNO 3 etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and (2) HNO 3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations is reclaimed by the use of distillation. This stream comprises HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO 3 /sup /minus// to be displaced by SO 4 /sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO 3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. In a downstream precipitation step, uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream. This report summarizes distillation tests and candidate material degradation tests conducted during FY 1987 and FY 1988

  17. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Johnson, J.W.; Martin, J.A.; McNeilly, G.S.; Milner, W.T.; Mosko, S.W.; Sayer, R.O.; Robinson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, with the completion of Phase I in late 1979, will include the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) and associated research areas, the new 25 MV tandem accelerator with new research areas for tandem beams, and modifications to utilize the ORIC as a booster accelerator. The combination of the tandem and ORIC will provide beam energies of 25 MeV/A for light heavy ions and 6 MeV/A up to A = 160. This paper discusses plans for a Phase II expansion of the facility to include an isochronous cyclotron with superconducting magnet and reconfiguration of the existing research areas and the ORIC vault to handle the higher energy beams from the new cyclotron. The new booster cyclotron is a low-flutter high-spiral design patterned after the MSU K = 800 design, with a central magnetic field of about 5 tesla and an extraction radius of 1 meter. The new beam transport system will incorporate an rf beam-splitter system that will be able to deliver successive beam pulses to two or three experiment areas

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay in GERDA Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macolino, C.

    2014-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. The GERDA experiment has completed the Phase I with a total collected exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index (BI) of the order of BI ≃ 10 −2 cts/(keVkg yr). No excess of events from 0νββ decay has been observed and a lower limit on the half-life on the 0νββ decay for 76 Ge has been estimated: T 0ν 1 /2 > 2.1·10 25 yr at 90% CL. The goal of GERDA Phase II is to reach the target sensitivity of T 0ν 1 /2 ≃ 1.4 · 10 26 yr, with an increased total mass of the enriched material and a reduced background level. In this paper the results from GERDA Phase I and the major improvements planned for Phase II are discussed.

  19. From phase-change materials to thermoelectrics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Matthias N.; Rosenthal, Tobias; Oeckler, Oliver [Dept. of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian Univ. Munich (Germany); Stiewe, Christian [German Aerospace Center, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Metastable tellurides play an important role as phase-change materials in data storage media and non-volatile RAM devices. The corresponding crystalline phases with very simple basic structures are not stable as bulk materials at ambient conditions, however, for a broad range of compositions they represent stable high-temperature phases. In the system Ge/Sb/Te, rocksalt-type high-temperature phases are characterized by a large number of vacancies randomly distributed over the cation position, which order as 2D vacancy layers upon cooling. Short-range order in quenched samples produces pronounced nanostructures by the formation of twin domains and finite intersecting vacancy layers. As phase-change materials are usually semimetals or small-bandgap semiconductors and efficient data storage requires low thermal conductivity, bulk materials with similar compositions and properties can be expected to exhibit promising thermoelectric characteristics. Nanostructuring by phase transitions that involve partial vacancy ordering may enhance the efficiency of such thermoelectrics. We have shown that germanium antimony tellurides with compositions close to those used as phase-change materials in rewritable Blu-Ray Discs, e.g. (GeTe){sub 12}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, exhibit thermoelectric figures of merit of up to ZT = 1.3 at 450 C if a nanodomain structure is induced by rapidly quenching the cubic high-temperature phase. Structural changes have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. (orig.)

  20. Heat transfer in multi-phase materials

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a profound understanding, which physical processes and mechanisms cause the heat transfer in composite and cellular materials. It shows models for all important classes of composite materials and introduces into the latest advances. In three parts, the book covers Composite Materials (Part A), Porous and Cellular Materials (Part B) and the appearance of a conjoint solid phase and fluid aggregate (Part C).

  1. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  2. Ultraflat Tip-Tilt-Piston MEMS Deformable Mirror, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a Phase II SBIR project to develop high-resolution, ultraflat micromirror array devices using advanced silicon surface micromachining...

  3. Post Process Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes in this STTR Phase II project to continue development and validation of Luna's amplitude-dependent, nonlinear ultrasonic...

  4. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  5. Improved Metal-Polymeric Laminate Radiation Shielding, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed Phase II program, builds on the phase I feaibility where a multifunctional lightweight radiation shield composite was developed and fabricated. This...

  6. Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG proposes to continue efforts from the 2016 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H5.04 Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock. In Phase II, CRG will refine...

  7. Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program builds from the successful Phase I efforts to demonstrate that Quantum Logic Devices' nanoelectronic platform for biological detection could...

  8. Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The principal Phase II objective is to refine and further develop the prototype PCHP into a useful thermal management tool. The Phase I program established the...

  9. Compact 2-Micron Transmitter for Remote Sensing Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort we propose to work with NASA to extend the Phase I achievements, which focused on design and development of very compact master and...

  10. Crystallization kinetics of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael; Sontheimer, Tobias; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (1A), RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Phase change materials are fascinating materials. They can be rapidly switched between two metastable states, the amorphous and crystalline phase, which show pronounced contrast in their optical and electrical properties. They are already widely used as the active layer in rewritable optical media and are expected to be used in the upcoming phase change random access memory (PRAM). Here we show measurements of the crystallization kinetics of chalcogenide materials that lead to a deeper understanding of these processes. This work focuses mainly on the Ge-Sb-Te system but also includes Ag-In-Te materials. The crystallization behaviour of these materials was investigated with an ex-situ annealing method employing the precise oven of a differential scanning calorimeter and imaging techniques employing atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy.

  11. The Phase II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the "ITk" (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^2$ , depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as $|\\eta| < 4$. Supporting structures will be ...

  12. Phase II Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid; McPherson, Brian; Lee, Rober

    2011-08-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) one of seven regional partnerships sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) carried out five field pilot tests in its Phase II Carbon Sequestration Demonstration effort, to validate the most promising sequestration technologies and infrastructure concepts, including three geologic pilot tests and two terrestrial pilot programs. This field testing demonstrated the efficacy of proposed sequestration technologies to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions in the region. Risk mitigation, optimization of monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) protocols, and effective outreach and communication were additional critical goals of these field validation tests. The program included geologic pilot tests located in Utah, New Mexico, Texas, and a region-wide terrestrial analysis. Each geologic sequestration test site was intended to include injection of a minimum of ~75,000 tons/year CO{sub 2}, with minimum injection duration of one year. These pilots represent medium- scale validation tests in sinks that host capacity for possible larger-scale sequestration operations in the future. These validation tests also demonstrated a broad variety of carbon sink targets and multiple value-added benefits, including testing of enhanced oil recovery and sequestration, enhanced coalbed methane production and a geologic sequestration test combined with a local terrestrial sequestration pilot. A regional terrestrial sequestration demonstration was also carried out, with a focus on improved terrestrial MVA methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region.

  13. Test Plan for Hydrogen Getters Project - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroz, G.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen levels in many transuranic (TRU) waste drums are above the compliance threshold, therefore deeming the drums non-shippable to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Hydrogen getters (alkynes and dialkynes) are known to react irreversibly with hydrogen in the presence of certain catalysts. The primary purpose of this investigation is to ascertain the effectiveness of a hydrogen getter in an environment that contains gaseous compounds commonly found in the headspace of drums containing TRU waste. It is not known whether the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly found in the headspace of TRU waste drums will inhibit (''poison'') the effectiveness of the hydrogen getter. The result of this study will be used to assess the feasibility of a hydrogen-getter system, which is capable of removing hydrogen from the payload containers or the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) inner containment vessel to increase the quantity of TRU waste that can be shipped to the WIPP. Phase II for the Hydrogen Getters Project will focus on four primary objectives: Conduct measurements of the relative permeability of hydrogen and chlorinated VOCs through Tedlar (and possibly other candidate packaging materials) Test alternative getter systems as alternatives to semi-permeable packaging materials. Candidates include DEB/Pd/Al2O3 and DEB/Cu-Pd/C. Develop, test, and deploy kinetic optimization model Perform drum-scale test experiments to demonstrate getter effectiveness

  14. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  15. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  16. Phase II Vault Testing of the Argonne RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  17. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step

  18. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II early reduction credits. 73.20 Section 73.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.20 Phase II early reduction credits...

  19. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  20. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  1. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL; Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  2. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Tracy A.; Walker, Randy M.; Hill, David E.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Abercrombie, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies

  3. Pipe Overpack Container Fire Testing: Phase I II & III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ammerman, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lopez, Carlos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Pipe Overpack Container (POC) was developed at Rocky Flats to transport plutonium residues with higher levels of plutonium than standard transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. In 1996 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a series of tests to determine the degree of protection POCs provided during storage accident events. One of these tests exposed four of the POCs to a 30-minute engulfing pool fire, resulting in one of the 7A drum overpacks generating sufficient internal pressure to pop off its lid and expose the top of the pipe container (PC) to the fire environment. The initial contents of the POCs were inert materials, which would not generate large internal pressure within the PC if heated. POCs are now being used to store combustible TRU waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At the request of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), starting in 2015 SNL conducted a series of fire tests to examine whether PCs with combustibles would reach a temperature that would result in (1) decomposition of inner contents and (2) subsequent generation of sufficient gas to cause the PC to over-pressurize and release its inner content. Tests conducted during 2015 and 2016 were done in three phases. The goal of the first phase was to see if the PC would reach high enough temperatures to decompose typical combustible materials inside the PC. The goal of the second test phase was to determine under what heating loads (i.e., incident heat fluxes) the 7A drum lid pops off from the POC drum. The goal of the third phase was to see if surrogate aerosol gets released from the PC when the drum lid is off. This report will describe the various tests conducted in phase I, II, and III, present preliminary results from these tests, and discuss implications for the POCs.

  4. Durability of lightweight concrete : Phase II : wetting and drying tests, Phase III : freezing and thawing tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-12-01

    This report describes a laboratory research program on the durability of lightweight concrete. Two phases of a three phase study are covered by this report, while the remaining phase is still under study. The two phases being reported are Phase II - ...

  5. Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Gabriela SOCACIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES systems provide several alternatives for efficient energy use and conservation. Phase change materials (PCMs for TES are materials supplying thermal regulation at particular phase change temperatures by absorbing and emitting the heat of the medium. TES in general and PCMs in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 30 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. PCMs absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the environment in the phase change range during a reverse cooling process. PCMs possesses the ability of latent thermal energy change their state with a certain temperature. PCMs for TES are generally solid-liquid phase change materials and therefore they need encapsulation. TES systems using PCMs as a storage medium offers advantages such as high TES capacity, small unit size and isothermal behaviour during charging and discharging when compared to the sensible TES.

  6. Pipe Overpack Container Fire Testing: Phase I & II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ammerman, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lopez, Carlos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Pipe Overpack Container (POC) was developed at Rocky Flats to transport plutonium residues with higher levels of plutonium than standard transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. In 1996 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a series of tests to determine the degree of protection POCs provided during storage accident events. One of these tests exposed four of the POCs to a 30-minute engulfing pool fire, resulting in one of the 7A drum overpacks generating sufficient internal pressure to pop off its lid and expose the top of the pipe container (PC) to the fire environment. The initial contents of the POCs were inert materials, which would not generate large internal pressure within the PC if heated. However, POCs are now being used to store combustible TRU waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At the request of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), starting in 2015 SNL conducted a new series of fire tests to examine whether PCs with combustibles would reach a temperature that would result in (1) decomposition of inner contents and (2) subsequent generation of sufficient gas to cause the PC to over-pressurize and release its inner content. Tests conducted during 2015 and 2016, and described herein, were done in two phases. The goal of the first phase was to see if the PC would reach high enough temperatures to decompose typical combustible materials inside the PC. The goal of the second test phase was to determine under what heating loads (i.e., incident heat fluxes) the 7A drum lid pops off from the POC drum. This report will describe the various tests conducted in phase I and II, present preliminary results from these tests, and discuss implications for the POCs.

  7. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  8. Composite Structure Monitoring using Direct Write Sensors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project seeks to develop and demonstrate a suite of sensor products to monitor the health of composite structures. Sensors will be made using...

  9. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl...

  10. Advanced Technology Cloud Particle Probe for UAS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II SPEC will design, fabricate and flight test a state-of-the-art combined cloud particle probe called the Hawkeye. Hawkeye is the culmination of two...

  11. Novel Instrumentation for Rocket Propulsion Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase II program is to develop, deploy and deliver novel laser-based instruments that provide rapid, in situ, simultaneous...

  12. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  13. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  14. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  15. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  16. Ground Processing Optimization Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal is the automation of a large amount of KSC's planning, scheduling, and execution decision making. Phase II will result in a complete full-scale...

  17. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. Diagnosis-Driven Prognosis for Decision Making, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II, the QSI-Vanderbilt team seeks to develop a system-level diagnostics and prognostic process that incorporates a "sense and respond capability," which...

  19. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  20. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  1. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  2. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. Recession-Tolerant Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  4. Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the Phase II project is to provide a more complete investigation of the long-term needs of the simulant community based on the updated...

  5. A Nanodroplet Processor for Advanced Microencapsulated Drug Formulations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program we propose to build on the key aspects of the nanodroplet encapsulation technology to demonstrate optimized formulation and...

  6. Multi-Channel Tunable Source for Atomic Sensors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR will seek to develop a prototype laser source suitable for atomic interferometry from compact, robust, integrated components. AdvR's design is...

  7. Cash Impact of the Consumable Item Transfer, Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...). This report is the third in a series of reports regarding the consumable item transfer (CIT), phase II. The Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the transfer of the management of consumable items to Defense Logistics Agency...

  8. Savanna ecosystem project: phase I summary and phase II progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huntely, BJ

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the results of the first phase (mid 1974 to mid 1976) of the South African Savanna Ecosystem Project being undertaken at Nylsvley in the northern Transvaal is presented. Phase I of this ten year study of the structure and functioning...

  9. Barriers to participation in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Y M W; Chan, W K; Yue, C S S

    2005-12-01

    To identify barriers to participation in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme and measures that may enhance participation. Prospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Cardiac patients recruited for a phase I cardiac rehabilitation programme from July 2002 to January 2003. Reasons for not participating in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme. Of the 193 patients recruited for a phase I cardiac rehabilitation programme, 152 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 70.3 years (standard deviation, 11.9 years), did not proceed to phase II programme. Eleven (7%) deaths occurred before commencement of phase II and 74 (49%) patients were considered physically unfit. Reasons for the latter included fractures, pain, or degenerative changes in the lower limbs (24%), and co-morbidities such as cerebrovascular accident (19%), chronic renal failure (11%), congestive heart failure (9%), and unstable angina (8%). Phase II rehabilitation was postponed until after completion of scheduled cardiac interventions in 13% of patients. Failure of physicians to arrange the pre-phase II exercise stress test as per protocol was reported in 7% of patients. Other reasons were reported: work or time conflicts (16%), non-compliance with cardiac treatment (5%), financial constraints (4%), self-exercise (3%), fear after exercise stress testing (3%), and patients returning to their original cardiologists for treatment (3%). A significant (79%) proportion of patients did not proceed to a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme for a variety of reasons. These included physical unfitness, work or time conflicts, and need to attend scheduled cardiac interventions. Further studies are required to determine how to overcome obstacles to cardiac rehabilitation.

  10. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  11. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal...

  12. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  13. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne's Phase I effort has established through modeling and analysis that a unique concept for an active optical 3-D Imager (or Imaging LADAR) has high potential...

  14. Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During Phase I, M4 Engineering integrated a prototype system into OpenMDAO, a NASA GRC open-source framework. This prototype system was a proof-of-concept that M4...

  15. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  16. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  17. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  18. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  19. Design of clinical trials Phase I and II with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, C.A.; Soroa, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    We presented some usual designs for clinical studies in Phase I and Phase II. For Phase I we considered the 3 + 3 Classic design, designs with accelerated titration and those with dose escalation schemes with overdose control (EWOC). For Phase II designs with efficacy outcomes are presented. The design proposed by Fleming is discussed as well as those with inclusion of patients in two stages: Gehan’s design and the Optimal two–stage Simon’s design. We also discussed the design of combined endpoints of efficacy and safety of Bryant and Day with an application example of therapeutically Lu-177. Finally some proposals for phase II trials with control group are considered. (authors) [es

  20. Caspian energy phase II: Beyond 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the major factors that will shape the second phase of Caspian oil and natural gas export. The article compares the prospects of the post-2005 period with the Caspian energy developments in the first decade and a half after independence. This article claims: One, political considerations will continue to play an important role in the decisions on export routes for and participants in Caspian energy production and export projects. However, those political considerations will produce different policies in phase two of Caspian energy production than they did in the first phase. Second, the relative influence and interest in the Caspian region of various global and regional powers have changed significantly from Caspian energy phase one to phase two. Third, the producers in the region are not as anxious for foreign investment as they were earlier. The major resources that will be developed in Caspian phase two are: new production of Azerbaijan's natural gas, extension to new markets and expansion of capacity of existing gas export routes; new production projects for Turkmenistan's natural gas and new pipelines; and additional Kazakhstani oil production and natural gas increased production and initiation of export.

  1. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  2. Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Phase-II: A Phase II Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, David O; Shutter, Lori A; Moore, Carol; Temkin, Nancy R; Puccio, Ava M; Madden, Christopher J; Andaluz, Norberto; Chesnut, Randall M; Bullock, M Ross; Grant, Gerald A; McGregor, John; Weaver, Michael; Jallo, Jack; LeRoux, Peter D; Moberg, Dick; Barber, Jason; Lazaridis, Christos; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2017-11-01

    A relationship between reduced brain tissue oxygenation and poor outcome following severe traumatic brain injury has been reported in observational studies. We designed a Phase II trial to assess whether a neurocritical care management protocol could improve brain tissue oxygenation levels in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and the feasibility of a Phase III efficacy study. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Ten ICUs in the United States. One hundred nineteen severe traumatic brain injury patients. Patients were randomized to treatment protocol based on intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation monitoring versus intracranial pressure monitoring alone. Brain tissue oxygenation data were recorded in the intracranial pressure -only group in blinded fashion. Tiered interventions in each arm were specified and impact on intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation measured. Monitors were removed if values were normal for 48 hours consecutively, or after 5 days. Outcome was measured at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. A management protocol based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure monitoring reduced the proportion of time with brain tissue hypoxia after severe traumatic brain injury (0.45 in intracranial pressure-only group and 0.16 in intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation group; p injury after severe traumatic brain injury based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure values was consistent with reduced mortality and increased proportions of patients with good recovery compared with intracranial pressure-only management; however, the study was not powered for clinical efficacy. Management of severe traumatic brain injury informed by multimodal intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring reduced brain tissue hypoxia with a trend toward lower mortality and more favorable outcomes than intracranial pressure-only treatment. A Phase III randomized trial to assess

  3. Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik Tadeusz M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.

  4. Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) project - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, C.; Stephany, S.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.

    2010-02-01

    The configuration of the second phase of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA), installed at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude 45° 0‧ 20″ W and Latitude 22° 41‧ 19″ S), is a T-shaped array where 21 antennas are being added to existing 5 antennas of the first phase. In the third phase, in each arm of the T array, four more antennas will be added and baselines will be increased to 2.5 × 1.25 km in east-west and south directions, respectively. The antennas will be equally spaced at the distances of 250 meters from the central antenna of the T-array. Also, the frequency range will be increased to 1.2-1.7, 2.8 and 5.6 GHz. The Second phase of the BDA should be operational by the middle of 2010 and will operate in the frequency range of (1.2-1.7) GHz for solar and non solar observations. Here, we present the characteristics of the second phase of the BDA project, details of the array configuration, the u-v coverage, the synthesized beam obtained for the proposed configuration.

  5. U10 : Trusted Truck(R) II (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Phase B of the Trusted Truck II project built on the system developed in Phase A (or Year 1). For the implementation portion of the project, systems were added to the trailer to provide additional diagnostic trailer data that can be sent to the TTM...

  6. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) cure of OoA or autoclave prepreg materials allows the manufacture of large composite structures without the expensive and...

  7. Sprayable Phase Change Coating Thermal Protection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rod W.; Hayes, Paul W.; Kaul, Raj

    2005-01-01

    NASA has expressed a need for reusable, environmentally friendly, phase change coating that is capable of withstanding the heat loads that have historically required an ablative thermal insulation. The Space Shuttle Program currently relies on ablative materials for thermal protection. The problem with an ablative insulation is that, by design, the material ablates away, in fulfilling its function of cooling the underlying substrate, thus preventing the insulation from being reused from flight to flight. The present generation of environmentally friendly, sprayable, ablative thermal insulation (MCC-l); currently use on the Space Shuttle SRBs, is very close to being a reusable insulation system. In actual flight conditions, as confirmed by the post-flight inspections of the SRBs, very little of the material ablates. Multi-flight thermal insulation use has not been qualified for the Space Shuttle. The gap that would have to be overcome in order to implement a reusable Phase Change Coating (PCC) is not unmanageable. PCC could be applied robotically with a spray process utilizing phase change material as filler to yield material of even higher strength and reliability as compared to MCC-1. The PCC filled coatings have also demonstrated potential as cryogenic thermal coatings. In experimental thermal tests, a thin application of PCC has provided the same thermal protection as a much thicker and heavier application of a traditional ablative thermal insulation. In addition, tests have shown that the structural integrity of the coating has been maintained and phase change performance after several aero-thermal cycles was not affected. Experimental tests have also shown that, unlike traditional ablative thermal insulations, PCC would not require an environmental seal coat, which has historically been required to prevent moisture absorption by the thermal insulation, prevent environmental degradation, and to improve the optical and aerodynamic properties. In order to reduce

  8. Phase change material thermal capacitor clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  9. Performance of the LAr scintillation veto of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesinger, Christoph [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013 and Gerda has been upgraded to Phase II. To reach the aspired background index of ∝10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques are applied, including an active liquid argon (LAr) veto. It has been demonstrated with the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium detectors, which simultaneously deposit energy in the LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during Phase II start-up is reported.

  10. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and 3, 3. Procedure for construction and testing the capsules and test-tubes - Phase I (Parts I and II) Part II; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade i ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - I faza (I i II deo), II deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-02-15

    Experiments concerned with Projects VISA-2 and 3 demand construction of hermetization test-tubes, irradiation capsules, experimental devices and reactor channels as well as welding of fuel element claddings. For this purpose special materials as stainless steels, aluminium alloys, pure aluminium, magnesium, zirconium were chosen. these materials demand special procedure for welding. This report includes design and construction data with drawings of the special device for semiautomated circular welding.

  11. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  12. Configuration management: Phase II implementation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Configuration management (CM) is essential to maintaining an acceptable level of risk to the public, workers, environment, or mission success. It is a set of activities and techniques used to maintain consistency among physical and functional configuration, applicable requirements, and key documents. This document provides guidance for continuing the implementation of CM in a phased and graded manner. It describes a cost-effective approach to documented consistency with requirements, with early emphasis on items most important to safety and environmental protection. It is intended to help responsible line managers and configuration management staff personnel in meeting the Energy Systems configuration management policy standard.

  13. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  14. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  15. Electrical transport in crystalline phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Michael

    2012-01-06

    In this thesis, the electrical transport properties of crystalline phase change materials are discussed. Phase change materials (PCM) are a special class of semiconducting and metallic thin film alloys, typically with a high amount of the group five element antimony or the group six element tellurium, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. The unique property portfolio of this material class makes it suitable for memory applications. PCMs reveal fast switching between two stable room-temperature phases (amorphous and crystalline) realized by optical laser or electrical current pulses in memory devices. Additionally, a pronounced property contrast in form of optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity between the amorphous and crystalline phase is the characteristic fingerprint of PCMs. The emerging electrical solid state memory PCRAM is a very promising candidate to replace Flash memory in the near future or to even become a universal memory, which is non-volatile and shows the speed and cyclability of DRAM. One of the main technological challenges is the switching process into the amorphous state, which is the most power demanding step. In order to reduce the switching power, the crystalline resistivity needs to be increased at a given voltage. Thus understanding and tayloring of this property is mandatory. In this work, first the technological relevance, i.e. optical and electrical memory concepts based on PCMs are introduced. Subsequently a description of the physical properties of PCMs in four categories is given. Namely, structure, kinetics, optical properties and electrical properties are discussed. Then important recent developments such as the identification of resonant bonding in crystalline PCMs and a property predicting coordination scheme are briefly reviewed. The following chapter deals with the theoretical background of electrical transport, while the next chapter introduces the experimental techniques: Sputtering, XRR, XRD, DSC, thermal annealing

  16. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Giresun Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Sentuerk, Hasan Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuefekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  17. SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs

  18. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  20. Material Engineering for Phase Change Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, David M.

    As semiconductor devices continue to scale downward, and portable consumer electronics become more prevalent there is a need to develop memory technology that will scale with devices and use less energy, while maintaining performance. One of the leading prototypical memories that is being investigated is phase change memory. Phase change memory (PCM) is a non-volatile memory composed of 1 transistor and 1 resistor. The resistive structure includes a memory material alloy which can change between amorphous and crystalline states repeatedly using current/voltage pulses of different lengths and magnitudes. The most widely studied PCM materials are chalcogenides - Germanium-Antimony-Tellerium (GST) with Ge2Sb2Te3 and Germanium-Tellerium (GeTe) being some of the most popular stochiometries. As these cells are scaled downward, the current/voltage needed to switch these materials becomes comparable to the voltage needed to sense the cell's state. The International Roadmap for Semiconductors aims to raise the threshold field of these devices from 66.6 V/mum to be at least 375 V/mum for the year 2024. These cells are also prone to resistance drift between states, leading to bit corruption and memory loss. Phase change material properties are known to influence PCM device performance such as crystallization temperature having an effect on data retention and litetime, while resistivity values in the amorphous and crystalline phases have an effect on the current/voltage needed to write/erase the cell. Addition of dopants is also known to modify the phase change material parameters. The materials G2S2T5, GeTe, with dopants - nitrogen, silicon, titanium, and aluminum oxide and undoped Gallium-Antimonide (GaSb) are studied for these desired characteristics. Thin films of these compositions are deposited via physical vapor deposition at IBM Watson Research Center. Crystallization temperatures are investigated using time resolved x-ray diffraction at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  1. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10 13 n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail

  2. Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1984-06-01

    The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented

  3. Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique

    and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...... heat capacity, magnetization and entropy change measurements. By measuring bulky particles (with a particle size in the range of 5001000 μm) of La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz with first order phase transition, it was possible to observe very sharp transitions. This is not the case for finer ground particles which......This thesis studies the first order phase transitions of the magnetocaloric materials La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz trying to overcome challenges that these materials face when applied in active magnetic regenerators. The study is done through experimental characterization and modelling...

  4. Passive thermal management using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Yash Yogesh

    The trend of enhanced functionality and reducing thickness of mobile devices has. led to a rapid increase in power density and a potential thermal bottleneck since. thermal limits of components remain unchanged. Active cooling mechanisms are not. feasible due to size, weight and cost constraints. This work explores the feasibility. of a passive cooling system based on Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for thermal. management of mobile devices. PCMs stabilize temperatures due to the latent heat. of phase change thus increasing the operating time of the device before threshold. temperatures are exceeded. The primary contribution of this work is the identification. of key parameters which influence the design of a PCM based thermal management. system from both the experiments and the numerical models. This work first identifies strategies for integrating PCMs in an electronic device. A. detailed review of past research, including experimental techniques and computational. models, yields key material properties and metrics to evaluate the performance of. PCMs. Subsequently, a miniaturized version of a conventional thermal conductivity. measurement technique is developed to characterize thermal resistance of PCMs. Further, latent heat and transition temperatures are also characterized for a wide. range of PCMs. In-situ measurements with PCMs placed on the processor indicate that some. PCMs can extend the operating time of the device by as much as a factor of 2.48. relative to baseline tests (with no PCMs). This increase in operating time is investigated. by computational thermal models that explore various integration locations, both at the package and device level.

  5. Performance of BEGe detectors for GERDA Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    After the end of the data-taking for GERDA Phase I, the apparatus has been upgraded to fulfill the requirements of the second phase. Phase II sensitivity will be driven by 30 custom made BEGe detectors. This detectors are now available and can be operated in phaseII configuration in the GERDA cryostat together with the liquid argon scintillation veto. The performances of BEGe detectors in liquid argon are presented in this talk. Besides the spectroscopy capability, the focus will be placed on the expectations in terms of background rejection via pulse shape discrimination (PSD). In particular the main goal the BEGe's pulse shape analysis is to discriminate surface events produced by beta emitters (e.g. {sup 42}K) present in the liquid Ar.

  6. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  7. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bur...

  8. The SafeBoosC phase II clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Joan; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Bravo, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial recently demonstrated the benefits of a combination of cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rStO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a treatment guideline to reduce the oxygen imbalance in extremely preterm infants. AIMS: ...

  9. Caelyx (TM) in malignant mesothelioma : A phase II EORTC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P; van Meerbeeck, J; Groen, H; Schouwink, H; Burgers, S; Daamen, S; Giaccone, G

    Background: The use of doxorubicin has shown some activity in malignant mesothelioma but prolonged administration is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Caelyx(TM), a new liposomal and pegylated form of doxorubicin has shown a better pharmacokinetic and toxic profile then doxorubicin. In a phase II study,

  10. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore, E-mail: sgiuffrida@unict.it; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Nigro, Raffaella Lo [IMM-CNR (Italy); Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Bongiorno, Corrado [IMM-CNR (Italy); Fragala, Ignazio L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac){sub 2} (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl{sub 2} was formed from CCl{sub 4} solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl{sub 2} films.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and polymerization of methacrylates of copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II). Generation of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bolanos, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Coordination compounds of the species copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II) with methacrylic acid were synthesized and characterized. Besides, it realized reactions of bromine addition to the doubles links of the species obtained previously, also too like reactions with dry HCl. Finally, it got hybrids materials by polymerization of the first compounds in an acrylic matrix. Research concluded with the characterization of all the products. (author) [es

  12. Performance of the LAr scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesinger, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Dept. E15, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Gerda is an experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Results of Phase I have been published in summer 2013 and Gerda is upgraded to Phase II. To reach the aspired background index of ≤ 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) for Phase II active background-suppression techniques are applied, including an active liquid argon (LAr) veto. It has been demonstrated with the LArGe test facility that the detection of argon scintillation light can be used to effectively suppress background events in the germanium, which simultaneously deposit energy in the LAr. The light instrumentation consisting of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and wavelength-shifting fibers connected to silicon multipliers (SiPM) has been installed in Gerda. In this talk the low background design of the LAr veto and its performance during the commissioning runs are reported.

  13. Dead layer and active volume determination for GERDA Phase II detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge and is currently running Phase I of its physics program. Using the same isotope as the Heidelberg Moscow (HDM) experiment, GERDA aims to directly test the claim of observation by a subset of the HDM collaboration. For the update to Phase II of the experiment in 2013, the collaboration organized the production of 30 new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) type detectors from original 35 kg enriched material and tested their performance in the low background laboratory HADES in SCK.CEN, Belgium. With additional 20 kg of detectors, GERDA aims to probe the degenerated hierarchy scenario. One of the crucial detector parameters is the active volume (AV) fraction which directly enters into all physics analysis. This talk presents the methodology of dead layer and AV determination with different calibration sources such as {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 228}Th and the results obtained for the new Phase II detectors. Furthermore, the AV fraction turned out to be the largest systematic uncertainty in the analysis of Phase I data which makes it imperative to reduce its uncertainty for Phase II. This talk addresses the major contributions to the AV uncertainty and gives an outlook for improvements in Phase II analysis.

  14. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  15. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  16. Anomalous phase change characteristics in Fe-Te materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X. T.; Song, W. D.; Ji, R.; Ho, H. W.; Wang, L.; Hong, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials have become significantly attractive due to its unique characteristics for its extensive applications. In this paper, a kind of phase change material, which consists of Fe and Te components, is developed. The crystallization temperature of the Fe-Te materials is 180 deg. C for Fe 1.19 Te and can be adjusted by the Fe/Te ratio. High-speed phase change in the Fe-Te materials has been demonstrated by nanosecond laser irradiation. Comparing to conventional phase change materials, the Fe-Te materials exhibit an anomalous optical property that has higher reflectivity at amorphous than crystalline state, which is useful for data storage design.

  17. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

  18. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted

  19. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The IR environment of the space craft varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. The result is a situation where a radiator sized for the maximal heat load in the most adverse situation is subject to freezing on the dark side of the orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when there is too much being produced by the space craft to reject to space, and then feeding that energy back into the thermal loop when conditions are more favorable. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration LLO missions. In order to validate the performance of PCM Heat Exchangers, a life test is being conducted on four n-Pentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed.

  20. Development of ceramics based fuel, Phase II; Razvoj goriva na bazi keramike, II faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Laboratorija za reaktorske materijale, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-12-15

    Phase II of this task covers the following: testing the changes of UO{sub 2} properties during sintering; interpretation of results obtained from the analysis of the sintering process kinetics; fabrication of UO{sub 2} samples with cladding by vibrational compacting.

  1. Status report of the Gerda Phase II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Andrea, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of "7"6Ge. Germanium diodes enriched to ∼ 86 % in the double beta emitter "7"6Ge ("e"n"rGe) are exposed being both source and detector of 0νββ decay. This process is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, at the completion of the first experimental phase (Phase I), the Gerda setup has been upgraded to perform its next step (Phase II). The aim is to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half life larger than 10"2"6 yr in about 3 years of physics data taking, exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of "e"n"rGe with a background index of about 10"−"3cts/(keV·kg·yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper the Gerda Phase II expected goals, the upgraded items and few selected features from the first 2016 physics and calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.

  2. Status report of the Gerda Phase II startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Valerio; Gerda Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of 76Ge . Germanium diodes enriched to ˜ 86 % in the double beta emitter 76Ge ( enrGe are exposed being both source and detector of 0νββ decay. This process is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, at the completion of the first experimental phase (Phase I), the GERDA setup has been upgraded to perform its next step (Phase II). The aim is to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life larger than 10^{26} yr in about 3 years of physics data taking, exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of enrGe with a background index of about 10^{-3} cts/(keV . kg . yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper the GERDA Phase II expected goals, the upgraded items and few selected features from the first 2016 physics and calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.

  3. Phase II cancer clinical trials for biomarker-guided treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.

  4. Microbial Dark Matter Phase II: Stepping deeper into unknown territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarett, Jessica; Dunfield, Peter; Peura, Sari; Wielen, Paul van der; Hedlund, Brian; Elshahed, Mostafa; Kormas, Konstantinos; Stott, Andreas Teske8, Matt; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Zhang, Chuanlun; Rengefors, Karin; Lindemann, Stephen; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Spear, John; Hallam, Steven; Crowe, Sean; Steele, Jillian; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex; Kyrpides, Nikos; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-10-27

    Currently available microbial genomes are of limited phylogenetic breadth due to our historical inability to cultivate most microorganisms in the laboratory. The first phase of the Microbial Dark Matter project used single-cell genomics to sequence 201 single cells from uncultivated lineages, and was able to resolve new superphyla and reveal novel metabolic features in bacteria and archaea. However, many fundamental questions about the evolution and function of microbes remain unanswered, and many candidate phyla remain uncharacterized. Phase II of the Microbial Dark Matter project will target candidate phyla with no sequenced representatives at a variety of new sites using a combination of single-cell sequencing and shotgun metagenomics approaches.

  5. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively

  6. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order BII sorption was found to be complex, with participation of both HAP and organic phase (when present. Sequential extraction analysis was applied for testing the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  7. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ˜ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ˜ 10-3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  8. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  9. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  10. The STAR beam energy scan phase II physics and upgrades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, C.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 800-803 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * BES-II * detector upgrade * QCD phase diagram * physics oppotrunity Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  11. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: a phase II trial with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiof, D A; Rapoport, B L; Chasen, M R; Abratt, R P; Cronje, N; Fourie, L; McMichael, G; Hacking, D

    2002-03-01

    Current cytotoxic therapy has been of limited benefit to patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Single agent chemotherapy has been extensively evaluated in small series of phase II clinical trials, with disappointing responses. Docetaxel, an effective taxane in the treatment of advanced breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks to 30 chemotherapy naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in a prospective multi-institutional phase II clinical trial. An objective response rate (partial responses) of 10% was documented. Additionally, 21% of the patients had minor responses (intention-to-treat analysis). Three patients died within 2 weeks post-first cycle of therapy, although only one patient's death was directly attributed to the investigational drug, whilst in the majority of the patients, manageable and treatable toxicities were encountered. In this phase II clinical trial, docetaxel proved to be mildly effective in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  12. Reassessing Phase II Heart Failure Clinical Trials: Consensus Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; Hamo, Carine E.; Udelson, James E.; O’Connor, Christopher; Sabbah, Hani N.; Metra, Marco; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Teerlink, John; Bernstein, Harold S.; Brooks, Gabriel; Depre, Christophe; DeSouza, Mary M.; Dinh, Wilfried; Donovan, Mark; Frische-Danielson, Regina; Frost, Robert J.; Garza, Dahlia; Gohring, Udo-Michael; Hellawell, Jennifer; Hsia, Judith; Ishihara, Shiro; Kay-Mugford, Patricia; Koglin, Joerg; Kozinn, Marc; Larson, Christopher J.; Mayo, Martha; Gan, Li-Ming; Mugnier, Pierrre; Mushonga, Sekayi; Roessig, Lothar; Russo, Cesare; Salsali, Afshin; Satler, Carol; Shi, Victor; Ticho, Barry; van der Laan, Michael; Yancy, Clyde; Stockbridge, Norman; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    The increasing burden and the continued suboptimal outcomes for patients with heart failure underlines the importance of continued research to develop novel therapeutics for this disorder. This can only be accomplished with successful translation of basic science discoveries into direct human application through effective clinical trial design and execution that results in a substantially improved clinical course and outcomes. In this respect, phase II clinical trials play a pivotal role in determining which of the multitude of potential basic science discoveries should move to the large and expansive registration trials in humans. A critical examination of the phase II trials in heart failure reveals multiple shortcomings in their concept, design, execution, and interpretation. To further a dialogue regarding the challenges and potential for improvement and the role of phase II trials in patients with heart failure, the Food and Drug Administration facilitated a meeting on October 17th 2016 represented by clinicians, researchers, industry members, and regulators. This document summarizes the discussion from this meeting and provides key recommendations for future directions. PMID:28356300

  13. Enhanced Materials Based on Submonolayer Type-II Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamargo, Maria C [City College of New York, NY (United States); Kuskovsky, Igor L. [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States) Queens College; Meriles, Carlos [City College of New York, NY (United States); Noyan, Ismail C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We have investigated a nanostructured material known as sub-monolayer type-II QDs, made from wide bandgap II-VI semiconductors. Our goal is to understand and exploit their tunable optical and electrical properties by taking advantage of the type-II band alignment and quantum confinement effects. Type-II ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe host are particularly interesting because of their relatively large valence band and conduction band offsets. In the current award we have developed new materials based on sub-monolayer type-II QDs that may be advantageous for photovoltaic and spintronics applications. We have also expanded the structural characterization of these materials by refining the X-ray diffraction methodologies needed to investigate them. In particular, we have 1) demonstrated ZnCdTe/ZnCdSe type-II QDs materials that have ideal properties for the development of novel high efficiency “intermediate band solar cells”, 2) we developed a comprehensive approach to describe and model the growth of these ultra-small type-II QDs, 3) analysis of the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) emission, combined with other characterization probes allowed us to predict the size and density of the QDs as a function of the growth conditions, 4) we developed and implemented novel sophisticated X-ray diffraction techniques from which accurate size and shape of the buried type-II QDs could be extracted, 5) a correlation of the shape anisotropy with polarization dependent PL was observed, confirming the QDs detailed shape and providing insight about the effects of this shape anisotropy on the physical properties of the type-II QD systems, and 6) a detailed “time-resolved Kerr rotation” investigation has led to the demonstration of enhanced electron spin lifetimes for the samples with large densities of type-II QDs and an understanding of the interplay between the QDs and Te-isoelectroic centers, a defect that forms in the spacer layers that separate the QDs.

  14. Constitutive modeling of multiphase materials including phase transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Khan, A.S.; Meredith, C; Farrokh, B

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for materials involving two or more different phases in their microstructure such as DP (Dual Phase) or TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels. Homogenization of the response of the phases is achieved by the Mean-Field method. One of the phases in TRIP

  15. Probability of success for phase III after exploratory biomarker analysis in phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, Heiko; Kirchner, Marietta; Sailer, Martin Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The probability of success or average power describes the potential of a future trial by weighting the power with a probability distribution of the treatment effect. The treatment effect estimate from a previous trial can be used to define such a distribution. During the development of targeted therapies, it is common practice to look for predictive biomarkers. The consequence is that the trial population for phase III is often selected on the basis of the most extreme result from phase II biomarker subgroup analyses. In such a case, there is a tendency to overestimate the treatment effect. We investigate whether the overestimation of the treatment effect estimate from phase II is transformed into a positive bias for the probability of success for phase III. We simulate a phase II/III development program for targeted therapies. This simulation allows to investigate selection probabilities and allows to compare the estimated with the true probability of success. We consider the estimated probability of success with and without subgroup selection. Depending on the true treatment effects, there is a negative bias without selection because of the weighting by the phase II distribution. In comparison, selection increases the estimated probability of success. Thus, selection does not lead to a bias in probability of success if underestimation due to the phase II distribution and overestimation due to selection cancel each other out. We recommend to perform similar simulations in practice to get the necessary information about the risk and chances associated with such subgroup selection designs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  17. Application of phase-change materials in memory taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Tu, Liang; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phase-change materials are suitable for data storage because they exhibit reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states that have distinguishable electrical and optical properties. Consequently, these materials find applications in diverse memory devices ranging from conventional optical discs to emerging nanophotonic devices. Current research efforts are mostly devoted to phase-change random access memory, whereas the applications of phase-change materials in other...

  18. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  19. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State issuance of Phase II permits. 72.73 Section 72.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits...

  20. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with GERDA phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knies, J.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (gerda) experiment, located at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy, is one of the leading experiments for the search of 0νββ decay. In Phase II of the experiment 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allowed to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr). In the first five month of data taking 10.8 kg yr of exposure were accumulated. No signal has been found and together with data from Phase I a new limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 76Ge of 5.3 . 1025 yr at 90% C.L. was established in June 2016. Phase II data taking is ongoing and will allow the exploration of half-lifes in the 1026 yr regime. The current status of data taking and an update on the background index are presented.

  1. Searching Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giordano, M.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hahne, C.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, P.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Sala, E.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schweisshelm, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    An observation of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay would allow to shed light onto the nature of neutrinos. GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) aims to discover this process in a background-free search using 76Ge. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy. Bare, isotopically enriched, high purity germanium detectors are operated in liquid argon. GERDA follows a staged approach. In Phase II 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated since December 2015. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allows to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10‑3 cts/(keVṡkgṡyr). No evidence for the 0νββ decay has been found in 23.2 kgṡyr of Phase II data, and together with data from Phase I the up-to-date most stringent half-life limit for this process in 76Ge has been established, at a median sensitivity of 5.8ṡ1025yr the 90% C.L. lower limit is 8.0ṡ1025yr.

  2. Selective solid-phase extraction of Ni(II) by an ion-imprinted polymer from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine as monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azobis-sobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Ni-dithizone complex. The IIP was used as sorbent in a solid-phase extraction column. The effects of sampling volume, elution conditions, sample pH and sample flow rate on the extraction of Ni ions form water samples were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity and the relative selectivity coefficients of imprinted polymer for Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were calculated. Compared with non-imprinted polymer particles, the IIP had higher selectivity for Ni(II). The relative selectivity factor (α r ) values of Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were 21.6, 54.3, and 22.7, respectively, which are greater than 1. The relative standard deviation of the five replicate determinations of Ni(II) was 3.4%. The detection limit for 150 mL of sample was 1.6 μg L -1 using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace nickel in water samples with satisfactory results.

  3. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolin, Claudio; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab. Vertical and horizontal cooling performance were checked and some crtitical aspects identified.

  4. Improved nuclear gage development - phase i and ii. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.L.; Champion, F.C.; Castanon, D.R.; Chang, J.C.; Hannon, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains Phase I and II of an investigation covering the design and construction of a prototype nuclear-moisture-density backscatter gage. Gage development was based upon the analysis of several factors which affect gage performance. This research indicated that the prototype gage measurements are approximately equivalent to measurements obtained by a commercial transmission gage. The implication of this research finding concerns the qualification of the backscatter test method as a valid, reliable, and expedient procedure for determining in-situ soil conditions

  5. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolin, Claudio; Dyngosz, Damian; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab....

  6. Physics Detector Simulation Facility Phase II system software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, B.; Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Marquez, M.; Estep, P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) Phase II system software. A key element in the design of a distributed computing environment for the PDSF has been the separation and distribution of the major functions. The facility has been designed to support batch and interactive processing, and to incorporate the file and tape storage systems. By distributing these functions, it is often possible to provide higher throughput and resource availability. Similarly, the design is intended to exploit event-level parallelism in an open distributed environment

  7. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  8. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  9. Phase change materials in non-volatile storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ielmini, Daniele; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    After revolutionizing the technology of optical data storage, phase change materials are being adopted in non-volatile semiconductor memories. Their success in electronic storage is mostly due to the unique properties of the amorphous state where carrier transport phenomena and thermally-induced phase change cooperate to enable high-speed, low-voltage operation and stable data retention possible within the same material. This paper reviews the key physical properties that make this phase so s...

  10. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  11. Latent Heat Storage Through Phase Change Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    reducing storage volume for different materials. The examples are numerous: ... Latent heat is an attractive way to store solar heat as it provides high energy storage density, .... Maintenance of the PCM treated fabric is easy. The melted PCM.

  12. Universal Orbital Material Processing Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA need for sustainable space operations and full utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) and specifically to advance the "Materials,...

  13. Removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debajani; Roy, Sushanta Kumar; Das, Bodhaditya; Talukdar, Anup K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work deals with the adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on zeolites (ZSM-5, mordenite) and mesoporous materials (MCM-48, MCM-41). The characterization of the synthesized samples was performed by means of XRD, SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis. The batch method was employed to study the influence of adsorbent nature, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent load. The adsorption on MCM-48 follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. This material was found to be more effective for the removal of lead in a batch process as compared to the other adsorbents and the removal efficiency of the materials for Pb(II) followed the order MCM-48 > mordenite > ZSM-5 > MCM-41 and that for Cu(II) followed the order ZSM-5 > mordenite > MCM-41 > MCM-48.

  14. [Fungal community structure in phase II composting of Volvariella volvacea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changqing; Li, Tong; Jiang, Yun; Li, Yu

    2014-12-04

    To understand the fungal community succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost and clarify the predominant fungi in different fermentation stages, to monitor the dynamic compost at the molecular level accurately and quickly, and reveal the mechanism. The 18S rDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing methods were used to analyze the fungal community structure during the course of compost. The DGGE profile shows that there were differences in the diversity of fungal community with the fermentation progress. The diversity was higher in the stages of high temperature. And the dynamic changes of predominant community and relative intensity was observed. Among the 20 predominant clone strains, 9 were unknown eukaryote and fungi, the others were Eurotiales, Aspergillus sp., Melanocarpus albomyces, Colletotrichum sp., Rhizomucor sp., Verticillium sp., Penicillium commune, Microascus trigonosporus and Trichosporon lactis. The 14 clone strains were detected in the stages of high and durative temperature. The fungal community structure and predominant community have taken dynamic succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost.

  15. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  16. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An energy producing device, for example a submersible vehicle for descending or ascending to different depths within water or ocean, is disclosed. The vehicle comprises a temperature-responsive material to which a hydraulic fluid is associated. A pressurized storage compartment stores the fluid as soon as the temperature-responsive material changes density. The storage compartment is connected with a hydraulic motor, and a valve allows fluid passage from the storage compartment to the hydraulic motor. An energy storage component, e.g. a battery, is connected with the hydraulic motor and is charged by the hydraulic motor when the hydraulic fluid passes through the hydraulic motor. Upon passage in the hydraulic motor, the fluid is stored in a further storage compartment and is then sent back to the area of the temperature-responsive material.

  17. Multilayer Pressure Vessel Materials Testing and Analysis Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelar, Carl F.; Cardinal, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    To provide NASA with a suite of materials strength, fracture toughness and crack growth rate test results for use in remaining life calculations for the vessels described above, Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) was contracted in two phases to obtain relevant material property data from a representative vessel. An initial characterization of the strength, fracture and fatigue crack growth properties was performed in Phase 1. Based on the results and recommendations of Phase 1, a more extensive material property characterization effort was developed in this Phase 2 effort. This Phase 2 characterization included additional strength, fracture and fatigue crack growth of the multilayer vessel and head materials. In addition, some more limited characterization of the welds and heat affected zones (HAZs) were performed. This report

  18. Phase change materials: science and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raoux, Simone; Wuttig, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    ... are the Ovonic threshold switch, the multi-state Ovonic Universal Memory (OUM), and the Ovonic cognitive device which emulates the biological neurons with its plasticity and synaptic activity. The field of amorphous and disordered materials created not only a basic new area of science, but also important new technologies. It should be kept in mind that...

  19. Application of phase-change materials in memory taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tu, Liang; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials are suitable for data storage because they exhibit reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states that have distinguishable electrical and optical properties. Consequently, these materials find applications in diverse memory devices ranging from conventional optical discs to emerging nanophotonic devices. Current research efforts are mostly devoted to phase-change random access memory, whereas the applications of phase-change materials in other types of memory devices are rarely reported. Here we review the physical principles of phase-change materials and devices aiming to help researchers understand the concept of phase-change memory. We classify phase-change memory devices into phase-change optical disc, phase-change scanning probe memory, phase-change random access memory, and phase-change nanophotonic device, according to their locations in memory hierarchy. For each device type we discuss the physical principles in conjunction with merits and weakness for data storage applications. We also outline state-of-the-art technologies and future prospects.

  20. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  1. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  2. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Phase II Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL), Aiken, SC (United States); Freedman, V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Agarwal, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andre, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bott, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, X. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gorton, I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Murray, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rockhold, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, A. [LBNL; Steefel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Waichler, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-28

    quality assurance. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications through a suite of demonstrations being conducted by the Site Applications Thrust. In 2010, the Phase I Demonstration focused on testing initial ASCEM capabilities. The Phase II Demonstration, completed in September 2012, focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of ASCEM capabilities on a site with relatively sparse data, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations included in this Phase II report included addressing attenuation-based remedies at the Savannah River Site F-Area, to exercise linked ASCEM components under data-dense and complex geochemical conditions, and conducting detailed simulations of a representative waste tank. This report includes descriptive examples developed by the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone, the SRS F-Area Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface, and the Waste Tank Performance Assessment working groups. The integrated Phase II Demonstration provides test cases to accompany distribution of the initial user release (Version 1.0) of the ASCEM software tools to a limited set of users in 2013. These test cases will be expanded with each new release, leading up to the release of a version that is qualified for regulatory applications in the 2015 time frame.

  3. Ni(II) ion-imprinted solid-phase extraction and preconcentration in aqueous solutions by packed-bed columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersoez, Arzu; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2004-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns packed with materials based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were used to develop selective separation and preconcentration for Ni(II) ion from aqueous solutions. SPE is more rapid, simple and economical method than the traditional liquid-liquid extraction. MIPs were used as column sorbent to increase the grade of selectivity in SPE columns. In this study, we have developed a polymer obtained by imprinting with Ni(II) ion as a ion-imprinted SPE sorbent. For this purpose, NI(II)-methacryloylhistidinedihydrate (MAH/Ni(II)) complex monomer was synthesized and polymerized with cross-linking ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate to obtain [poly(EGDMA-MAH/Ni(II))]. Then, Ni(II) ions were removed from the polymer getting Ni(II) ion-imprinted sorbent. The MIP-SPE preconcentration procedure showed a linear calibration curve within concentration range from 0.3 to 25 ng/ml and the detection limit was 0.3 ng/ml (3 s) for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Ni(II) ion-imprinted microbeads can be used several times without considerable loss of adsorption capacity. When the adsorption capacity of nickel imprinted microbeads were compared with non-imprinted microbeads, nickel imprinted microbeads have higher adsorption capacity. The K d (distribution coefficient) values for the Ni(II)-imprinted microbeads show increase in K d for Ni(II) with respect to both K d values of Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions and non-imprinted polymer. During that time K d decreases for Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions and the k' (relative selectivity coefficient) values which are greater than 1 for imprinted microbeads of Ni(II)/Cu(II), Ni(II)/Zn(II) and Ni(II)/Co(II) are 57.3, 53.9, and 17.3, respectively. Determination of Ni(II) ion in sea water showed that the interfering matrix had been almost removed during preconcentration. The column was good enough for Ni determination in matrixes containing similar ionic radii ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II)

  4. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  5. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase II awards, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The SBIR program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed below, this publication describes the technical efforts and commercialization possibilities for SBIR Phase II awards in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. It is intended for the educated layman, and maybe of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities.

  6. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Uranium and Radioactive Waste Div.; Pescatore, Claudio [Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2006-09-15

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available.

  7. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available

  8. Phase I Report, US DOE GRED II Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank Engineering Ltd.

    2003-04-23

    Noramex Corporation Inc, a Nevada company, owns a 100% interest in geothermal leases at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The company is exploring the site for a geothermal resource suitable for development for electric power generation or In the spring of 2002, Noramex drilled the first geothermal observation hole at Blue Mountain, under a cost-share program with the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), under the DOE's Geothermal Exploration and Resource Definition (GRED) program, (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-00AL66972). DEEP BLUE No.1 was drilled to a total depth of 672.1 meters (2205 feet) and recorded a maximum temperature of 144.7 C (292.5 F). Noramex Corporation will now drill a second slim geothermal observation test hole at Blue Mountain, designated DEEP BLUE No.2. The hole will be drilled under a cost-share program with the DOE, under the DOE's Geothermal Exploration and Resource Definition II (GRED II) program, (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-2002AL68297). This report comprises Phase I of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-2002AL68297 of the GRED II program. The report provides an update on the status of resource confirmation at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, incorporating the results from DEEP BLUE No.1, and provides the technical background for a second test hole. The report also outlines the proposed drilling program for slim geothermal observation test hole DEEP BLUE No.2.

  9. Organic Phase Change Materials And Their Textile Applications: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıer, Nihal; Önder, Emel

    2012-01-01

    An organic phase change material (PCM) possesses the ability to absorb and release large quantity of latent heat during a phase change process over a certain temperature range. The use of PCMs in energy storage and thermal insulation has been tested scientifically and industrially in many applications. The broad based research and development studies concentrating on the characteristics of known organic PCMs and new materials as PCM candidates, the storage methods of PCMs, as well as the reso...

  10. The phase field technique for modeling multiphase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Loginova, I.; Singer, H. M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews methods and applications of the phase field technique, one of the fastest growing areas in computational materials science. The phase field method is used as a theory and computational tool for predictions of the evolution of arbitrarily shaped morphologies and complex microstructures in materials. In this method, the interface between two phases (e.g. solid and liquid) is treated as a region of finite width having a gradual variation of different physical quantities, i.e. it is a diffuse interface model. An auxiliary variable, the phase field or order parameter \\phi(\\vec{x}) , is introduced, which distinguishes one phase from the other. Interfaces are identified by the variation of the phase field. We begin with presenting the physical background of the phase field method and give a detailed thermodynamical derivation of the phase field equations. We demonstrate how equilibrium and non-equilibrium physical phenomena at the phase interface are incorporated into the phase field methods. Then we address in detail dendritic and directional solidification of pure and multicomponent alloys, effects of natural convection and forced flow, grain growth, nucleation, solid-solid phase transformation and highlight other applications of the phase field methods. In particular, we review the novel phase field crystal model, which combines atomistic length scales with diffusive time scales. We also discuss aspects of quantitative phase field modeling such as thin interface asymptotic analysis and coupling to thermodynamic databases. The phase field methods result in a set of partial differential equations, whose solutions require time-consuming large-scale computations and often limit the applicability of the method. Subsequently, we review numerical approaches to solve the phase field equations and present a finite difference discretization of the anisotropic Laplacian operator.

  11. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  12. Investigation of the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide. (Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Phase II of an investigation directed towards quantifying the explosive hazards of hydrogen sulphide in air are described. This second and final phase is focussed on flame acceleration until detonation in obstacle environments simulating a heavy water plant. The results of previous experimental tests, both small and large scale, are compiled and summarized and the results of a series of flame acceleration tests are reported. These tests were performed in order to assess the potential for damaging explosions in simulated industrial environments with repeated obstacles. The experimented apparatus consisted of a channel 1.8 m x 1.8 m in cross-section and 15.5 m long. Two obstacle configurations were tested, corresponding to 500 mm or 220 mm diameter tubes mounted across the channel at regular intervals. Tests were performed with acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulphide fuels. The results of numerical simulation are also reported and compared with the observed results. Scaling predictions are also made. The key results are summarized in the main text, and detailed reports covering the various aspects are included in three annexes

  13. Investigation of the explosion hazards of hydrogen sulphide. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, I.O.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Phase II of an investigation directed towards quantifying the explosive hazards of hydrogen sulphide in air are described. This second and final phase is focussed on flame acceleration until detonation in obstacle environments simulating a heavy water plant. The results of previous experimental tests, both small and large scale, are compiled and summarized and the results of a series of flame acceleration tests are reported. These tests were performed in order to assess the potential for damaging explosions in simulated industrial environments with repeated obstacles. The experimented apparatus consisted of a channel 1.8 m x 1.8 m in cross-section and 15.5 m long. Two obstacle configurations were tested, corresponding to 500 mm or 220 mm diameter tubes mounted across the channel at regular intervals. Tests were performed with acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulphide fuels. The results of numerical simulation are also reported and compared with the observed results. Scaling predictions are also made. The key results are summarized in the main text, and detailed reports covering the various aspects are included in three annexes

  14. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  15. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  16. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  17. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  18. Infrastructure development for radioactive materials at the NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Weidner, R.; Ghose, S. K.; Dooryhee, E.; Novakowski, T. J.; Stan, T.; Wells, P.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II is a multipurpose instrument designed for high-resolution, high-energy X-ray scattering techniques. In this article, the capabilities, opportunities and recent developments in the characterization of radioactive materials at XPD are described. The overarching goal of this work is to provide researchers access to advanced synchrotron techniques suited to the structural characterization of materials for advanced nuclear energy systems. XPD is a new beamline providing high photon flux for X-ray Diffraction, Pair Distribution Function analysis and Small Angle X-ray Scattering. The infrastructure and software described here extend the existing capabilities at XPD to accommodate radioactive materials. Such techniques will contribute crucial information to the characterization and quantification of advanced materials for nuclear energy applications. We describe the automated radioactive sample collection capabilities and recent X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering results from neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  19. Aging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Jean Yves; Zhang, Wei; Luckas, Jennifer; Chen, Chao; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Bichara, Christophe; Wuttig, Matthias

    2015-06-24

    Aging is a ubiquitous phenomenon in glasses. In the case of phase-change materials, it leads to a drift in the electrical resistance, which hinders the development of ultrahigh density storage devices. Here we elucidate the aging process in amorphous GeTe, a prototypical phase-change material, by advanced numerical simulations, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy experiments. We show that aging is accompanied by a progressive change of the local chemical order towards the crystalline one. Yet, the glass evolves towards a covalent amorphous network with increasing Peierls distortion, whose structural and electronic properties drift away from those of the resonantly bonded crystal. This behaviour sets phase-change materials apart from conventional glass-forming systems, which display the same local structure and bonding in both phases.

  20. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013. A full account of Phase I of this project, including detailed home details and characterization, is found in Parker et al, 2015 (currently in draft). Phase II of this project, which is the focus of this report, applied the following additional retrofit measures to select homes that received a shallow retrofit in Phase I: a) Supplemental mini-split heat pump (MSHP) (6 homes); b) Ducted and space coupled Heat Pump Water Heater (8 homes); c) Exterior insulation finish system (EIFS) (1 homes); d) Window retrofit (3 homes); e) Smart thermostat (21 homes: 19 NESTs; 2 Lyrics); f) Heat pump clothes dryer (8 homes); g) Variable speed pool pump (5 homes).

  1. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Chong C.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Sing Chin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material f...

  2. Multifunctional Metal/Polymer Composite Fiber for Space Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase II Program, Syscom Technology, Inc. will implement an integrated processing scheme to fabricate a conductive...

  3. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  4. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  5. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g-1, respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Encouraged by Phase I accomplishments, the proposed Phase II program will significantly mature and align the development of a Space Qualified Non-Destructive...

  7. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  8. Reconfigurable L-band Radar Transceiver using Digital Signal Synthesis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal, builds upon the extensive research and digital radar design that has been successfully completed during the Phase I contract. Key innovations...

  9. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  10. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  11. Development of phase-contrast imaging technique for material science and medical science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Y.S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P.S; Shukla, Mayank; Yadav, P.S; Sinha, Amar; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2007-07-01

    In-line phase contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for study of materials such as carbon fibres, carbon composite materials, polymers etc. These represent the class of materials for which x-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Similarly, this technique is also well suited for imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumour and normal tissue. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low x-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method for material and medical science applications. Though the conventional radiography technique has been carried out for decades, the phase-imaging technique is being demonstrated for the first time within, the country. We have set up an experimental facility for phase contrast imaging using a combination of x-ray CCD detector and a microfocus x-ray source. This facility is dedicated for micro-imaging experiments such as micro-tomography and high resolution phase contrast experiments. In this report, the results of phase contrast imaging using microfocus source and ELETTRA, synchrotron source are discussed. We have also discussed the basic design and heat load calculation for upcoming imaging beamline at Indus-II, RRCAT, Indore. (author)

  12. X-ray diffraction study of phase transitions in iron(II) trisnioximate hexadecylboronate clathrochelate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, I.I.; Antipin, M.Yu.; Dubovik, I.I.; Papkov, V.S.; Potekhin, K.A.; Voloshin, Ya.Z.; Stash, A.I.; Belsky, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Crystals of the iron(II) nioximate hexadecylboronate clathrochelate complex-FeNx 3 (BHd ) 2 [tris(μ-1,2-cyclohexanedionedioximato-O:O ' )di-n-hexadecyldiborato(2-) - N,'''N''',N''',N''',N''',N ' ]iron(II) - are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Two structural phase transitions are revealed at T cr1 = 290(3) K and T cr2 = 190(3) K. The crystal structures of phases I, II, and III are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis at 303, 243, and 153 K, respectively. It is demonstrated that the I ↔ II phase transition is due to a change in the system of translations, and the II ↔ III phase transition is accompanied only by a jumpwise change in the unit cell parameters. The possible mechanisms of phase transitions are discussed in terms of geometry and molecular packing of FeNx 3 (BHd) 2 in all three phases

  13. Aging of snubbers in nuclear service: Phase I study results and Phase II plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.L.; Bush, S.H.; Page, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two major research areas were investigated in the Phase I snubber aging studies. The first area involved a preliminary evaluation of the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation; failure modes of mechanisms were identified and their contributions to aging degradation were assessed relative to other failure modes. The second area involved estimating the efficacy of existing tests and examinations that are intended to determine the effects of aging and degradation. Available data on snubber behavior and operating experience were reviewed, using licensee event reports and other historical data for the 10-year period from 1973 through 1983. Value-impact was considered in terms of (1) exposure of workers to radioactive environments for examination/testing and (2) the cost for expansion of the snubber testing program due to failed snubbers. Results from the Phase I studies identified the need to modify or improve examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Based on the results of the Phase I snubber studies, the seals and fluids were identified as the two principal elements affected by aging degradation in hydraulic snubbers. Phase II work, which was initiated in FY 1987, will develop cooperative activities between PNL and operating utilities through the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG), who will work to establish a strong data and experience base for both hydraulic and mechanical snubbers based on actual operating and maintenance history at nuclear power plants. Application guidelines for snubbers will be recommended based on the study results

  14. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  15. The Phase II ATLAS Pixel Upgrade: The Inner Tracker (ITk)

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to eta < 3.2 and two to eta < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. Support...

  16. Micromegas R&D for ATLAS MUON PHASE II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Edoardo Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade, a proposal to extend the detector acceptance of the muon system to high η has been put forward (namely up to | η| ~ 4). Extension of the muon coverage has been demonstrated to enhance physics performance. The proposed location for the new detector is in between the end-cap calorimeter cryostat and the JD shielding; in this region there is no magnetic field applied, the aim of the new detector is therefore to only tag muons without performing any momentum measurement. The new η tagger should cope with extremely high particle rate, that has been calculated, by means of simulations, to be 9 MHz at R = 25 cm and 0.4 MHz at R = 60 cm for μ = 200, where μ stands for the number of pp collisions per bunch crossing. The required spatial resolution at the inner edge of the detector has been estimated in few hundreds micrometres. One of the most promising candidate technology for the new detector is the MicroMegaS one, which has already been adopted for the NSW upgrad...

  17. Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behl Susanne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymostimulin is a thymic peptide fraction with immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. In a phase II trial, we investigated safety and efficacy including selection criteria for best response in advanced or metastasised hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods 44 patients (84 % male, median age 69 years not suitable or refractory to conventional therapy received thymostimulin 75 mg subcutaneously five times per week for a median of 8.2 months until progression or complete response. 3/44 patients were secondarily accessible to local ablation or chemoembolisation. Primary endpoint was overall survival, secondary endpoint tumor response or progression-free survival. A multivariate Cox's regression model was used to identify variables affecting survival. Results Median survival was 11.5 months (95% CI 7.9–15.0 with a 1-, 2- and 3-year survival of 50%, 23% and 9%. In the univariate analysis, a low Child-Pugh-score (p = 0.01, a low score in the Okuda- and CLIP-classification (p Conclusion Outcome in our study rather depended on liver function and intrahepatic tumor growth (presence of liver cirrhosis and Okuda stage in addition to response to thymostimulin, while an invasive HCC phenotype had no influence in the multivariate analysis. Thymostimulin could therefore be considered a safe and promising candidate for palliative treatment in a selected target population with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, in particular as component of a multimodal therapy concept. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29319366.

  18. Validation of KENOREST with LWR-PROTEUS phase II samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Kilger, R.; Pautz, A.; Zwermann, W. [GRS, Garching (Germany); Grimm, P.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    In order to broaden the validation basis of the reactivity and nuclide inventory code KENOREST two samples of the LWR-PROTEUS phase II program have been calculated and compared to the experimental results. In general most nuclides are reproduced very well and agree within about ten percent with the experiment. Some already known problems, the overprediction of metallic fission products and the underprediction of the higher curium isotopes, have been confirmed. One of the largest uncertainties in the calculation was the burnup of the samples due to differences between a core simulation of the fuel vendor and the burnup determined from the measured values of the burnup indicator Nd-148. Two different models taking into account the environment for a peripheral fuel rod have been studied. The more detailed model included the three direct neighbor fuel assemblies depleted along with the fuel rod of interest. The influence on the results has been found to be very small. Compared to the uncertainties from the burnup, this effect can be considered negligible. The reason for the low influence was basically that the spectrum did not get considerably harder with increasing burnup beyond about 20GWd/tHM. Since the sample reached burnups far beyond that value, an effect could not be seen. In the near future an update of the used libraries is planned and it will be very interesting to study the effect on the results, especially for Curium. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used to determine compound effects on both neural function and cell health in primary cortical networks grown on mwMEA plates following exposure to ~1100 compounds from EPA’s Phase II ToxCast libraries. On DIV 13, baseline activity (40 min) was recorded prior to exposure to each compound at 40 µM. DMSO and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were included as controls on each mwMEA plate. Changes in spontaneous network activity (mean firing rate; MFR) and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase; LDH and CellTiter Blue; CTB) were assessed within the same well following compound exposure. Activity calls (“hits”) were established using the 90th and 20th percentiles of the compound-induced change in MFR (medians of triplicates) across all tested compounds; compounds above (top 10% of compounds increasing MFR), and below (bottom 20% of compounds decreasing MFR) these thresholds, respectively were considered hits. MFR was altered beyond one of these thresholds by 322 compounds. Four compound categories accounted for 66% of the hits, including: insecticides (e.g. abamectin, lindane, prallethrin), pharmaceuticals (e.g. haloperidol, reserpine), fungicides (e.g. hexaconazole, fenamidone), and h

  20. Postirradiation examination of BEATRIX-II, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagle, O.D.; Hobbs, F.D.; Baldwin, D.L.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Takahashi, T.; Noda, K.; Verrall, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    BEATRIX-II is an in situ tritium recovery experiment that was designed to characterize the behavior of lithium ceramics irradiated to high burnup in a fast neutron flux. Postirradiation examination was carried out on the Phase 1 vented canisters: one containing a Li 2 O ring capable of temperature changes and the other a Li 2 O solid specimen with a center temperature of 1,000 degrees C. The tritium inventory of the ring specimen at 650 degrees C was determined to be in the range from 0.2--0.6 wppm while for the solid specimen the inventory varied from 1.4 wppm at the surface to 0.06 wppm at the inner surface. Downstream transport of the Li 2 O by the sweep gas was determined to be insignificant from analyses of acid rinses of selected canister surfaces. Densification and restructuring of the solid specimen during irradiation resulted in the development of a central annulus. Ceramography was used to characterize the columnar grain structure and the mechanisms involved in its evolution

  1. Highly selective solid-phase extraction of trace Pd(II) by murexide functionalized halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ruijun; He Qun; Hu Zheng; Zhang Shengrui [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Lijun [Faculty of Science and Engineer, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chang Xijun, E-mail: lirj2010@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-02-03

    Graphical abstract: Murexide functionalized halloysite nanotubes have been developed to separate and concentrate trace Pd(II) from aqueous samples. Parameters that affected the sorption and elution efficiency were studied in column mode, and the new adsorbent presented high selectivity and adsorption capacity for the solid phase extraction of trace Pd(II). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Murexide modified halloysite nanotubes as adsorbent has been reported originally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This adsorbent has a unique selectivity for Pd(II) at pH 1.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This adsorbent had high adsorption capacity for Pd(II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The precision and accuracy of the method are satisfactory. - Abstract: The originality on the high efficiency of murexide modified halloysite nanotubes as a new adsorbent of solid phase extraction has been reported to preconcentrate and separate Pd(II) in solution samples. The new adsorbent was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms. Effective preconcentration conditions of analyte were examined using column procedures prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effects of pH, the amount of adsorbent, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, Pd(II) could be retained on the column at pH 1.0 and quantitatively eluted by 2.5 mL of 0.01 mol L{sup -1} HCl-3% thiourea solution at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min{sup -1}. The analysis time was 5 min. An enrichment factor of 120 was accomplished. Common interfering ions did not interfere in both separation and determination. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent at optimum conditions was found to be 42.86 mg g{sup -1} for Pd(II). The detection limit (3{sigma}) of

  2. Highly selective solid-phase extraction of trace Pd(II) by murexide functionalized halloysite nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijun; He Qun; Hu Zheng; Zhang Shengrui; Zhang Lijun; Chang Xijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Murexide functionalized halloysite nanotubes have been developed to separate and concentrate trace Pd(II) from aqueous samples. Parameters that affected the sorption and elution efficiency were studied in column mode, and the new adsorbent presented high selectivity and adsorption capacity for the solid phase extraction of trace Pd(II). Highlights: ► Murexide modified halloysite nanotubes as adsorbent has been reported originally. ► This adsorbent has a unique selectivity for Pd(II) at pH 1.0. ► This adsorbent had high adsorption capacity for Pd(II). ► The precision and accuracy of the method are satisfactory. - Abstract: The originality on the high efficiency of murexide modified halloysite nanotubes as a new adsorbent of solid phase extraction has been reported to preconcentrate and separate Pd(II) in solution samples. The new adsorbent was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. Effective preconcentration conditions of analyte were examined using column procedures prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effects of pH, the amount of adsorbent, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, Pd(II) could be retained on the column at pH 1.0 and quantitatively eluted by 2.5 mL of 0.01 mol L −1 HCl–3% thiourea solution at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min −1 . The analysis time was 5 min. An enrichment factor of 120 was accomplished. Common interfering ions did not interfere in both separation and determination. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent at optimum conditions was found to be 42.86 mg g −1 for Pd(II). The detection limit (3σ) of the method was 0.29 ng mL −1 , and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.1% (n = 11). The method was

  3. Reactor physics studies in the GCFR phase-II critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, R.B.

    1976-09-01

    The reactor physics studies performed in the gas cooled fast reactor (GCFR) mockup on ZPR-9 are covered. This critical assembly, designated Phase II in the GCFR program, had a single zone PuO 2 -UO 2 core composition and UO 2 radial and axial blankets. The assembly was built both with and without radial and axial stainless steel reflectors. The program included the following measurements: small-sample reactivity worths of reactor constituent materials (including helium); 238 U Doppler effect; uranium and plutonium reaction rate distributions; thorium, uranium, and plutonium α and reactor kinetics. Analysis of the measurements used ENDF/B-IV nuclear data; anisotropic diffusion coefficients were used to account for neutron streaming effects. Comparison of measurements and calculations to GCFR Phase I are also made

  4. Thermal energy storage using phase change materials fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Amy S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the use of solid‐liquid phase change materials to store significant amounts of energy in the latent heat of fusion. The proper selection of materials for different applications is covered in detail, as is the use of high conductivity additives to enhance thermal diffusivity. Dr. Fleischer explores how applications of PCMS have expanded over the past 10 years to include the development of high efficiency building materials to reduce heating and cooling needs, smart material design for clothing, portable electronic systems thermal management, solar thermal power plant design and many others. Additional future research directions and challenges are also discussed.

  5. Magnetic and material limiter discharges in Tokapole II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities have been studied in Tokapole II, a small poloidal divertor tokamak, in magnetic and material limiter configurations. In the magnetic limiter configuration, the divertor separatrix defines the tokamak current channel boundary. Limiters or neutralizer plates are not used to remove plasma in the scrape-off region. The relatively hot, dense plasma in the scrape-off region carries 5--20% of the current. In the material limiter configuration, limiter plates are inserted to the separatrix to remove plasma and current in the scrape-off region. The plates vary the tokamak current channel boundary condition in a controlled manner, and provide a benchmark for comparison with other tokamaks. Internal and external disruptions have been studied, and several unique features in the magnetic limiter configuration have been identified. The magnitic limiter configuration enables routine passing of the stability barriers at q(a) = 2 and q(a) = 1, where q(a) is the the edge safety factor, without a close fitting wall, external windings, or detailed profile control techniques. Passing the q(a) = 1 barrier permits operation in the q < 1 regime where total reconnection of the sawtooth does not occur. Discharges with q < 1 are also obtained in the material limiter configuration, suggesting that partial reconnection is characteristic of the sawteeth, and not the magnetic limiter configuration. The magnetic limiter configuration suppresses current termination in a major disruption. Current termination occurs in material limiter discharges due to enhanced interaction with the inboard limiter following the post-disruptive shift in major radius

  6. Multilayer Pressure Vessel Materials Testing and Analysis. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Joseph W.; Popelar, Carl F.; Page, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    To provide NASA a comprehensive suite of materials strength, fracture toughness and crack growth rate test results for use in remaining life calculations for aging multilayer pressure vessels, Southwest Research Institute (R) (SwRI) was contracted in two phases to obtain relevant material property data from a representative vessel. This report describes Phase 1 of this effort which includes a preliminary material property assessment as well as a fractographic, fracture mechanics and fatigue crack growth analyses of an induced flaw in the outer shell of a representative multilayer vessel that was subjected to cyclic pressure test. SwRI performed this Phase 1 effort under contract to the Digital Wave Corporation in support of their contract to Jacobs ATOM for the NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. Universal scattering response across the type-II Weyl semimetal phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüßmann, P.; Weber, A. P.; Glott, F.; Xu, N.; Fanciulli, M.; Muff, S.; Magrez, A.; Bugnon, P.; Berger, H.; Bode, M.; Dil, J. H.; Blügel, S.; Mavropoulos, P.; Sessi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The discovery of Weyl semimetals represents a significant advance in topological band theory. They paradigmatically enlarged the classification of topological materials to gapless systems while simultaneously providing experimental evidence for the long-sought Weyl fermions. Beyond fundamental relevance, their high mobility, strong magnetoresistance, and the possible existence of even more exotic effects, such as the chiral anomaly, make Weyl semimetals a promising platform to develop radically new technology. Fully exploiting their potential requires going beyond the mere identification of materials and calls for a detailed characterization of their functional response, which is severely complicated by the coexistence of surface- and bulk-derived topologically protected quasiparticles, i.e., Fermi arcs and Weyl points, respectively. Here, we focus on the type-II Weyl semimetal class in which we find a stoichiometry-dependent phase transition from a trivial to a nontrivial regime. By exploring the two extreme cases of the phase diagram, we demonstrate the existence of a universal response of both surface and bulk states to perturbations. We show that quasiparticle interference patterns originate from scattering events among surface arcs. Analysis reveals that topologically nontrivial contributions are strongly suppressed by spin texture. We also show that scattering at localized impurities can generate defect-induced quasiparticles sitting close to the Weyl point energy. These give rise to strong peaks in the local density of states, which lift the Weyl node, significantly altering the pristine low-energy spectrum. Remarkably, by comparing the WTe2 and the MoTe2 cases we found that scattering response and topological transition are not directly linked. Visualizing the existence of a universal microscopic response to scattering has important consequences for understanding the unusual transport properties of this class of materials. Overall, our observations provide

  8. Subthreshold electrical transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Manuel Le; Kaes, Matthias; Sebastian, Abu; Krebs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogenide-based phase-change materials play a prominent role in information technology. In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in these materials are still debated. In this article, we present a unified model based on multiple-trapping transport together with 3D Poole–Frenkel emission from a two-center Coulomb potential. With this model, we are able to explain electrical transport both in as-deposited phase-change material thin films, similar to experimental conditions in early work dating back to the 1970s, and in melt-quenched phase-change materials in nanometer-scale phase-change memory devices typically used in recent studies. Experimental measurements on two widely different device platforms show remarkable agreement with the proposed mechanism over a wide range of temperatures and electric fields. In addition, the proposed model is able to seamlessly capture the temporal evolution of the transport properties of the melt-quenched phase upon structural relaxation. (paper)

  9. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  10. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  11. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase II (construction phase) investigations to a depth of 350 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Hayano, Akira; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Tomoo; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Takeda, Masaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ohno, Hirokazu; Shigeta, Naotaka; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. This report summarizes the results of the Phase II investigations carried out from April 2005 to June 2014 to a depth of 350 m. Integration of work from different disciplines into a 'geosynthesis' ensures that the Phase II goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II investigations. Efforts are made to summarize as many lessons learnt from the Phase II investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a 'knowledge base' that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations. (author)

  12. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  13. Cold storage with phase change material for building ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Butala, Vincenc; Stritih, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis of building coolingusing night-time cold accumulation in phase change material (PCM), otherwise known as the "free-cooling" or "passive-cooling" principle. The phase change materials were used in ceilings and floors. The free-cooling principle is explained and some of the types of PCMs suitable for summer cooling are listed. An experiment was conducted using paraffin with a melting point of 22 °C as the PCM to store cold during the ni...

  14. A steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system: Phase II. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.; Shenhar, J.; Lum, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the phase II work on the Position Location Device (POLO) for penetrometers. Phase II was carried out to generate an integrated design of a full-scale steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system. Steering provides for the controlled and directional use of the penetrometer, while vibratory thrusting can provide greater penetration ability

  15. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  16. Magnetic- and material-limiter discharges in Tokapole II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities were studied in Tokapole II, a small poloidal-divertor tokamak, in magnetic- and material-limiter configurations. In the magnetic limiter configuration, the divertor separatrix defines the tokamak current channel boundary. Limiters or neutralizer plate are not used to remove plasma in the scrape-off region. The relatively hot, dense plasma in the scrape-off region carries 5-20% of the current. In the material-limiter configuration, limiter plates are inserted to the separatrix to remove plasma and current in the scrape-off region. The plates vary the tokamak current-channel boundary condition in a controlled manner, and provide a benchmark for comparison with other tokamaks. Internal and external disruptions have been studied, and several unique features in the magnetic-limiter configuration were identified. The magnetic-limiter configuration enables routine passing of the stability barriers at q(a) = 2 and q(a) = 1, where q(a) is the edge safety factor, without a close-fitting wall, external windings, or detailed profile control techniques. Passing the q(a) = 1 barrier permits operation in the q < 1 regime where total reconnection of the sawtooth does not occur

  17. Secondary Electron Emission Yields from PEP-II Accelerator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC operates with aluminum alloy and copper vacuum chambers, having design positron and electron beam currents of 2 and 1 A, respectively. Titanium nitride coating of the aluminum vacuum chamber in the arcs of the positron ring is needed in order to reduce undesirable electron-cloud effects. The total secondary electron emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum alloy has been measured after samples of beam chamber material were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment, as a function of incident electron beam angle and energy. The results may be used to simulate and better understand electron-cloud effects under actual operating conditions. We also present yield measurements for other accelerator materials because new surface effects are expected to arise as beam currents increase. Copper, in particular, is growing in popularity for its good thermal conductivity and self-radiation-shielding properties. The effect of electron bombardment, ''conditioning'', on the yield of TiN and copper is shown

  18. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Noel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction

  19. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph [Thermal Sciences Center of Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Bat Freyssinet, 40 Rue des Arts, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Noel, Jean [Free-lance Scientific Software Developer, 15 Place Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2008-08-15

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction. (author)

  20. Phase-change material as a thermal storage media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Chazly, Nihad M; Khattab, Nagwa M [Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Heat storage based on the sensible heating of media such as water, rock and earth represent the first generation of solar energy storage subsystems and technology for their utilization. However, recently the heat storage based on the latent heat associated with a change in phase of a material offers many advantages over sensible heat storage. The most important characteristic of such a subsystem is its a sufficient storage capacity. An idealized model visualizing a thermal capacitor using a phase change material is constructed and subjected to simulated solar system environmental conditions. The proposed model is of a flat plate geometry consisting of two panels compartments forming the body of the capacitor containing the paraffin, leaving at their inner surfaces a thin passage allowing the water flow. The whole structure was assumed to be insulated to minimize heat loss. An analysis of the model is conducted using Goodman technique to generate data about the temperature distribution, the melt thickness, and the heat stored in the PCM under conditions of: ( i ) constant mass flow rate tests for various water inlet temperatures and ( ii ) constant water inlet temperature for various mass flow rate. A FORTRAN computer program was constructed to perform the analysis. It was found the water outlet temperature increases with time until it becomes nearly equals to the inlet temperature. Increasing the mass flow rate for a given inlet temperature, decreases the time required for outlet temperature to reach a given value. Increasing inlet temperature for a given mass flow rate gives a very rapid decrease in the time required for the outlet water temperature to reach a given value. Instantaneous rate of heat storage was determined from the inlet-to- exit temperature differential and measured flow rate. This rate was then integrated numerically to determine the cumulative total energy stored as a function of time. It was found that the instantaneous rate of heat storage

  1. Intergranular and inter-phased boundaries in the materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, A.; Backhaus-Ricoult, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.

    2000-01-01

    This document collects the abstracts of the talks presented during the colloquium J2IM on the intergranular and inter-phased boundaries in the materials. Around the themes of the interfaces behaviour and grain boundaries defects in materials, these days dealt with the microstructure behaviour in many domains such as the interfaces in batteries, the irradiation damages and the special case of the fuel-cladding interactions, the stressed interfaces, the alumina or silicon carbides substrates. (A.L.B.)

  2. Encapsulation of phase change materials using rice-husk-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondora, Wayne; Doudin, Khalid; Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Xiao, Bo; Ding, Yulong; Bridgwater, Tony; Yuan, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice-husk-char particles are successfully used in the encapsulation of phase change materials. • Carbon-based phase change microcapsules aim at using the high thermal conductivity of carbon materials. • Carbon from biomass can be used in low and intermediate heat harvest and storage. • Carbon in biomass is captured and to be used in improving energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper explored a new approach to prepare phase change microcapsules using carbon-based particles via Pickering emulsions for energy storage applications. Rice-husk-char, a by-product in biofuel production, containing 53.58 wt% of carbon was used as a model carbon-based material to encapsulate hexadecane. As a model phase change material, hexadecane was emulsified in aqueous suspensions of rice-husk-char nanoparticles. Water soluble polymers poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) were used to fix the rice-husk-char nanoparticles on the emulsion droplets through layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the structural stability of the microcapsules. The microcapsules formed are composed of a thin shell encompassing a large core consisting of hexadecane. Thermal gravimetrical and differential scanning calorimeter analyses showed the phase change enthalpy of 80.9 kJ kg"−"1 or 120.0 MJ m"−"3. Design criteria of phase change microcapsules and preparation considerations were discussed in terms of desired applications. This work demonstrated possible utilisations of biomass-originated carbon-based material for thermal energy recovery and storage applications, which can be a new route of carbon capture and utilisation.

  3. Coordinated Mobile Manipulation for Robotics Material Handling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots will play an important role in NASA's exploration activities over the next several decades. They will land on the Lunar surface ahead of humans and help...

  4. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  5. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  6. Phase Change Materials and the perception of wetness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  7. Performance enhancement of hermetic compressor using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, I. M.; Rady, M. A.; Huzayyin, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The present study is motivated by the need for the research of simple measures for increasing energy efficiency of hermetic compressor. The measure is the application of phase change materials for performance enhancement. The first experimental study should be guide for choice of PCM. It has been performed to investigate the effects of thermostat setting temperature on the performance of hermetic compressor. The effects of thermostat setting temperature with and without load on power consumption have been analyzed. Performance enhancement using phase change materials (PCMs) has been studied by employing a phase change material Rubitherm-42 (RT-42) on the top surface of compressor. Choice of PCM material is based on basic compressor performance measured in the first part of the present study. Experiments have been carried out for different load values and different quantities of PCM. The quantity and phase change characteristic of PCM are essential parameters that determine the percentage of performance enhancement in term of energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption of about 10% has been achieved in the present study by using PCM. The present study shows that how to reduce the electrical power consumption to enhance compressor heat dissipation method to improve efficiency.

  8. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  9. Solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cu(II) by Cu(II)-imprinted polymethacrylic microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakova, Ivanka; Karadjova, Irina; Ivanov, Ivo; Georgieva, Ventsislava; Evtimova, Bisera; Georgiev, George

    2007-02-12

    Ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles are prepared by copolymerization of methacrylic acid as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Cu(II), a Cu(II)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (Cu(II)-PAR) complex, and PAR only. A batch procedure is used for the determination of the characteristics of the Cu(II) solid phase extraction from the IIP produced. The results obtained show that the Cu(II)-PAR IIP has the greatest adsorption capacity (37.4 micromol g(-1) of dry copolymer) among the IIPs investigated. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration is 7, and full desorption is achieved by 1 M HNO(3). The selectivity coefficients (S(Cu/Me)) for Me=Ni(II), Co(II) are 45.0 and 38.5, respectively. It is established that Cu(II)-PAR IIPs can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The determination of Cu(II) ions in seawater shows that the interfering matrix does not influence the preconcentration and selectivity values of the Cu(II)-PAR IIPs. The detection and quantification limits are 0.001 micromol L(-1) (3sigma) and 0.003 micromol L(-1) (6sigma), respectively.

  10. Materials Characterization and Microelectronic Implementation of Metal-insulator Transition Materials and Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    materials like crystalline semiconductors, graphene , and composites, the materials discussed here could have a significant impact. This thesis investigates...diagnosis [124], crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials [125], materials diagnosis for restoration of paintings [126], and materials research [127...temperature dots and paint were placed on samples on the substrate. Temperature dots are typically used in the transportation of goods such as food in order

  11. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  12. Round-Robin Test of Paraffin Phase-Change Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, S.; Mehling, H.; Hemberger, F.; Haussmann, Th.; Laube, A.

    2015-11-01

    A round-robin test between three institutes was performed on a paraffin phase-change material (PCM) in the context of the German quality association for phase-change materials. The aim of the quality association is to define quality and test specifications for PCMs and to award certificates for successfully tested materials. To ensure the reproducibility and comparability of the measurements performed at different institutes using different measuring methods, a round-robin test was performed. The sample was unknown. The four methods used by the three participating institutes in the round-robin test were differential scanning calorimetry, Calvet calorimetry and three-layer calorimetry. Additionally, T-history measurements were made. The aim of the measurements was the determination of the enthalpy as a function of temperature. The results achieved following defined test specifications are in excellent agreement.

  13. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  14. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  15. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  16. Physical Improvements in Exciter/Igniter Units, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 2 project consists of the physical integration of our Phase 1 small, compact exciter with a "flight like" igniter or spark plug capable of...

  17. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  18. Highly tilted liquid crystalline materials possessing a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewska, K.; Drzewiński, W. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czerwiński, M., E-mail: mczerwinski@wat.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Piecek, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-01

    Pure compounds and multicomponent mixtures with a broad temperature range of high tilted liquid crystalline antiferroelectric phase and a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase, were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms these kinds of materials form a high tilted anticlinic phase, with a fixed layer spacing and very weak dependency upon temperature, after the transition from the isotropic phase. Due to this, not only pure orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals but also those with a moderate tilt should generate a good dark state. Furthermore, due to the increased potential for forming anticlinic forces, such materials could minimize a commonly observed asymmetry of a rise and fall switching times at a surface stabilized geometry. - Highlights: • The new class of liquid crystalline materials with the direct SmC{sub A}*. • Iso phase transition were obtained. • Materials possess the layer spacing fixed and very weak dependent upon temperature. • Smectic layers without shrinkage are observed. • A good dark state can be generate in SSAFLC.

  19. Postoperative vaginal cuff irradiation using high dose rate remote afterloading: a Phase II clinical protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, William R.; Bastin, Kenneth; Edwards, Scott A.; Buchler, Dolores A.; Stitt, Judith A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Fowler, Jack F.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: In September 1989, a postoperative Phase II high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy protocol was started for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. This review reports the overall survival, local control, and complication rates for the initial 63 patients treated in this Phase II study. Methods and Materials: High dose rate brachytherapy was delivered using an Iridium-192 HDR remote afterloader. Sixty-three patients were entered into the Phase II protocol, each receiving two vaginal cuff treatments 1 week apart (range 4-12 days) with vaginal ovoids (diameter 2.0-3.0 cm). No patient received adjuvant external beam radiation. A dose of 32.4 Gy in two fractions was prescribed to the ovoid surface in 63 patients. The first three patients treated at our institution received 15, 16.2, and 29 Gy, respectively, to determine acute effects. Results: At a median follow-up of 1.6 years (range 0.75-4.3 years) no patient has developed a vaginal cuff recurrence. One regional recurrence (1.6%) occurred at 1.2 years at the pelvic side wall. This patient is alive and without evidence of disease 7 months after completion of salvage irradiation, which resulted in the only vaginal stenosis (1.6%). Fourteen patients (22%) experienced vaginal apex fibrosis by physical exam, which was clinically symptomatic in four patients. Two patients reported stress incontinence; however, these symptoms were noted prior to their HDR therapy. One patient died 2.4 years after HDR therapy due to cardiovascular disease without evidence of cancer at autopsy. Conclusion: Preliminary results of our phase II HDR vaginal cuff protocol for postoperative FIGO Stage IA, Grade 3 or Stage IB, Grade 1-2 patients demonstrate that 32.4 Gy in two fractions is well tolerated by the vaginal cuff mucosa. Local control appears comparable to our prior experience and others with low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Additional patient accrual and further follow

  20. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sumit [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Krok, Michael [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  1. Cyprus natural analogue project (CNAP). Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Milodowski, A.E.

    2011-02-01

    Due to the extremely slow kinetics of bentonite reaction in low alkali cement leachates, natural analogues would appear to be the only viable method of studying bentonite reaction. As a result of a review of the available literature, several sites in Cyprus were selected as particularly promising for this purpose. This report presents the results of two short field campaigns in Cyprus in November/December, 2008 and February, 2009. The main aim of these campaigns was to establish if appropriate sites existed for a natural analogue study of bentonite-low alkali cement leachate reaction. Focus is on mineralogical changes and not changes in physical properties (such as porosity and permeability) of bentonite as the industrially-processed bentonite used in a repository will be completely different in terms of its engineering and hydrogeological properties to the unprocessed natural bentonite or analogue smectite-rich materials. The first campaign was in the form of a reconnaissance study to identify sites of likely interest and the second, follow-up, campaign focussed on obtaining preliminary groundwater and solid phase (bentonites/clay-rich sediments/altered igneous rocks/soils) samples which would allow a more detailed assessment of several of the potential sites. A large amount of information was collected during these short field campaigns and subsequent laboratory analysis of the collected samples so, to keep the main report down to a digestible size, much of the supporting information has been collated in seven appendices. These include full details of all 30 sites visited during both campaigns along with sample details, information on the analytical techniques, the analytical raw data and numerous photographs of the sites. The intention is that this report will provide full supporting information for a potential Phase III and a detailed database for our colleagues at the Geological Survey Department (GSD) in Cyprus. Consequently, all the information acquired

  2. Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, Petr (Inventor); Reynolds, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

  3. Vibration damping and heat transfer using material phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, Petr [Houston, TX; Reynolds, Daniel R [Oakland, CA

    2009-03-24

    A method and apparatus wherein phase changes in a material can dampen vibrational energy, dampen noise and facilitate heat transfer. One embodiment includes a method for damping vibrational energy in a body. The method comprises attaching a material to the body, wherein the material comprises a substrate, a shape memory alloy layer, and a plurality of temperature change elements. The method further comprises sensing vibrations in the body. In addition, the method comprises indicating to at least a portion of the temperature change elements to provide a temperature change in the shape memory alloy layer, wherein the temperature change is sufficient to provide a phase change in at least a portion of the shape memory alloy layer, and further wherein the phase change consumes a sufficient amount of kinetic energy to dampen at least a portion of the vibrational energy in the body. In other embodiments, the shape memory alloy layer is a thin film. Additional embodiments include a sensor connected to the material.

  4. Disorder-induced localization in crystalline phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, T; Jost, P; Volker, H; Woda, M; Merkelbach, P; Schlockermann, C; Wuttig, M

    2011-03-01

    Localization of charge carriers in crystalline solids has been the subject of numerous investigations over more than half a century. Materials that show a metal-insulator transition without a structural change are therefore of interest. Mechanisms leading to metal-insulator transition include electron correlation (Mott transition) or disorder (Anderson localization), but a clear distinction is difficult. Here we report on a metal-insulator transition on increasing annealing temperature for a group of crystalline phase-change materials, where the metal-insulator transition is due to strong disorder usually associated only with amorphous solids. With pronounced disorder but weak electron correlation, these phase-change materials form an unparalleled quantum state of matter. Their universal electronic behaviour seems to be at the origin of the remarkable reproducibility of the resistance switching that is crucial to their applications in non-volatile-memory devices. Controlling the degree of disorder in crystalline phase-change materials might enable multilevel resistance states in upcoming storage devices.

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.7 million tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The 11 alternative actions presented range from completion of the present ongoing EPA site decontamination plan (Option I), to stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II-IV), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V-XI). All options include remedial action costs for off-site locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimates for the 11 options range from $540,000 to $12,500,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado. The Phase II - Title I services include the preparation of topographic measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 0.5 million tons of tailings at the Gunnison site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The nine alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through IX). Cost estimates for the nine options range from $480,000 to $5,890,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-31

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.7 million tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The 11 alternative actions presented range from completion of the present ongoing EPA site decontamination plan (Option I), to stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II-IV), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V-XI). All options include remedial action costs for off-site locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimates for the 11 options range from $540,000 to $12,500,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible.

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Durango site, Durango, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Durango, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.555 million tons of tailings at the Durango site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from vegetative stabilization (Option I), to contouring and stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II and III), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V to VIII). All options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimated for the eight options range from $4,340,000 to $13,590,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is sufficiently economically attractive to justify reprocessing in conjunction with each of the options

  9. Dual phase magnetic material component and method of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Johnson, Francis

    2017-04-25

    A magnetic component having intermixed first and second regions, and a method of preparing that magnetic component are disclosed. The first region includes a magnetic phase and the second region includes a non-magnetic phase. The method includes mechanically masking pre-selected sections of a surface portion of the component by using a nitrogen stop-off material and heat-treating the component in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere at a temperature greater than about 900.degree. C. Both the first and second regions are substantially free of carbon, or contain only limited amounts of carbon; and the second region includes greater than about 0.1 weight % of nitrogen.

  10. Characterization of Concrete Mixes Containing Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksoy, H.; Kardas, G.; Konuklu, Y.; Cellat, K.; Tezcan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) can be used in passive building applications to achieve near zero energy building goals. For this purpose PCM can be added in building structures and materials in different forms. Direct incorporation, form stabilization and microencapsulation are different forms used for PCM integration in building materials. In addition to thermal properties of PCM itself, there are several other criteria that need to be fulfilled for the PCM enhanced building materials. Mechanical properties, corrosive effects, morphology and thermal buffering have to be determined for reliable and long-term applications in buildings. This paper aims to give an overview of characterization methods used to determine these properties in PCM added fresh concrete mixes. Thermal, compressive strength, corrosion, and microscopic test results for concrete mixes with PCM are discussed.

  11. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chong C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material for power generation. Besides, the concept of portability will enable different power source like solar, wasted heat from air conditioner, refrigerator, stove etc, i.e. to create temperature different on thermoelectric material for power generation. Furthermore, thermoelectric will generate direct current which is used by all the gadgets like Smartphone, tablet, laptop etc. The portable concept of renewable energy will encourage the direct usage of renewable energy for portable gadgets. The working principle and design of portable thermoelectric power generator coupled with phase change material is presented in this paper.

  12. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Ghaderi, Ali R. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 {mu}g of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  13. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Ghaderi, Ali R.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO 3 and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 μg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO 3 solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL -1 Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL -1 Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments

  14. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ghaderi, Ali R

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5M HNO(3) and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 microg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5M HNO(3) solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ngmL(-1) Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ngmL(-1) Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  15. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  16. The phase-II ATLAS pixel tracker upgrade: layout and mechanics.

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will upgrade its tracking detector during the Phase-II LHC shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The upgraded tracker will consist of silicon-strip modules surrounding a pixel detector, and will likely cover an extended eta range, perhaps as far as |eta|<4.0. A number of layout and supporting-structure options are being considered for the pixel detector, with the final choice expected to be made in early 2017. The proposed supporting structures are based on lightweight, highly-thermally-conductive carbon-based materials and are cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The various layouts will be described and a description of the supporting structures will be presented, along with results from testing of prototypes.

  17. Partially Reconstructed Beauty Decays at LHCb for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Iwan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Semileptonic beauty decays provide a theoretically clean probe of CKM Unitarity since their decay rates factorise into leptonic and hadronic currents. At hadron colliders the full kinematic properties of these decays cannot be determined due to the unreconstructable neutrino. The kinematics can however be inferred through the conservation of momentum perpendicular to the flight direction that can be resolved by the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO). The RF foil is an essential component of the LHCb vertex locator (VELO), separating the secondary vacuum of the VELO from the primary vacuum of the LHC. The foil protects the VELO modules from beam induced effects such as RF waves, and protects the LHC vacuum from hardware effects such as outgassing. The RF foil contributes to the material budget of the experiment and degrades the quality of tracks resulting in a worsened resolution for the reconstructed production and decay vertices. The phase-II upgrade can greatly improve the performance of semileptonic measurements a...

  18. High Transparent Metal Oxide / Polyimide Antistatic Coatings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through this Phase I program, Agiltron has successfully produced an innovative transparent conductive nanocomposite paint that holds the promise of meeting space...

  19. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  20. The role of phase change materials for the sustainable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuta Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unceasing global economic development leads to continuous increase of energy demand. Considering the limited conventional resources of energy as well as impact on the environment associated with its use, it is important to focus on the rational management of energy resources and on supporting the development of new technologies related to both conventional and renewable energy resources. In a number of cases the use of phase change materials (PCMs turns out to be a reasonable solution. This paper contains a summary of well-studied and known, previously used solutions based on phase change materials as well as novel possibilities, which are under development. It has been decided to investigate this topic due to the wide range of highly effective solutions. The review is focused on selected applications of PCMs for technologies which are designed to improve energy efficiency and on PCMs used in technologies based on renewable energy sources.

  1. Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Evans, Philip G; Haglund, Richard F; Valentine, Jason G

    2017-08-09

    Mastering dynamic free-space spectral control and modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical regimes remains a challenging task that is hindered by the available functional materials at high frequencies. In this work, we have realized an efficient metadevice capable of spectral control by minimizing the thermal mass of a vanadium dioxide phase-change material (PCM) and placing the PCM at the feed gap of a bow-tie field antenna. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range of up to 360 nm in the NIR and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength. The metadevice is configured for integrated and local heating, leading to faster switching and more precise spatial control compared with devices based on phase-change thin films. We envisage that the combined advantages of this device will open new opportunities for signal processing, memory, security, and holography at optical frequencies.

  2. Microencapsulated Phase-Change Materials For Storage Of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes research on engineering issues related to storage and transport of heat in slurries containing phase-change materials in microscopic capsules. Specific goal of project to develop lightweight, compact, heat-management systems used safely in inhabited areas of spacecraft. Further development of obvious potential of technology expected to lead to commercialization and use in aircraft, electronic equipment, machinery, industrial processes, and other sytems in which requirements for management of heat compete with severe restrictions on weight or volume.

  3. Phase change - memory materials - composition, structure, and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frumar, M.; Frumarová, Božena; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, suppl.1 (2007), S169-S174 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications 2006. Darwin, 16.06.2006-20.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phase change memory Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007

  4. Artefacts in geometric phase analysis of compound materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jonathan J P; Beanland, Richard; Alexe, Marin; Cockburn, John W; Revin, Dmitry G; Zhang, Shiyong Y; Sanchez, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA) algorithm is known as a robust and straightforward technique that can be used to measure lattice strains in high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. It is also attractive for analysis of aberration-corrected scanning TEM (ac-STEM) images that resolve every atom column, since it uses Fourier transforms and does not require real-space peak detection and assignment to appropriate sublattices. Here it is demonstrated that, in ac-STEM images of compound materials with compositionally distinct atom columns, an additional geometric phase is present in the Fourier transform. If the structure changes from one area to another in the image (e.g. across an interface), the change in this additional phase will appear as a strain in conventional GPA, even if there is no lattice strain. Strategies to avoid this pitfall are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  6. Two-phase materials for high-temperature service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available load is carried by the g phase, which is a ductile material; at high temperatures the g phase is weak, and 0966-9795/00/$ - see front matter #2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0966-9795(00)00030-3 Intermetallics 8 (2000) 979?985 www...-temperature phase of ZrO2 containing 4.5 mol% per cent Y2O3 has the cubic ?uorite structure. A 980 F.R.N. Nabarro / Intermetallics 8 (2000) 979?985 face-centred cube of Zr atoms, with 4 Zr atoms in the unit cell, contains a simple cube of 8 O-atoms. On cooling...

  7. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  8. Controllable biomimetic adhesion using embedded phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Sameoto, D; Menon, C

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, such as in the instance of climbing robots or temporary adhesives, there is the need to be able to dynamically control the level of adhesion a biomimetic dry adhesive can provide. In this study, the effect of changing the backing layer stiffness of a dry adhesive is examined. Embedding a phase change material within the backing of a synthetic dry adhesive sheet allows the stiffness to be tailored at different points of a preload and adhesion cycle. Larger contact areas and more equal load sharing between adhesive fibres can be achieved by increasing the backing layer stiffness after initial deformation when the adhesive backing is loaded in its softened state. Adhesion behaviour is examined when the backing layer is maintained in solid and softened phases during complete load cycles and for load cycles under the condition of contact with the softened phase backing followed by pull-off during the solid phase. Absolute adhesion force is increased for trials in which a soft backing layer hardens prior to pull-off. This effect is due to the increased contact area made between the rounded probe and the softened material during preloading and the more equal load sharing condition during pull-off when the backing layer becomes stiff again

  9. Molecular simulation of capillary phase transitions in flexible porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Vincent K.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Mahynski, Nathan A.

    2018-03-01

    We used flat-histogram sampling Monte Carlo to study capillary phase transitions in deformable adsorbent materials. Specifically, we considered a pure adsorbate fluid below its bulk critical temperature within a slit pore of variable pore width. The instantaneous pore width is dictated by a number of factors, such as adsorbate loading, reservoir pressure, fluid-wall interaction, and bare adsorbent properties. In the slit pores studied here, the bare adsorbent free energy was assumed to be biparabolic, consisting of two preferential pore configurations, namely, the narrow pore and the large pore configurations. Four distinct phases could be found in the adsorption isotherms. We found a low-pressure phase transition, driven primarily by capillary condensation/evaporation and accompanied by adsorbent deformation in response. The deformation can be a relatively small contraction/expansion as seen in elastic materials, or a large-scale structural transformation of the adsorbent. We also found a high-pressure transition driven by excluded volume effects, which tends to expand the material and thus results in a large-scale structural transformation of the adsorbent. The adsorption isotherms and osmotic free energies can be rationalized by considering the relative free energy differences between the basins of the bare adsorbent free energy.

  10. A phenomenological approach of solidification of polymeric phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Seyed Amir; Royon, Laurent; Abou, Bérengère; Osipian, Rémy; Azzouz, Kamel; Bontemps, André

    2017-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are widely used in thermal energy storage and thermal management systems due to their small volume for a given stored energy and their capability for maintaining nearly constant temperatures. However, their performance is limited by their low thermal conductivity and possible leaks while in the liquid phase. One solution is to imprison the PCM inside a polymer mesh to create a Polymeric Phase Change Material (PPCM). In this work, we have studied the cooling and solidification of five PPCMs with different PCMs and polymer fractions. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms involved, we have carried out micro- and macrorheological measurements in which Brownian motion of tracers embedded in PPCMs has been depicted and viscoelastic moduli have been measured, respectively. Beyond a given polymer concentration, it was shown that the Brownian motion of the tracers is limited by the polymeric chains and that the material exhibits an elastic behavior. This would suggest that heat transfer essentially occurs by conduction, instead of convection. Experiments were conducted to measure temperature variation during cooling of the five samples, and a semi-empirical model based on a phenomenological approach was proposed as a practical tool to choose and size PPCMs.

  11. Phase diagrams of superconducting materials: Metallurgy, fabrication, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flukiger, R.

    1981-01-01

    Because a large number of investigations on superconducting material have been made on insufficiently characterized samples, and with temperature phase diagrams which contained serious errors, phase diagrams are studied. It is seen that the variation of critical temperature as a function of chemical composition for a given compound can be used as a supplementary tool in determining composition with greater accuracy. The consequent search for higher critical temperature value in specified materials has led to a new concept in determining high temperature phase diagrams. Most of this paper is devoted to the study of bulk binary, pseudobinary, or ternary superconductors at their equilibrium state. As will be shown in several cases, these data serve as standard values and are of great help in understanding the superconducting behavior in materials produced by non-equilibrium methods, i.e., splat-cooling, thin film preparation by either sputtering, co-evaporation, or CVD, and diffusion processes in multifilamentary composite wires. An example for the departure from thermal equilibrium is the retention of metastable composition by a fast quenching rate

  12. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project, Phase II: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of FMCSA's SmartPark project was to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability information in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consisted of two phases. Phase I was a field operatio...

  13. The active phasing experiment: Part II. Design and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Araujo, C.; Brast, R.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Noethe, L.; Sedghi, B.; Surdej, I.; Wilhelm, R.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Langlois, M.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the Active Phasing Experiment, designed under the lead of ESO, is to validate wavefront control concepts for ELT class telescopes. This instrument includes an Active Segmented Mirror, located in a pupil image. It will be mounted at a Nasmyth focus of one of the Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. APE contains four different types of phasing sensors, which are developed by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Arcetri, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. These phasing sensors can be compared simultaneously under identical optical and environmental conditions. All sensors receive telecentric F/15 beams with identical optical quality and intensity. Each phasing sensor can measure segmentation errors of the active segmented mirror and correct them in closed loop. The phasing process is supervised by an Internal Metrology system developed by FOGALE Nanotech and capable of measuring piston steps with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The Active Phasing Experiment is equipped with a turbulence generator to simulate atmospheric seeing between 0.45 and 0.85 arcsec in the laboratory. In addition, the Active Phasing Experiment is designed to control simultaneously with the phasing corrections the guiding and the active optics of one of the VLT Unit Telescopes. This activity is supported by the European Community (Framework Programme 6, ELT Design Study, contract No 011863).

  14. F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility. Phase II. CAC basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.W.; O'Leary, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    Project objectives and requirements are listed for both Phase I and II. Schedule is listed with startup targeted for 1989. Storage facilities will be provided for both chemical and radioactive effluents. 8 figs., 19 tabs

  15. Advanced 3D Human Simulation Components with Thermal/Haptic Feedback and Tissue Deformation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In integrating the following three significant components for its research/research and development (R/R&D) effort, the power of this candidate Phase II project...

  16. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics...

  17. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II proposal offers to develop a comprehensive computer simulation methodology based on the finite element method for...

  18. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase II SBIR proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for aspheric optical components and optics that are not easily inspected...

  19. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  20. Expanded Operational Temperature Range for Space Rated Li-Ion Batteries, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quallion's Phase II proposal calls for expanding the nominal operation range of its space rated lithium ion cells, while maintaining their long life capabilities. To...

  1. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will use existing hardware and software from related programs to create a prototype Lunar Navigation Sensor (LNS) early in Phase II, such that most of the...

  2. Scaled Model Technology for Flight Research of General Aviation Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed future Phase II activities are aimed at developing a scientifically based "tool box" for flight research using scaled models. These tools will be of...

  3. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this Select Phase II program is to build and deliver laser components both for airborne water vapor and ozone DIAL systems. Specifically, Fibertek...

  4. Magnetic sensor for nondestructive evaluation of deteriorated prestressing strand : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report gives an account of the execution and achievements in Phase II of the project completed through August 2011. The main objective of this project is to advance the practical development of a nondestructive testing and evaluation method usin...

  5. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II effort will develop a 1 x 10 prototype non-mechanical fiber optic switch for use with high power lasers. The proposed optical device is a...

  6. Trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: Results from an EORTC phase II multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.Y. van Schil (Paul); P. Baas (Paul); R.M. Gaafar (Rabab); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex); F. Van De Pol (Francien); B. Hasane (B.); H.M. Klomp (Houke); A.M. Abdelrahman (A.); J. Welche (J.); J.P. van Meerbeeck (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC; protocol 08031) phase II trial investigated the feasibility of trimodality therapy consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and post-operative radiotherapy in patients with malignant

  7. Lightweight Design of an HTS Coil for the VASIMR Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR contract Tai-Yang Research Company of Tennessee proposes to design, fabricate, and test an ultra-lightweight High Temperature Superconducting...

  8. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  9. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  10. OrFPGA: An Empirical Performance Tuning Tool for FPGA Designs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II STTR project, RNET and its subcontractors are proposing to fully develop an empirical performance optimization tool called OrFPGA that efficiently...

  11. Advanced Nongray Radiation Module in the LOCI Framework for Combustion CFD, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiative heat fluxes are important in the design of launch vehicles for Project Constellation. In this Phase II STTR, CFDRC and its partner Mississippi State...

  12. Generic FMS Platform for Evaluation of Autonomous Trajectory-Based Operation Concepts, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II work is to develop a generic, advanced Flight Management System (FMS) for the evaluation of autonomous 4D-trajectory based operations...

  13. Battery Separator Membrane Having a Selectable Thermal Shut-Down Temperature, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II proposal to NASA requests $596,750.96 support for Policell Technologies, Inc. to develop a series of separator...

  14. Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In general, development and validation of diagnostic models for complex safety critical systems are time and cost intensive jobs. The proposed Phase-II effort will...

  15. Polymer-Reinforced, Nonbrittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation for Reduced Life-Cycle Costs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR project focuses to continue developing cryogenic insulation foams that are flexible, deforming under compression. InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated...

  16. Development of Diamond Vacuum Differential Amplifier for Harsh Environment Power Electronics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed Phase II, Scientic and Vanderbilt University will develop a novel vacuum field emission differential amplifier (VFEDA) using low electron affinity...

  17. Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II effort will develop an all-diode laser and fiber optic based, single frequency, sub-nanosecond pulsed laser source...

  18. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  19. Ultrafast characterization of phase-change material crystallization properties in the melt-quenched amorphous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Rakesh; Fong, Scott W; Lee, Jaeho; Li, Zijian; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Mantegazza, Davide; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10(-10) 10(8) K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates ∼10(8) K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.

  20. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kosters, N Dolfine; Kappers, Astrid M L; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead of cold. In order to investigate if this phenomenon occurs when manipulating textiles, nine subjects were asked to touch or manipulate PCM-treated and untreated fabrics. In 75% of the cases, the subjects indicated that the treated material felt wetter than the untreated material independent of the way the textiles were manipulated. We conclude that incorporating PCMs in textiles may lead to a feeling of wetness which might be uncomfortable. Therefore, we recommend investigating a change in cooling properties to minimise this feeling. This article describes a psychophysical experiment into the sensation of wetness of textiles treated with phase change materials. It was found that in 75% of the cases, subjects found the treated fabric to feel wetter than the untreated. This may affect the comfort of wearing clothes made of these textiles.

  1. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  2. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  3. Phase analysis of nano-phase materials using selected area electron diffraction in the TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labar, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    In analogy to X-ray power diffraction (XRD), we are developing a method to help phase identification when examining a large number of grains simultaneously by electron diffraction. Although XRD is well established, it can not be used for small quantities of materials (volumes below 1 mm 3 ). Examining a usual TEM sample with thickness of 100 nm and using a selected area of 1 mm in diameter, the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) carries information about several thousands of grains from a material with an average grain size of about 10 nm. The accuracy of XRD can not be attained by electron diffraction (ED). However, simultaneous visual observation of the nanostructure is an additional benefit of TEM (beside the small amount of needed material). The first step of the development project was the development of a computer program ('ProcessDiffraction') that processes digital versions of SAED patterns and presents them in an XRD-like form (intensity vs. scattering vector). In the present version (V2.0.3) phase identification is carried out by comparing the measured distribution to 'Markers', i.e. data of known phases. XRD data cards are used if the detailed structure of a phase is not known. Kinematic electron diffraction intensities are calculated for phases with known atomic positions (Author)

  4. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    VERN I (101273) constituted the first network for young economic researchers in Viet Nam, where previously there had been no modality for cooperation or peer review. Guided by the philosophy of "understanding and managing globalization" that underpinned the earlier project, VERN II proposes to expand the network, ...

  5. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  6. First results of GERDA Phase II and consistency with background models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode1, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is an experiment for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). GERDA operates bare high purity germanium detectors submersed in liquid Argon (LAr). Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 and is currently ongoing. In Phase II 35 kg of germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge including thirty newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors is operating to reach an exposure of 100 kg·yr within about 3 years data taking. The design goal of Phase II is to reduce the background by one order of magnitude to get the sensitivity for T1/20ν = O≤ft( {{{10}26}} \\right){{ yr}}. To achieve the necessary background reduction, the setup was complemented with LAr veto. Analysis of the background spectrum of Phase II demonstrates consistency with the background models. Furthermore 226Ra and 232Th contamination levels consistent with screening results. In the first Phase II data release we found no hint for a 0νββ decay signal and place a limit of this process T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L., sensitivity 4.0·1025 yr). First results of GERDA Phase II will be presented.

  7. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Semantic Summarization for Context Aware Manipulation of Data, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's exploration and scientific missions will produce terabytes of information. As NASA enters a new phase of space exploration, managing large amounts of...

  9. Thermo-Acoustic Convertor for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase Sunpower looked at Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engines (TASHEs). These ranged from a TASHE which was sized for the heat from a single General Purpose Heat...

  10. Advanced Filtering Techniques Applied to Spaceflight, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IST-Rolla developed two nonlinear filters for spacecraft orbit determination during the Phase I contract. The theta-D filter and the cost based filter, CBF, were...

  11. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under a Phase 1 effort, IES successfully developed and demonstrated a spark ignition concept where propellant flow drives a very simple fluid mechanical oscillator...

  12. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  13. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  14. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface...

  15. MOIDSS?- Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRID has had a successfully completed Phase I 'Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System' (MOIDSS). The system developed into a total solution that supports...

  16. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors and System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of creating surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors that respond rapidly (under 0.5 second) and reversibly...

  17. Identification and Reduction of Turbomachinery Noise, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communities near airports are often exposed to high noise levels due to low flying aircraft in the takeoff and landing phases of flight. Propulsion source noise is...

  18. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to significantly improve upon the integration (performed in Phase 1) of a new sweep/taper...

  19. Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the successful feasibility demonstration in Phase I, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a novel Structural Integrity...

  20. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  1. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  2. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  3. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) will focus the proposed Phase 2 SBIR program on the hardware-based development and TRL advance of a highly-modularized and...

  4. Laser Femto-Tesla Magnetic Gradiometer (LFMG), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LFMG instrument is used to make extremely high resolution scalar magnetic field and difference measurements at the Earthfs surface. The Phase 1 effort included...

  5. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  6. Multipurpose Electric Potential Sensor for Spacecraft Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The original goal of Phase I was to study the feasibility of developing an electric sensor that can be used for as many NASA sensing applications as possible. During...

  7. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) (Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposal builds upon our teams technical findings in Phase 1 - that an E-Sail propelled spacecraft can travel 100 AU in less than 10 years or to the Heliopause...

  8. Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I ...

  9. Digital Conically Scanned L-Band Radar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort seeks to develop a digitally steered polarimetric phased array L-Band radar utilizing a novel, high performance architecture leveraging recent...

  10. Outcome Mapping Virtual Learning Community - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first phase of the project (103520) focused on developing the Outcome ... as distance learning) and strategically communicating Outcome Mapping to key ... an organization based in India with South Asian reach, to facilitate exchange ...

  11. Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock's Phase I effort tested the effects of ball induced contact stresses on Titanium bearing races. The contact stress design limit that would achieve a...

  12. Fiber Optic Shape Sensing for Tethered Marsupial Rovers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building upon the successful proof of concept work in Phase I, Luna Innovations Incorporated is proposing to design, build, and test a sensing tether for marsupial...

  13. In-Process Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I of this project MLPC, WSU, and AFIT were successfully able to identify several optical data features that are indicative of the quality of components...

  14. Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This three phase SBIR project from ADA Technologies Inc. (ADA) builds upon the experience of ADA in development of fine water mist (FWM) fire suppression technology....

  15. High Performance Low Mass Nanowire Enabled Heatpipe, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat pipes are widely used for passive, two-phase electronics cooling. As advanced high power, high performance electronics in space based and terrestrial...

  16. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  17. PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II: The pulsed power characterization phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Turman, B.N.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II, PBFA II, is now the largest pulsed power device in operation. This paper summarizes its first year and a half of operation for the Department of Energy (DOE) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. Thirty-six separate modules provide 72 output pulses that combine to form a 100 TW output pulse at the accelerator center. PBFA II was successfully test fired for the first time on December 11, 1985. This test completed the construction phase (Phase 1) within the expected schedule and budget. The accelerator checkout phase then started (Phase 2). The first priority during checkout was to bring the Phase 1 subsystems into full operation. The accelerator was first tested to determine overall system performance. Next, subsystems that were not performing adequately were modified. The accelerator is now being used for ion diode studies. 32 refs

  18. Sb-Te Phase-change Materials under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.

    Size, speed and efficiency are the major challenges of next generation nonvolatile memory (NVM), and phase-change memory (PCM) has captured a great attention due to its promising features. The key for PCM is rapid and reversible switching between amorphous and crystalline phases with optical or electrical excitation. The structural transition is associated with significant contrast in material properties which can be utilized in optical (CD, DVD, BD) and electronic (PCRAM) memory applications. Importantly, both the functionality and the success of PCM technology significantly depend on the core material and its properties. So investigating PC materials is crucial for the development of PCM technology to realized enhanced solutions. In regards to PC materials, Sb-Te binary plays a significant role as a basis to the well-known Ge-Sb-Te system. Unlike the conventional deposition methods (sputtering, evaporation), electrochemical deposition method is used due to its multiple advantages, such as conformality, via filling capability, etc. First, the controllable synthesis of Sb-Te thin films was studied for a wide range of compositions using this novel deposition method. Secondly, the solid electrolytic nature of stoichiometric Sb2Te3 was studied with respect to precious metals. With the understanding of 2D thin film synthesis, Sb-Te 1D nanowires (18 - 220 nm) were synthesized using templated electrodeposition, where nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for the growth of nanowires. In order to gain the controllability over the deposition in high aspect ratio structures, growth mechanisms of both the thin films and nanowires were investigated. Systematic understanding gained thorough previous studies helped to formulate the ultimate goal of this dissertation. In this dissertation, the main objective is to understand the size effect of PC materials on their phase transition properties. The reduction of effective memory cell size in conjunction with

  19. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  20. Artefacts in geometric phase analysis of compound materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jonathan J.P., E-mail: j.j.p.peters@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Beanland, Richard; Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Cockburn, John W.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Zhang, Shiyong Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Sanchez, Ana M., E-mail: a.m.sanchez@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA) algorithm is known as a robust and straightforward technique that can be used to measure lattice strains in high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. It is also attractive for analysis of aberration-corrected scanning TEM (ac-STEM) images that resolve every atom column, since it uses Fourier transforms and does not require real-space peak detection and assignment to appropriate sublattices. Here it is demonstrated that, in ac-STEM images of compound materials with compositionally distinct atom columns, an additional geometric phase is present in the Fourier transform. If the structure changes from one area to another in the image (e.g. across an interface), the change in this additional phase will appear as a strain in conventional GPA, even if there is no lattice strain. Strategies to avoid this pitfall are outlined. - Highlights: • GPA is shown to produce incorrect strains when applied to images of compound materials. • A mathematical description is laid out for why GPA can produce artefacts. • The artefact is demonstrated using experimental and simulated data. • A ‘rule’ is set to avoid this artefact in GPA.

  1. Effect of phase change material on the heat transfer rate of different building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mushfiq; Alam, Shahnur; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is widely known as latent heat storage. A comprehensive study is carried out to investigate the effect of PCM on heat transfer rate of building materials. Paraffin is used as PCM along with different conventional building materials to investigate the heat transfer rate from the heated region to the cold region. PCM is placed along with the three different types of building materials like plaster which is well know building material in urban areas and wood and straw which are commonly used in rural areas for roofing as well as wall panel material and investigated the heat transfer rate. An experimental setup was constructed with number of rectangular shape aluminum detachable casing (as cavity) and placed side by side. Series of rectangular cavity filled with convent ional building materials and PCM and these were placed in between two chambers filled with water at different temperature. Building materials and PCM were placed in different cavities with different combinations and investigated the heat transfer rate. The results show that using the PCM along with other building materials can be used to maintain lower temperature at the inner wall and chamber of the cold region. Moreover, the placement or orientation of the building materials and PCM make significant contribution to heat transfer rate from the heated zone to the cold zone.

  2. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  3. Study of Phase Change Materials Applied to CPV Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-Hao Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are lots of factors which can directly affect output efficiency of photovoltaic device. One of them is high temperature which would cause adverse effect to solar cell. When solar cell is operated in high temperature, the cell’s output efficiency will become low. Therefore, improving thermal spreading of solar cell is an important issue. In this study, we focused on finding new materials to enhance the thermal dispreading and keep the temperature of solar cell as low as possible. The new materials are different from conventional metal ones; they are called “phase change materials (PCMs” which are mainly applied to green buildings. We chose two kinds of PSMs to study their thermal dispreading ability and to compare them with traditional aluminum material. These two kinds of PCMs are wax and lauric acid. We made three aluminum-based cuboids as heat sinking units and two of them were designed with hollow space to fill in the PCMs. We applied electric forward bias on solar cells to simulate the heat contributed from the concentrated sunlight. Then we observed the thermal distribution of these three kinds of thermal spreading materials. Two levels of forward biases were chosen to test the samples and analyze the experiment results.

  4. Enhanced laminated composite phase change material for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, J.; Zhou, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies (CSET), The University of Nottingham Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper summarises studies undertaken towards the development of a laminated composite aluminium/hexadecane phase change material (PCM) drywall based on previous analytical work. The study also covered the selection and testing of various types of adhesive materials and identified Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) material as a suitable bonding material. For the purpose of comparison pure hexadecane and composite aluminium/hexadecane samples were developed and tested. The test results revealed faster thermal response by the aluminium/hexadecane sample regarding the rate of heat flux and also achieved about 10% and 15% heat transfer enhancements during the charging and discharging periods respectively. Its measured effective thermal conductivity also increased remarkably to 1.25 W/mK as compared with 0.15 W/mK for pure hexadecane. However there was about 5% less total cumulative thermal energy discharged at the end of the test which indicates that its effective thermal capacity was reduced by the presence of the aluminium particles. The study has shown that some of the scientific and technical barriers associated with the development of laminated composite PCM drywall systems can be overcome but further investigations of effects of adhesive materials are needed. (author)

  5. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and 3, 3. Construction and testing of the capsules and containers VISA - Phase I (Part I and II), Vol. I; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade i ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - I faza (I i II deo), I deo, Album I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Putre, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za reaktorsku eksperimentalnu tehniku, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-02-15

    The task contains studies of materials for constructing capsules, leak tight capsules and containers made of aluminium and stainless steels. Special attention is devoted to study of welding the closures and claddings of the capsules as well as thermocouples.

  6. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)

    2017-08-10

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  7. SN 2013fs and SN 2013fr: exploring the circumstellar-material diversity in Type II supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullivant, Christopher; Smith, Nathan; Williams, G. Grant; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Fong, Wen-Fai; Bilinski, Christopher; Kilpatrick, Charles D.; Milne, Peter A.; Fox, Ori D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Clubb, Kelsey I.

    2018-05-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2013fs and SN 2013fr in the first ˜100 d post-explosion. Both objects showed transient, relatively narrow H α emission lines characteristic of SNe IIn, but later resembled normal SNe II-P or SNe II-L, indicative of fleeting interaction with circumstellar material (CSM). SN 2013fs was discovered within 8 h of explosion; one of the earliest SNe discovered thus far. Its light curve exhibits a plateau, with spectra revealing strong CSM interaction at early times. It is a less luminous version of the transitional SN IIn PTF11iqb, further demonstrating a continuum of CSM interaction intensity between SNe II-P and SNe IIn. It requires dense CSM within 6.5 × 1014 cm of the progenitor, from a phase of advanced pre-SN mass loss beginning shortly before explosion. Spectropolarimetry of SN 2013fs shows little continuum polarization (˜0.5 per cent, consistent with zero), but noticeable line polarization during the plateau phase. SN 2013fr morphed from an SN IIn at early times to an SN II-L. After the first epoch, its narrow lines probably arose from host-galaxy emission, but the bright, narrow H α emission at early times may be intrinsic to the SN. As for SN 2013fs, this would point to a short-lived phase of strong CSM interaction if proven to be intrinsic, suggesting a continuum between SNe IIn and SNe II-L. It is a low-velocity SN II-L like SN 2009kr, but more luminous. SN 2013fr also developed an infrared excess at later times, due to warm CSM dust that requires a more sustained phase of strong pre-SN mass loss.

  8. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  9. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  10. Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients are designed using a three-phase topology optimization method. The composites are made of two different material phases and a void phase. The topology optimization method consists in finding the distribution of material phases...... materials having maximum directional thermal expansion (thermal actuators), zero isotropic thermal expansion, and negative isotropic thermal expansion. It is shown that materials with effective negative thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained by mixing two phases with positive thermal expansion...

  11. Forensic relevance of glucuronidation in phase-II-metabolism of alcohols and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeferstein, Herbert

    2009-04-01

    Forensic toxicology means detecting toxic or pharmacologically active substances in body fluids and organs and the evaluation and judgement of the respective results. In the legal judgement, not only the taken in active drugs, but also their metabolites are to be included. Regarding metabolism one distinguishes phase-I- and phase-II-metabolism. In the phase-I-metabolism, active substances are converted by oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis, but influencing the polarity of more lipophilic substances often not decisively. The pharmacological activity is often preserved or even increased. In phase-II-metabolism a highly hydrophilic substance--mostly glucuronic acid--is coupled to the active substances or the respective phase-I-metabolites. This reaction step decisively increases hydrophilicity of lipophilic substances, thus enhancing renal elimination and often also abolishing pharmacologically and/or toxicologically effects. Nevertheless the interaction of different drugs and alcohols in glucuronidation and the glucuronides of phase-II-metabolism still do not play a substantial role in the forensic-toxicological analysis and interpretation of results so far. However, in vitro investigations since 1999 in our lab show that such interactions are not unlikely. For valid interpretation of complex cases in the future it may become necessary not only to quantify drugs and the phase-I-metabolites but also the phase-II-metabolites and discuss possible interactions in the metabolism.

  12. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  13. MRP II (material requirements planning): one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, W L; Norman, R L

    1994-08-01

    This article addresses the continued need for the behavior change process that must be managed long after materiel requirements planning (MRP II) implementation. Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant is the final assembly and dismantlement facility for all United States nuclear weapons. On October 1, 1990, Mason & Hanger implemented a full production cutover to MRP II. One year later, following class A certification, the MRP II implementation team is still actively managing the change process through education and training programs and overall continuous improvement initiatives. Actual behavior change problems are identified together with the proven solutions implemented in a government-owned, contractor-operated facility environment. Performance measurements ranging from senior management planning to shop floor accomplishments and cost variance reports are shown as normal management tools used to identify target improvement areas.

  14. Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the detailed conceptual development of a device for analyzing key isotopic composition in surface materials without sample preparation. We will combine...

  15. Integrated Inflatable Ballute for Planetary Entry, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CFDRC and TRLA are proposing to develop, design and test a highly scalable, mass-optimized inflatable structure that makes maximum utilization of materials in...

  16. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  17. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  18. Infusion Resins for Automated Dry Fiber Placement Products, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  19. InN-Based Quantum Dot Solar Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this STTR program is to employ nanostructured materials in an advanced device design to enhance the tolerance of solar cells to extreme environments...

  20. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  1. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  2. Differential roles of phase I and phase II enzymes in 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolino Lobo, I.; Meulenbelt, J.; Nijmeijer, S.M.; Scherpenisse, P.; van den Berg, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in the toxic effects caused by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most research has focused on the involvement of CYP2D6 enzyme in MDMA bioactivation, and less is known about the contribution of other cytochrome P450 (P450) and phase II metabolism. In this

  3. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-09-14

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  4. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  5. Material correlations and models for the irradiation behavior of fissile and fertile material in SNR-300, Mark-II and KNK II, third core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenneker; Steinmetz; Toebbe

    1986-07-01

    The report contains the material correlations and models used in the fuel pin design code IAMBUS for the irradiation behavior of PuO 2 -UO 2 fissile materials and UO 2 fertile materials of the SNR-300 Mark-II reload and the KNK II third core. They are applicable for pellet densities of more than 90 % of the theoretical density. The presented models of the fuel behavior and the applied material correlations have been derived either from single experiments or from the comparison of theoretically predicted integral fuel behavior with the results of fuel pin irradiation experiments. The material correlations have been examined and extended in the frame of the collaborations INTERATOM/KWU and INTERATOM/KfK. French and British results were included, when available from the European fast reactor knowledge exchange [de

  6. China Public Budget Reform Program (CPBR) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Government of China has adopted a national reform program aimed at making budgeting more transparent and accountable through public involvement and enhanced oversight. Building on work carried out under Phase I (102965), the China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) will analyze China's current ...

  7. African Transitional Justice Research Network - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Transitional Justice Research Network (ATJRN) aims to strengthen the capacity of African researchers and civil society institutions to conduct effective human rights advocacy through the production of high-quality, locally based and targeted empirical research. Phase I of the project (102862) focused on creating ...

  8. Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During Phase I (100971), LPDC set up a website and commissioned papers from Lebanese and Palestinian researchers on such subjects as "non-Ids" - Palestinians with no official documents - and employment issues in Lebanon. LPDC was instrumental in coordinating the efforts of Lebanese stakeholders during the Nahr ...

  9. Public Report on Health (India) - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Public Report on Health aims to draw federal and state attention to the health needs of ordinary people, so as to develop evidence-based solutions for meeting those needs. The Intensive Village Study carried out during the first phase of ... Outputs. Reports. Public report on health : final technical report. Download PDF ...

  10. African Transitional Justice Research Network - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Transitional Justice Research Network (ATJRN) aims to strengthen the capacity of African researchers and civil society institutions to conduct effective human rights advocacy through the production of high-quality, locally based and targeted empirical research. Phase I of the project (102862) focused on creating ...

  11. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers[Final Phase II report]; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Optical data storage is currently a$10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines

  12. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  13. Recent Advances in Understanding of Kinetic Interplay Between Phase II Metabolism and Efflux Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Xing, Huijie; Zhao, Mengjing; Lu, Danyi; Li, Zhijie; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the metabolism-transport interplay assumes great importance in pharmaceutical fields because the knowledge can help to interpret drug/xenobiotic metabolism and disposition studies as well as the drug-drug interactions in vivo. About 10 years ago, it started to recognize that cellular phase II metabolism is strongly influenced by the excretion (efflux transport) of generated metabolites, a kinetic phenomenon termed "phase II metabolism-transport interplay". This interplay is believed to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics (bioavailability) of drugs/chemicals undergoing phase II metabolism. In this article, we review the studies investigating the phase II metabolism-transport interplay using cell models, perfused rat intestine, and intact rats. The potential confounding factors in exploring such interplay is also summarized. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the phase II metabolism-transport interplay is discussed. Various studies with engineered cells and rodents have demonstrated that there is an interaction (interplay) between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. This type of interplay mainly refers to the dependence of phase II (conjugative) metabolism on the activities of efflux transporters. In general, inhibiting efflux transporters or decreasing their expression causes the reductions in metabolite excretion, apparent excretion clearance (CLapp) and total metabolism (fmet), as well as an increase in the intracellular level of metabolite (Ci). The deconjugation mediated by hydrolase (acting as a "bridge") is essential for the interplay to play out based on pharmacokinetic modeling/simulations, cell and animal studies. The hydrolases bridge the two processes (i.e., metabolite formation and excretion) and enable the interplay thereof (a bridging effect). Without the bridge, metabolite formation is independent on its downstream process excretion, thus impact of metabolite excretion on its formation is impossible

  14. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  15. Mathematical modeling of phase interaction taking place in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinigrad, M.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of metallic products depends on their composition and structure. The composition and the structure are determined by various physico-chemical and technological factors. One of the most important and complicated problems in the modern industry is to obtain materials with required composition, structure and properties. For example, deep refining is a difficult task by itself, but the problem of obtaining the material with the required specific level of refining is much more complicated. It will take a lot of time and will require a lot of expanses to solve this problem empirically and the result will be far from the optimal solution. The most effective way to solve such problems is to carry out research in two parallel direction. Comprehensive analysis of thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms of the processes taking place at solid-liquid-gaseous phase interface and building of the clear well-based physico-chemical model of the above processes taking into account their interaction. Development of mathematical models of the specific technologies which would allow to optimize technological processes and to ensure obtaining of the required properties of the products by choosing the optimal composition of the raw materials. We apply the above unique methods. We developed unique methods of mathematical modeling of phase interaction at high temperatures. These methods allows us to build models taking into account: thermodynamic characteristics of the processes, influence of the initial composition and temperature on the equilibrium state of the reactions, kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, influence of the temperature, composition, speed of the gas flows, hydrodynamic and thermal factors on the velocity of the chemical and diffusion processes. The models can be implemented in optimization of various metallurgical processes in manufacturing of steels and non-ferrous alloys as well as in materials refining, alloying with special additives

  16. Preliminary technical assessment of an inflatable inspection probe - phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A technique used to inspect many types of heat exchanger tubing in power generation equipment employs an eddy current test method. This test method requires that a probe be inserted into and through the tubing. With the objective of having a probe small enough to navigate tubing irregularities and always maintaining probe-to-tube proximity, EPRI Program Manager Gary Dau conceived a device (probe) that utilizes an inflatable, elastic bladder. Owing to its compliant properties, this new device would pass through tube irregularities, yet could keep the eddy current coils near to the internal surfaces of the tubing. Under RP2673-1, Battelle conducted work to evaluate and suggest candidate elastomeric materials to be used as the expandable bladder. The basic materials that were identified: thermoplastic urethane, polyurethane foam, polychloroprene, and polyisoprene. Given these materials and the expandable inspection device, as it was conceptualized at that time, manufacturing processes suitable for production were also evaluated. The likely manufacturing processes to be employed for the production of the expandable device using the suggested materials are cast molding and solution dipping. Work in 1986 involved the evaluation of alternative designs that could be used for the expandable inspection probe. The designs that were ultimately selected and that are compatible with materials and commercial manufacturing processes already identified are presented in the final report on this project

  17. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    patterns would be most viable for an energy station, TIAX developed several criteria for selecting a representative set of technology configurations. TIAX applied these criteria to all possible technology configurations to determine an optimized set for further analysis, as shown in Table ES-1. This analysis also considered potential energy station operational scenarios and their impact upon hydrogen and power production. For example, an energy station with a 50-kWe reformer could generate enough hydrogen to serve up to 12 vehicles/day (at 5 kg/fill) or generate up to 1,200 kWh/day, as shown in Figure ES-1. Buildings that would be well suited for an energy station would utilize both the thermal and electrical output of the station. Optimizing the generation and utilization of thermal energy, hydrogen, and electricity requires a detailed look at the energy transfer within the energy station and the transfer between the station and nearby facilities. TIAX selected the Baseline configuration given in Table ES-1 for an initial analysis of the energy and mass transfer expected from an operating energy station. Phase II The purpose of this technical analysis was to analyze the development of a hydrogen-dispensing infrastructure for transportation applications through the installation of a 50-75 kW stationary fuel cell-based energy station at federal building sites. The various scenarios, costs, designs and impacts of such a station were quantified for a hypothetical cost-shared program that utilizes a natural gas reformer to provide hydrogen fuel for both the stack(s) and a limited number of fuel cell powered vehicles, with the possibility of using cogeneration to support the building heat load.

  18. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  19. Irradiation of reactor materials within projects VISA-2 and and 3. Construction and testing of the capsules and containers VISA - Phase II; Ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala po projektima VISA-2 i 3, 3. Osvajanje postupka izrade I ispitivanja kapsula i kenera VISA - II faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Smokovic, Z; Putre, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za reaktorsku eksperimentalnu tehniku, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-06-15

    The task contains studies of materials for constructing capsules, leak tight capsules and containers made of aluminium and stainless steels. This report contains study of welding, leak testing, corrosion problems vacuuming, quality control of welds. Detailed design specifications for fabrication of capsules and needed equipment are part of this report.

  20. Background suppression in Gerda Phase II and its study in the LArGe low background set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In Phase II of the Gerda experiment additional ∝20 kg of BEGe-type germanium detectors, enriched in {sup 76}Ge, will be deployed in liquid argon (LAr) to further increase the sensitivity for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge to > 2 . 10{sup 26} yr. To reduce background by a factor of 10 to the required level of < 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr), it is necessary to employ active background-suppression techniques, including anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from LAr and pulse shape discrimination exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for 0νββ) and efficiently reject multi-site events (mainly from γ-rays), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. The combined power of these techniques was studied for {sup 42}K and other background sources at the low background facility LArGe. Together with extensive simulations, the information from tracking of the Phase II detector material exposure to cosmic rays and based on the background contributions observed in Phase I, the expected background level in Phase II in the region of interest at 2039 keV, the Q{sub ββ} energy of {sup 76}Ge, is estimated. The preliminary analysis shows that contributions from all expected background components after all cuts are in line with the goal of Gerda Phase II.

  1. Explaining European Emission Allowance Price Dynamics: Evidence from Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfried Rickels; Dennis Görlich; Gerrit Oberst

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) established a new commodity: the right to emit a ton of CO2 (EUA). Since its launch, the corresponding price has shown rather turbulent dynamics, including nervous reactions to policy announcements and a price collapse after a visible over-allocation in Phase I. As a consequence, the question whether fundamental factors (fossil fuel prices, economic activity, weather) affect the EUA price remained partially unresolved. Today, being halfwa...

  2. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: yczhang@nano.gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China)

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T{sub c} of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE{sub HL} and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T{sub c} by exploiting the ΔH/T − T and ΔS − T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T{sub c} of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T{sub c} of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  3. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  4. Integrating Phase-Change Materials into Automotive Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Altstedde, Mirko; Rinderknecht, Frank; Friedrich, Horst

    2014-06-01

    Because the heat emitted by conventional combustion-engine vehicles during operation has highly transient properties, automotive thermoelectric generators (TEG) are intended for a particular operating state (design point). This, however, leads to two problems. First, whenever the combustion engine runs at low load, the maximum operating temperature cannot be properly utilised; second, a combustion engine at high load requires partial diversion of exhaust gas away from the TEG to protect the thermoelectric modules. An attractive means of stabilising dynamic exhaust behaviour (thereby keeping the TEG operating status at the design point for as long as possible) is use of latent heat storage, also known as phase-change materials (PCM). By positioning PCM between module and exhaust heat conduit, and choosing a material with a phase-change temperature matching the module's optimum operating temperature, it can be used as heat storage. This paper presents results obtained during examination of the effect of integration of latent heat storage on the potential of automotive TEG to convert exhaust heat. The research resulted in the development of a concept based on the initial integration idea, followed by proof of concept by use of a specially created prototype. In addition, the potential amount of energy obtained by use of a PCM-equipped TEG was calculated. The simulations indicated a significant increase in electrical energy was obtained in the selected test cycle.

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Maybell site, Maybell, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiometric measurements to determine radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.6 million tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented range from fencing and maintenance (Option I), to placing the tailings in an open-pit mine and adding 2 ft of stabilization cover material (Option III). Cost estimates for the three options range from $250,000 to $4,520,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  6. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  7. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction of cadmium(II) and lead(II) using a hybrid nanoadsorbent composed of graphene and the zeolite clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaghi, Mehri; Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Rashidi, Ali Morad

    2015-01-01

    We describe a hybrid nanoadsorbent prepared by depositing graphene on the zeolite clinoptilolite by chemical vapor deposition. The resulting sorbent is well suited for the preconcentration of lead(II) and cadmium(II) by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid–phase extraction. An extraction unit has been designed and manufactured that facilitates handling of small sample volumes. The effects of sample pH, amount of sorbent, concentration and volume of elution and time of ultrasonic bath were investigated. The nanoadsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, all of which revealed the high surface area of the graphene sheets on the clinoptilolite. The extraction recoveries when using the new nanoadsorbent are 97 % (as opposed to a mere 10 % in case of clinoptilolite only). It is assumed that the graphene sheets located around the porous structure of clinoptilolite are acting as a barrier against macromolecules potentially existing in the sample matrices. The method was applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in water and human serum samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits were as low as 70 and 4 ng L −1 for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The accuracy of the method was underpinned by correct analysis of a standard reference material (SRM: 203105 Seronorm Trace Elements Serum L-2). (author)

  9. Final Phase II report : QuickSite(R) investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Research)

    2003-11-01

    this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting an environmental site investigation to determine the source(s) and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to assess whether the contamination requires remedial action. The investigation at Everest is being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. At these facilities, Argonne is applying its QuickSite{reg_sign} environmental site characterization methodology. This methodology has been applied successfully at a number of former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and Nebraska and has been adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM 1998) as standard practice for environmental site characterization. Phase I of the QuickSite{reg_sign} investigation examined the key geologic, hydrogeologic, and hydrogeochemical relationships that define potential contaminant migration pathways at Everest (Argonne 2001). Phase II of the QuickSite{reg_sign} investigation at Everest was undertaken with the primary goal of delineating and improving understanding of the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at this site and the potential source area(s) that might have contributed to this contamination. To address this goal, four specific technical objectives were developed to guide the Phase II field studies. Sampling of near-surface soils at the former Everest CCC/USDA facility that was originally planned for Phase I had to be postponed until October 2000 because of access restrictions. Viable vegetation was not available for sampling then. This period is termed the first session of Phase II

  10. Phase transition transistors based on strongly-correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    The field-effect transistor (FET) provides electrical switching functions through linear control of the number of charges at a channel surface by external voltage. Controlling electronic phases of condensed matters in a FET geometry has long been a central issue of physical science. In particular, FET based on a strongly correlated material, namely ``Mott transistor,'' has attracted considerable interest, because it potentially provides gigantic and diverse electronic responses due to a strong interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice. We have investigated electric-field effects on such materials aiming at novel physical phenomena and electronic functions originating from strong correlation effects. Here we demonstrate electrical switching of bulk state of matter over the first-order metal-insulator transition. We fabricated FETs based on VO2 with use of a recently developed electric-double-layer transistor technique, and found that the electrostatically induced carriers at a channel surface drive all preexisting localized carriers of 1022 cm-3 even inside a bulk to motion, leading to bulk carrier delocalization beyond the electrostatic screening length. This non-local switching of bulk phases is achieved with just around 1 V, and moreover, a novel non-volatile memory like character emerges in a voltage-sweep measurement. These observations are apparently distinct from those of conventional FETs based on band insulators, capturing the essential feature of collective interactions in strongly correlated materials. This work was done in collaboration with K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSAP) through its ``Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program).''

  11. Oxidation behavior analysis of cladding during severe accidents with combined codes for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingwei; Cao, Xinrong; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new verified oxidation model of cladding has been added in Severe Accident Program (SAP). • A coupled analysis method utilizing RELAP5 and SAP codes has been developed and applied to analyze a SA caused by LBLOCA. • Analysis of cladding oxidation under a SA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) has been performed by SAP. • Estimation of the production of hydrogen has been achieved by coupled codes. - Abstract: Core behavior at a high temperature is extremely complicated during transition from Design Basic Accident (DBA) to the severe accident (SA) in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The progression of core damage is strongly affected by the behavior of fuel cladding (oxidation, embrittlement and burst). A Severe Accident Program (SAP) is developed to simulate the process of fuel cladding oxidation, rupture and relocation of core debris based on the oxidation models of cladding, candling of melted material and mechanical slumping of core components. Relying on the thermal–hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of a SA caused by the large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) without mitigating measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) was performed by SAP for finding the key sequences of accidents, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding

  12. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: mccribei@iq.usp.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Depto. de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  13. Modeling of mechanical properties of II-VI materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, A.; Berding, M. A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Chen, A.-B.; Patrick, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews some new developments in the theory of alloy correlations, order-disorder transitions, and solidus phase-transition curves. It is argued that semiconductor alloys are never truly random, and the various phenomena that drive deviations from random arrangements are introduced. Likely consequences of correlations on the ability to fine-tune the lattice match of epitaxial layers to substrates, on vacancy formation, on diffusion, and on vapor-phase crystal growth are discussed. Examples are chosen for the alloys Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te, Cd(1-y)Zn(y)Te, and CdSe(1-y)Te(y).

  14. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  15. Automated first-principles mapping for phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marc; Maintz, Stefan; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-04-05

    Plotting materials on bi-coordinate maps according to physically meaningful descriptors has a successful tradition in computational solid-state science spanning more than four decades. Equipped with new ab initio techniques introduced in this work, we generate an improved version of the treasure map for phase-change materials (PCMs) as introduced previously by Lencer et al. which, other than before, charts all industrially used PCMs correctly. Furthermore, we suggest seven new PCM candidates, namely SiSb 4 Te 7 , Si 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , SiAs 2 Te 4 , PbAs 2 Te 4 , SiSb 2 Te 4 , Sn 2 As 2 Te 5 , and PbAs 4 Te 7 , to be used as synthetic targets. To realize aforementioned maps based on orbital mixing (or "hybridization") and ionicity coordinates, structural information was first included into an ab initio numerical descriptor for sp 3 orbital mixing and then generalized beyond high-symmetry structures. In addition, a simple, yet powerful quantum-mechanical ionization measure also including structural information was introduced. Taken together, these tools allow for (automatically) generating materials maps solely relying on first-principles calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Plumbing Specialist II & III, 3-22. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of a course description, course chart, plan of instruction, lesson plans, study guides, and workbooks for use in training plumbing specialists II and III. Covered in the course blocks are building waste systems and exterior and interior supply systems. Course block II, on building waste…

  17. 2-Phase NSGA II: An Optimized Reward and Risk Measurements Algorithm in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Elham Eftekharian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio optimization is a serious challenge for financial engineering and has pulled down special attention among investors. It has two objectives: to maximize the reward that is calculated by expected return and to minimize the risk. Variance has been considered as a risk measure. There are many constraints in the world that ultimately lead to a non–convex search space such as cardinality constraint. In conclusion, parametric quadratic programming could not be applied and it seems essential to apply multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA. In this paper, a new efficient multi-objective portfolio optimization algorithm called 2-phase NSGA II algorithm is developed and the results of this algorithm are compared with the NSGA II algorithm. It was found that 2-phase NSGA II significantly outperformed NSGA II algorithm.

  18. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  19. Plasma resistance behavior during the linear decay phase of RFPs in ETA BETA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalesso, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the aided-reversal mode RFP discharges produced in ETA BETA II, the plasma current is characterized by a linear decay phase, which follows an approximately exponential phase. During the same period the measured toroidal voltage is negative and initially increasing in absolute value (exponential phase) and then decreasing to almost zero during the linear phase before the current termination. The same behavior of the current has been observed in the quiescent phase in Zeta where a negative toroidal electric field was also observed. In this note we present a model that can explain the linear decay phase and fits with the experimental parameters and allows us to estimate the plasma resistance behavior during the linear phase of slow reversed field pinch discharges

  20. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module D, Life cycle inventory of softwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeastern and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact for softwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of softwood sawmills in the northeastern and north central United States (NE/NC). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Material (CORRIM) Research Guidelines (...

  1. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  2. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  3. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  4. Modeling of subcooling and solidification of phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Eva; Mehling, Harald; Hiebler, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) are able to store thermal energy in small temperature intervals very efficiently due to their high latent heat. Particularly high storage capacity is found in salt hydrates. Salt hydrates however often show subcooling, thus inhibiting the release of the stored heat. In the state of the art simulations of PCM, the effect of subcooling is almost always neglected. This is a practicable approach for small subcooling, but it is problematic for subcooling in the order of the driving temperature gradient on unloading the storage. In this paper, we first present a new algorithm to simulate subcooling in a physically proper way. Then, we present a parametric study to demonstrate the main features of the algorithm and a comparison of computed and experimentally obtained data. The new algorithm should be particularly useful in simulating applications with low cooling rates, for example building applications.

  5. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have coated phase change materials (PCMs on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  6. Plastic phase change material and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Ramin

    2016-04-19

    The present invention generally relates to a method for manufacturing phase change material (PCM) pellets. The method includes providing a melt composition, including paraffin and a polymer. The paraffin has a melt point of between about 10.degree. C. and about 50.degree. C., and more preferably between about 18.degree. C. and about 28.degree. C. In one embodiment, the melt composition includes various additives, such as a flame retardant. The method further includes forming the melt composition into PCM pellets. The method further may include the step of cooling the melt to increase the melt viscosity before pelletizing. Further, PCM compounds are provided having an organic PCM and a polymer. Methods are provided to convert the PCM compounds into various form-stable PCMs. A method of coating the PCMs is included to provide PCMs with substantially no paraffin seepage and with ignition resistance properties.

  7. Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Liu, Nian; Xu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2017-12-01

    We have coated phase change materials (PCMs) on rough and flexible substrates to achieve multicolor changeable devices. The principle of the device is based on an earlier discovery that lights have strong interference effect in PCM films, leading to various colors by reflection. In this work, paper substrates are laminated by parylene layers to protect the device from water before coated with functional PCM films. The PCM-based color printing (PCP) on paper is not affected by rough surfaces and shows a similar color appearance as that on smooth surfaces. In particular, the color-printed device can be patterned by UV lithography to display a clear and tunable optical image, and it exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of view. Such PCP has potential applications for low-cost, disposable, and flexible displays.

  8. Introduction to non-destructive testing of materials: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves are mechanical vibrations that require a medium, which functions as carrier. Ultrasonics are widely used in non-destructive testing of materials in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. If the frequency of sound waves in within the range 10 to 20,000 Hz, the sound is audible, i.e. the range of hearing, above 20,000 Hz, the sound waves are referred to as Ultrasound or Ultrasonics. Sound waves do not cause any permanent change in material although its transient presence is very noticeable. An energy transport through a sound wave is possible only when constituent particles are connected to each other by elastic forces. Liquids and Gases are also suitable media for the transmission of sound. In vacuum no matter exists and thus no sound transmission is possible. At the end of this article advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing are also given. (A.B.)

  9. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    resid conversion than the other salts and untreated PMA. To activate PMA, a series of sulfided PMA materials was prepared by subjecting the crystalline acid to H S/H at 125-450 C. The chemistries 2 2 o of these partially sulfided materials are reported as well as the reactivity of several impregnated coals. None of the coals impregnated with these sulfided PMA materials gave conversions that exceeded PMA. Reports covering work by the subcontractors for this reporting period have not been received. A report from CONSOL covering a previous reporting period is included.

  10. Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.

    2016-01-01

    We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  11. Plasma-wall Interaction Studies in the Start-up Phase of TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present some first plasma-wall interaction studies made during the first experimental campaign of TJ-II. The different sections contain independent contributions presented orally in the fusion division of the Euratom-Ciemat association during 1998: I. Density limit during the start-up phase of TJ-II : are we limited by radiation?. II. Temporal evolution of oxygen in the plasma during an experimental day. III. The contribution of helium to the plasma electron density IV. First studies of the S.O.L. diffusion coefficient and its dependence with the boundary plasma parameters. (Author) 3 refs

  12. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  13. Analysis of wallboard containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Heberle, D. P.

    Phase change materials (PCMs) used on the interior of buildings hold the promise for improved thermal performance by reducing the energy requirements for space conditioning and by improving thermal comfort by reducing temperature swings inside the building. Efforts are underway to develop a gypsum wallboard containing a hydrocarbon PCM. With a phase change temperature in the room temperature range, the PCM wallboard adds substantially to the thermal mass of the building while serving the same architectural function as conventional wallboard. To determine the thermal and economic performance of this PCM wallboard, the Transient Systems Simulation Program (TRNSYS) was modified to accommodate walls that are covered with PCM plasterboard, and to apportion the direct beam solar radiation to interior surfaces of a building. The modified code was used to simulate the performance of conventional and direct-gain passive solar residential-sized buildings with and without PCM wallboard. Space heating energy savings were determined as a function of PCM wallboard characteristics. Thermal comfort improvements in buildings containing the PCM were qualified in terms of energy savings. The report concludes with a present worth economic analysis of these energy savings and arrives at system costs and economic payback based on current costs of PCMs under study for the wallboard application.

  14. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  15. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  16. The Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will show the status of the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC). For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1 and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter electronics will need to be replaced to cope with these challenging conditions: the expected radiation doses will indeed exceed the qualification range of the current readout system, and the upgraded trigger system will require much longer data storage in the electronics (up to 60 us), that the current system cannot sustain. The status of the R&D of the low-power ASICs (pre-amplifier, shaper, ADC, serializer and transmitters) and of the readout electronics design will be discussed. Moreover, a High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed to be added in front of the LAr calorimeters in the end-cap region (2.4 <|eta|< 4.2) for pile-up mitigation a...

  17. The Phase-II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349918; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase~2 shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ``ITk'' (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and ring-shaped supports in the end-cap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation levels. The new pixel system could include up to 14 $\\mathrm{m^2}$ of silicon, depending on the final layout, which is expected to be decided in 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel end-cap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as |eta| $<4$. Supporting structures will be based on low mass, highly stabl...

  18. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  19. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010-2015). All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials, reporting being incomplete in the corresponding articles.

  20. Experimental investigations of the influence of material and thickness on fracture under pure mode II loading

    OpenAIRE

    Dong H.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigation to the effects of thickness and material on mode II fracture were performed. Tension-shear specimens made of aluminium alloy LC4CS and 7050-T7452 with thicknesses of 2, 4, 8 and 14 mm were used. All crack tip appearances and fracture profiles of the specimens were observed. Mode II fracture toughness were calculated. It is shown that material and thickness play an important role in mode II fracture. The fracture of LC4CS appears shear fracture under all kinds ...